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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9125
Pausanias, Description Of Greece, 5.16.7


ταύτῃ τῇ Φυσκόᾳ Διόνυσον συγγενέσθαι λέγουσι, Φυσκόαν δὲ ἐκ Διονύσου τεκεῖν παῖδα Ναρκαῖον· τοῦτον, ὡς ηὐξήθη, πολεμεῖν τοῖς προσοίκοις καὶ δυνάμεως ἐπὶ μέγα ἀρθῆναι, καὶ δὴ καὶ Ἀθηνᾶς ἱερὸν ἐπίκλησιν Ναρκαίας αὐτὸν ἱδρύσασθαι· Διονύσῳ τε τιμὰς λέγουσιν ὑπὸ Ναρκαίου καὶ Φυσκόας δοθῆναι πρώτων. Φυσκόας μὲν δὴ γέρα καὶ ἄλλα καὶ χορὸς ἐπώνυμος παρὰ τῶν ἑκκαίδεκα γυναικῶν, φυλάσσουσι δὲ οὐδὲν ἧσσον Ἠλεῖοι καὶ τἄλλα καταλυθεισῶν ὅμως τῶν πόλεων· νενεμημένοι γὰρ ἐς ὀκτὼ φυλὰς ἀφʼ ἑκάστης αἱροῦνται γυναῖκας δύο.She mated they say with Dionysus, and bore him a son called Narcaeus. When he grew up he made war against the neighboring folk, and rose to great power, setting up moreover a sanctuary of Athena surnamed Narcaea. They say too that Narcaeus and Physcoa were the first to pay worship to Dionysus. So various honors are paid to Physcoa, especially that of the choral dance, named after her and managed by the Sixteen Women. The Eleans still adhere to the other ancient customs, even though some of the cities have been destroyed. For they are now divided into eight tribes, and they choose two women from each.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

4 results
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 620, 619 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

619. One’s skin. Bring in your crops and don’t be slow.
2. Alcman, Poems, 1 (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.27.2-1.27.3, 2.11.7, 2.12.1, 2.35.5-2.35.8, 3.13.7, 5.13.2-5.13.3, 5.14.5-5.14.10, 5.15.10, 5.16.5-5.16.6, 5.16.8, 6.20.2-6.20.4, 7.18.9, 7.18.11-7.18.13, 7.19.6, 8.2.3, 8.13.1, 8.37.8, 9.39.5-9.39.14, 10.4.3, 10.32.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.27.2. About the olive they have nothing to say except that it was testimony the goddess produced when she contended for their land. Legend also says that when the Persians fired Athens the olive was burnt down, but on the very day it was burnt it grew again to the height of two cubits. Adjoining the temple of Athena is the temple of Pandrosus, the only one of the sisters to be faithful to the trust. 1.27.3. I was much amazed at something which is not generally known, and so I will describe the circumstances. Two maidens dwell not far from the temple of Athena Polias, called by the Athenians Bearers of the Sacred offerings. For a time they live with the goddess, but when the festival comes round they perform at night the following rites. Having placed on their heads what the priestess of Athena gives them to carry—neither she who gives nor they who carry have any knowledge what it is—the maidens descend by the natural underground passage that goes across the adjacent precincts, within the city, of Aphrodite in the Gardens. They leave down below what they carry and receive something else which they bring back covered up. These maidens they henceforth let go free, and take up to the Acropolis others in their place. 2.11.7. There are images also of Alexanor and of Euamerion; to the former they give offerings as to a hero after the setting of the sun; to Euamerion, as being a god, they give burnt sacrifices. If I conjecture aright, the Pergamenes, in accordance with an oracle, call this Euamerion Telesphorus (Accomplisher) while the Epidaurians call him Acesis (Cure). There is also a wooden image of Coronis, but it has no fixed position anywhere in the temple. While to the god are being sacrificed a bull, a lamb, and a pig, they remove Coronis to the sanctuary of Athena and honor her there. The parts of the victims which they offer as a burnt sacrifice, and they are not content with cutting out the thighs, they burn on the ground, except the birds, which they burn on the altar. 2.12.1. In Titane there is also a sanctuary of Athena, into which they bring up the image of Coronis. In it is an old wooden figure of Athena, and I was told that it, too, was struck by lightning. The sanctuary is built upon a hill, at the bottom of which is an Altar of the Winds, and on it the priest sacrifices to the winds one night in every year. He also performs other secret rites at four pits, taming the fierceness of the blasts, and he is said to chant as well charms of Medea. 2.35.5. At any rate, the goddess herself is called Chthonia, and Chthonia is the name of the festival they hold in the summer of every year. The manner of it is this. The procession is headed by the priests of the gods and by all those who hold the annual magistracies; these are followed by both men and women. It is now a custom that some who are still children should honor the goddess in the procession. These are dressed in white, and wear wreaths upon their heads. Their wreaths are woven of the flower called by the natives cosmosandalon, which, from its size and color, seems to me to be an iris; it even has inscribed upon it the same letters of mourning. The letters AI, an exclamation of woe supposed to be inscribed on the flower. 2.35.6. Those who form the procession are followed by men leading from the herd a full-grown cow, fastened with ropes, and still untamed and frisky. Having driven the cow to the temple, some loose her from the ropes that she may rush into the sanctuary, others, who hitherto have been holding the doors open, when they see the cow within the temple, close the doors. 2.35.7. Four old women, left behind inside, are they who dispatch the cow. Whichever gets the chance cuts the throat of the cow with a sickle. Afterwards the doors are opened, and those who are appointed drive up a second cow, and a third after that, and yet a fourth. All are dispatched in the same way by the old women, and the sacrifice has yet another strange feature. On whichever of her sides the first cow falls, all the others must fall on the same. 2.35.8. Such is the manner in which the sacrifice is performed by the Hermionians. Before the temple stand a few statues of the women who have served Demeter as her priestess, and on passing inside you see seats on which the old women wait for the cows to be driven in one by one, and images, of no great age, of Athena and Demeter. But the thing itself that they worship more than all else, I never saw, nor yet has any other man, whether stranger or Hermionian. The old women may keep their knowledge of its nature to themselves. 3.13.7. Opposite is what is called the Knoll, with a temple of Dionysus of the Knoll, by which is a precinct of the hero who they say guided Dionysus on the way to Sparta . To this hero sacrifices are offered before they are offered to the god by the daughters of Dionysus and the daughters of Leucippus. For the other eleven ladies who are named daughters of Dionysus there is held a footrace; this custom came to Sparta from Delphi . 5.13.2. The entrance is on the west. The sanctuary is said to have been set apart to Pelops by Heracles the son of Amphitryon. Heracles too was a great-grandson of Pelops, and he is also said to have sacrificed to him into the pit. Right down to the present day the magistrates of the year sacrifice to him, and the victim is a black ram. No portion of this sacrifice goes to the sooth-sayer, only the neck of the ram it is usual to give to the “woodman,” as he is called. 5.13.3. The woodman is one of the servants of Zeus, and the task assigned to him is to supply cities and private individuals with wood for sacrifices at a fixed rate, wood of the white poplar, but of no other tree, being allowed. If anybody, whether Elean or stranger, eat of the meat of the victim sacrificed to Pelops, he may not enter the temple of Zeus. The same rule applies to those who sacrifice to Telephus at Pergamus on the river Caicus ; these too may not go up to the temple of Asclepius before they have bathed. 5.14.5. sixthly to the Worker Goddess. The descendants of Pheidias, called Cleansers, have received from the Eleans the privilege of cleaning the image of Zeus from the dirt that settles on it, and they sacrifice to the Worker Goddess before they begin to polish the image. There is another altar of Athena near the temple, and by it a square altar of Artemis rising gently to a height. 5.14.6. After the altars I have enumerated there is one on which they sacrifice to Alpheius and Artemis together. The cause of this Pindar Pind. N. 1, I think, intimates in an ode, and I give it Paus. 6.22 in my account of Letrini . Not far from it stands another altar of Alpheius, and by it one of Hephaestus. This altar of Hephaestus some Eleans call the altar of Warlike Zeus. These same Eleans also say that Oenomaus used to sacrifice to Warlike Zeus on this altar whenever he was about to begin a chariot-race with one of the suitors of Hippodameia. 5.14.7. After this stands an altar of Heracles surnamed Parastates (Assistant); there are also altars of the brothers of Heracles—Epimedes, Idas, Paeonaeus, and Iasus; I am aware, however, that the altar of Idas is called by others the altar of Acesidas. At the place where are the foundations of the house of Oenomaus stand two altars: one is of Zeus of the Courtyard, which Oenomaus appears to have had built himself, and the other of Zeus of the Thunderbolt, which I believe they built later, when the thunderbolt had struck the house of Oenomaus. 5.14.8. An account of the great altar I gave a little way back; it is called the altar of Olympian Zeus. By it is an altar of Unknown Gods, and after this an altar of Zeus Purifier, one of Victory, and another of Zeus—this time surnamed Underground. There are also altars of all gods, and of Hera surnamed Olympian, this too being made of ashes. They say that it was dedicated by Clymenus. After this comes an altar of Apollo and Hermes in common, because the Greeks have a story about them that Hermes invented the lyre and Apollo the lute. 5.14.9. Next come an altar of Concord, another of Athena, and the altar of the Mother of the gods. Quite close to the entrance to the stadium are two altars; one they call the altar of Hermes of the Games, the other the altar of Opportunity. I know that a hymn to Opportunity is one of the poems of Ion of Chios ; in the hymn Opportunity is made out to be the youngest child of Zeus. Near the treasury of the Sicyonians is an altar of Heracles, either one of the Curetes or the son of Alcmena, for both accounts are given. 5.14.10. On what is called the Gaeum (sanctuary of Earth) is an altar of Earth; it too is of ashes. In more ancient days they say that there was an oracle also of Earth in this place. On what is called the Stomium (Mouth) the altar to Themis has been built. All round the altar of Zeus Descender runs a fence; this altar is near the great altar made of the ashes. The reader must remember that the altars have not been enumerated in the order in which they stand, but the order followed by my narrative is that followed by the Eleans in their sacrifices. By the sacred enclosure of Pelops is an altar of Dionysus and the Graces in common; between them is an altar of the Muses, and next to these an altar of the Nymphs. 5.15.10. Each month the Eleans sacrifice once on all the altars I have enumerated. They sacrifice in an ancient manner; for they burn on the altars incense with wheat which has been kneaded with honey, placing also on the altars twigs of olive, and using wine for a libation. Only to the Nymphs and the Mistresses are they not wont to pour wine in libation, nor do they pour it on the altar common to all the gods. The care of the sacrifices is given to a priest, holding office for one month, to soothsayers and libation-bearers, and also to a guide, a flute-player and the woodman. 5.16.5. Besides the account already given they tell another story about the Sixteen Women as follows. Damophon, it is said, when tyrant of Pisa did much grievous harm to the Eleans. But when he died, since the people of Pisa refused to participate as a people in their tyrant's sins, and the Eleans too became quite ready to lay aside their grievances, they chose a woman from each of the sixteen cities of Elis still inhabited at that time to settle their differences, this woman to be the oldest, the most noble, and the most esteemed of all the women. 5.16.6. The cities from which they chose the women were Elis, The women from these cities made peace between Pisa and Elis . Later on they were entrusted with the management of the Heraean games, and with the weaving of the robe for Hera. The Sixteen Women also arrange two choral dances, one called that of Physcoa and the other that of Hippodameia. This Physcoa they say came from Elis in the Hollow, and the name of the parish where she lived was Orthia. 5.16.8. Whatever ritual it is the duty of either the Sixteen Women or the Elean umpires to perform, they do not perform before they have purified themselves with a pig meet for purification and with water. Their purification takes place at the spring Piera. You reach this spring as you go along the flat road from Olympia to Elis . 6.20.2. At the foot of Mount Cronius, on the north..., Some genitive seems to have fallen out here. τοῦ Ἡραίου and τῆς Ἄλτεως have been suggested. Other conjectures are: (1) to insert τεῖχος after ἄρκτον, to read Ἄλτιν for ἄρκτον . between the treasuries and the mountain, is a sanctuary of Eileithyia, and in it Sosipolis, “Saviour of the State.” a native Elean deity, is worshipped. Now they surname Eileithyia Olympian, and choose a priestess for the goddess every year. The old woman who tends Sosipolis herself too by an Elean custom lives in chastity, bringing water for the god's bath and setting before him barley cakes kneaded with honey. 6.20.3. In the front part of the temple, for it is built in two parts, is an altar of Eileithyia and an entrance for the public; in the inner Part Sosipolis is worshipped, and no one may enter it except the woman who tends the god, and she must wrap her head and face in a white veil. Maidens and matrons wait in the sanctuary of Eileithyia chanting a hymn; they burn all manner of incense to the god, but it is not the custom to pour libations of wine. An oath is taken by Sosipolis on the most important occasions. 6.20.4. The story is that when the Arcadians had invaded the land of Elis, and the Eleans were set in array against them, a woman came to the Elean generals, holding a baby to her breast, who said that she was the mother of the child but that she gave him, because of dreams, to fight for the Eleans. The Elean officers believed that the woman was to be trusted, and placed the child before the army naked. 7.18.9. Most of the images out of Aetolia and from Acaria were brought by Augustus' orders to Nicopolis, but to Patrae he gave, with other spoils from Calydon, the image of Laphria, which even in my time was still worshipped on the acropolis of Patrae . It is said that the goddess was surnamed Laphria after a man of Phocis, because the ancient image of Artemis was set up at Calydon by Laphrius, the son of Castalius, the son of Delphus. 7.18.11. Every year too the people of Patrae celebrate the festival Laphria in honor of their Artemis, and at it they employ a method of sacrifice peculiar to the place. Round the altar in a circle they set up logs of wood still green, each of them sixteen cubits long. On the altar within the circle is placed the driest of their wood. Just before the time of the festival they construct a smooth ascent to the altar, piling earth upon the altar steps. 7.18.12. The festival begins with a most splendid procession in honor of Artemis, and the maiden officiating as priestess rides last in the procession upon a car yoked to deer. It is, however, not till the next day that the sacrifice is offered, and the festival is not only a state function but also quite a popular general holiday. For the people throw alive upon the altar edible birds and every kind of victim as well; there are wild boars, deer and gazelles; some bring wolf-cubs or bear-cubs, others the full-grown beasts. They also place upon the altar fruit of cultivated trees. 7.18.13. Next they set fire to the wood. At this point I have seen some of the beasts, including a bear, forcing their way outside at the first rush of the flames, some of them actually escaping by their strength. But those who threw them in drag them back again to the pyre. It is not remembered that anybody has ever been wounded by the beasts. 7.19.6. The sacrifice to Artemis of human beings is said to have ceased in this way. An oracle had been given from Delphi to the Patraeans even before this, to the effect that a strange king would come to the land, bringing with him a strange divinity, and this king would put an end to the sacrifice to Triclaria. When Troy was captured, and the Greeks divided the spoils, Eurypylus the son of Euaemon got a chest. In it was an image of Dionysus, the work, so they say, of Hephaestus, and given as a gift by Zeus to Dardanus. 8.2.3. For Cecrops was the first to name Zeus the Supreme god, and refused to sacrifice anything that had life in it, but burnt instead on the altar the national cakes which the Athenians still call pelanoi. But Lycaon brought a human baby to the altar of Lycaean Zeus, and sacrificed it, pouring out its blood upon the altar, and according to the legend immediately after the sacrifice he was changed from a man to a wolf (Lycos). 8.13.1. In the territory of Orchomenus, on the left of the road from Anchisiae, there is on the slope of the mountain the sanctuary of Artemis Hymnia. The Mantineans, too, share it . . . a priestess also and a priest. It is the custom for these to live their whole lives in purity, not only sexual but in all respects, and they neither wash nor spend their lives as do ordinary people, nor do they enter the home of a private man. I know that the “entertainers” of the Ephesian Artemis live in a similar fashion, but for a year only, the Ephesians calling them Essenes. They also hold an annual festival in honor of Artemis Hymnia. 8.37.8. When you have gone up a little, beside the temple of the Mistress on the right is what is called the Hall, where the Arcadians celebrate mysteries, and sacrifice to the Mistress many victims in generous fashion. Every man of them sacrifices what he possesses. But he does not cut the throats of the victims, as is done in other sacrifices; each man chops off a limb of the sacrifice, just that which happens to come to hand. 9.39.5. What happens at the oracle is as follows. When a man has made up his mind to descend to the oracle of Trophonius, he first lodges in a certain building for an appointed number of days, this being sacred to the good Spirit and to good Fortune. While he lodges there, among other regulations for purity he abstains from hot baths, bathing only in the river Hercyna. Meat he has in plenty from the sacrifices, for he who descends sacrifices to Trophonius himself and to the children of Trophonius, to Apollo also and Cronus, to Zeus surnamed King, to Hera Charioteer, and to Demeter whom they surname Europa and say was the nurse of Trophonius. 9.39.6. At each sacrifice a diviner is present, who looks into the entrails of the victim, and after an inspection prophesies to the person descending whether Trophonius will give him a kind and gracious reception. The entrails of the other victims do not declare the mind of Trophonius so much as a ram, which each inquirer sacrifices over a pit on the night he descends, calling upon Agamedes. Even though the previous sacrifices have appeared propitious, no account is taken of them unless the entrails of this ram indicate the same; but if they agree, then the inquirer descends in good hope. The procedure of the descent is this. 9.39.7. First, during the night he is taken to the river Hercyna by two boys of the citizens about thirteen years old, named Hermae, who after taking him there anoint him with oil and wash him. It is these who wash the descender, and do all the other necessary services as his attendant boys. After this he is taken by the priests, not at once to the oracle, but to fountains of water very near to each other. 9.39.8. Here he must drink water called the water of Forgetfulness, that he may forget all that he has been thinking of hitherto, and afterwards he drinks of another water, the water of Memory, which causes him to remember what he sees after his descent. After looking at the image which they say was made by Daedalus (it is not shown by the priests save to such as are going to visit Trophonius), having seen it, worshipped it and prayed, he proceeds to the oracle, dressed in a linen tunic, with ribbons girding it, and wearing the boots of the country. 9.39.9. The oracle is on the mountain, beyond the grove. Round it is a circular basement of white marble, the circumference of which is about that of the smallest threshing floor, while its height is just short of two cubits. On the basement stand spikes, which, like the cross-bars holding them together, are of bronze, while through them has been made a double door. Within the enclosure is a chasm in the earth, not natural, but artificially constructed after the most accurate masonry. 9.39.10. The shape of this structure is like that of a bread-oven. Its breadth across the middle one might conjecture to be about four cubits, and its depth also could not be estimated to extend to more than eight cubits. They have made no way of descent to the bottom, but when a man comes to Trophonius, they bring him a narrow, light ladder. After going down he finds a hole between the floor and the structure. Its breadth appeared to be two spans, and its height one span. 9.39.11. The descender lies with his back on the ground, holding barley-cakes kneaded with honey, thrusts his feet into the hole and himself follows, trying hard to get his knees into the hole. After his knees the rest of his body is at once swiftly drawn in, just as the largest and most rapid river will catch a man in its eddy and carry him under. After this those who have entered the shrine learn the future, not in one and the same way in all cases, but by sight sometimes and at other times by hearing. The return upwards is by the same mouth, the feet darting out first. 9.39.12. They say that no one who has made the descent has been killed, save only one of the bodyguard of Demetrius. But they declare that he performed none of the usual rites in the sanctuary, and that he descended, not to consult the god but in the hope of stealing gold and silver from the shrine. It is said that the body of this man appeared in a different place, and was not cast out at the sacred mouth. Other tales are told about the fellow, but I have given the one most worthy of consideration. 9.39.13. After his ascent from Trophonius the inquirer is again taken in hand by the priests, who set him upon a chair called the chair of Memory, which stands not far from the shrine, and they ask of him, when seated there, all he has seen or learned. After gaining this information they then entrust him to his relatives. These lift him, paralyzed with terror and unconscious both of himself and of his surroundings, and carry him to the building where he lodged before with Good Fortune and the Good Spirit. Afterwards, however, he will recover all his faculties, and the power to laugh will return to him. 9.39.14. What I write is not hearsay; I have myself inquired of Trophonius and seen other inquirers. Those who have descended into the shrine of Trophonius are obliged to dedicate a tablet on which is written all that each has heard or seen. The shield also of Aristomenes is still preserved here. Its story I have already given in a former part of my work. See Paus. 4.16.7 to Paus. 4.32.6 . 10.4.3. The former passage, in which Homer speaks of the beautiful dancing-floors of Panopeus, I could not understand until I was taught by the women whom the Athenians call Thyiads. The Thyiads are Attic women, who with the Delphian women go to Parnassus every other year and celebrate orgies in honor of Dionysus. It is the custom for these Thyiads to hold dances at places, including Panopeus, along the road from Athens . The epithet Homer applies to Panopeus is thought to refer to the dance of the Thyiads. 10.32.7. But the Corycian cave exceeds in size those I have mentioned, and it is possible to make one's way through the greater part of it even without lights. The roof stands at a sufficient height from the floor, and water, rising in part from springs but still more dripping from the roof, has made clearly visible the marks of drops on the floor throughout the cave. The dwellers around Parnassus believe it to be sacred to the Corycian nymphs, and especially to Pan. From the Corycian cave it is difficult even for an active walker to reach the heights of Parnassus . The heights are above the clouds, and the Thyiad women rave there in honor of Dionysus and Apollo.
4. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 2.29 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

2.29. 29.For formerly, as we have before observed, when men sacrificed to the Gods fruits and not animals, and did not assume the latter for food, it is said, that a common sacrifice being celebrated at Athens, one Diomus, or Sopater, who was not a native, but cultivated some land in Attica, seizing a sharp axe which was near to him, and being excessively indigt, struck with it an ox, who, coming from his labour, approached to a table, on which were openly placed cakes and other offerings which were to be burnt as a sacrifice to the Gods, and ate some, but trampled on the rest of the offerings. The ox, therefore, being killed, Diomus, whose anger was now appeased, at the same time perceived what kind of deed he had perpetrated. And the ox, indeed, he buried. But embracing a voluntary banishment, as if he had been accused of impiety, he fled to Crete. A great dryness, however, taking place in the Attic land from vehement heat, and a dreadful sterility of fruit, and the Pythian deity being in consequence of it consulted by the general consent, the God answered, that the Cretan exile must expiate the crime; and that, if the murderer was punished, and the statue of the slain ox was erected in the place in which it fell, this would be beneficial both to those who had and those who had not tasted its flesh. An inquiry therefore being made into the affair, and Sopater, together with the deed, having been discovered, he, thinking that he should be liberated from the difficulty in which he was now involved, through the accusation of impiety, if the same thing was done by all men in common, said to those who came to him, that it was necessary an ox should be slain by the city. But, on their being dubious who should strike the ox, he said that he would undertake to do it, if they would make him a citizen, and would be partakers with him of the slaughter. This, therefore, being granted, they returned to the city, and ordered the deed to be accomplished in such a way as it is performed by them at present, [and which was as follows:] SPAN


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aegean islands, dionysus associated with Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
altis Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
anthesteria Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
anthéia place Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
archaic Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
ariadne, and dionysos Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
ariadne, and mortality Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
ariadne Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
aroe Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
arrival Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
art discourse, art-historical Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 35
art discourse, ritualcentered Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 35
artemis, artemis triklaria Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
athens, athenian Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
bacchants, bacchae, bacchai Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
bouphonia ritual Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 35
calame, claude Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
chalcidian vases, kylix with dionysus and ariadne in chariot (phineus cup) Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
chastetree, olive-tree Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
choral Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
clothing Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
collegia Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
competition Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
cows Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
cult, and heroines Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
cult, cultic acts for specific cults, the corresponding god or place Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168, 411
cult, of dionysos Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
dance, and dionysiac cult Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
dancing Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
delphi, delphian, delphic Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
dionysi, dionysoi, dionysoses Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
dionysiac, dionysian passim dionysiades Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
dionysism Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
dionysos, and ariadne Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
dionysos, and heroines Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
dionysos, and immortality Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
dionysos, cult of Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
dionysos, dionysos aisymnetes Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
dionysos, dionysos antheus Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
dionysos, dionysos baccheios Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
dionysos, dionysos eleuthereus Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
dionysos, dionysos kolonatas Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
dionysos, dionysos lysios Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
dionysos, dionysos mesateus Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
dionysos Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168, 411
dionysus, aegean islands, associated with Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
dionysus, as vegetation deity Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
dionysus, cult and rites Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
dionysus, festivals associated with Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
dionysus, hera and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
dionysus, images and iconography Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
dionysus, origins and development Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
dionysus, sanctuaries and temples Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
dionysus, wine, as god of Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
dionysus, zeus and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
dionysus Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
dismemberment Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
dodona Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
dymainai Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
ecstasy ἔκστασις, ecstatic Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
egypt/egyptians, dionysus and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
eleutheria Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
elis, elean Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
elis, hera and dionysus at Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
elis, sixteen/ women from Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
elis Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168, 411
eurypylos Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
female Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
festival, festivity, festive Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
festival Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
foundation myths Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
games, olympic Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
gynaikes Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
hair Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
hellenistic Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
hera, dionysus and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
hera, zeus and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
hera Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
heraia, olympia Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
heraion, olympia Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
hero Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
heroines, and dionysos Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
heroines, and lamentation Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
heroines, as founders of cults Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
hippodameia Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
immortality, and dionysos Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
ino-leukothea, and mortality Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
ino-leukothea Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
ionia, ionian Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
keos, archaic sanctuary of dionysus at Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
klodones Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
laconia, laconian Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
lamentation, and heroines Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
lenaeans, lenai λῆναι Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
lenaia Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
leochares Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 35
lesbos, deities of Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
linear b Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
macedonia, macedonian Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
maenads, maenadic, maenadism, rites/cults Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
maenads, maenadic, maenadism Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
marriage Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
mesatis Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
miletus, milesian Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
mimallones Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
mortality, and ino Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
mortality, and semele Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
mycenaean Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
myth, mythical Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168, 411
müller, karl otfried Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
narkaios Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411; Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
naxos, temple and cult of dionysus on Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
oleiai Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
olympia Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
orchomenos, orchomenian Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
orgia ὄργια Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
otto, walter f., x Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
oxylos Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
parthenos/parthenoi Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
patras Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
pausanias, and ritual-centered visuality Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 35
peisistratus Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
peleades Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
pelops Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
peplos Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
phineus cup (chalcidian kylix with dionysus and ariadne in chariot) Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
physcoa Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
physkoa Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
pindar Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
pisatis Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
polis Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
rhea, dionysus and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
rhea, zeus and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
rite, ritual, maenadic Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
rite, ritual Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168, 411
ritual, as focus of art discourse Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 35
ritual, described by pausanias Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 35
ritual Bowie, Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture (2021) 539
sacrifice, sacrificial, human Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
sacrifice, sacrificial Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
sanctuaries and temples, //ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/haifa/detail.action?docid= Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
sanctuary Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
semele, and mortality Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
semele Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
sicyon, sicyonian Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
silens Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
sixteen women Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
sparta, spartan Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168, 411
statuettes Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
temenos Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
temple Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
theater, theatrical Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
thebes, theban Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
thiasos θίασος Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
thyiads, thyiades Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
thyiads Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
triphylia Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
vegetation deities, dionysus as Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
weaving Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 165
webster, t.b.l. Lyons, Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult (1997) 128
weddings and marriages, zeus, marriage partners of Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
wine, dionysus as god of Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
woman Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
worship Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 168
xoanon ξόανον' Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 411
zeus, dionysus and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
zeus, hera and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
zeus, marriage partners Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
zeus, origins and development Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 316
zeus, polieus Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 35
zeus Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 35