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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9125
Pausanias, Description Of Greece, 2.17.4


τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα τῆς Ἥρας ἐπὶ θρόνου κάθηται μεγέθει μέγα, χρυσοῦ μὲν καὶ ἐλέφαντος, Πολυκλείτου δὲ ἔργον· ἔπεστι δέ οἱ στέφανος Χάριτας ἔχων καὶ Ὥρας ἐπειργασμένας, καὶ τῶν χειρῶν τῇ μὲν καρπὸν φέρει ῥοιᾶς, τῇ δὲ σκῆπτρον. τὰ μὲν οὖν ἐς τὴν ῥοιὰν—ἀπορρητότερος γάρ ἐστιν ὁ λόγος—ἀφείσθω μοι· κόκκυγα δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ σκήπτρῳ καθῆσθαί φασι λέγοντες τὸν Δία, ὅτε ἤρα παρθένου τῆς Ἥρας, ἐς τοῦτον τὸν ὄρνιθα ἀλλαγῆναι, τὴν δὲ ἅτε παίγνιον θηρᾶσαι. τοῦτον τὸν λόγον καὶ ὅσα ἐοικότα εἴρηται περὶ θεῶν οὐκ ἀποδεχόμενος γράφω, γράφω δὲ οὐδὲν ἧσσον.The statue of Hera is seated on a throne; it is huge, made of gold and ivory, and is a work of Polycleitus. She is wearing a crown with Graces and Seasons worked upon it, and in one hand she carries a pomegranate and in the other a sceptre. About the pomegranate I must say nothing, for its story is somewhat of a holy mystery. The presence of a cuckoo seated on the sceptre they explain by the story that when Zeus was in love with Hera in her maidenhood he changed himself into this bird, and she caught it to be her pet. This tale and similar legends about the gods I relate without believing them, but I relate them nevertheless.


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1. Homer, Iliad, 14.293-14.296, 14.346-14.347 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

14.293. /in the likeness of a clear-voiced mountain bird, that the gods call Chalcis, and men Cymindis.But Hera swiftly drew nigh to topmost Gargarus, the peak of lofty Ida, and Zeus, the cloud-gatherer, beheld her. And when he beheld her, then love encompassed his wise heart about 14.294. /in the likeness of a clear-voiced mountain bird, that the gods call Chalcis, and men Cymindis.But Hera swiftly drew nigh to topmost Gargarus, the peak of lofty Ida, and Zeus, the cloud-gatherer, beheld her. And when he beheld her, then love encompassed his wise heart about 14.295. /even as when at the first they had gone to the couch and had dalliance together in love, their dear parents knowing naught thereof. And he stood before her, and spake, and addressed her:Hera, with what desire art thou thus come hither down from Olympus? Lo, thy horses are not at hand, neither thy chariot, whereon thou mightest mount. 14.296. /even as when at the first they had gone to the couch and had dalliance together in love, their dear parents knowing naught thereof. And he stood before her, and spake, and addressed her:Hera, with what desire art thou thus come hither down from Olympus? Lo, thy horses are not at hand, neither thy chariot, whereon thou mightest mount. 14.346. /albeit his sight is the keenest of all for beholding. Therewith the son of Cronos clasped his wife in his arms, and beneath them the divine earth made fresh-sprung grass to grow, and dewy lotus, and crocus, and hyacinth, thick and soft, that upbare them from the ground. 14.347. /albeit his sight is the keenest of all for beholding. Therewith the son of Cronos clasped his wife in his arms, and beneath them the divine earth made fresh-sprung grass to grow, and dewy lotus, and crocus, and hyacinth, thick and soft, that upbare them from the ground.
2. Homeric Hymns, To Apollo And The Muses, 352, 351 (8th cent. BCE - 8th cent. BCE)

351. I picked him up and into the wide sea
3. Herodotus, Histories, 2.50, 2.123.1, 6.137, 7.152.3 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.50. In fact, the names of nearly all the gods came to Hellas from Egypt . For I am convinced by inquiry that they have come from foreign parts, and I believe that they came chiefly from Egypt . ,Except the names of Poseidon and the Dioscuri, as I have already said, and Hera, and Hestia, and Themis, and the Graces, and the Nereids, the names of all the gods have always existed in Egypt . I only say what the Egyptians themselves say. The gods whose names they say they do not know were, as I think, named by the Pelasgians, except Poseidon, the knowledge of whom they learned from the Libyans. ,Alone of all nations the Libyans have had among them the name of Poseidon from the beginning, and they have always honored this god. The Egyptians, however, are not accustomed to pay any honors to heroes. 2.123.1. These Egyptian stories are for the benefit of whoever believes such tales: my rule in this history is that I record what is said by all as I have heard it. The Egyptians say that Demeter and Dionysus are the rulers of the lower world. 6.137. Miltiades son of Cimon took possession of Lemnos in this way: When the Pelasgians were driven out of Attica by the Athenians, whether justly or unjustly I cannot say, beyond what is told; namely, that Hecataeus the son of Hegesandrus declares in his history that the act was unjust; ,for when the Athenians saw the land under Hymettus, formerly theirs, which they had given to the Pelasgians as a dwelling-place in reward for the wall that had once been built around the acropolis—when the Athenians saw how well this place was tilled which previously had been bad and worthless, they were envious and coveted the land, and so drove the Pelasgians out on this and no other pretext. But the Athenians themselves say that their reason for expelling the Pelasgians was just. ,The Pelasgians set out from their settlement at the foot of Hymettus and wronged the Athenians in this way: Neither the Athenians nor any other Hellenes had servants yet at that time, and their sons and daughters used to go to the Nine Wells for water; and whenever they came, the Pelasgians maltreated them out of mere arrogance and pride. And this was not enough for them; finally they were caught in the act of planning to attack Athens. ,The Athenians were much better men than the Pelasgians, since when they could have killed them, caught plotting as they were, they would not so do, but ordered them out of the country. The Pelasgians departed and took possession of Lemnos, besides other places. This is the Athenian story; the other is told by Hecataeus. 7.152.3. The conduct of the Argives was accordingly not utterly shameful. As for myself, although it is my business to set down that which is told me, to believe it is none at all of my business. This I ask the reader to hold true for the whole of my history, for there is another tale current, according to which it would seem that it was the Argives who invited the Persian into Hellas, because the war with the Lacedaemonians was going badly, and they would prefer anything to their present distresses.
4. Lucian, The Syrian Goddess, 3, 2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2. The first men on earth to receive knowledge of the gods, and to build temples and shrines and to summon meetings for religious observances are said to have been the Egyptians. They were the first, too, to take cognizance of holy names, and to repeat sacred traditions. Not long after them the Assyrians heard from the Egyptians their doctrines as to the gods, and they reared temples and shrines: in these they placed statues and images.
5. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.20.3, 1.24.5-1.24.7, 2.4.5, 2.17.1, 2.17.3, 2.17.5-2.17.6, 2.27.2, 3.18.10-3.18.16, 5.11.1-5.11.9, 5.17.1, 6.3.8, 7.4.4, 8.8.3, 8.47.3, 9.2.7, 9.3.1-9.3.9, 9.27.1, 9.36.5, 10.19.5, 10.19.12, 10.32.12 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.20.3. The oldest sanctuary of Dionysus is near the theater. Within the precincts are two temples and two statues of Dionysus, the Eleuthereus (Deliverer) and the one Alcamenes made of ivory and gold. There are paintings here—Dionysus bringing Hephaestus up to heaven. One of the Greek legends is that Hephaestus, when he was born, was thrown down by Hera. In revenge he sent as a gift a golden chair with invisible fetters. When Hera sat down she was held fast, and Hephaestus refused to listen to any other of the gods save Dionysus—in him he reposed the fullest trust—and after making him drunk Dionysus brought him to heaven. Besides this picture there are also represented Pentheus and Lycurgus paying the penalty of their insolence to Dionysus, Ariadne asleep, Theseus putting out to sea, and Dionysus on his arrival to carry off Ariadne. 1.24.5. Their ritual, then, is such as I have described. As you enter the temple that they name the Parthenon, all the sculptures you see on what is called the pediment refer to the birth of Athena, those on the rear pediment represent the contest for the land between Athena and Poseidon. The statue itself is made of ivory and gold. On the middle of her helmet is placed a likeness of the Sphinx—the tale of the Sphinx I will give when I come to my description of Boeotia—and on either side of the helmet are griffins in relief. 1.24.6. These griffins, Aristeas An early Greek traveller and writer. of Proconnesus says in his poem, fight for the gold with the Arimaspi beyond the Issedones. The gold which the griffins guard, he says, comes out of the earth; the Arimaspi are men all born with one eye; griffins are beasts like lions, but with the beak and wings of an eagle. I will say no more about the griffins. 1.24.7. The statue of Athena is upright, with a tunic reaching to the feet, and on her breast the head of Medusa is worked in ivory. She holds a statue of Victory about four cubits high, and in the other hand a spear; at her feet lies a shield and near the spear is a serpent. This serpent would be Erichthonius. On the pedestal is the birth of Pandora in relief. Hesiod and others have sung how this Pandora was the first woman; before Pandora was born there was as yet no womankind. The only portrait statue I remember seeing here is one of the emperor Hadrian, and at the entrance one of Iphicrates, A famous Athenian soldier.fl. 390 B.C. who accomplished many remarkable achievements. 2.4.5. Now the sanctuary of Athena Chalinitis is by their theater, and near is a naked wooden image of Heracles, said to be a work of Daedalus. All the works of this artist, although rather uncouth to look at, are nevertheless distinguished by a kind of inspiration. Above the theater is a sanctuary of Zeus surnamed in the Latin tongue Capitolinus, which might be rendered into Greek “Coryphaeos”. Not far from this theater is the ancient gymnasium, and a spring called Lerna . Pillars stand around it, and seats have been made to refresh in summer time those who have entered it. By this gymnasium are temples of Zeus and Asclepius. The images of Asclepius and of Health are of white marble, that of Zeus is of bronze. 2.17.1. Fifteen stades distant from Mycenae is on the left the Heraeum. Beside the road flows the brook called Water of Freedom. The priestesses use it in purifications and for such sacrifices as are secret. The sanctuary itself is on a lower part of Euboea . Euboea is the name they give to the hill here, saying that Asterion the river had three daughters, Euboea, Prosymna, and Acraea, and that they were nurses of Hera. 2.17.3. It is said that the architect of the temple was Eupolemus, an Argive . The sculptures carved above the pillars refer either to the birth of Zeus and the battle between the gods and the giants, or to the Trojan war and the capture of Ilium . Before the entrance stand statues of women who have been priestesses to Hera and of various heroes, including Orestes. They say that Orestes is the one with the inscription, that it represents the Emperor Augustus. In the fore-temple are on the one side ancient statues of the Graces, and on the right a couch of Hera and a votive offering, the shield which Menelaus once took from Euphorbus at Troy . 2.17.5. By the side of Hera stands what is said to be an image of Hebe fashioned by Naucydes; it, too, is of ivory and gold. By its side is an old image of Hera on a pillar. The oldest image is made of wild-pear wood, and was dedicated in Tiryns by Peirasus, son of Argus, and when the Argives destroyed Tiryns they carried it away to the Heraeum. I myself saw it, a small, seated image. 2.17.6. of the votive offerings the following are noteworthy. There is an altar upon which is wrought in relief the fabled marriage of Hebe and Heracles. This is of silver, but the peacock dedicated by the Emperor Hadrian is of gold and gleaming stones. He dedicated it because they hold the bird to be sacred to Hera. There lie here a golden crown and a purple robe, offerings of Nero. 2.27.2. The image of Asclepius is, in size, half as big as the Olympian Zeus at Athens, and is made of ivory and gold. An inscription tells us that the artist was Thrasymedes, a Parian, son of Arignotus. The god is sitting on a seat grasping a staff; the other hand he is holding above the head of the serpent; there is also a figure of a dog lying by his side. On the seat are wrought in relief the exploits of Argive heroes, that of Bellerophontes against the Chimaera, and Perseus, who has cut off the head of Medusa. Over against the temple is the place where the suppliants of the god sleep. 3.18.10. It is supported in front, and similarly behind, by two Graces and two Seasons. On the left stand Echidna and Typhos, on the right Tritons. To describe the reliefs one by one in detail would have merely bored my readers; but to be brief and concise (for the greater number of them are not unknown either) Poseidon and Zeus are carrying Taygete, daughter of Atlas, and her sister Alcyone. There are also reliefs of Atlas, the single combat of Heracles and Cycnus, and the battle of the Centaurs at the cave of Pholus. 3.18.11. I cannot say why Bathycles has represented the so-called Bull of Minos bound, and being led along alive by Theseus. There is also on the throne a band of Phaeacian dancers, and Demodocus singing. Perseus, too, is represented killing Medusa. Passing over the fight of Heracles with the giant Thurius and that of Tyndareus with Eurytus, we have next the rape of the daughters of Leucippus. Here are Dionysus, too, and Heracles; Hermes is bearing the infant Dionysus to heaven, and Athena is taking Heracles to dwell henceforth with the gods. 3.18.12. There is Peleus handing over Achilles to be reared by Cheiron, who is also said to have been his teacher. There is Cephalus, too, carried off by Day because of his beauty. The gods are bringing gifts to the marriage of Harmonia. There is wrought also the single combat of Achilles and Memnon, and Heracles avenging himself upon Diomedes the Thracian, and upon Nessus at the river Euenus. Hermes is bringing the goddesses to Alexander to be judged. Adrastus and Tydeus are staying the fight between Amphiaraus and Lycurgus the son of Pronax. 3.18.13. Hera is gazing at Io, the daughter of Inachus, who is already a cow, and Athena is running away from Hephaestus, who chases her. Next to these have been wrought two of the exploits of Heracles—his slaying the hydra, and his bringing up the Hound of Hell. Anaxias and Mnasinous are each seated on horseback, but there is one horse only carrying Megapenthes, the son of Menelaus, and Nicostratus. Bellerophontes is destroying the beast in Lycia, and Heracles is driving off the cows of Geryones. 3.18.14. At the upper edge of the throne are wrought, one on each side, the sons of Tyndareus on horses. There are sphinxes under the horses, and beasts running upwards, on the one side a leopard, by Polydeuces a lioness. On the very top of the throne has been wrought a band of dancers, the Magnesians who helped Bathycles to make the throne. 3.18.15. Underneath the throne, the inner part away from the Tritons contains the hunting of the Calydonian boar and Heracles killing the children of Actor. Calais and Zetes are driving the Harpies away from Phineus. Peirithous and Theseus have seized Helen, and Heracles is strangling the lion. Apollo and Artemis are shooting Tityus. 3.18.16. There is represented the fight between Heracles and Oreius the Centaur, and also that between Theseus and the Bull of Minos. There are also represented the wrestling of Heracles with Achelous, the fabled binding of Hera by Hephaestus, the games Acastus held in honor of his father, and the story of Menelaus and the Egyptian Proteus from the Odyssey. Hom. Od. 4.384 foll. Lastly there is Admetus yoking a boar and a lion to his chariot, and the Trojans are bringing libations to Hector. 5.11.1. The god sits on a throne, and he is made of gold and ivory. On his head lies a garland which is a copy of olive shoots. In his right hand he carries a Victory, which, like the statue, is of ivory and gold; she wears a ribbon and—on her head—a garland. In the left hand of the god is a scepter, ornamented with every kind of metal, and the bird sitting on the scepter is the eagle. The sandals also of the god are of gold, as is likewise his robe. On the robe are embroidered figures of animals and the flowers of the lily. 5.11.2. The throne is adorned with gold and with jewels, to say nothing of ebony and ivory. Upon it are painted figures and wrought images. There are four Victories, represented as dancing women, one at each foot of the throne, and two others at the base of each foot. On each of the two front feet are set Theban children ravished by sphinxes, while under the sphinxes Apollo and Artemis are shooting down the children of Niobe. 5.11.3. Between the feet of the throne are four rods, each one stretching from foot to foot. The rod straight opposite the entrance has on it seven images; how the eighth of them disappeared nobody knows. These must be intended to be copies of obsolete contests, since in the time of Pheidias contests for boys had not yet been introduced. This statement is certainly incorrect; Pausanias himself says that contests for the boys were introduced at the thirty-seventh Festival, i.e. in 632 B.C. Several suggestions have been made for correcting the text. One of the most attractive is that of C. Robert (see Hermes XXIII. 1888, p. 451), who would read ἀγωνιστῶν for ἀγωνισμάτων and transpose οὐ γάρ (for which he reads ἄρα ) πω . . . τῆς Φειδίου to after ὀγδοήκοντα. This would mean: “So P. had not reached the age of boys at the time of Pheidias.” The figure of one binding his own head with a ribbon is said to resemble in appearance Pantarces, a stripling of Elis said to have been the love of Pheidias. Pantarces too won the wrestling-bout for boys at the eighty-sixth Festival. 5.11.4. On the other rods is the band that with Heracles fights against the Amazons. The number of figures in the two parties is twenty-nine, and Theseus too is ranged among the allies of Heracles. The throne is supported not only by the feet, but also by an equal number of pillars standing between the feet. It is impossible to go under the throne, in the way we enter the inner part of the throne at Amyclae. At Olympia there are screens constructed like walls which keep people out. 5.11.5. of these screens the part opposite the doors is only covered with dark-blue paint; the other parts show pictures by Panaenus. Among them is Atlas, supporting heaven and earth, by whose side stands Heracles ready to receive the load of Atlas, along with Theseus; Perithous, Hellas, and Salamis carrying in her hand the ornament made for the top of a ship's bows; then Heracles' exploit against the Nemean lion, the outrage committed by Ajax on Cassandra 5.11.6. Hippodameia the daughter of Oenomaus with her mother, and Prometheus still held by his chains, though Heracles has been raised up to him. For among the stories told about Heracles is one that he killed the eagle which tormented Prometheus in the Caucasus, and set free Prometheus himself from his chains. Last in the picture come Penthesileia giving up the ghost and Achilles supporting her; two Hesperides are carrying the apples, the keeping of which, legend says, had been entrusted to them. This Panaenus was a brother of Pheidias; he also painted the picture of the battle of Marathon in the painted portico at Athens . 5.11.7. On the uppermost parts of the throne Pheidias has made, above the head of the image, three Graces on one side and three Seasons on the other. These in epic poetry Hes. Th. 901 are included among the daughters of Zeus. Homer too in the Iliad Hom. Il. 5.470 foll. says that the Seasons have been entrusted with the sky, just like guards of a king's court. The footstool of Zeus, called by the Athenians thranion, has golden lions and, in relief, the fight of Theseus against the Amazons, the first brave deed of the Athenians against foreigners. 5.11.8. On the pedestal supporting the throne and Zeus with all his adornments are works in gold: the Sun mounted on a chariot, Zeus and Hera, Hephaestus, and by his side Grace. Close to her comes Hermes, and close to Hermes Hestia. After Hestia is Eros receiving Aphrodite as she rises from the sea, and Aphrodite is being crowned by Persuasion. There are also reliefs of Apollo with Artemis, of Athena and of Heracles; and near the end of the pedestal Amphitrite and Poseidon, while the Moon is driving what I think is a horse. Some have said that the steed of the goddess is a mule not a horse, and they tell a silly story about the mule. 5.11.9. I know that the height and breadth of the Olympic Zeus have been measured and recorded; but I shall not praise those who made the measurements, for even their records fall far short of the impression made by a sight of the image. Nay, the god himself according to legend bore witness to the artistic skill of Pheidias. For when the image was quite finished Pheidias prayed the god to show by a sign whether the work was to his liking. Immediately, runs the legend, a thunderbolt fell on that part of the floor where down to the present day the bronze jar stood to cover the place. 5.17.1. These things, then, are as I have already described. In the temple of Hera is an image of Zeus, and the image of Hera is sitting on a throne with Zeus standing by her, bearded and with a helmet on his head. They are crude works of art. The figures of Seasons next to them, seated upon thrones, were made by the Aeginetan Smilis. circa 580-540 B.C. Beside them stands an image of Themis, as being mother of the Seasons. It is the work of Dorycleidas, a Lacedaemonian by birth and a disciple of Dipoenus and Scyllis. 6.3.8. The statue of Oebotas was set up by the Achaeans by the command of the Delphic Apollo in the eightieth Olympiad 460 B.C., but Oebotas won his victory in the footrace at the sixth Festival 756 B.C. . How, therefore, could Oebotas have taken part in the Greek victory at Plataea ? For it was in the seventy-fifth Olympiad 479B.C. that the Persians under Mardonius suffered their disaster at Plataea . Now I am obliged to report the statements made by the Greeks, though I am not obliged to believe them all. The other incidents in the life of Oebotas I will add to my history of Achaia . See Paus. 7.17.6 . 7.4.4. Some say that the sanctuary of Hera in Samos was established by those who sailed in the Argo, and that these brought the image from Argos . But the Samians themselves hold that the goddess was born in the island by the side of the river Imbrasus under the withy that even in my time grew in the Heraeum. That this sanctuary is very old might be inferred especially by considering the image; for it is the work of an Aeginetan, Smilis, the son of Eucleides. This Smilis was a contemporary of Daedalus, though of less repute. 8.8.3. When I began to write my history I was inclined to count these legends as foolishness, but on getting as far as Arcadia I grew to hold a more thoughtful view of them, which is this. In the days of old those Greeks who were considered wise spoke their sayings not straight out but in riddles, and so the legends about Cronus I conjectured to be one sort of Greek wisdom. In matters of divinity, therefore, I shall adopt the received tradition. 8.47.3. of Marpessa I shall make mention later. See Paus. 8.48.5 . The priest of Athena is a boy; I do not know how long his priesthood lasts, but it must be before, and not after, puberty. The altar for the goddess was made, they say, by Melampus, the son of Amythaon. Represented on the altar are Rhea and the nymph Oenoe holding the baby Zeus. On either side are four figures: on one, Glauce, Neda, Theisoa and Anthracia; on the other Ide, Hagno, Alcinoe and Phrixa . There are also images of the Muses and of Memory. 9.2.7. Advancing in the city itself from the altar and the image which have been made to Zeus of Freedom, you come to a hero-shrine of Plataea . The legends about her, and my own conjectures, I have already See paus. 9.1 . stated. There is at Plataea a temple of Hera, worth seeing for its size and for the beauty of its images. On entering you see Rhea carrying to Cronus the stone wrapped in swaddling clothes, as though it were the babe to which she had given birth. The Hera they call Full-grown; it is an upright image of huge size. Both figures are of Pentelic marble, and the artist was Praxiteles. Here too is another image of Hera; it is seated, and was made by Callimachus. The goddess they call the Bride for the following reason. 9.3.1. Hera, they say, was for some reason or other angry with Zeus, and had retreated to Euboea . Zeus, failing to make her change her mind, visited Cithaeron, at that time despot in Plataea, who surpassed all men for his cleverness. So he ordered Zeus to make an image of wood, and to carry it, wrapped up, in a bullock wagon, and to say that he was celebrating his marriage with Plataea, the daughter of Asopus. 9.3.2. So Zeus followed the advice of Cithaeron. Hera heard the news at once, and at once appeared on the scene. But when she came near the wagon and tore away the dress from the image, she was pleased at the deceit, on finding it a wooden image and not a bride, and was reconciled to Zeus. To commemorate this reconciliation they celebrate a festival called Daedala, because the men of old time gave the name of daedala to wooden images. My own view is that this name was given to wooden images before Daedalus, the son of Palamaon, was born at Athens, and that he did not receive this name at birth, but that it was a surname afterwards given him from the daedala. 9.3.3. So the Plataeans hold the festival of the Daedala every six years, according to the local guide, but really at a shorter interval. I wanted very much to calculate exactly the interval between one Daedala and the next, but I was unable to do so. In this way they celebrate the feast. 9.3.4. Not far from Alalcomenae is a grove of oaks. Here the trunks of the oaks are the largest in Boeotia . To this grove come the Plataeans, and lay out portions of boiled flesh. They keep a strict watch on the crows which flock to them, but they are not troubled at all about the other birds. They mark carefully the tree on which a crow settles with the meat he has seized. They cut down the trunk of the tree on which the crow has settled, and make of it the daedalum; for this is the name that they give to the wooden image also. 9.3.5. This feast the Plataeans celebrate by themselves, calling it the Little Daedala, but the Great Daedala, which is shared with them by the Boeotians, is a festival held at intervals of fifty-nine years, for that is the period during which, they say, the festival could not be held, as the Plataeans were in exile. There are fourteen wooden images ready, having been provided each year at the Little Daedala. 9.3.6. Lots are cast for them by the Plataeans, Coronaeans, Thespians, Tanagraeans, Chaeroneans, Orchomenians, Lebadeans, and Thebans; for at the time when Cassander, the son of Antipater, rebuilt Thebes, the Thebans wished to be reconciled with the Plataeans, to share in the common assembly, and to send a sacrifice to the Daedala. The towns of less account pool their funds for images. 9.3.7. Bringing the image to the Asopus, and setting it upon a wagon, they place a bridesmaid also on the wagon. They again cast lots for the position they are to hold in the procession. After this they drive the wagons from the river to the summit of Cithaeron. On the peak of the mountain an altar has been prepared, which they make after the following way. They fit together quadrangular pieces of wood, putting them together just as if they were making a stone building, and having raised it to a height they place brushwood upon the altar. 9.3.8. The cities with their magistrates sacrifice severally a cow to Hera and a bull to Zeus, burning on the altar the victims, full of wine and incense, along with the daedala. Rich people, as individuals, sacrifice what they wish; but the less wealthy sacrifice the smaller cattle; all the victims alike are burned. The fire seizes the altar and the victims as well, and consumes them all together. I know of no blaze that is so high, or seen so far as this. 9.3.9. About fifteen stades below the peak, on which they make the altar, is a cave of the Cithaeronian nymphs. It is named Sphragidium, and the story is that of old the nymphs gave oracles in this place. 9.27.1. of the gods the Thespians have from the beginning honored Love most, and they have a very ancient image of him, an unwrought stone. Who established among the Thespians the custom of worshipping Love more than any other god I do not know. He is worshipped equally by the people of Parium on the Hellespont, who were originally colonists from Erythrae in Ionia, but to-day are subject to the Romans. 9.36.5. The Greeks appear apt to regard with greater wonder foreign sights than sights at home. For whereas distinguished historians have described the Egyptian pyramids with the minutest detail, they have not made even the briefest mention of the treasury of Minyas and the walls of Tiryns, though these are no less marvellous. 10.19.5. I have made some mention of the Gallic invasion of Greece in my description of the Athenian Council Chamber. Paus. 1.3.4 But I have resolved to give a more detailed account of the Gauls in my description of Delphi, because the greatest of the Greek exploits against the barbarians took place there. The Celts conducted their first foreign expedition under the leadership of Cambaules. Advancing as far as Thrace they lost heart and broke off their march, realizing that they were too few in number to be a match for the Greeks. 10.19.12. This was the size of the army, and such was the intention of Brennus, when he attacked Greece . The spirit of the Greeks was utterly broken, but the extremity of their terror forced them to defend Greece . They realized that the struggle that faced them would not be one for liberty, as it was when they fought the Persian, and that giving water and earth would not bring them safety. They still remembered the fate of Macedonia, Thrace and Paeonia during the former incursion of the Gauls, and reports were coming in of enormities committed at that very time on the Thessalians. So every man, as well as every state, was convinced that they must either conquer or perish. 10.32.12. Seventy stades distant from Tithorea is a temple of Asclepius, called Archagetas (Founder). He receives divine honors from the Tithoreans, and no less from the other Phocians. Within the precincts are dwellings for both the suppliants of the god and his servants. In the middle is the temple of the god and an image made of stone, having a beard more than two feet long. A couch is set on the right of the image. It is usual to sacrifice to the god any animal except the goat.
6. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 3.1.3-3.1.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

7. Epigraphy, Ig Ii2, 4841



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeolians Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
aniconism, empty space Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 71, 72
aniconism Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145
anthropomorphism, and empty space Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 72
antiquarianism Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247
apollo, at amyclae Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247
apollo Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 71
apollo karinos Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 71
argive heraion Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 103
argolid Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
argos, cult statues of hera at Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 51
argos, heraeum Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41, 51
argos Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44; Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 71; Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
artemidorus of daldis, oneirocritica Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247
artemis Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 103
asclepius at epidaurus Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247
asklepios Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 72
athena Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247; Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 103
athens, parthenon Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 103
athens Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145
atticism Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 262
basileia Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
beauty Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
birds, symbol of sovereignty Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
birds Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
boeotia, fibula with pastoral and marine imagery from Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 51
charites Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
charites (graces), hera and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
crete Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
cronus, olympia, hill at Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
cuckoo Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
cuckoos, associated with hera Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 51
cult Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145
cult images Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247, 248; Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 103
cultic ritual practice, ritual performance Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
daidala festival, plataea Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
damarchos Jażdżewska and Doroszewski,Plutarch and his Contemporaries: Sharing the Roman Empire (2024) 249
dionysus, as vegetation deity Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
dionysus, hera and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
dionysus Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145
dorian migration Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
eagles, zeus, as attribute of Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 51
egypt Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 71
eidos Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
eleutherai Jażdżewska and Doroszewski,Plutarch and his Contemporaries: Sharing the Roman Empire (2024) 249
empty-space-aniconism Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145
epidauros Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
epidaurus Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247
epiphanization Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145
epiphany, divine Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 103
eros Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145
euboea Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
fellatio Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
festivals, daidala Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
fruit Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
gods and goddesses, unity and plurality Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
graces Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 71
greeks Jażdżewska and Doroszewski,Plutarch and his Contemporaries: Sharing the Roman Empire (2024) 249
hades Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
hera, argive Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247
hera, basilis Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
hera, canonical portrait Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
hera, charites/graces and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
hera, childhood Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
hera, cycle Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
hera, dionysus and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
hera, eroticised Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
hera, images and iconography Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41, 51
hera, kydiste Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
hera, nymphe Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
hera, origins and development Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41, 51
hera, parthenos Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24, 118
hera, rhea and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41, 51
hera, sacred wedding to zeus Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 51
hera, statue Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
hera, syrian Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 248
hera, upbringing Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
hera, virgin Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
hera, zeus and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 51
hera Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 71, 72; Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41, 51
hera (goddess), depictions of Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
hera (goddess), temple at boiotian plataia Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
hera (goddess) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
heraeum, argive Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145
hermione Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
hierapolis Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 248
horae (hours) Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
horai Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
hours (horae) Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
iconography, and representation of greek myth Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 248
iconography, divine Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145
iconography Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
jason and the argonauts Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
kleos Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
kore Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
kronos Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
kronos (god) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
kydos Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
kyrieleis, helmut Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
landscape of memory, in pausanias and lucian Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247
legitimation/legitimacy Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
localism, in eastern religions Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247, 248
logos Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
lucian, de dea syria Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247, 248
marriage, lawful Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
megara Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 71
migration/movement of peoples, dorian migration Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
multi-iconism Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145
mysteries, eleusinian Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
myth Jażdżewska and Doroszewski,Plutarch and his Contemporaries: Sharing the Roman Empire (2024) 249
nilsson, martin, on hera Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
nymphe Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
olympia, hill of cronus at Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
olympia, temple of hera Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
pastoralism, sea and pasture, connection between Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 51
pausanias, and coexistence of forms Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 71, 72
pausanias, description of greece, as pilgrimage text Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247, 248
pausanias, imitation of herodotus, nature of Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 262
pausanias, judgment of literary talents of Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 262
pausanias Kirkland, Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception (2022) 262
pausanias the periegetes Jażdżewska and Doroszewski,Plutarch and his Contemporaries: Sharing the Roman Empire (2024) 249
pelasgians Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41, 51
perachora, temple of hera Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
persephone Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
phidias Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247; Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145
phokia Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 72
pilgrimage Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247, 248
polyclitus, statue of hera at argos Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
polyclitus Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247
polytheism Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
pomegranate Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
premarital union Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
pyramid Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 71
religion/theology, diversity/plurality Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
resistance to romanization Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247, 248
rhea, hera and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41, 51
rhea (goddess) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
ritual Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145
romanization, resistance to Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247, 248
sacredness, of cult images Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 103
samos, heraeum Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 51
samos Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
sceptre Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
scholia Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 51
sea and seafarers, pasture and sea, connection between Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 51
seat Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 71, 72
secret Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24, 118
sikyon Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 71
sovereignty, myth of Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
sovereignty Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
spring Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
statuary, dionysus by alkamenes Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 103
statue, divine Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145
tegea Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 71
theopompus Jażdżewska and Doroszewski,Plutarch and his Contemporaries: Sharing the Roman Empire (2024) 249
thespiae Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 145
thornax, mount Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
titanomachy Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 24
trojan war Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
typhon Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 51
vegetation deities, dionysus as Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
vegetation deities, hera as Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
veyne, paul Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247
weddings and marriages, hera and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41, 51
weddings and marriages, sacred wedding of zeus and hera Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 51
wilamowitz-moellendorff, ulrich von Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 41
women, parthenos (unmarried girl, maiden)' Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
xoana Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 103
zeus, hera and Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 51
zeus, metamorphosis Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti, The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse (2022) 118
zeus, olympian Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 247
zeus, sacred wedding to hera Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro,, The Gods of the Greeks (2021) 51
zeus, syrian Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 248
zeus (god) Eidinow and Kindt, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion (2015) 44
zeus meilichios Gaifman, Aniconism in Greek Antiquity (2012) 71