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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9125
Pausanias, Description Of Greece, 2.10.7


ἀπὸ τούτων δὲ ἀνιοῦσιν ἐς τὸ γυμνάσιον, ἔστιν ἐν δεξιᾷ Φεραίας ἱερὸν Ἀρτέμιδος· κομισθῆναι δὲ τὸ ξόανον λέγουσιν ἐκ Φερῶν. τὸ δέ σφισι γυμνάσιον τοῦτο Κλεινίας ᾠκοδόμησε, καὶ παιδεύουσιν ἐνταῦθα ἔτι τοὺς ἐφήβους. κεῖται δὲ λίθου λευκοῦ καὶ Ἄρτεμις τὰ ἐς ἰξὺν μόνον εἰργασμένη καὶ Ἡρακλῆς τὰ κάτω τοῖς Ἑρμαῖς τοῖς τετραγώνοις εἰκασμένος.Ascending from here to the gymnasium you see in the right a sanctuary of Artemis Pheraea. It is said that the wooden image was brought from Pherae. This gymnasium was built for the Sicyonians by Cleinias, and they still train the youths here. White marble images are here, an Artemis wrought only to the waist, and a Heracles whose lower parts are similar to the square Hermae.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

6 results
1. Herodotus, Histories, 2.51 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.51. These customs, then, and others besides, which I shall indicate, were taken by the Greeks from the Egyptians. It was not so with the ithyphallic images of Hermes; the production of these came from the Pelasgians, from whom the Athenians were the first Greeks to take it, and then handed it on to others. ,For the Athenians were then already counted as Greeks when the Pelasgians came to live in the land with them and thereby began to be considered as Greeks. Whoever has been initiated into the rites of the Cabeiri, which the Samothracians learned from the Pelasgians and now practice, understands what my meaning is. ,Samothrace was formerly inhabited by those Pelasgians who came to live among the Athenians, and it is from them that the Samothracians take their rites. ,The Athenians, then, were the first Greeks to make ithyphallic images of Hermes, and they did this because the Pelasgians taught them. The Pelasgians told a certain sacred tale about this, which is set forth in the Samothracian mysteries.
2. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 6.27 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 2.37 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 36.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 4.48.2-4.48.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.1.4, 1.19.1-1.19.2, 1.24.3, 2.3.4, 2.19.7, 3.16.7, 4.33.3, 7.22.2, 7.22.4, 7.27.1, 8.31.7, 8.32.1, 8.32.4, 8.39.6, 8.48.6, 10.12.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1.4. The Athenians have also another harbor, at Munychia, with a temple of Artemis of Munychia, and yet another at Phalerum, as I have already stated, and near it is a sanctuary of Demeter. Here there is also a temple of Athena Sciras, and one of Zeus some distance away, and altars of the gods named Unknown, and of heroes, and of the children of Theseus and Phalerus; for this Phalerus is said by the Athenians to have sailed with Jason to Colchis . There is also an altar of Androgeos, son of Minos, though it is called that of Heros; those, however, who pay special attention to the study of their country's antiquities know that it belongs to Androgeos. 1.19.1. Close to the temple of Olympian Zeus is a statue of the Pythian Apollo. There is further a sanctuary of Apollo surnamed Delphinius. The story has it that when the temple was finished with the exception of the roof Theseus arrived in the city, a stranger as yet to everybody. When he came to the temple of the Delphinian, wearing a tunic that reached to his feet and with his hair neatly plaited, those who were building the roof mockingly inquired what a marriageable virgin was doing wandering about by herself. The only answer that Theseus made was to loose, it is said, the oxen from the cart hard by, and to throw them higher than the roof of the temple they were building. 1.19.2. Concerning the district called The Gardens, and the temple of Aphrodite, there is no story that is told by them, nor yet about the Aphrodite which stands near the temple. Now the shape of it is square, like that of the Hermae, and the inscription declares that the Heavenly Aphrodite is the oldest of those called Fates. But the statue of Aphrodite in the Gardens is the work of Alcamenes, and one of the most note worthy things in Athens . 1.24.3. I have already stated that the Athenians are far more devoted to religion than other men. They were the first to surname Athena Ergane (Worker); they were the first to set up limbless Hermae, and the temple of their goddess is shared by the Spirit of Good men. Those who prefer artistic workmanship to mere antiquity may look at the following: a man wearing a helmet, by Cleoetas, whose nails the artist has made of silver, and an image of Earth beseeching Zeus to rain upon her; perhaps the Athenians them selves needed showers, or may be all the Greeks had been plagued with a drought. There also are set up Timotheus the son of Conon and Conon himself; Procne too, who has already made up her mind about the boy, and Itys as well—a group dedicated by Alcamenes. Athena is represented displaying the olive plant, and Poseidon the wave 2.3.4. Proceeding on the direct road to Lechaeum we see a bronze image of a seated Hermes. By him stands a ram, for Hermes is the god who is thought most to care for and to increase flocks, as Homer puts it in the Iliad :— Son was he of Phorbas, the dearest of Trojans to Hermes, Rich in flocks, for the god vouchsafed him wealth in abundance. Hom. Il. 14.490 The story told at the mysteries of the Mother about Hermes and the ram I know but do not relate. After the image of Hermes come Poseidon, Leucothea, and Palaemon on a dolphin. 2.19.7. Within the temple is a statue of Ladas, the swiftest runner of his time, and one of Hermes with a tortoise which he has caught to make a lyre. Before the temple is a pit Or (reading βάθρον πεποιημένην and ἔχον ) “pedestal.” with a relief representing a fight between a bull and a wolf, and with them a maiden throwing a rock at the bull. The maiden is thought to be Artemis. Danaus dedicated these, and some pillars hard by and wooden images of Zeus and Artemis. 3.16.7. The place named Limnaeum (Marshy) is sacred to Artemis Orthia (Upright). The wooden image there they say is that which once Orestes and Iphigenia stole out of the Tauric land, and the Lacedaemonians say that it was brought to their land because there also Orestes was king. I think their story more probable than that of the Athenians. For what could have induced Iphigenia to leave the image behind at Brauron ? Or why did the Athenians, when they were preparing to abandon their land, fail to include this image in what they put on board their ships? 4.33.3. At the Arcadian gate leading to Megalopolis is a Herm of Attic style; for the square form of Herm is Athenian, and the rest adopted it thence. After a descent of thirty stades from the gate is the watercourse of Balyra. The river is said to have got its name from Thamyris throwing (ballein) his lyre away here after his blinding. He was the son of Philammon and the nymph Argiope, who once dwelt on Parnassus, but settled among the Odrysae when pregt, for Philammon refused to take her into his house. Thamyris is called an Odrysian and Thracian on these grounds. The watercourses Leucasia and Amphitos unite to form one stream. 7.22.2. The market-place of Pharae is of wide extent after the ancient fashion, and in the middle of it is an image of Hermes, made of stone and bearded. Standing right on the earth, it is of square shape, and of no great size. On it is an inscription, saying that it was dedicated by Simylus the Messenian. It is called Hermes of the Market, and by it is established an oracle. In front of the image is placed a hearth, which also is of stone, and to the hearth bronze lamps are fastened with lead. 7.22.4. There is a similar method of divination practised at the sanctuary of Apis in Egypt . At Pharae there is also a water sacred to Hermes. The name of the spring is Hermes' stream, and the fish in it are not caught, being considered sacred to the god. Quite close to the image stand square stones, about thirty in number. These the people of Pharae adore, calling each by the name of some god. At a more remote period all the Greeks alike worshipped uncarved stones instead of images of the gods. 7.27.1. The city of Pellene is on a hill which rises to a sharp peak at its summit. This part then is precipitous, and therefore uninhabited, but on the lower slopes they have built their city, which is not continuous, but divided into two parts by the peak that rises up between. As you go to Pellene there is, by the roadside, an image of Hermes, who, in spite of his surname of Crafty, is ready to fulfill the prayers of men. He is of square shape and bearded, and on his head is carved a cap. 8.31.7. In a building stand statues also, those of Callignotus, Mentas, Sosigenes and Polus. These men are said to have been the first to establish at Megalopolis the mysteries of the Great Goddesses, and the ritual acts are a copy of those at Eleusis . Within the enclosure of the goddesses are the following images, which all have a square shape: Hermes, surnamed Agetor, Apollo, Athena, Poseidon, Sun too, surnamed Saviour, and Heracles. There has also been built for them a [sanctuary] of vast size, and here they celebrate the mysteries in honor of the goddesses. 8.32.1. Such are the notable things on this site. The southern portion, on the other side of the river, can boast of the largest theater in all Greece, and in it is a spring which never fails. Not far from the theater are left foundations of the council house built for the Ten Thousand Arcadians, and called Thersilium after the man who dedicated it. Hard by is a house, belonging to-day to a private person, which originally was built for Alexander, the son of Philip. By the house is an image of Ammon, like the square images of Hermes, with a ram's horns on his head. 8.32.4. There is also in this district a hill to the east, and on it a temple of Artemis Huntress this too was dedicated by Aristodemus. To the right of the Huntress is a precinct. Here there is a sanctuary of Asclepius, with images of the god and of Health, and a little lower down there are gods, also of square shape, surnamed Workers, Athena Worker and Apollo, God of Streets. To Hermes, Heracles and Eileithyia are attached traditions from the poems of Homer: that Hermes is the minister of Zeus and leads the souls of the departed down to Hades, Hom. Od. 24.1, Hom. Od. 24.10, Hom. Od. 24.l00 . and that Heracles accomplished many difficult tasks; Hom. Il. 8.362 foll. Eileithyia, he says in the Iliad, cares for the pangs of women. Hom. Il. 16.187 and Hom. Il. 19.103 . 8.39.6. The image of Hermes in the gymnasium is like to one dressed in a cloak; but the statue does not end in feet, but in the square shape. A temple also of Dionysus is here, who by the inhabitants is surnamed Acratophorus, but the lower part of the image cannot be seen for laurel-leaves and ivy. As much of it as can be seen is painted . . . with cinnabar to shine. It is said to be found by the Iberians along with the gold. 8.48.6. There is also an altar of Zeus Teleius (Full-grown), with a square image, a shape of which the Arcadians seem to me to be exceedingly fond. There are also here tombs of Tegeates, the son of Lycaon, and of Maera, the wife of Tegeates. They say that Maera was a daughter of Atlas, and Homer makes mention of her in the passage Hom. Od. 11.326 where Odysseus tells to Alcinous his journey to Hades, and of those whose ghosts he beheld there. 10.12.6. However, death came upon her in the Troad, and her tomb is in the grove of the Sminthian with these elegiac verses inscribed upon the tomb-stone:— Here I am, the plain-speaking Sibyl of Phoebus, Hidden beneath this stone tomb. A maiden once gifted with voice, but now for ever voiceless, By hard fate doomed to this fetter. But I am buried near the nymphs and this Hermes, Enjoying in the world below a part of the kingdom I had then. The Hermes stands by the side of the tomb, a square-shaped figure of stone. On the left is water running down into a well, and the images of the nymphs.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
apollo agyieus Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 68
arkadia Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 68
athens Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 68
attica Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 68
clement of alexandria Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 462
egyptians in alexandria,sarapis Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 462
greek gods,apollo Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 462
greek gods,dioscuri Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 462
herm,in vase painting Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 227
herm Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 68; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 227
hermes,and athens Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 227
hermes Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 68
herodotos Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 68
hipparchos Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 227
identity emergence,egyptian Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 462
megalopolis Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 68
pausanias,on the herm Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 68
pelasgians Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 68
sarapis/serapis Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 462
suda Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 227
tetragonos' Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 227