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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9125
Pausanias, Description Of Greece, 10.19.4


τὰ δὲ ἐν τοῖς ἀετοῖς, ἔστιν Ἄρτεμις καὶ Λητὼ καὶ Ἀπόλλων καὶ Μοῦσαι δύσις τε Ἡλίου καὶ Διόνυσός τε καὶ αἱ γυναῖκες αἱ Θυιάδες. τὰ μὲν δὴ πρῶτα αὐτῶν Ἀθηναῖος Πραξίας μαθητὴς Καλάμιδός ἐστιν ὁ ἐργασάμενος· χρόνου δὲ ὡς ὁ ναὸς ἐποιεῖτο ἐγγινομένου Πραξίαν μὲν ἔμελλεν ἀπάξειν τὸ χρεών, τὰ δὲ ὑπολειπόμενα τοῦ ἐν τοῖς ἀετοῖς κόσμου ἐποίησεν Ἀνδροσθένης, γένος μὲν καὶ οὗτος Ἀθηναῖος, μαθητὴς δὲ Εὐκάδμου. ὅπλα δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν ἐπιστυλίων χρυσᾶ, Ἀθηναῖοι μὲν τὰς ἀσπίδας ἀπὸ τοῦ ἔργου τοῦ Μαραθῶνι ἀνέθεσαν, Αἰτωλοὶ δὲ τά τε ὄπισθεν καὶ τὰ ἐν ἀριστερᾷ Γαλατῶν δὴ ὅπλα· σχῆμα δὲ αὐτῶν ἐστιν ἐγγυτάτω τῶν Περσικῶν γέρρων.The carvings in the pediments are: Artemis, Leto, Apollo, Muses, a setting Sun, and Dionysus together with the Thyiad women. The first of them are the work of Praxias, an Athenian and a pupil of Calamis, but the temple took some time to build, during which Praxias died. So the rest of the ornament in the pediments was carved by Androsthenes, like Praxias an Athenian by birth, but a pupil of Eucadmus. There are arms of gold on the architraves; the Athenians dedicated the shields from spoils taken at the battle of Marathon, and the Aetolians the arms, supposed to be Gallic, behind and on the left. Their shape is very like that of Persian wicker shields.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

8 results
1. Herodotus, Histories, 1.14, 1.183, 2.4, 2.47-2.49, 3.27-3.31, 8.121-8.122, 9.81 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.14. Thus the Mermnadae robbed the Heraclidae of the sovereignty and took it for themselves. Having gotten it, Gyges sent many offerings to Delphi : there are very many silver offerings of his there; and besides the silver, he dedicated a hoard of gold, among which six golden bowls are the offerings especially worthy of mention. ,These weigh thirty talents and stand in the treasury of the Corinthians; although in truth it is not the treasury of the Corinthian people but of Cypselus son of Eetion. This Gyges then was the first foreigner whom we know who placed offerings at Delphi after the king of Phrygia, Midas son of Gordias. ,For Midas too made an offering: namely, the royal seat on which he sat to give judgment, and a marvellous seat it is. It is set in the same place as the bowls of Gyges. This gold and the silver offered by Gyges is called by the Delphians “Gygian” after its dedicator. 1.183. In the Babylonian temple there is another shrine below, where there is a great golden image of Zeus, sitting at a great golden table, and the footstool and the chair are also gold; the gold of the whole was said by the Chaldeans to be eight hundred talents' weight. ,Outside the temple is a golden altar. There is also another great altar, on which are sacrificed the full-grown of the flocks; only nurslings may be sacrificed on the golden altar, but on the greater altar the Chaldeans even offer a thousand talents' weight of frankincense yearly, when they keep the festival of this god; and in the days of Cyrus there was still in this sacred enclosure a statue of solid gold twenty feet high. ,I myself have not seen it, but I relate what is told by the Chaldeans. Darius son of Hystaspes proposed to take this statue but dared not; Xerxes his son took it, and killed the priest who warned him not to move the statue. Such is the furniture of this temple, and there are many private offerings besides. 2.4. But as to human affairs, this was the account in which they all agreed: the Egyptians, they said, were the first men who reckoned by years and made the year consist of twelve divisions of the seasons. They discovered this from the stars (so they said). And their reckoning is, to my mind, a juster one than that of the Greeks; for the Greeks add an intercalary month every other year, so that the seasons agree; but the Egyptians, reckoning thirty days to each of the twelve months, add five days in every year over and above the total, and thus the completed circle of seasons is made to agree with the calendar. ,Furthermore, the Egyptians (they said) first used the names of twelve gods (which the Greeks afterwards borrowed from them); and it was they who first assigned to the several gods their altars and images and temples, and first carved figures on stone. Most of this they showed me in fact to be the case. The first human king of Egypt, they said, was Min. ,In his time all of Egypt except the Thebaic district was a marsh: all the country that we now see was then covered by water, north of lake Moeris, which is seven days' journey up the river from the sea. 2.47. Swine are held by the Egyptians to be unclean beasts. In the first place, if an Egyptian touches a hog in passing, he goes to the river and dips himself in it, clothed as he is; and in the second place, swineherds, though native born Egyptians, are alone of all men forbidden to enter any Egyptian temple; nor will any give a swineherd his daughter in marriage, nor take a wife from their women; but swineherds intermarry among themselves. ,Nor do the Egyptians think it right to sacrifice swine to any god except the Moon and Dionysus; to these, they sacrifice their swine at the same time, in the same season of full moon; then they eat the meat. The Egyptians have an explanation of why they sacrifice swine at this festival, yet abominate them at others; I know it, but it is not fitting that I relate it. ,But this is how they sacrifice swine to the Moon: the sacrificer lays the end of the tail and the spleen and the caul together and covers them up with all the fat that he finds around the belly, then consigns it all to the fire; as for the rest of the flesh, they eat it at the time of full moon when they sacrifice the victim; but they will not taste it on any other day. Poor men, with but slender means, mold swine out of dough, which they then take and sacrifice. 2.48. To Dionysus, on the evening of his festival, everyone offers a piglet which he kills before his door and then gives to the swineherd who has sold it, for him to take away. ,The rest of the festival of Dionysus is observed by the Egyptians much as it is by the Greeks, except for the dances; but in place of the phallus, they have invented the use of puppets two feet high moved by strings, the male member nodding and nearly as big as the rest of the body, which are carried about the villages by women; a flute-player goes ahead, the women follow behind singing of Dionysus. ,Why the male member is so large and is the only part of the body that moves, there is a sacred legend that explains. 2.49. Now then, it seems to me that Melampus son of Amytheon was not ignorant of but was familiar with this sacrifice. For Melampus was the one who taught the Greeks the name of Dionysus and the way of sacrificing to him and the phallic procession; he did not exactly unveil the subject taking all its details into consideration, for the teachers who came after him made a fuller revelation; but it was from him that the Greeks learned to bear the phallus along in honor of Dionysus, and they got their present practice from his teaching. ,I say, then, that Melampus acquired the prophetic art, being a discerning man, and that, besides many other things which he learned from Egypt, he also taught the Greeks things concerning Dionysus, altering few of them; for I will not say that what is done in Egypt in connection with the god and what is done among the Greeks originated independently: for they would then be of an Hellenic character and not recently introduced. ,Nor again will I say that the Egyptians took either this or any other custom from the Greeks. But I believe that Melampus learned the worship of Dionysus chiefly from Cadmus of Tyre and those who came with Cadmus from Phoenicia to the land now called Boeotia . 3.27. When Cambyses was back at Memphis, there appeared in Egypt that Apis whom the Greeks call Epaphus; at whose epiphany the Egyptians put on their best clothing and held a festival. ,Seeing the Egyptians so doing, Cambyses was fully persuaded that these signs of joy were for his misfortunes, and summoned the rulers of Memphis ; when they came before him, he asked them why the Egyptians behaved so at the moment he returned with so many of his army lost, though they had done nothing like it when he was before at Memphis . ,The rulers told him that a god, wont to appear after long intervals of time, had now appeared to them; and that all Egypt rejoiced and made holiday whenever he so appeared. At this Cambyses said that they lied, and he punished them with death for their lie. 3.28. Having put them to death, he next summoned the priests before him. When they gave him the same account, he said that if a tame god had come to the Egyptians he would know it; and with no more words he bade the priests bring Apis. So they went to fetch and bring him. ,This Apis, or Epaphus, is a calf born of a cow that can never conceive again. By what the Egyptians say, the cow is made pregt by a light from heaven, and thereafter gives birth to Apis. ,The marks of this calf called Apis are these: he is black, and has on his forehead a three-cornered white spot, and the likeness of an eagle on his back; the hairs of the tail are double, and there is a knot under the tongue. 3.29. When the priests led Apis in, Cambyses—for he was all but mad—drew his dagger and, meaning to stab the calf in the belly, stuck the thigh; then laughing he said to the priests: ,“Simpletons, are these your gods, creatures of flesh and blood that can feel weapons of iron? That is a god worthy of the Egyptians. But for you, you shall suffer for making me your laughing-stock.” So saying he bade those, whose business it was, to scourge the priests well, and to kill any other Egyptian whom they found holiday-making. ,So the Egyptian festival ended, and the priests were punished, and Apis lay in the temple and died of the wound in the thigh. When he was dead of the wound, the priests buried him without Cambyses' knowledge. 3.30. But Cambyses, the Egyptians say, owing to this wrongful act immediately went mad, although even before he had not been sensible. His first evil act was to destroy his full brother Smerdis, whom he had sent away from Egypt to Persia out of jealousy, because Smerdis alone could draw the bow brought from the Ethiopian by the Fish-eaters as far as two fingerbreadths, but no other Persian could draw it. ,Smerdis having gone to Persia, Cambyses saw in a dream a vision, in which it seemed to him that a messenger came from Persia and told him that Smerdis sitting on the royal throne touched heaven with his head. ,Fearing therefore for himself, lest his brother might slay him and so be king, he sent Prexaspes, the most trusted of his Persians, to Persia to kill him. Prexaspes went up to Susa and killed Smerdis; some say that he took Smerdis out hunting, others that he brought him to the Red Sea and there drowned him. 3.31. This, they say, was the first of Cambyses' evil acts; next, he destroyed his full sister, who had come with him to Egypt, and whom he had taken to wife. ,He married her in this way (for before this, it had by no means been customary for Persians to marry their sisters): Cambyses was infatuated with one of his sisters and when he wanted to marry her, because his intention was contrary to usage, he summoned the royal judges and inquired whether there were any law enjoining one, that so desired, to marry his sister. ,These royal judges are men chosen out from the Persians to function until they die or are detected in some injustice; it is they who decide suits in Persia and interpret the laws of the land; all matters are referred to them. ,These then replied to Cambyses with an answer which was both just and prudent, namely, that they could find no law enjoining a brother to marry his sister; but that they had found a law permitting the King of Persia to do whatever he liked. ,Thus, although they feared Cambyses they did not break the law, and, to save themselves from death for keeping it, they found another law abetting one who wished to marry sisters. ,So Cambyses married the object of his desire; yet not long afterwards he took another sister as well. It was the younger of these who had come with him to Egypt, and whom he now killed. 8.121. As for the Greeks, not being able to take Andros, they went to Carystus. When they had laid it waste, they returned to Salamis. First of all they set apart for the gods, among other first-fruits, three Phoenician triremes, one to be dedicated at the Isthmus, where it was till my lifetime, the second at Sunium, and the third for Ajax at Salamis where they were. ,After that, they divided the spoils and sent the first-fruits of it to Delphi; of this was made a man's image twelve cubits high, holding in his hand the figurehead of a ship. This stood in the same place as the golden statue of Alexander the Macedonian. 8.122. Having sent the first-fruits to Delphi, the Greeks, in the name of the country generally, made inquiry of the god whether the first-fruits which he had received were of full measure and whether he was content. To this he said that he was content with what he had received from all other Greeks, but not from the Aeginetans. From these he demanded the victor's prize for the sea-fight of Salamis. When the Aeginetans learned that, they dedicated three golden stars which are set on a bronze mast, in the angle, nearest to Croesus' bowl. 9.81. Having brought all the loot together, they set apart a tithe for the god of Delphi. From this was made and dedicated that tripod which rests upon the bronze three-headed serpent, nearest to the altar; another they set apart for the god of Olympia, from which was made and dedicated a bronze figure of Zeus, ten cubits high; and another for the god of the Isthmus, from which was fashioned a bronze Poseidon seven cubits high. When they had set all this apart, they divided what remained, and each received, according to his worth, concubines of the Persians and gold and silver, and all the rest of the stuff and the beasts of burden. ,How much was set apart and given to those who had fought best at Plataea, no man says. I think that they also received gifts, but tenfold of every kind, women, horses, talents, camels, and all other things also, was set apart and given to Pausanias.
2. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 2.13.4, 3.58.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.13.4. This did not include the uncoined gold and silver in public and private offerings, the sacred vessels for the processions and games, the Median spoils, and similar resources to the amount of five hundred talents. 3.58.4. Look at the sepulchres of your fathers, slain by the Medes and buried in our country, whom year by year we honored with garments and all other dues, and the first fruits of all that our land produced in their season, as friends from a friendly country and allies to our old companions in arms! Should you not decide aright, your conduct would be the very opposite to ours. Consider only:
3. Aeschines, Letters, 3.116 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4. Demosthenes, Orations, 22.13 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3.5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.5.2. διελθὼν δὲ Θρᾴκην καὶ τὴν Ἰνδικὴν ἅπασαν, στήλας ἐκεῖ στήσας 1 -- ἧκεν εἰς Θήβας, καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας ἠνάγκασε καταλιπούσας τὰς οἰκίας βακχεύειν ἐν τῷ Κιθαιρῶνι. Πενθεὺς δὲ γεννηθεὶς ἐξ Ἀγαυῆς Ἐχίονι, παρὰ Κάδμου εἰληφὼς τὴν βασιλείαν, διεκώλυε ταῦτα γίνεσθαι, καὶ παραγενόμενος εἰς Κιθαιρῶνα τῶν Βακχῶν κατάσκοπος ὑπὸ τῆς μητρὸς Ἀγαυῆς κατὰ μανίαν ἐμελίσθη· ἐνόμισε γὰρ αὐτὸν θηρίον εἶναι. δείξας δὲ Θηβαίοις ὅτι θεός ἐστιν, ἧκεν εἰς Ἄργος, κἀκεῖ 2 -- πάλιν οὐ τιμώντων αὐτὸν ἐξέμηνε τὰς γυναῖκας. αἱ δὲ ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσι τοὺς ἐπιμαστιδίους ἔχουσαι 3 -- παῖδας τὰς σάρκας αὐτῶν ἐσιτοῦντο.
6. Plutarch, Themistocles, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.1.2, 1.2.5, 1.4.6, 1.15.3, 1.31.6, 1.32.3-1.32.5, 2.20.4, 3.13.7, 4.31.4, 6.26.1, 7.21.6, 9.2.5-9.2.6, 10.4.3, 10.6.4, 10.10.1-10.10.8, 10.11.5, 10.15.1, 10.16.6, 10.18.7, 10.21.5, 10.32.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1.2. The Peiraeus was a parish from early times, though it was not a port before Themistocles became an archon of the Athenians. 493 B.C. Their port was Phalerum, for at this place the sea comes nearest to Athens, and from here men say that Menestheus set sail with his fleet for Troy, and before him Theseus, when he went to give satisfaction to Minos for the death of Androgeos. But when Themistocles became archon, since he thought that the Peiraeus was more conveniently situated for mariners, and had three harbors as against one at Phalerum, he made it the Athenian port. Even up to my time there were docks there, and near the largest harbor is the grave of Themistocles. For it is said that the Athenians repented of their treatment of Themistocles, and that his relations took up his bones and brought them from Magnesia . And the children of Themistocles certainly returned and set up in the Parthenon a painting, on which is a portrait of Themistocles. 1.2.5. One of the porticoes contains shrines of gods, and a gymnasium called that of Hermes. In it is the house of Pulytion, at which it is said that a mystic rite was performed by the most notable Athenians, parodying the Eleusinian mysteries. But in my time it was devoted to the worship of Dionysus. This Dionysus they call Melpomenus (Minstrel), on the same principle as they call Apollo Musegetes (Leader of the Muses). Here there are images of Athena Paeonia (Healer), of Zeus, of Mnemosyne (Memory) and of the Muses, an Apollo, the votive offering and work of Eubulides, and Acratus, a daemon attendant upon Apollo; it is only a face of him worked into the wall. After the precinct of Apollo is a building that contains earthen ware images, Amphictyon, king of Athens, feasting Dionysus and other gods. Here also is Pegasus of Eleutherae, who introduced the god to the Athenians. Herein he was helped by the oracle at Delphi, which called to mind that the god once dwelt in Athens in the days of Icarius. 1.4.6. They have spoils from the Gauls, and a painting which portrays their deed against them. The land they dwell in was, they say, in ancient times sacred to the Cabeiri, and they claim that they are themselves Arcadians, being of those who crossed into Asia with Telephus. of the wars that they have waged no account has been published to the world, except that they have accomplished three most notable achievements; the subjection of the coast region of Asia, the expulsion of the Gauls therefrom, and the exploit of Telephus against the followers of Agamemnon, at a time when the Greeks after missing Troy, were plundering the Meian plain thinking it Trojan territory. Now I will return from my digression. 1.15.3. At the end of the painting are those who fought at Marathon; the Boeotians of Plataea and the Attic contingent are coming to blows with the foreigners. In this place neither side has the better, but the center of the fighting shows the foreigners in flight and pushing one another into the morass, while at the end of the painting are the Phoenician ships, and the Greeks killing the foreigners who are scrambling into them. Here is also a portrait of the hero Marathon, after whom the plain is named, of Theseus represented as coming up from the under-world, of Athena and of Heracles. The Marathonians, according to their own account, were the first to regard Heracles as a god. of the fighters the most conspicuous figures in the painting are Callimachus, who had been elected commander-in-chief by the Athenians, Miltiades, one of the generals, and a hero called Echetlus, of whom I shall make mention later. 1.31.6. There is a parish called Acharnae, where they worship Apollo Agyieus (God of Streets) and Heracles, and there is an altar of Athena Health. And they call upon the name of Athena Horse-goddess and Dionysus Singer and Dionysus Ivy, saying that the plant ivy first appeared there. 1.32.3. Before turning to a description of the islands, I must again proceed with my account of the parishes. There is a parish called Marathon, equally distant from Athens and Carystus in Euboea . It was at this point in Attica that the foreigners landed, were defeated in battle, and lost some of their vessels as they were putting off from the land. 490 B.C. On the plain is the grave of the Athenians, and upon it are slabs giving the names of the killed according to their tribes; and there is another grave for the Boeotian Plataeans and for the slaves, for slaves fought then for the first time by the side of their masters. 1.32.4. here is also a separate monument to one man, Miltiades, the son of Cimon, although his end came later, after he had failed to take Paros and for this reason had been brought to trial by the Athenians. At Marathon every night you can hear horses neighing and men fighting. No one who has expressly set himself to behold this vision has ever got any good from it, but the spirits are not wroth with such as in ignorance chance to be spectators. The Marathonians worship both those who died in the fighting, calling them heroes, and secondly Marathon, from whom the parish derives its name, and then Heracles, saying that they were the first among the Greeks to acknowledge him as a god. 1.32.5. They say too that there chanced to be present in the battle a man of rustic appearance and dress. Having slaughtered many of the foreigners with a plough he was seen no more after the engagement. When the Athenians made enquiries at the oracle the god merely ordered them to honor Echetlaeus (He of the Plough-tail) as a hero. A trophy too of white marble has been erected. Although the Athenians assert that they buried the Persians, because in every case the divine law applies that a corpse should be laid under the earth, yet I could find no grave. There was neither mound nor other trace to be seen, as the dead were carried to a trench and thrown in anyhow. 2.20.4. The tomb near this they call that of the maenad Chorea, saying that she was one of the women who joined Dionysus in his expedition against Argos, and that Perseus, being victorious in the battle, put most of the women to the sword. To the rest they gave a common grave, but to Chorea they gave burial apart because of her high rank. 3.13.7. Opposite is what is called the Knoll, with a temple of Dionysus of the Knoll, by which is a precinct of the hero who they say guided Dionysus on the way to Sparta . To this hero sacrifices are offered before they are offered to the god by the daughters of Dionysus and the daughters of Leucippus. For the other eleven ladies who are named daughters of Dionysus there is held a footrace; this custom came to Sparta from Delphi . 4.31.4. On the road from Thuria towards Arcadia are the springs of the Pamisus, at which little children find cures. A road turns to the left from the springs, and after some forty stades is the city of the Messenians under Ithome . It is enclosed not only by Mount Ithome, but on the side towards the Pamisos by Mount Eva. The mountain is said to have obtained its name from the fact that the Bacchic cry of “Evoe” was first uttered here by Dionysus and his attendant women. 6.26.1. Between the market-place and the Menius is an old theater and a shrine of Dionysus. The image is the work of Praxiteles. of the gods the Eleans worship Dionysus with the greatest reverence, and they assert that the god attends their festival, the Thyia. The place where they hold the festival they name the Thyia is about eight stades from the city. Three pots are brought into the building by the priests and set down empty in the presence of the citizens and of any strangers who may chance to be in the country. The doors of the building are sealed by the priests themselves and by any others who may be so inclined. 7.21.6. Near to the theater there is a precinct sacred to a native lady. Here are images of Dionysus, equal in number to the ancient cities, and named after them Mesateus, Antheus and Aroeus. These images at the festival of Dionysus they bring into the sanctuary of the Dictator. This sanctuary is on the right of the road from the market-place to the sea-quarter of the city. 9.2.5. Roughly at the entrance into Plataea are the graves of those who fought against the Persians. of the Greeks generally there is a common tomb, but the Lacedaemonians and Athenians who fell have separate graves, on which are written elegiac verses by Simonides. Not far from the common tomb of the Greeks is an altar of Zeus, God of Freedom. This then is of bronze, but the altar and the image he made of white marble. 9.2.6. Even at the present day they hold every four years games called Eleutheria (of Freedom), in which great prizes are offered for running. The competitors run in armour before the altar. The trophy which the Greeks set up for the battle at Plataea stands about fifteen stades from the city. 10.4.3. The former passage, in which Homer speaks of the beautiful dancing-floors of Panopeus, I could not understand until I was taught by the women whom the Athenians call Thyiads. The Thyiads are Attic women, who with the Delphian women go to Parnassus every other year and celebrate orgies in honor of Dionysus. It is the custom for these Thyiads to hold dances at places, including Panopeus, along the road from Athens . The epithet Homer applies to Panopeus is thought to refer to the dance of the Thyiads. 10.6.4. Others maintain that Castalius, an aboriginal, had a daughter Thyia, who was the first to be priestess of Dionysus and celebrate orgies in honor of the god. It is said that later on men called after her Thyiads all women who rave in honor of Dionysus. At any rate they hold that Delphus was a son of Apollo and Thyia. Others say that his mother was Melaena, daughter of Cephisus. 10.10.1. On the base below the wooden horse is an inscription which says that the statues were dedicated from a tithe of the spoils taken in the engagement at Marathon. They represent Athena, Apollo, and Miltiades, one of the generals. of those called heroes there are Erechtheus, Cecrops, Pandion, Leos, Antiochus, son of Heracles by Meda, daughter of Phylas, as well as Aegeus and Acamas, one of the sons of Theseus. These heroes gave names, in obedience to a Delphic oracle, to tribes at Athens . Codrus however, the son of Melanthus, Theseus, and Neleus, these are not givers of names to tribes. 10.10.2. The statues enumerated were made by Pheidias, and really are a tithe of the spoils of the battle. But the statues of Antigonus, of his son Demetrius, and of Ptolemy the Egyptian, were sent to Delphi by the Athenians afterwards. The statue of the Egyptian they sent out of good-will; those of the Macedonians were sent because of the dread that they inspired. 10.10.3. Near the horse are also other votive offerings of the Argives, likenesses of the captains of those who with Polyneices made war on Thebes : Adrastus, the son of Talaus, Tydeus, son of Oeneus, the descendants of Proetus, namely, Capaneus, son of Hipponous, and Eteoclus, son of Iphis, Polyneices, and Hippomedon, son of the sister of Adrastus. Near is represented the chariot of Amphiaraus, and in it stands Baton, a relative of Amphiaraus who served as his charioteer. The last of them is Alitherses. 10.10.4. These are works of Hypatodorus and Aristogeiton, who made them, as the Argives themselves say, from the spoils of the victory which they and their Athenian allies won over the Lacedaemonians at Oenoe in Argive territory. 463-458 B.C From spoils of the same action, it seems to me, the Argives set up statues of those whom the Greeks call the Epigoni. For there stand statues of these also, Sthenelus, Alcmaeon, who I think was honored before Amphilochus on account of his age, Promachus also, Thersander, Aegialeus and Diomedes. Between Diomedes and Aegialeus is Euryalus. 10.10.5. Opposite them are other statues, dedicated by the Argives who helped the Thebans under Epaminondas to found Messene . The statues are of heroes: Danaus, the most powerful king of Argos, and Hypermnestra, for she alone of her sisters kept her hands undefiled. By her side is Lynceus also, and the whole family of them to Heracles, and further back still to Perseus. 10.10.6. The bronze horses and captive women dedicated by the Tarentines were made from spoils taken from the Messapians, a non-Greek people bordering on the territory of Tarentum, and are works of Ageladas the Argive . Tarentum is a colony of the Lacedaemonians, and its founder was Phalanthus, a Spartan. On setting out to found a colony Phalanthus received an oracle from Delphi, declaring that when he should feel rain under a cloudless sky (aethra), he would then win both a territory and a city. 10.10.7. At first he neither examined the oracle himself nor informed one of his interpreters, but came to Italy with his ships. But when, although he won victories over the barbarians, he succeeded neither in taking a city nor in making himself master of a territory, he called to mind the oracle, and thought that the god had foretold an impossibility. For never could rain fall from a clear and cloudless sky. When he was in despair, his wife, who had accompanied him from home, among other endearments placed her husband's head between her knees and began to pick out the lice. And it chanced that the wife, such was her affection, wept as she saw her husband's fortunes coming to nothing. 10.10.8. As her tears fell in showers, and she wetted the head of Phalanthus, he realized the meaning of the oracle, for his wife's name was Aethra. And so on that night he took from the barbarians Tarentum, the largest and most prosperous city on the coast. They say that Taras the hero was a son of Poseidon by a nymph of the country, and that after this hero were named both the city and the river. For the river, just like the city, is called Taras. 10.11.5. The Thebans have a treasury built from the spoils of war, and so have the Athenians. Whether the Cnidians built to commemorate a victory or to display their prosperity I do not know, but the Theban treasury was made from the spoils taken at the battle of Leuctra, and the Athenian treasury from those taken from the army that landed with Datis at Marathon. The inhabitants of Cleonae were, like the Athenians, afflicted with the plague, and obeying an oracle from Delphi sacrificed a he-goat to the sun while it was still rising. This put an end to the trouble, and so they sent a bronze he-goat to Apollo. The Syracusans have a treasury built from the spoils taken in the great Athenian disaster, the Potidaeans in Thrace built one to show their piety to the god. 10.15.1. A gilt statue of Phryne was made by Praxiteles, one of her lovers, but it was Phryne herself who dedicated the statue. The offerings next to Phryne include two images of Apollo, one dedicated from Persian spoils by the Epidaurians of Argolis, the other dedicated by the Megarians to commemorate a victory over the Athenians at Nisaea . The Plataeans have dedicated an ox, an offering made at the time when, in their own territory, they took part, along with the other Greeks, in the defence against Mardonius, the son of Gobryas. Then there are another two images of Apollo, one dedicated by the citizens of Heracleia on the Euxine, the other by the Amphictyons when they fined the Phocians for tilling the territory of the god. 10.16.6. The Euboeans of Carystus too set up in the sanctuary of Apollo a bronze ox, from spoils taken in the Persian war. The Carystians and the Plataeans dedicated oxen, I believe, because, having repulsed the barbarian, they had won a secure prosperity, and especially a land free to plough. The Aetolian nation, having subdued their neighbors the Acarians, sent statues of generals and images of Apollo and Artemis. 10.21.5. On this day the Attic contingent surpassed the other Greeks in courage. of the Athenians themselves the bravest was Cydias, a young man who had never before been in battle. He was killed by the Gauls, but his relatives dedicated his shield to Zeus God of Freedom, and the inscription ran:— Here hang I, yearning for the still youthful bloom of Cydias, The shield of a glorious man, an offering to Zeus. I was the very first through which at this battle he thrust his left arm, When the battle raged furiously against the Gaul . 10.32.7. But the Corycian cave exceeds in size those I have mentioned, and it is possible to make one's way through the greater part of it even without lights. The roof stands at a sufficient height from the floor, and water, rising in part from springs but still more dripping from the roof, has made clearly visible the marks of drops on the floor throughout the cave. The dwellers around Parnassus believe it to be sacred to the Corycian nymphs, and especially to Pan. From the Corycian cave it is difficult even for an active walker to reach the heights of Parnassus . The heights are above the clouds, and the Thyiad women rave there in honor of Dionysus and Apollo.
8. Aeschines, Or., 3.116



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acamas, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
acharnae, acharnian Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
aegeus, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
aeginetans Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 115
aetia prologue, hymns Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 198
ajax, hero of salamis Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
alcmaeonids Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
antiochus, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
aphrodite, pythios of delphi Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34, 115
apollo, travels Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179, 186
archive Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 186
ares, of egypt Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 221
argos, argive Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
artemis Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
athena, of egypt Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 221
athena, polias of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
athenians, dedications of Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34, 115
barbarians, in hymn 4 to delos Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 198
callimachus, on kings and kingship Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 198
carystians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 115
cecrops, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
chariot Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
choreia Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
codrus, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34, 115
coins, ptolemaic Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 198
cult, cultic acts for specific cults, the corresponding god or place Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
dedications, after marathon Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34, 115
dedications, after plataea Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 115
dedications, by non-greeks Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 115
delphi, delphian, delphic Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
delphi Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
delphi and delphians, dedications at Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34, 115
delphi and delphians, temple of apollo Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
delphic oracle, to gyges Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 115
delphic oracle, togreeks Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 115
dionysi, dionysoi, dionysoses Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
dionysos, dionysos aisymnetes Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
dionysos, dionysos auxitès Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
dionysos, dionysos kissos Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
dionysos, dionysos melpomenos Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
dionysos, dionysos patroos Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
dionysos, dionysos polites Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
dionysos Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
dionysus Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179, 186
echetlaeus, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
epidaurians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 115
epidēmia Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
epiphany Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
erechtheus, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
exēgētai Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
firstfruits Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
galatians, as new titans Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 198
galatians, revolt of, in egypt Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 198
gyges of lydia Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 115
heracles, of marathon Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
heraia Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
hero Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
heroes and heroines, of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34, 115
heroes and heroines, of athens (eponymous) Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34, 115
heroine Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
hippothoön, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
horses Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
hymn '4 to delos, and kingship ideology" Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 198
hymn 6 to demeter, kingship ideology Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 198
hymns Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
isis, goddess of egypt Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 221
kingship ideology Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 198
leos, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
leto Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
maenads, maenadic, maenadism, rites/cults Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
marathon, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
megara, megarean Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
midas of phrygia Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 115
miltiades the younger of athens, memorials of Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34, 115
muses Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
myth, mythical Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
neleus, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34, 115
oenus, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
oracle, oracular, oracle of delphi Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
oracle, oracular Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
oracle Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 186
orgia ὄργια Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
osiris, god of egypt Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 221
paean Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
pandion, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34
patras Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
pediment Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179, 186
peparethians Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 115
phidias of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34, 115
philodamus Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
phocis Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 186
plataeans Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34, 115
plutarch, de e apud delphos Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 186
plutarch Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 186
polis Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
praise Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
ptolemy ii philadelphus, in hymn to delos Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 198
road Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
sanctuary Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410; Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
sculpture Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
seasons Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179, 186
shield, as trophy Acosta-Hughes Lehnus and Stephens, Brill's Companion to Callimachus (2011) 198
sparta, spartan Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
spartiate Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
spring Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
statue Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179, 186
temenos Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
temple Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
theater, theatrical' Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
theoxenia Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
theseus, hero of athens Mikalson, Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars (2003) 34, 115
thracia, thracian Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
thyia Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
thyiads, thyiades Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 410
thyiads Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179, 186
travel Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179, 186
tripod Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179
visual culture Gagne, Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece (2021), 179