Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9048
Papyri, P.Yadin, 37
NaN


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

18 results
1. Mishnah, Bava Batra, 8.7, 10.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.7. If a man writes over his property to his son, he must write, “From today and after my death”, according to Rabbi Judah. Rabbi Yose says, “He need not do so.” If a man writes over his property to his son to be his after his death, the father cannot sell it since it is written over to the son, and the son cannot sell it since it is in the possession of the father. If his father sold the property, it is sold [only] until he dies; if the son sold the property, the buyer has no claim until the father dies. The father harvests the crops and gives them to whomever he wishes, and what he has left harvested belongs to [all] his heirs. If he left elder sons and younger sons, the elder sons may not take care of themselves [from the estate] at the expense of the younger sons, nor may the younger sons claim maintece at the cost of the elder sons, rather they all share alike. If the elder sons married [at the expense of the estate] so too the younger sons may marry [at the expense of the estate]. If the younger sons said, “We will marry in the way you married”, they do not listen to them, for what their father gave them, he has given." 10.6. If a man’s debt document was erased, he must have witnesses testify with regards to the loan, and come before the court to make this attestation: “So and so, the son of so and so, his debt document was erased on such and such a day, and so and so and so and so are his witnesses.” If a man had paid part of his debt, Rabbi Judah says: “He should exchange the debt document for a new one.” Rabbi Yose says: “He should write a receipt.” Rabbi Judah said: “It turns out that this one (the debtor) will have to guard his receipt from mice.” Rabbi Yose said to him: “That’s good for him, as long as the rights of the other (the creditor) have not been damaged."
2. Mishnah, Eduyot, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.1. Rabbi Judah ben Bava testified concerning five things:That women who are minors are made to declare an annulment of their marriage; That a woman is allowed to re-marry on the evidence of one witness; That a rooster was stoned in Jerusalem because it had killed a human being; And about wine forty days old, that it was used as a libation on the altar; And about the morning tamid offering, that it is offered at the fourth hour."
3. Mishnah, Gittin, 9.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.3. The body of the get is: “Behold you are permitted to any man.” Rabbi Judah says: [he must add] “And this shall be to you from me a writ of divorce and a letter of release and a bill of dismissal, with which you may go and marry any man that you wish.” The body of a writ of emancipation is: “Behold you are a free woman”, “Behold you belong to yourself.”"
4. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 1.5, 5.1, 6.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. He who eats with his father-in-law in Judea without the presence of witnesses cannot raise a claim of non-virginity against his wife because he has been alone with her. It is the same whether [the woman is] an Israelite widow or a priestly widow her kethubah is a maneh. The court of the priests collected for a virgin four hundred zuz, and the sages did not protest." 5.1. Although [the Sages] have said: a virgin collects two hundred and a widow one maneh, if he wishes to add, even a hundred maneh, he may do so.After betrothal [but before marriage], a virgin collects two hundred zuz and a widow only one maneh, for the man wrote her [the additional amount] in order to marry her. If she was widowed or divorced, either after betrothal or after marriage, she is entitled to collect the entire amount. Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah says: [a woman widowed or divorced] after marriage receives the entire amount; Rabbi Judah says: if he wishes he may write for a virgin a document for two hundred zuz and she writes “I have received from you a maneh”, or for a widow [he may write a document for] a maneh and she writes, “I have received from you fifty zuz”. Rabbi Meir says: Any man who gives a virgin less than two hundred zuz or a widow less than a maneh is engaging in licentious sex." 6.6. If an orphan was given in marriage by her mother or her brothers with her consent and they gave her a dowry of a hundred, or fifty zuz, she may, when she reaches majority age, legally claim from them the amount that was due to her. Rabbi Judah says: if the father had given his first daughter in marriage, the second must receive as much as the first. The Sages say: sometimes a man is poor and becomes rich or rich and becomes poor. Rather the estate should evaluated and [the appropriate amount] given to her."
5. Mishnah, Kiddushin, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6. Mishnah, Sukkah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. Rabbi Ishmael says: three hadasim, two aravot, one lulav and one etrog, even if two [of the hadasim] have their tips broken off and [only] one is whole. Rabbi Tarfon says: even if all three have their tips broken off. Rabbi Akiva says: just as there is one lulav and one etrog, so too only one hadas and one aravah."
7. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 13.45 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Tosefta, Ketuvot, 1.4, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.4. An adult woman and a woman incapable of having children (aylonit)—their ketubah is 200. If she is married on the presumption that she was fit to bear children but it turned out that she was incapable, she has no ketubah. If he wants to uphold it, he gives a ketubah of 100 zuz." 4.13. Explained Rabbi Yose Ha-Gelili: Anywhere they write (sic!, based on Ehrfurt) a loan into a ketubah (i.e. a combined document with aspects that are a loan, e.g. in the dowry, and other aspects that are a normal ketubah), he (sic!) can collect the lone but she (sic!, Ehrfurt has גובה in both instances) can't collect the ketubah. Anywhere they double the ketubah, she can only collect half. (This is my explanation—against everyone I have found!—trying to account for the simple meanings of the words in the Ehrfurt manuscript, which Robert Brody has shown to probably be the best text, but there is a LOT of confusion about this halakhah. See Lieberman and traditional commentators on Baba Metzia 104b for more details)."
9. Gaius, Instiutiones, 3.92 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

82a. והא כי אתא ר' אבין א"ר יוחנן אחד אילן הנוטה לתוך שדה חבירו ואחד אילן הסמוך למצר מביא וקורא שעל מנת כן הנחיל יהושע לישראל את הארץ,אלא מאן תנא עשרה תנאין שהתנה יהושע ר' יהושע בן לוי הוא רב גביהה מבי כתיל מתני לה בהדיא ר' תנחום ור' ברייס אמרי משום זקן אחד ומנו ר' יהושע בן לוי עשרה תנאין התנה יהושע:,עשרה תקנות תיקן עזרא שקורין במנחה בשבת וקורין בשני ובחמישי ודנין בשני ובחמישי ומכבסים בחמישי בשבת ואוכלין שום בערב שבת ושתהא אשה משכמת ואופה ושתהא אשה חוגרת בסינר ושתהא אשה חופפת וטובלת ושיהו רוכלין מחזירין בעיירות ותיקן טבילה לבעלי קריין:,שיהו קוראין במנחה בשבת משום יושבי קרנות:,ושיהו קוראין בשני ובחמישי עזרא תיקן והא מעיקרא הוה מיתקנא דתניא (שמות טו, כב) וילכו שלשת ימים במדבר ולא מצאו מים דורשי רשומות אמרו אין מים אלא תורה שנאמר (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים,כיון שהלכו שלשת ימים בלא תורה נלאו עמדו נביאים שביניהם ותיקנו להם שיהו קורין בשבת ומפסיקין באחד בשבת וקורין בשני ומפסיקין שלישי ורביעי וקורין בחמישי ומפסיקין ערב שבת כדי שלא ילינו ג' ימים בלא תורה,מעיקרא תקנו חד גברא תלתא פסוקי אי נמי תלתא גברי תלתא פסוקי כנגד כהנים לוים וישראלים אתא הוא תיקן תלתא גברי ועשרה פסוקי כנגד עשרה בטלנין:,ודנין בשני ובחמישי דשכיחי דאתו למקרא בסיפרא:,ושיהו מכבסין בחמישי בשבת משום כבוד שבת:,ושיהו אוכלין שום בע"ש משום עונה דכתיב (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו וא"ר יהודה ואיתימא רב נחמן ואיתימא רב כהנא ואיתימא ר' יוחנן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש,ת"ר חמשה דברים נאמרו בשום משביע ומשחין ומצהיל פנים ומרבה הזרע והורג כנים שבבני מעיים וי"א מכניס אהבה ומוציא את הקנאה:,ושתהא אשה משכמת ואופה כדי שתהא פת מצויה לעניים:,ושתהא אשה חוגרת בסינר משום צניעותא:,ושתהא אשה חופפת וטובלת דאורייתא היא,דתניא (ויקרא יד, ט) ורחץ את בשרו במים שלא יהא דבר חוצץ בין בשרו למים את בשרו את הטפל לבשרו ומאי ניהו שער,אמרי דאורייתא לעיוני דלמא מיקטר אי נמי מאוס מידי משום חציצה 82a. The Gemara further questions the number of Joshua’s stipulations: bBut when Rabbi Avin camefrom Eretz Yisrael he said that bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bboth a tree that leans into the field of another and a tree that is close to a boundarywith another field, the owner of the tree bbringsthe first fruits of the tree band recitesthe accompanying declaration, as described in Deuteronomy 26:5–10, basit was bon this conditionthat bJoshua apportioned EretzYisrael bto the Jewish people.This is an additional stipulation by Joshua, which means that there are more than ten.,The Gemara answers: bRather, whois the one who btaughtthe ibaraitathat deals with the bten conditions that Joshua stipulated? It is Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,an iamora /i. Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥa, another iamora /i, can disagree with it. bRav Geviha from Bei Katil teachesthis bexplicitlyin his version of the ibaraita /i: bRabbi Tanḥum and Rabbi Berayes say in the name of a certain elder, and who is thatelder? It is bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Joshua stipulated ten conditions. /b,§ The Sages taught that bEzrathe Scribe binstituted ten ordices:He instituted bthatcommunities breadthe Torah bon Shabbat in the afternoon; and theyalso breadthe Torah bonevery bMonday and Thursday; andthe courts convene and bjudgeevery bMonday and Thursday; and one does laundry on Thursday; and one eats garlic on Shabbat eve. AndEzra further instituted bthat a woman should rise early and bakebread on those days when she wants to bake; band that a woman should don a breechcloth; and that a woman shouldfirst bcombher hair bandonly then bimmersein a ritual bath after being ritually impure; band that peddlersof cosmetics and perfumes bshould travel around throughall bthe towns. AndEzra further binstitutedthe requirement of bimmersion for those who experienced a seminal emission. /b,The Gemara analyzes these ordices, the first of which is bthatcommunities bshall readthe Torah bon Shabbat afternoon.This Gemara explains that this ordice was instituted bdue to those who sitidly on street bcorners,who do not attend the synagogue during the week.,The Gemara discusses the second of Ezra’s ordices: bAnd that they should readthe Torah bonevery bMonday and Thursday.The Gemara asks: bDid Ezra institutethis practice? bBut it was instituted from the beginning,i.e., long before his time. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “And Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; band they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water”(Exodus 15:22). bThose who interpret versesmetaphorically bsaidthat bwaterhere is referring to bnothing other than Torah, as it is statedmetaphorically, concerning those who desire wisdom: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1).,The ibaraitacontinues: The verse means that bsincethe Jews btraveled for three days withouthearing any bTorah they became weary,and therefore the bprophets among them arose and instituted for them that they should readfrom the Torah each bShabbat, and pauseon bSunday, and readagain on bMonday, and pauseon bTuesday and Wednesday, and readagain on bThursday, and pauseon bShabbat eve, so they would not tarry three days withouthearing the bTorah.Evidently this practice predates Ezra.,The Gemara answers: bInitially they institutedthat bone manread bthree verses;or balternatively,that bthree menread bthree verses.Either way, the number three bcorresponds tothe three types of Jews: bPriests, Levites, and Israelites.Ezra later bcameand binstitutedthat bthree menalways read, bandthat bten versesaltogether be read by them, bcorresponding to the ten idlersin a city, i.e., the ten men who are paid to spend their time dealing with synagogue and communal matters.,The next ordice of Ezra is: bAndthe courts convene and bjudgeevery bMonday and Thursday.The Gemara explains that the reason for this ordice is bthatmany people are bfoundin a city on these days, bas they comefrom the countryside bfor the reading of theholy bbook,the Torah, which is performed on Mondays and Thursdays, as stated above.,The ibaraitateaches: bAnd that one should do laundry on Thursday.This was instituted bdue tothe need to have clean garments in bdeference to Shabbat. /b,The Gemara explains the next listed ordice: bAnd that one should eat garlic Shabbat eve.This is bdue tothe fact that garlic enhances sexual potency, and Friday night is an appropriate time for bconjugal relations. As it is writtenconcerning the righteous: “And he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water, bwho brings forth his fruit in his season”(Psalms 1:3); band Rabbi Yehuda says, and some sayit was bRav Naḥman, and some sayit was bRav Kahana, and some sayit was bRabbi Yoḥawho said: bThisis referring to bone who engages in sexual intercourse every Shabbat eve. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat bfive matters were stated with regard to garlic: It satisfies; it warmsthe body; bit causesone’s bcountece to shine; it increasesone’s bsperm, and it kills lice that are in the intestines. And some saythat it also binstills loveinto those who eat it band removes jealousyfrom them.,The next ordice is: bAnd that a woman should rise early and bakebread on those days when she bakes. This Gemara explains that this was instituted bso that bread should be available for poor people,who go begging for bread in the mornings.,The ibaraitafurther teaches: bAnd that a woman should don a breechcloth [ isinar /i].This ordice was instituted bdue toreasons of bmodesty. /b,The ibaraitaadds: bAnd that a woman shouldfirst bcombher hair bandonly then bimmersein a ritual bath. This is to ensure that there is no dirt or other substance in the hair that would invalidate the immersion. The Gemara questions this: bThis isrequired bby Torah law,Ezra did not institute this., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i, concerning a verse that discusses one who must undergo ritual immersion: b“And he shall bathe his flesh [ iet besaro /i] in water”(Leviticus 14:9). This verse teaches bthat no substance should interpose between his flesh and the water.When the verse states this in the expanded form of b“ iethis flesh,”using the term “ iet /i,” this teaches that the water must come into contact even with bthat which is subordinate to his flesh. And what is that?It is one’s bhair.Accordingly, the Torah itself states that there may not be any interposing substance in the hair at the time of immersion. What, then, did Ezra add?,The Sages bsayin response: bBy Torah lawone is required bto inspecthis or her hair before immersion, as bperhapssome hairs are bknottedtogether, preventing contact with water at that spot, borperhaps there is some brepulsive substancein his hair. One must perform this inspection bbecausethese would constitute ban interposition. /b
11. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12a. אמר רבה זאת אומרת כנסה בחזקת בתולה ונמצאת בעולה יש לה כתובה מנה רב אשי אמר בעלמא לעולם אימא לך לית לה כלל ושאני הכא שהרי כנסה ראשון,וניחוש שמא תחתיו זינתה אמר רב שרביא כגון שקידש ובעל לאלתר,ואיכא דמתני לה אמתניתין בתולה אלמנה גרושה חלוצה מן הנישואין כתובתן מנה ואין להן טענת בתולין בתולה מן הנישואין היכי משכחת לה כגון שנכנסה לחופה ולא נבעלה,אמר רבה זאת אומרת כנסה בחזקת בתולה ונמצאת בעולה כתובתה מנה רב אשי אמר לעולם אימא לך בעלמא לית לה כלל ושאני הכא שהרי נכנסה לחופה,וליחוש שמא תחתיו זינתה אמר רב שרביא כגון שקידש ובעל לאלתר,מאן דמתני לה אברייתא כל שכן אמתניתין ומאן דמתני לה אמתני' אבל אברייתא לא משום דמצי אמר לה אנא אעדים סמכי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האוכל אצל חמיו ביהודה שלא בעדים אינו יכול לטעון טענת בתולים מפני שמתייחד עמה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מדקתני האוכל מכלל דאיכא דוכתא ביהודה נמי דלא אכיל אמר אביי ש"מ ביהודה נמי מקומות מקומות יש כדתניא א"ר יהודה ביהודה בראשונה היו מייחדין את החתן ואת הכלה שעה אחת קודם כניסתן לחופה כדי שיהא לבו גס בה ובגליל לא היו עושין כן,ביהודה בראשונה היו מעמידין להם שני שושבינין אחד לו ואחד לה כדי למשמש את החתן ואת הכלה בשעת כניסתן לחופה ובגליל לא היו עושין כן,ביהודה בראשונה היו שושבינין ישנים בבית שחתן וכלה ישנים בה ובגליל לא היו עושין כן,וכל שלא נהג כמנהג הזה אינו יכול לטעון טענת בתולים אהייא אילימא ארישא כל שנהג מיבעי ליה,אלא אסיפא כל שלא מושמש מיבעי ליה,אמר אביי לעולם ארישא ותני כל שנהג אמר ליה רבא והא כל שלא נהג קתני אלא אמר רבא הכי קאמר כל שלא נהג מנהג גליל בגליל אלא מנהג יהודה בגליל אינו יכול לטעון טענת בתולים רב אשי אמר לעולם אסיפא ותני כל שלא מושמש:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אחת אלמנת ישראל ואחת אלמנת כהנים כתובתה מנה בית דין של כהנים היו גובין לבתולה ארבע מאות זוז ולא מיחו בידם חכמים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא ואלמנת כהנים כתובתה מאתים והאנן תנן אחת אלמנת ישראל ואחת אלמנת כהנים כתובתן מנה,אמר רב אשי שתי תקנות הוו מעיקרא תקינו לבתולה ארבע מאות זוז ולאלמנה מנה 12a. bRabba said: That is to say,if bone marrieda woman bwith the presumptive status of a virgin,as there were witnesses that she did not engage in intercourse, band she was foundto be ba non-virgin, she isentitled to ba marriage contract of one hundred dinars.The Gemara rejects the proof. bRav Ashi said: In general, actually, Iwould bsay to youthat in that case bshe does notreceive a marriage contract bat all,as it is a mistaken transaction. bBut here it is different,and she does not totally lose her marriage contract, bbecause the firsthusband bbrought her intohis house. Therefore, the second husband should have considered that a woman who entered her husband’s home is no longer a virgin.,The Gemara asks: bAndsince there are witnesses that she did not engage in intercourse with the first husband, blet us be concerned that perhaps she committed adulteryafter betrothal, bwhile underthe jurisdiction of the second husband, and rule that she is forbidden to him due to suspicion of adultery and is not entitled to a marriage contract at all. bRav Sherevya said:The ibaraitais referring to a case bwhere he betrothedher band engaged in intercourse immediately.Therefore, there was no opportunity to engage in adultery between her betrothal and her marriage to the second husband., bOthers taught thisstatement of Rabba bwith regard to the mishna:Concerning ba virginwho is ba widow, a divorcée,or ba iḥalutza /iwho achieved that status bfroma state of bmarriage,for all these women btheir marriage contract is one hundred dinars, and they are not subjectto ba claimconcerning their bvirginity.The Gemara asks: bHow can you find a virgin froma state of bmarriage?It is in a case bwhere she entered the wedding canopy and did not engage in intercourse. /b, bRabba said: That is to say,if bone marrieda woman bwith the presumptive status of a virgin and she was foundto be ba non-virgin, her marriage contract is one hundred dinars.The Gemara rejects the proof. bRav Ashi said: In general, actually, Iwould bsay to youthat bin general, she does notreceive a marriage contract bat all,as it is a mistaken transaction. bBut here it is different,and she does not totally lose her marriage contract, bbecause she entered the wedding canopy.Therefore, the second husband should have considered that a woman who entered her husband’s home is no longer a virgin.,The Gemara asks: bAnd let us be concerned that perhaps she committed adulteryafter betrothal, bwhile underthe jurisdiction of the second husband. bRav Sherevya said:The ibaraitais referring to a case bwhere he betrothedher band engaged in intercourse immediately.Therefore, there was no opportunity to engage in adultery between her betrothal and her marriage to the second husband.,The Gemara notes: bThe one who taughtthe exchange between Rabba and Rav Ashi bwith regard to the ibaraita /i,where there is explicit testimony that she did not engage in intercourse with the first husband and nevertheless no proof can be brought that if he discovers that she is not a virgin she receives a marriage contract of one hundred dinars, ball the more sowould he say that the same is true bwith regard to the mishna.And bthe one who taughtthe exchange bwith regard to the mishna, however,would bnotsay the same bwith regard to the ibaraita /i, due tothe fact bthatthe husband could bsay to her: I relied on witnesses.Therefore, proof can be brought from the ibaraitathat if he discovered that she is not a virgin, she receives a marriage contract of one hundred dinars., strongMISHNA: /strong A man bwho eats atthe house of bhis father-in-law in Judeaafter betrothal and bwith-out witnessesto attest to the fact that he was not alone with his betrothed bis unable to make a claim concerning virginityafter marriage bbecausein accordance with the custom in Judea, the assumption is bthat he secluded himself with her,and the concern is that it was he who engaged in intercourse with her., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara infers: bFromthe fact bthatthe mishna bteachesthe ihalakhaemploying the phrase: A man bwho eats, by inferenceone may conclude bthat there is also a place in Judea wherethe groom bdoes not eatat the house of his father-in-law, and does not enter into seclusion with his betrothed. bAbaye said: Conclude from it that in Judea too there aredifferent bplaceswith different customs, bas it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda said: In Judea, at first they would seclude the groom and bridetogether bfor a brief period before their entry into the wedding canopy, so that he wouldgrow baccustomed to hercompanionship in order to ease the awkwardness when they would consummate the marriage. bAnd in the Galilee they did not do so. /b,The ibaraitacontinues. bIn Judea, at first they would appoint for them two groomsmen [ ishushvinin /i], one for him and one for her, in order to examine the groom and the bride at the time of their entry into the wedding canopyand thereafter, to ensure that neither would engage in deception with regard to the presence or absence of blood from the rupture of the hymen. bAnd in the Galilee they would not do so.As the custom of appointing groomsmen would be relevant only in a case where the groom and the bride had not been together in seclusion prior to marriage, this is apparently a custom in Judea different from the first custom cited in the mishna, where they would enter into seclusion prior to marriage.,The ibaraitacontinues. bIn Judea, at first the groomsmen would sleep in the house in which the groom and bride sleep,in order to examine the sheet on which the marriage was consummated immediately following intercourse. This was in order to ensure that the groom would not attempt to obscure the blood of the rupture of the hymen and claim that the bride was not a virgin. bAnd in the Galilee they would not do so. /b,The ibaraitaconcludes: bAnd anyone who did not conducthimself bin accordance with this custom cannot make a claim concerning virginityagainst the bride. The Gemara asks: bConcerning whichcase in the ibaraitawas this principle stated? bIf we sayit is bconcerning the first clauseof the ibaraita /i, regarding the custom to seclude the couple prior to marriage, in that case, the phrase: bAnyone who conductedhimself in accordance with this custom cannot make a claim concerning virginity, is what bit needed to say,due to the concern that perhaps they had sexual relations before the marriage., bRather,it is bconcerning the latter clauseof the ibaraita /i: They would appoint for them two groomsmen to examine them, that the principle was stated. In that case, the phrase: bAnyone who was not examinedby the groomsmen, is what bit neededto say, as it is dependent on the family of the bride, and not the phrase: Anyone who did not conduct himself in accordance with this custom, which indicates that it depends on him., bAbaye said: Actually,the principle is stated bconcerning the first clause; andemend the ibaraita band teach: Anyone who conductedhimself in accordance with this custom. bRava said to him: But isn’t it teachingexplicitly: bAnyone who did not conducthimself in accordance with this custom? One should not corrupt a ibaraitadue to a difficulty that arose in understanding it. bRather, Rava saidthat bthis is whatthe ibaraita bis saying: Anyone who did not practice the custom of the Galilee in the Galilee, butinstead observed bthe custom of Judea in the Galilee, cannot make a claim concerning virginityagainst the bride. bRav Ashi said: Actually,this principle could be applied bconcerning the latter clause, and teach: Anyone who was not examined.When it said in the ibaraita /i: Anyone who did not conduct himself in accordance with this custom, it is referring to the custom of being examined., strongMISHNA: /strong For bboth a widowwho is ban Israelite woman and a widowwho is the daughter bof priests, her marriage contract is one hundred dinars. A court of priests would collecta marriage contract of bfour hundred dinars for a virgindaughter of a priest, twice the sum of the standard marriage contract for a virgin, band the Sages did not reprimand them. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong A Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bAndfor ba widowwho is the daughter bof priests, her marriage contract is two hundreddinars. The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t we learnin the mishna: For bboth a widowwho is ban Israelite woman and a widowwho is the daughter bof priests, their marriage contract is one hundred dinars? /b, bRav Ashi said: There were two ordicesinstituted: bInitially, thecourt of priests binstituted for a virgindaughter of a priest a marriage contract of bfour hundred dinars, and for a widow,a marriage contract of bone hundred dinars. /b
12. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52a. ריחני, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big תינוקת שהביאה שתי שערות או חולצת או מתיבמת וחייבת בכל מצות האמורות בתורה,וכן תינוק שהביא שתי שערות חייב בכל מצות האמורות בתורה וראוי להיות בן סורר ומורה משיביא שתי שערות עד שיקיף זקן,התחתון ולא העליון אלא שדברו חכמים בלשון נקיה,תינוקת שהביאה שתי שערות אינה יכולה למאן רבי יהודה אומר עד שירבה השחור, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big וכיון דתנן חייבת בכל מצות האמורות בתורה או חולצת או מתיבמת למה לי,לאפוקי מדרבי יוסי דאמר איש כתוב בפרשה אבל אשה בין גדולה ובין קטנה קמ"ל דאי אייתי שתי שערות אין אי לא לא מאי טעמא אשה כאיש,וכיון דתנא וכן התינוק שהביא ב' שערות חייב בכל המצות האמורות בתורה ל"ל,וכי תימא משום דקבעי למתני וראוי להיות בן סורר ומורה תנינא חדא זימנא אימתי הוא בן סורר ומורה משיביא שתי שערות ועד שיקיף זקן התחתון ולא העליון אלא שדברו חכמים בלשון נקיה,אין ה"נ אלא איידי דפריש מילי דתינוקת קמפרש נמי מילי דתינוק,תינוקת שהביאה כו' א"ר אבהו א"ר אלעזר הלכה כרבי יהודה,ומודה רבי יהודה שאם נבעלה לאחר שהביאה שתי שערות שוב אינה יכולה למאן,חברוהי דרב כהנא סבור למעבד עובדא כרבי יהודה ואע"ג דנבעלה,אמר להו רב כהנא לא כך היה מעשה בבתו של רבי ישמעאל שבאת לבית המדרש למאן ובנה מורכב לה על כתפה ואותו היום הוזכרו דבריו של רבי ישמעאל בבית המדרש ובכתה בכייה גדולה בבית המדרש,אמרו דבר שאמר אותו צדיק יכשל בו זרעו,דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל משום רבי ישמעאל (במדבר ה, יג) והיא לא נתפשה אסורה הא נתפשה מותרת ויש לך אחרת שאע"פ שלא נתפשה מותרת ואיזו זו שקדושיה קדושי טעות שאע"פ שבנה מורכב על כתפה ממאנת והולכת לה,ונמנו וגמרו עד מתי הבת ממאנת עד שתביא שתי שערות פרוש ולא עבוד עובדא,רבי יצחק ותלמידי דרבי חנינא עבוד עובדא כרבי יהודה ואע"ג דנבעלה אזל רב שמן בר אבא אמרה קמיה דר' יוחנן אזל רבי יוחנן אמרה קמיה דרבי יהודה נשיאה שדר בלשא ואפקוה,אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא לא שירבה השחור ממש אלא כדי שיהיו שתי שערות שוכבות ונראות כמי שירבה השחור על הלבן רבא אמר שתי שערות המקיפות משפה לשפה,א"ר חלבו אמר רב הונא שתי שערות שאמרו צריך שיהא בעיקרן גומות רב מלכיו אמר רב אדא בר אהבה גומות אע"פ שאין שערות,אמר רב חנינא בריה דרב איקא שפוד שפחות וגומות רב מלכיו בלורית אפר מקלה וגבינה רב מלכיא,רב פפא אמר מתני' ומתניתא רב מלכיא שמעתתא רב מלכיו וסימנא מתניתא מלכתא,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו שפחות,אמר רב אשי אמר לי מר זוטרא קשה בה רבי חנינא מסורא לא לישתמיט תנא ואשמועי' גומות אי אשמועינן גומות ה"א עד שיהו שתי שערות בשתי גומות קמ"ל דאפילו שתי שערות בגומא אחת,ומי איכא כה"ג והכתיב (איוב ט, יז) אשר בשערה ישופני והרבה פצעי חנם ואמר רבא איוב בסערה חירף בסערה השיבוהו בסערה חירף אמר לפניו רבש"ע שמא רוח סערה עברה לפניך ונתחלפה לך בין איוב לאויב בסערה השיבוהו {איוב לח } ויען ה' את 52a. fragrant bspices. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bA young girl whoreached the age of puberty and bgrew twopubic bhairsis an adult. If her childless husband dies, bshe either performs iḥalitza /iand is thereby permitted to marry anyone, bor enters into levirate marriagewith her husband’s brother. bAndfurthermore, such a girl is bobligated tofulfill ball the mitzvot stated in the Torahin which women are obligated., bAnd likewise, a young boy whoreached the age of puberty and bgrew twopubic bhairsis an adult and is bobligated tofulfill ball the mitzvot stated in the Torah. And he is fit to bedeclared ba stubborn and rebellious sonif he performs the actions that warrant that designation, bfrom when he grows twopubic bhairs untilhis bbeard will form a circle.During that period, although he is an adult and punishable for his actions, he is incapable of fathering a child. Consequently, as he is a son and not a father, he can be designated a stubborn and rebellious son.,The mishna explains that the reference is to bthe lower,pubic, hair, band not to the upper,facial, hair. bButthe term beard is used, despite its being subject to misinterpretation, due to the fact bthat the Sages spoke euphemistically. /b, bA young girl whoreached the age of puberty and bgrew twopubic bhairs can nolonger bperform refusalto end a marriage with a husband to whom she was married as a minor by her mother and brothers after her father’s death. bRabbi Yehuda says:She retains the right to perform refusal buntilthe pubic hair will grow to the extent bthat the blackhair bwill be preponderantin the pubic area., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara raises an objection: bBut since we learnedin the mishna that a young girl who reached the age of puberty and grew two pubic hairs is considered an adult and is bobligated tofulfill ball the mitzvot stated in the Torah, why do Ineed the mishna to also teach: bShe either performs iḥalitzaor enters into levirate marriage.These specific examples are included in the broader statement.,The Gemara explains: This emphasis serves bto excludethe opinion bof Rabbi Yosei, who said: Man,i.e., an adult man, bis written in the passageof iḥalitza /i: “And if the man does not wish to take his brother’s wife” (Deuteronomy 25:7). bButwith regard to the bwoman, whethershe is ban adult or whethershe is ba minor,she can be released by iḥalitza /i, as the Torah does not specify her age. The mishna bteaches us thatthe ihalakhais not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. Rather, bifshe bgrew twopubic bhairs,then byes,she can perform iḥalitza /i, whereas bifshe did bnotgrow two hairs, she may bnotperform iḥalitzaor enter into levirate marriage. bWhat is the reasonfor this ruling? It is that the ihalakhaof the bwomanis blikethat of the bman,as a woman is juxtaposed to man in this passage.,The Gemara asks further: bAnd since we learnedin the continuation of the mishna: bAnd likewise, a young boy whoreached the age of puberty and bgrew twopubic bhairsis an adult, bwhy do Ineed the mishna to add explicitly: Is bobligated tofulfill ball the mitzvot stated in the Torah? /b, bAnd if you would saythat the mishna specified this bbecauseit bwanted to teachthe particular ihalakha /i: bAnd he is fit to bedeclared ba stubborn and rebellious son,that cannot be the reason, as bwealready blearnedthat ihalakha /ion banother occasionin a mishna ( iSanhedrin68b): bWhenis such a boy liable to receive the death penalty imposed upon ba stubborn and rebellious son? From when he grows twopubic bhairs untilhis bbeard will form a circle.The reference is to bthe lower,pubic, hair band not to the upper,facial hair, bbutthe term beard is used, due to the fact bthat the Sages spoke euphemistically. /b,The Gemara answers: bYes,it bis indeed so,i.e., it is not necessary for the mishna to specify with regard to a boy that he is obligated to fulfill all the mitzvot stated in the Torah. bBut sincethe mishna bspecifiedthis bmatterin the case bof a young girl,it balso specifiedthis bmatterin the case bof a young boy. /b,§ The mishna teaches: bA young girl whoreached the age of puberty and bgrewtwo pubic hairs can no longer perform refusal to end a marriage with a husband to whom she was married as a minor by her mother and brothers after her father’s death. Rabbi Yehuda maintains that she retains the right of refusal until the pubic hair grows to the extent that the black hair is preponderant in the pubic area. bRabbi Abbahu saysthat bRabbi Elazar says:The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yehuda concedesto the Rabbis bthat if she engaged in intercoursewith her husband bafter she grew twopubic bhairs,she bcan no longer perform refusal.This is because the act of intercourse renders her betrothed to him by Torah law, and refusal is a rabbinic enactment that is effective only with regard to a betrothal that applies by rabbinic law., bRav Kahana’s colleagues thought to perform an action in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehudain the mishna, bandto permit a young girl who had grown two pubic hairs to perform refusal, beven though shehad bengaged in intercoursewith her husband after growing two hairs. They held that until the pubic hair grows to the extent that the black hair is preponderant in the pubic area, her betrothal does not apply by Torah law., bRav Kahana said tohis colleagues: bDidn’t the incident involving Rabbi Yishmael’s daughter,who was married as a minor by her mother and brothers after her father’s death, transpire bin that manner? As she came to the study hall to refuseher marriage, band her son was riding on her shoulders. And on thatvery bday, Rabbi Yishmael’s statement,that a young girl may perform refusal even if she engaged in intercourse with her husband after growing two hairs, bwas mentioned in the study hall. And she criedwith ba great weeping in the study hall,as a result of the incident.,The Sages who were in the study hall bsaid:Could it be that with regard to ba matter that that righteousRabbi Yishmael bsaid,i.e., that she can perform refusal, bhis offspring would stumble upon it?The consequence of her refusal is that she is considered to have borne the child retroactively out of wedlock., bAs Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel says in the name of Rabbi Yishmael:The verse states with regard to a isota /i: b“And neither was she taken”(Numbers 5:13), i.e., raped. In this case bshe is prohibitedto her husband. It may be inferred that if she bwas takenforcefully bshe is permittedto her husband. bAnd there isa case of banotherwoman bwhere, even though she was not takenforcefully, but was willing, she nevertheless remains bpermitted. And whichcase bis this?This is referring to one bwhose betrothalwas ba mistaken betrothal, as, even if her sonfrom this marriage bis riding on her shoulders she may perform refusal and gooff as pleases bher.Although she engaged in intercourse with her husband after growing two pubic hairs, she was relying on the original betrothal, which was a mistaken betrothal, and did not intend to become betrothed to him by means of this intercourse, which would have rendered her betrothed by Torah law. She may therefore nullify the betrothal by means of refusal., bAndthe Gemara relates that as a result of the event involving Rabbi Yishmael’s daughter, the Sages assembled, bcountedthe votes, band concluded: Until when maya young bgirl perform refusal? Untilshe bgrows twopubic bhairs.Once Rav Kahana’s colleagues heard this, they bretractedand bdid not perform an actionin accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda in the mishna, to permit the girl to perform refusal as they had originally planned.,The Gemara further relates that bRabbi Yitzḥak and the disciples of Rabbi Ḥanina performed an action in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehudain the mishna, bandpermitted a young girl who had grown two pubic hairs to perform refusal, beven though shehad bengaged in intercoursewith her husband after growing two hairs. bRav Shemen bar Abbasubsequently bwentand bstatedthis story bbefore Rabbi Yoḥa,and bRabbi Yoḥa wentand bstated it before Rabbi Yehuda Nesia.Rabbi Yehuda Nesia bsent a constable [ iballasha /i] and removedthat girl from her second husband.,With regard to Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion, that the black hair must be preponderant in the pubic area, bRav Ḥisda saysthat bMar Ukva says:This does bnotmean bthatthe bblackhair must bliterally be preponderantin the pubic area. bRather, there must be two hairs lying down, so that it appears as though the blackhairs in the pubic area cover an area bgreater than the whitearea uncovered by hair. bRava says:Rabbi Yehuda means that there are btwo hairs that surroundthe pubic area bfrom end to end. /b,§ The mishna teaches that the growth of two hairs is a sign of becoming an adult. The Gemara clarifies the details of this ihalakha /i. bRabbi Ḥelbo saysthat bRav Huna says:These btwo hairs thatthe Sages bsaidare a sign of adulthood bmust have follicles at their roots. Rav Malkiyyu saysthat bRav Adda bar Ahavasays: If there are two bfolliclesnext to each other, they constitute a sign of adulthood beven if there are no hairsin them. The assumption is that follicles do not exist without hair, and therefore there must have been hairs there that fell out.,This ihalakhawas stated by a Sage by the name of Rav Malkiyyu. To prevent confusion between his rulings and those of the similarly named Rav Malkiyya, bRabbi Ḥanina, son of Rav Ika, says:The ihalakhainvolving ba skewer,the ihalakhawith regard to bmaidservants, andthe ihalakhainvolving hair bfollicleswere all stated by bRav Malkiyyu.By contrast, the ihalakhawith regard to the bforelock [ ibelorit /i],the ihalakhainvolving bburnt ashes, andthe ihalakhawith regard to bcheesewere all stated by a different Sage named bRav Malkiyya. /b, bRav Pappa says:The aforementioned ihalakhotthat relate to ba mishna or a ibaraita /iwere stated by bRav Malkiyya,whereas ihalakhot /ithat do not refer to a mishna or ibaraitabut are independent statements of iamora’imwere taught by bRav Malkiyyu. And a mnemonicto remember this is: bThe mishna is a queen [ imalketa /i],i.e., the comments that are referring to a mishna were issued by Rav Malkiyya, whose name is similar to the Aramaic term for queen.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthe opinion of Rabbi Ḥanina, son of Rav Ika, and Rav Pappa? The Gemara answers: The difference bbetween themis with regard to which Sage taught the ihalakhainvolving bmaidservants.Rav Pappa maintains that it was taught by Rav Malkiyya, as it is referring to a dispute in a mishna. By contrast, according to Rabbi Ḥanina, this ihalakhawas stated by Rav Malkiyyu.,With regard to the ihalakhaof Rav Malkiyyu itself, concerning follicles, bRav Ashi says: Mar Zutra told methat bRabbi Ḥanina of Suraposed the following bdifficulty:If it is correct that follicles suffice as a sign of adulthood, bletthe itanna /iof the mishna bnot evadethe issue, bbutrather let him bteach usexplicitly that bfolliclesare a sign of adulthood even if they do not contain hair. The Gemara answers: bIfthe mishna had btaught usthe case of bfollicles, I would saythat they are not considered a sign of adulthood buntil there are two hairs in two follicles.By omitting any mention of follicles in the mishna, the itanna bteaches us that even two hairs in one follicleare a sign of adulthood.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is thereactually ba case like this,of two hairs in one follicle? bBut isn’t it written: “He crushes me with a tempest, and multiplies my wounds without cause”(Job 9:17); band Rava saidwith regard to this verse: bJob blasphemed with a tempest,and bwith a tempest he was answered. He blasphemed with a tempest,as Job bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, perhaps a tempest passed before You and You confused Iyyov,Job, bwith ioyev /i,enemy. bWith a tempest he was answered,as the verse states: b“Then the Lord answered /b
13. Papyri, P.Eleph., 1

14. Papyri, P.Hever, None

15. Papyri, P.Murabba'T, 20, 19

16. Papyri, P.Oxy., 6.905

17. Papyri, P.Yadin, 11-27, 3, 5, 7, 10

18. Papyri, Bgu, 4.1099



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
akiva, rabbi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 69
alimentation Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 60
arabia Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 81, 82; Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 46, 75, 121, 124, 194
aramaic Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 46, 49, 69, 75, 142, 143
augustus Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15
babatha Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 5, 56, 58, 63, 133; Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15, 46, 49, 60, 75, 89, 142
bar kokhba Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 5, 133; Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 46, 69, 89, 99
bayes rule Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15
cave Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15, 94
chance Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 124
continuity Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 143
custom Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 36, 143
dead sea and area, byzantine period Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 243
dead sea and area Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 243
dead sea and the essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 243
decree Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 49
deposit Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 49, 194
devarim Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 194
divorce Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 60, 75
donatio ante nuptias Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 143
dotis dictio Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 194
dowry Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15, 49, 60, 75, 94, 188, 194
dura-europos Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 81
egypt Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 5, 68, 77, 81, 82, 133; Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 49, 75, 89, 95, 143
ekdosis Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 143
elephantine Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 68
en-gedi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 75
en gedi Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 243
estate Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 60, 188
fayum Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 68
gamos agraphos Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 89
gentile courts Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 69
gift Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 124, 142, 143, 188
grapte Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 56
halakhah Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 69
hands Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 60
hebrew Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 46, 49, 95, 99, 188, 194
hellenic law Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 36
hellēnikō nomō Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 36
hermopolis Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 68
house of hillel Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 60
house of shammai Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 60
jerusalem Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 5; Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 36, 46, 49
jesus Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 63, 77, 133
jewish law Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 36, 143, 188
jewish revolts against romans (66-73 ce) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 243
judaea Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 68, 77, 140
judaean desert Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 5, 58, 68, 77, 81, 133; Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15, 46, 75, 89
judah Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 58, 63
judah cimber Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 75
judah son of eleazar khthousion Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 49
ketubbah Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 49, 60
khthousion Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 63
kiddushin Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 124, 188
komaise Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 56, 133
land of israel Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 124, 194
latin Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 143, 194
levi Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 56, 133
lien Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 60
loan Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 49, 142, 194
mahoza Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 75
marriage Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15, 36, 49, 60, 75, 89, 94, 95, 99, 124, 142, 143, 188, 194
mazraa Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 243
meir, rabbi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 60
mesopotamia Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 143
miriam Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 75
nabataean Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 46
nahal hever Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 58, 133; Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15, 46, 89
nahal tseʾelim Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15
nisuʾin Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 124
orchards Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 49
orphan Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 49, 89, 94, 99, 143
oxyrhynchos Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 68, 81
oxyrhynchus Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 143
palestine Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 63
papyrus Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15, 94, 95, 121, 143, 188
patria potestas Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 94
phernē Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 75
polygamy Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 49
posek Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 188
power Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 188
prosphora Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 75
provincia arabia Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 121
puberty Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 94
qumran Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 133
rabbis Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 46, 69, 188
right Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 60
roman law Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 143
rome Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 46, 94
sabbath Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15, 46, 121, 124
salome Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 56, 77, 133, 140; Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15, 89, 94, 95, 142
sammouos Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 56, 140
saturday Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15, 121
selampious Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 77
shelamzion Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 81; Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 75
simon Katzoff, Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert (2005) 56, 63
stipulatio Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 194
succession Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 75, 94, 143
syria Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 143
tarfon, rabbi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 69
temple, the, destruction of (66 ce) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 243
tuesday Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15, 121
water Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15
week Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 15, 124, 143
widow Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 60
yehudah (bar ilai), rabbi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 60
yehudah ben bava, rabbi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 94
yishmael, rabbi Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 69, 94
zoara (of arabia)' Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 243