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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8650
Palestinian Talmud, Taanit, 4.1
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1. Mishnah, Berachot, 1.1, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. From what time may one recite the Shema in the evening? From the time that the priests enter [their houses] in order to eat their terumah until the end of the first watch, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say: until midnight. Rabban Gamaliel says: until dawn. Once it happened that his sons came home [late] from a wedding feast and they said to him: we have not yet recited the [evening] Shema. He said to them: if it is not yet dawn you are still obligated to recite. And not in respect to this alone did they so decide, but wherever the sages say “until midnight,” the mitzvah may be performed until dawn. The burning of the fat and the pieces may be performed till dawn. Similarly, all [the offerings] that are to be eaten within one day may be eaten till dawn. Why then did the sages say “until midnight”? In order to keep a man far from transgression." 2.5. A bridegroom is exempt from reciting the Shema on the first night until the end of the Shabbat, if he has not performed the act. It happened with Rabban Gamaliel who recited the Shema on the first night after he had married. His students said to him: Our master, have you not taught us that a bridegroom is exempt from reciting the Shema. He replied to them: I will not listen to you to remove from myself the Kingship of Heaven even for a moment."
2. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.6. A father is not obligated to maintain his daughter. This exposition was made by Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah in front of the sages in the vineyard of Yavneh: “The sons shall inherit [their mother’s kethubah] and the daughters shall be maintained [out of their father’s estate” just as the sons do not inherit except after the death of their father, so the daughters are not maintained except after the death of their father."
3. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 2.8-2.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.8. Rabban Gamaliel had diagrams of the moon on a tablet [hung] on the wall of his upper chamber, and he used to show them to the unlearned and say, “Did it look like this or this?” It happened that two witnesses came and said, “We saw it in the morning in the east and in the evening in the west.” Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri said: they are lying witnesses. When they came to Yavneh Rabban Gamaliel accepted them. On another occasion two witnesses came and said, “We saw it at its proper time, but on the night which should have been the new moon it was not seen,” and Rabban Gamaliel accepted their evidence. Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas said: they are lying witnesses. How can they testify that a woman has given birth when on the next day her belly is between her teeth (swollen)? Rabbi Joshua to him: I see your argument." 2.9. Rabban Gamaliel sent to him: I order you to appear before me with your staff and your money on the day which according to your count should be Yom Hakippurim. Rabbi Akiva went and found him in distress. He said to him: I can teach that whatever Rabban Gamaliel has done is valid, because it says, “These are the appointed seasons of the Lord, holy convocations, which you shall proclaim at their appointed times” (Leviticus 23:4), whether they are [proclaimed] at their proper time or not at their proper time, I have no other appointed times save these. He [Rabbi Joshua] then went to Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas. He said to him: if we call in question the court of Rabban Gamaliel we must call in question the decisions of every court which has existed since the days of Moses until now. As it says, “Then Moses and Aaron, Nadav and Avihu and seventy of the elders of Israel went up” (Exodus 24:9). Why were the names of the elders not mentioned? To teach that every group of three which has acted as a court over Israel, behold it is like the court of Moses. He [Rabbi Joshua] took his staff and his money and went to Yavneh to Rabban Gamaliel on the day which according to his count should be Yom Hakippurim. Rabban Gamaliel rose and kissed him on his head and said to him: Come in peace, my teacher and my student my teacher in wisdom and my student because you have accepted my decision."
4. Mishnah, Sukkah, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. It once happened that they brought a dish to Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai to taste, and two dates and a pail of water to Rabban Gamaliel and they said, “Bring them up to the sukkah.” And when they gave Rabbi Zadok food less than the bulk of an egg, he took it in a napkin, ate it outside the sukkah and did not say a blessing after it."
5. Mishnah, Shekalim, 3.3, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. [The members] of Rabban Gamaliel’s household used to enter [the chamber] with their shekel between their fingers, and throw it in front of him who made the appropriation, while he who made the appropriation purposely pressed it into the basket. He who made the appropriation did not make it until he first said to them: “Should I make the appropriation?” And they say to him three times: “Make the appropriation! Make the appropriation! Make the appropriation!”" 6.1. There were in the Temple thirteen chests, thirteen tables and thirteen prostrations. [Members] of the household of Rabban Gamaliel and of Rabbi Haiah the chief of the priests used would prostrate fourteen [times. And where was the additional [prostration]? In front of the wood storage yard, for they had a tradition from their forefathers that the Ark was hidden there."
6. Tosefta, Bava Metzia, 3.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Tosefta, Shabbat, 1.22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, 4.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27b. לא כנגד רבו ולא אחורי רבו,ותניא רבי אליעזר אומר המתפלל אחורי רבו והנותן שלום לרבו והמחזיר שלום לרבו והחולק על ישיבתו של רבו והאומר דבר שלא שמע מפי רבו גורם לשכינה שתסתלק מישראל,שאני רבי ירמיה בר אבא דתלמיד חבר הוה והיינו דקאמר ליה רבי ירמיה בר אבא לרב מי בדלת אמר ליה אין בדילנא ולא אמר מי בדיל מר,ומי בדיל והאמר רבי אבין פעם אחת התפלל רבי של שבת בערב שבת ונכנס למרחץ ויצא ושנה לן פרקין ועדיין לא חשכה אמר רבא ההוא דנכנס להזיע וקודם גזירה הוה,איני והא אביי שרא ליה לרב דימי בר ליואי לכברויי סלי,ההוא טעותא הואי,וטעותא מי הדרא והא אמר אבידן פעם אחת נתקשרו שמים בעבים כסבורים העם לומר חשכה הוא ונכנסו לבית הכנסת והתפללו של מוצאי שבת בשבת ונתפזרו העבים וזרחה החמה,ובאו ושאלו את רבי ואמר הואיל והתפללו התפללו שאני צבור דלא מטרחינן להו:,א"ר חייא בר אבין רב צלי של שבת בערב שבת רבי יאשיה מצלי של מוצאי שבת בשבת רב צלי של שבת בערב שבת אומר קדושה על הכוס או אינו אומר קדושה על הכוס ת"ש דאמר רב נחמן אמר שמואל מתפלל אדם של שבת בערב שבת ואומר קדושה על הכוס והלכתא כוותיה,רבי יאשיה מצלי של מוצאי שבת בשבת אומר הבדלה על הכוס או אינו אומר הבדלה על הכוס ת"ש דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מתפלל אדם של מוצאי שבת בשבת ואומר הבדלה על הכוס,אמר ר' זירא אמר רבי אסי אמר ר' אלעזר א"ר חנינא אמר רב בצד עמוד זה התפלל ר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי של שבת בערב שבת,כי אתא עולא אמר בצד תמרה הוה ולא בצד עמוד הוה ולא ר' ישמעאל ברבי יוסי הוה אלא ר' אלעזר בר' יוסי הוה ולא של שבת בערב שבת הוה אלא של מוצאי שבת בשבת הוה:,תפלת הערב אין לה קבע: מאי אין לה קבע אילימא דאי בעי מצלי כוליה ליליא ליתני תפלת הערב כל הלילה אלא מאי אין לה קבע,כמאן דאמר תפלת ערבית רשות דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל תפלת ערבית רבן גמליאל אומר חובה ר' יהושע אומר רשות אמר אביי הלכה כדברי האומר חובה ורבא אמר הלכה כדברי האומר רשות.,ת"ר מעשה בתלמיד אחד שבא לפני ר' יהושע א"ל תפלת ערבית רשות או חובה אמר ליה רשות,בא לפני רבן גמליאל א"ל תפלת ערבית רשות או חובה א"ל חובה א"ל והלא ר' יהושע אמר לי רשות א"ל המתן עד שיכנסו בעלי תריסין לבית המדרש,כשנכנסו בעלי תריסין עמד השואל ושאל תפלת ערבית רשות או חובה א"ל רבן גמליאל חובה אמר להם רבן גמליאל לחכמים כלום יש אדם שחולק בדבר זה אמר ליה ר' יהושע לאו א"ל והלא משמך אמרו לי רשות,אמר ליה יהושע עמוד על רגליך ויעידו בך עמד רבי יהושע על רגליו ואמר אלמלא אני חי והוא מת יכול החי להכחיש את המת ועכשיו שאני חי והוא חי היאך יכול החי להכחיש את החי,היה רבן גמליאל יושב ודורש ור' יהושע עומד על רגליו עד שרננו כל העם ואמרו לחוצפית התורגמן עמוד ועמד,אמרי עד כמה נצעריה וניזיל בר"ה אשתקד צעריה בבכורות במעשה דר' צדוק צעריה הכא נמי צעריה תא ונעבריה,מאן נוקים ליה נוקמיה לרבי יהושע בעל מעשה הוא נוקמיה לר' עקיבא דילמא עניש ליה דלית ליה זכות אבות,אלא נוקמיה לר' אלעזר בן עזריה דהוא חכם והוא עשיר והוא עשירי לעזרא הוא חכם דאי מקשי ליה מפרק ליה והוא עשיר דאי אית ליה לפלוחי לבי קיסר אף הוא אזל ופלח והוא עשירי לעזרא דאית ליה זכות אבות ולא מצי עניש ליה אתו ואמרו ליה ניחא ליה למר דליהוי ריש מתיבתא אמר להו איזיל ואימליך באינשי ביתי אזל ואמליך בדביתהו אמרה ליה 27b. directly bnext to his rabbi,presumptuously indicating that he is his rabbi’s equal, band behind his rabbias it creates the impression that he is bowing to him ( iTosafot /i)?, bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraita /i, in a more extreme manner, as bRabbi Eliezer says: One who prays behind his rabbi and one who greets his rabbiwithout waiting for his rabbi to greet him first, bone who returns his rabbi’s greetingwithout saying: Greetings to you, rabbi, bone who rivals his rabbi’s yeshiva,i.e., establishes a yeshiva of his own and teaches during his rabbi’s lifetime without his consent (Rambam), band one who says somethingin the name of his rabbi bwhich he did not hear directly from his rabbi, causes the Divine Presence to withdraw from Israel. /b,With regard to Rabbi Yirmeya’s conduct, the Gemara explains that bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba is different,as he was not a mere student of Rav. Rather, he bwas a disciple-colleagueand was, therefore, permitted to act that way. bAnd that is whyon one occasion, when Rav prayed the Shabbat prayer early, bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba asked him: Did you distance yourselffrom labor and accept the sanctity of Shabbat? bRav said to him: Yes, I distanced myself. AndRabbi Yirmeya bdid not say to him: Did the Master distance himself,as would have been appropriate had he merely been Rav’s student.,Although Rav replied that he distanced himself from labor, bdid heindeed need to bdistance himselffrom labor? bDidn’t Rabbi Avin say: Once RabbiYehuda HaNasi bprayedthe bShabbatprayer bon the eve of Shabbatbefore nightfall. bHethen bentered the bathhouse and emerged and taught us our chaptersthat we had learned, band it was not yet dark. Rava said: Thatis a case where he had benteredthe bathhouse bto perspire, and it was before theSages issued a bdecreeprohibiting perspiring in a bathhouse on Shabbat.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so,that he was required to refrain from labor? bDidn’t Abaye permit Rav Dimi bar Liva’ei to fumigate baskets with sulfureven though he had already recited the Shabbat prayer, indicating that it is permitted to perform labor even after the Shabbat prayer?,The Gemara responds: bThat was an error,as Rav Dimi did not intend to begin Shabbat early. It was a cloudy day and he mistakenly thought that the sun had set and that was why he prayed. Consequently, even though he prayed, the Shabbat prayer did not obligate him to conduct himself in accordance with the sanctity of Shabbat and he was allowed to perform labor even after his prayer.,The Gemara goes on to ask: bCan a mistake be reversed,enabling one to conduct himself as if he had not prayed? bDidn’t Avidan,a student of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, bsay: Once the sky became overcast,leading bthe people to think that it wasthe bdarkof night; bthey entered the synagogue and recited theevening bprayer of the conclusion of Shabbat on Shabbat. Andlater, bthe clouds cleared and the sun shone,indicating that it was still day., bAnd they came and asked RabbiYehuda HaNasi what they should do, band he said: Since they have prayed, they have prayed,and they need not pray again. Although they prayed erroneously, their mistake is not reversible and what was done remains. The Gemara responds: bA community is differentin bthat we do not burden themto pray again.,The Gemara continues to discuss the possibility of reciting the evening prayer early, even on Shabbat. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin said: Rav prayedthe bShabbatprayer bon the eve of Shabbatbefore nightfall. bRabbi Yoshiya would pray theevening bprayer of the conclusion of Shabbat on Shabbat.With regard to the fact that bRav prayedthe bShabbatprayer bon the eve of Shabbatbefore nightfall, the dilemma is raised: In those cases, did bhe recite ikiddushover the cupof wine, bor did he not recite ikiddushover the cupof wine before the stars emerged? bCome and heara resolution to this, as bRav Naḥman saidthat bShmuel said: One praysthe bShabbatprayer bon the eve of Shabbatbefore nightfall band recites ikiddushover the cupof wine. bAnd the ihalakhais in accordance with hisruling.,A similar dilemma was raised concerning the fact that bRabbi Yoshiya would pray theevening bprayer of the conclusion of Shabbat on Shabbat:After praying, while it is still Shabbat, bdoes he recite ihavdalaover the cupof wine bor does one not recite ihavdalaover the cupof wine? bCome and heara resolution to this, as bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: One prays theevening bprayer of the conclusion of Shabbat on Shabbat and recites ihavdalaover the cupof wine., bRabbi Zeira saidthat bRabbi Asi saidthat bRabbi Elazar saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina saidthat bRav said: Alongside thisspecific bpillarbefore me, bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, prayedthe bShabbatprayer bon the eve of Shabbatbefore nightfall., bBut when Ulla camefrom the Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he related a different version of this story. bHe saidthat he had heard: This transpired bbeside a palm tree, not beside a pillar, and it was not Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, butit was bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and it was notthe bShabbatprayer bon Shabbat evebefore nightfall, bratherit was the bprayer of the conclusion of Shabbat on Shabbat. /b,We learned in the mishna: bThe evening prayermay be recited throughout the night and bis not fixedto a specific hour. The Gemara asks: bWhat is the meaning of is not fixed? If you say that ifone bwishes, he may pray throughout the night,then bletthe mishna bteach: The evening prayermay be recited bthroughout the night. Rather, what isthe meaning of bnot fixed? /b,It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe one who said: The evening prayer is optional.As bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel saidwith regard to bthe evening prayer. Rabban Gamliel says:It is bobligatory. Rabbi Yehoshua says:It is boptional. Abaye said: The ihalakhais in accordance with the statement of the one who said:The evening prayer is bobligatory. Rava said: The ihalakhais in accordance with the statement of the one who said:The evening prayer is boptional. /b, bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving a student, who came before Rabbi Yehoshua.The student bsaid to him: Is the evening prayer optional or obligatory?Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: Optional. /b,The same student bcame before Rabban Gamliel and said to him: Is the evening prayer optional or obligatory?Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: Obligatory.The student bsaid toRabban Gamliel: bBut didn’t Rabbi Yehoshua tell methat the evening prayer is boptional?Rabban Gamliel bsaid tothe student: bWait until the “masters of the shields,”a reference to the Torah scholars who battle in the war of Torah, benter the study hall,at which point we will discuss this issue., bWhen the masters of the shields entered, the questioner stoodbefore everyone present band asked: Is the evening prayer optional or obligatory? Rabban Gamliel said to him: Obligatory.In order to ascertain whether or not Rabbi Yehoshua still maintained his opinion, bRabban Gamliel said tothe Sages: bIs there any person who disputes this matter? Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: No,no one disagrees. In deference to the iNasi /i, he did not wish to argue with him publicly ( iTziyyun LeNefesh Ḥayya /i). Rabban Gamliel bsaid toRabbi Yehoshua: bBut was it not in your name that they told methat the evening prayer is boptional? /b,Rabban Gamliel bsaid toRabbi Yehoshua: bYehoshua, stand on your feet and they will testify against you. Rabbi Yehoshua stood on his feet and said: If I were alive andthe student bwere dead, the living can contradict the dead,and I could deny issuing that ruling. bNow that I am alive and he is alive, how can the living contradict the living?I have no choice but to admit that I said it.,In the meantime, bRabban Gamliel,as the iNasi /i, bwas sitting and lecturing, and Rabbi Yehoshuaall the while bwas standing on his feet,because Rabban Gamliel did not instruct him to sit. He remained standing in deference to the iNasi /i. This continued for some time, buntilit aroused great resentment against Rabban Gamliel, and ball of the peopleassembled began bmurmuring and said to Ḥutzpit the disseminator: Stopconveying Rabban Gamliel’s lecture. bAnd he stopped. /b,The Gemara relates that in their murmuring bthey said: How long willRabban Gamliel bcontinue afflicting him? Last year on Rosh HaShana, he afflicted him;Rabban Gamliel ordered Rabbi Yehoshua to come to him carrying his staff and bag, on the day on which Yom Kippur occurred, according to Rabbi Yehoshua’s calculations. bRegarding the firstborn, in the incidentinvolving the question bof Rabbi Tzadok, he afflicted himjust as he did now, and forced him to remain standing as punishment for his failure to defend his differing opinion. bHere too, he is afflicting him. Let us remove himfrom his position as iNasi /i.,It was so agreed, but the question arose: bWho shall we establishin his place? Shall we bestablish Rabbi Yehoshuain his place? The Sages rejected that option because Rabbi Yehoshua bwas party to the incidentfor which Rabban Gamliel was deposed. Appointing him would be extremely upsetting for Rabban Gamliel. Shall we bestablish Rabbi Akivain his place? The Sages rejected that option because Rabbi Akiva, who descended from a family of converts, would be vulnerable. bPerhapsdue to Rabban Gamliel’s resentment he bwouldcause bhimto be divinely bpunished as he lacks the merit of his ancestorsto protect him., bRather,suggested the Sages, blet us establish Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryain his place, his outstanding characteristics set him apart from the other candidates. bHe is wise, rich, and a tenthgeneration descendant bof Ezra.The Gemara explains: bHe is wise, so ifRabban Gamliel raises a bchallengein matters of Torah, bhe will answer itand not be embarrassed. bAnd he is rich, so if the needarises bto pay homage to the Caesar’s courtand serve as a representative of Israel to lobby and negotiate, he has sufficient wealth to cover the costs of the long journeys, taxes, and gifts, so bhe too is able to go and pay homage. And he isa btenthgeneration descendant bof Ezra, so he has the merit of his ancestors, andRabban Gamliel bwill be unable tocause bhimto be bpunished. They came and said to him: Would the Master consent to being the Head of the Yeshiva? He said to them: I will go and consult with my household. He went and consulted with his wife. She said to him: /b
10. Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

69a. With regard to bone who says to hispregt Canaanite bmaidservant: You are hereby a free woman but your offspringshall remain ba slave, the offspring isemancipated blike her.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili. And the Rabbis say:The master’s bstatement is upheld, because it is stated: “The wife and her children shall be her master’s”(Exodus 21:4).,The Gemara expresses surprise at this ruling: bWhat is thebiblical bderivationhere? How do the Rabbis learn from here that the child of an emancipated maidservant remains a slave in this case? bRava said:The proof from the verse beginning with: “The wife and her children,” is not the source of the opinion of the Rabbis. Rather, this is referring btothe statement bof Rabbi Yosei HaGelili,who claims that the children follow their mother, as indicated by this verse. Consequently, if she is emancipated, her offspring do not retain the status of slaves., strongMISHNA: /strong bRabbi Tarfon says: iMamzerimcan be purified,so that their offspring will not be imamzerim /i. bHow so?With regard to ba imamzerwho marrieda Canaanite bmaidservant,their boffspring is a slave.If his master subsequently bemancipates him,that bson is foundto be ba freeman,rather than a imamzer /i. bRabbi Eliezer says:This method is not effective, as bthisson bis a imamzerslave. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Did bRabbi Tarfon statehis ihalakha bab initio/i b,i.e., a imamzeris permitted to marry a maidservant, bordid bhe stateit only bafter the fact,but he does not permit a imamzerto marry a maidservant iab initio /i? The Gemara answers: bComeand bhearproof from a ibaraita /i: The other Sages bsaid to Rabbi Tarfon: You havethereby bpurified the maleoffspring of a imamzer /i, bbut you have not purified the femalechildren of imamzerim /i, as your solution does not apply to them.,The Gemara explains the apparent proof from this ibaraita /i. bAnd if you saythat Rabbi Tarfon bstatedhis ihalakha bab initio/i and permitted a imamzerto marry a Canaanite maidservant, ba imamzeretshould alsobe allowed to bmarrya Canaanite bslaveand her child can then be emancipated as well. The Gemara answers: bA slave has no lineage.Even if she were to marry a slave, their child would not be considered his, but would be a Jewish imamzerlike her. Consequently, this source provides no proof with regard to the Gemara’s question.,The Gemara further suggests: bComeand bhear, as Rabbi Simlai’s host was a imamzer /i, andRabbi Simlai bsaid to him: Had Ifound out about your status bearlier,before you married and had children, bI would have purified your sonsby advising you to marry a Canaanite maidservant, as suggested by Rabbi Tarfon. The Gemara explains the proof: bGranted, if you saythat Rabbi Tarfon spoke iab initio /i,it is bwellthat Rabbi Simlai would suggest this. bBut if you saythat he meant only that this method is effective bafter the fact, what wasthe advice that Rabbi Simlai would have given his host?,The Gemara answers bthatRabbi Simlai would have badvised him by saying: Go steal, and be sold as a Hebrew slave,which would mean you could marry a Canaanite maidservant and your offspring would be slaves. The Gemara asks: bBut in the days of Rabbi Simlai, wasthe ihalakhaof ba Hebrew slaveobserved in practice? bBut didn’t the Master say:The ihalakhaof ba Hebrew slave is practiced only when the JubileeYear bis practiced,and Rabbi Simlai lived many years after the observance of the Jubilee Year ceased. bRather, isn’t itcorrect to bconclude fromit that bRabbi Tarfon spoke iab initio /i,i.e., it is permitted for a imamzerto marry a Canaanite maidservant? The Gemara affirms: Indeed, bconclude fromthe ibaraitathat this is the case. bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Tarfon. /b,§ The mishna teaches that bRabbi Eliezer says: Thisson bis a imamzerslave. Rabbi Elazar said: What is the reason of Rabbi Eliezer? As the verse stateswith regard to a imamzer /i: “Even to the tenth generation none bof hisshall enter the assembly of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 23:3), which indicates that in the case of the child of a imamzerand a Canaanite maidservant, one bfollows hisparent with the bflawedlineage, and the child is a imamzer /i.,The Gemara asks: bAndhow do bthe Rabbis,i.e., Rabbi Tarfon, respond to this claim? Rabbi Tarfon maintains bthatthis verse is referring bto a Jewof unflawed lineage bwho married a imamzeret /i.It might benter your mind to saythat as bit is written: “By their families, by their fathers’ houses”(Numbers 4:2), the child should follow his father’s lineage rather than that of his mother. Therefore, the term b“of his”in the previously cited verse bcomes to exclude himfrom his father’s lineage, as it indicates that his lineage follows his mother when she is a imamzeret /i., bAndhow does bRabbi Eliezerrespond to this claim? Is it bnotthe case that beven thoughthe Torah bwrote: “By their families, by their fathers’ houses,”nevertheless, the term b“of his” comes and excludes him? Here too, although it is written: “The wife and her children shall be her master’s”(Exodus 21:4), from which it is derived that the child of a Canaanite maidservant is like her, nevertheless the term b“of his” comes and excludes him. Andhow do bthe Rabbis,Rabbi Tarfon, respond to this claim? They say: bAny offspring in the womb of a Canaanite maidservant is considered like the offspring in an animal’s womb.Consequently, her children do not inherit the father’s status, even if his is the flawed lineage.,, strongMISHNA: /strong There were btencategories of blineage,with varying restrictions on marriage, among the Jews who bascended from Babyloniato Eretz Yisrael with Ezra before the building of the Second Temple. They are as follows: bPriests; Levites; Israelites; priests disqualified due to flawed lineage [ iḥalalim /i]; converts, and emancipated slaves; imamzerim /i; Gibeonites,i.e., the descendants of the Gibeonites who converted in the time of Joshua; bchildren of unknown paternity [ ishetuki /i]; and foundlings. /b,The mishna proceeds to detail their ihalakhot /i: With regard to bpriests, Levites, and Israelites,it is bpermittedfor men and women in these categories bto marry one another.With regard to bLeviteswho are not priests, bIsraelites, iḥalalim /i, converts, and emancipated slaves,it is bpermittedfor men and women in these categories bto marry one another. /b,With regard to bconverts, and emancipated slaves, imamzerim /i, and Gibeonites, children of unknown paternity [ ishetuki /i], and foundlings,it is bpermittedfor ball ofthe men and women in these categories bto marry one another. And these arethe last two categories: bA ishetuki /iis banyperson bwho knowsthe identity of bhis mother but does not knowthe identity of bhis father. A foundlingis banyone who was collected from the marketplace and doesn’t knowthe identity of his parents, bneitherthat of bhis father northat of bhis mother.These two categories are people whose status is uncertain; they may be imamzerim /i. bAbba Shaul would call a ishetuki /iby the label of ibeduki /i. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches: There were btencategories of blineageamong the Jews who bascended from Babylonia.The Gemara asks: bWhy doesthe itanna bspecifically teachthe phrase: bAscended from Babylonia?Why was it important for the itannato specify their place of origin? bLet him teachthat they bwent to Eretz Yisrael.The Gemara answers: bHe teaches us a matter in passing, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And you shall arise and go up to the place that the Lord, your God, shall choose”(Deuteronomy 17:8). This bteaches that the Temple is higher than all of Eretz Yisrael,which is why the verse speaks of ascending from the cities of Eretz Yisrael to the Temple. bAndit teaches that bEretz Yisrael is higher than all of the lands. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, the Temple is higher than all of Eretz Yisrael. This isderived from bthat which is written: /b
11. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

91b. בכורות נאות והושיב בו שני שומרים אחד חיגר ואחד סומא אמר לו חיגר לסומא בכורות נאות אני רואה בפרדס בא והרכיבני ונביאם לאכלם רכב חיגר על גבי סומא והביאום ואכלום,לימים בא בעל פרדס אמר להן בכורות נאות היכן הן אמר לו חיגר כלום יש לי רגלים להלך בהן אמר לו סומא כלום יש לי עינים לראות מה עשה הרכיב חיגר על גבי סומא ודן אותם כאחד,אף הקב"ה מביא נשמה וזורקה בגוף ודן אותם כאחד שנאמר (תהלים נ, ד) יקרא אל השמים מעל ואל הארץ לדין עמו יקרא אל השמים מעל זו נשמה ואל הארץ לדין עמו זה הגוף:,א"ל אנטונינוס לרבי מפני מה חמה יוצאה במזרח ושוקעת במערב א"ל אי הוה איפכא נמי הכי הוה אמרת לי א"ל הכי קאמינא לך מפני מה שוקעת במערב,א"ל כדי ליתן שלום לקונה שנאמר (נחמיה ט, ו) וצבא השמים לך משתחוים א"ל ותיתי עד פלגא דרקיע ותתן שלמא ותיעול משום פועלים ומשום עוברי דרכים,וא"ל אנטונינוס לרבי נשמה מאימתי ניתנה באדם משעת פקידה או משעת יצירה א"ל משעת יצירה א"ל אפשר חתיכה של בשר עומדת שלשה ימים בלא מלח ואינה מסרחת אלא משעת פקידה אמר רבי דבר זה למדני אנטונינוס ומקרא מסייעו שנאמר (איוב י, יב) ופקודתך שמרה רוחי,ואמר ליה אנטונינוס לרבי מאימתי יצה"ר שולט באדם משעת יצירה או משעת יציאה א"ל משעת יצירה א"ל א"כ בועט במעי אמו ויוצא אלא משעת יציאה אמר רבי דבר זה למדני אנטונינוס ומקרא מסייעו שנאמר (בראשית ד, ז) לפתח חטאת רובץ,ר"ל רמי כתיב (ירמיהו לא, ח) בם עור ופסח הרה ויולדת יחדו וכתיב (ישעיהו לה, ו) אז ידלג כאיל פסח ותרון לשון אלם כי נבקעו במדבר מים ונחלים בערבה הא כיצד עומדין במומן ומתרפאין,עולא רמי כתיב (ישעיהו כה, ח) בלע המות לנצח ומחה ה' דמעה מעל כל פנים וכתיב (ישעיהו סה, כ) כי הנער בן מאה שנה ימות לא יהיה משם עוד עול ימים לא קשיא כאן בישראל כאן בעובדי כוכבים ועובדי כוכבים מאי בעו התם הנך דכתיב בהו (ישעיהו סא, ה) ועמדו זרים ורעו צאנכם ובני נכר אכריכם וכורמיכם,רב חסדא רמי כתיב (ישעיהו כד, כג) וחפרה הלבנה ובושה החמה כי מלך ה' צבאות וכתיב (ישעיהו ל, כו) והיה אור הלבנה כאור החמה ואור החמה יהיה שבעתים כאור שבעת הימים לא קשיא כאן לימות המשיח כאן לעוה"ב,ולשמואל דאמר אין בין העוה"ז לימות המשיח אלא שיעבוד גליות בלבד לא קשיא כאן במחנה צדיקים כאן במחנה שכינה,רבא רמי כתיב (דברים לב, לט) אני אמית ואחיה וכתיב (דברים לב, לט) מחצתי ואני ארפא אמר הקב"ה מה שאני ממית אני מחיה והדר מה שמחצתי ואני ארפא,ת"ר אני אמית ואחיה יכול שתהא מיתה באחד וחיים באחד כדרך שהעולם נוהג ת"ל מחצתי ואני ארפא מה מחיצה ורפואה באחד אף מיתה וחיים באחד מיכן תשובה לאומרין אין תחיית המתים מן התורה,תניא אמר רבי מאיר מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (שמות טו, א) אז ישיר משה ובני ישראל את השירה הזאת לה' שר לא נאמר אלא ישיר מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (יהושע ח, ל) אז יבנה יהושע מזבח לה' בנה לא נאמר אלא יבנה מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה,אלא מעתה (מלכים א יא, ז) אז יבנה שלמה במה לכמוש שקוץ מואב הכי נמי דיבנה אלא מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו בנה,א"ר יהושע בן לוי מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (תהלים פד, ה) אשרי יושבי ביתך עוד יהללוך סלה היללוך לא נאמר אלא יהללוך מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה וא"ר יהושע בן לוי כל האומר שירה בעוה"ז זוכה ואומרה לעולם הבא שנאמר אשרי יושבי ביתך עוד יהללוך סלה,א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (ישעיהו נב, ח) קול צופיך נשאו קול יחדו ירננו וגו' ריננו לא נאמר אלא ירננו מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה וא"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן עתידין כל הנביאים כולן אומרים שירה בקול אחד שנאמר קול צופיך נשאו קול יחדו ירננו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל המונע הלכה מפי תלמיד כאילו גוזלו מנחלת אבותיו שנאמר (דברים לג, ד) תורה צוה לנו משה מורשה קהילת יעקב מורשה היא לכל ישראל מששת ימי בראשית אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא כל המונע הלכה מפי תלמיד אפילו עוברין שבמעי אמו מקללין אותו שנאמר (משלי יא, כו) מונע בר 91b. bfine first fruitsof a fig tree, band he stationed two guards inthe orchard, bone lame,who was unable to walk, band one blind.Neither was capable of reaching the fruit on the trees in the orchard without the assistance of the other. bThe lameperson bsaid to the blindperson: bI see fine first fruitsof a fig tree bin the orchard; come and place meupon your shoulders. I will guide you to the tree, band we will bringthe figs bto eat them. The lameperson brode uponthe shoulders of bthe blindperson band they broughtthe figs band ate them. /b, bSometimelater bthe owner of the orchard cameto the orchard. bHe said tothe guards: bThe fine first fruitsof a fig tree that were in the orchard, bwhere are they? The lameperson bsaid: Do I have any legs with whichI would be able bto walkand take the figs? bThe blindperson bsaid: Do I have any eyeswith which I would be able bto seethe way to the figs? bWhat didthe owner of the orchard bdo? He placed the lameperson buponthe shoulders of bthe blindperson just as they did when they stole the figs, band he judged them as one. /b, bSo too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, brings the soulon the day of judgment band casts itback binto the body,as they were when they sinned, band He judges them as one, as it is stated: “He calls to the heavens above and to the earth that He may judge His people”(Psalms 50:4). b“He calls to the heavens above”; this is the soul,which is heavenly. b“And to the earth that He may judge His people”; this is the body,which is earthly.,The Gemara relates another exchange. bAntoninos said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bFor whatreason bdoes the sun emerge in the east and set in the west?Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: If it were the reverse, you would have also said that to me,as the sun must emerge from one direction and set in the other. Antoninos bsaid to him: This is what I am saying to you: For whatreason bdoesthe sun bset in the westand not occasionally deviate and set elsewhere?,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him:The sun always sets in the west bin order to greet its Creator, as it is stated: “And the hosts of heaven worship You”(Nehemiah 9:6). Setting is a form of worship; it is as though the sun is bowing to God. The Divine Presence rests in the west, as is evident from the fact that the Holy of Holies in the Temple, in which the Ark, the resting place of the Divine Presence, is located in the west. Antoninos bsaid to him:If so, bletthe sun bcome until the midpoint of the sky,set slightly band greetits Creator, and return band enterits place of origin in the east and set there. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi answered him: The sun sets in the west bdue to workers and due to travelers,as, if the sun did not proceed from east to west with the light of day gradually waning, they would not know that it is time to return home or to find an inn., bAnd Antoninos said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bFrom when isthe bsoul placed in a person?Is it bfrom the moment of conception or from the moment ofthe bformationof the embryo, forty days after conception? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him:It is bfrom the moment ofthe bformationof the embryo. Antoninos bsaid to him:That is inconceivable. Is it bpossiblethat ba piece of meatcould bstandfor even bthree days without saltas a preservative bandwould bnot rot?The embryo could not exist for forty days without a soul. bRather,the soul is placed in man bfrom the moment of conception. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Antoninos taught me this matter, andthere is ba versethat bsupports him, as it is stated: “And Your Providence [ ipekudatekha /i] has preserved my spirit”(Job 10:12) indicating that it is from the moment of conception [ ipekida /i] that the soul is preserved within a person., bAnd Antoninos said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bFrom when does the evil inclination dominate a person?Is it bfrom the moment ofthe bformationof the embryo bor from the moment of emergencefrom the womb? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him:It is bfrom the moment ofthe bformationof the embryo. Antoninos bsaid to him: If so,the evil inclination would cause the fetus to bkick his mother’s innards and emergefrom the womb. bRather, the evil inclination dominates a person from the moment of emergencefrom the womb. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Antoninos taught me this matter, andthere is ba versethat bsupports him, as it is stated: “Sin crouches at the entrance”(Genesis 4:7), indicating that it is from the moment of birth, when the newborn emerges from the entrance of his mother’s womb, that the evil inclination lurks.,§ bReish Lakish raises a contradictionbetween two verses written with regard to the resurrection of the dead. bIt is written:“I will bring them from the north country and gather them from the ends of the earth, band with them the blind and the lame, the woman with child and the woman giving birth together”(Jeremiah 31:7), indicating that at the end of days there will still be people with physical defects. bAnd it is written: “Then shall the lame man leap as a deer and the tongue of the mute sing; for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert”(Isaiah 35:6), indicating that at the end of days there will be no people with physical defects. bHow so?When resurrected, the dead bwill arisestill afflicted bwith their defects, andthey bwillthen bbe healed. /b, bUlla raises a contradiction. It is written: “He will swallow death forever; and the LordGod bwill wipe tears from all faces”(Isaiah 25:8), indicating that death will no longer exist at the end of days. bAnd it is written: “There shall be no more an infant a few days old then…for the youngest shall die one hundred years old”(Isaiah 65:20). The Gemara answers that this contradiction is bnot difficult.The verse bhere,in Isaiah chapter 25, is written bwith regard to the Jewish people,who will live forever after resurrection; the verse bthere,in Isaiah chapter 65, is written bwith regard to gentiles,who will ultimately die after an extremely long life. The Gemara asks: bAnd what do gentiles seek,i.e., why will they merit to live, in bthatera? The Gemara answers that the verse is referring to bthosegentiles babout whom it is written: “And strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, and aliens shall be your plowmen and vinedressers”(Isaiah 61:5)., bRav Ḥisda raises a contradiction. It is written: “Then the moon shall be confounded and the sun ashamed, when the Lord of hosts will reignin Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, and before His elders shall be His glory” (Isaiah 24:23), indicating that the sun and the moon will no longer shine at the end of days. bAnd it is written: “And the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days”(Isaiah 30:26), indicating that the sun and the moon will exist then and they will shine more brightly. The Gemara answers that this is bnot difficult.The verse bhere,in Isaiah chapter 30, is written with regard bto the days of the Messiah,when the sun and moon will shine more brightly; the verse bthere,in Isaiah chapter 24, is written with regard bto the World-to-Come,when the only light will be the light of God.,The Gemara asks: bAnd according to Shmuel, who says: The difference between this world and the messianic era is only subjugation of the exiles,as during that era the Jewish people will be freed from that subjugation, how is the contradiction resolved? The Gemara answers that even according to Shmuel this contradiction is bnot difficult.The verse bhere,in Isaiah chapter 30, is written with regard to the light bin the camp of the righteous;the verse bthere,in Isaiah chapter 24, the verse is written with regard bto the camp of the Divine Presence,when the only light will be the light of God., bRava raises a contradiction. It is written: “I will kill and I will bring to life”(Deuteronomy 32:39), indicating that God is capable of reviving the dead. bAnd it is writtenimmediately afterward: b“I wounded and I will heal,”which indicates that God will only heal the wounded. Rather, it should be understood: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, is saying: What I kill, I bring to life,indicating that God revives the dead. bAnd then what I wounded, I will heal. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: b“I will kill and I will bring to life.”One bmighthave thought that it means bthat there will be deathfor boneperson band lifefor boneother bperson, in thetypical bmanner that the world operates.Therefore, bthe verse states: “I wounded and I will heal.” Just as wounding and healingtake place bin oneperson, bso too, death andbringing back to blifetake place bin oneperson. bFrom herethere is ba response tothose who bsaythat bthere is no resurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir said: From whereis bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “Then Moses and the children of Israel will sing this song to the Lord”(Exodus 15:1). It bis not stated: Sang,in the verse; brather,the term b“they will sing”is stated, indicating that Moses will come back to life and sing the song in the future. bFrom hereit is proved that bresurrection of the deadis derived bfrom the Torah. On a similar note, youcan bsay: “Then Joshua will build an altar to the LordGod of Israel on Mount Ebal” (Joshua 8:30). It bis not stated: Built,in the verse; brather,the term b“will build”is stated. bFrom here, resurrection of the deadis derived bfrom the Torah. /b,The Gemara challenges: bIf that is so,then in the verse: b“Then Solomon will build an altar for Chemosh the abomination of Moab”(I Kings 11:7), does this balsomean that Solomon bwill buildin the future? Rather, the use of the future tense here should be understood differently. Solomon did not build an altar to the idol; brather,the use of the future tense teaches that bthe verse ascribes himblame bas though he built it,since he did not prevent his wives from doing so. Therefore, no proof for the resurrection of the dead may be cited from this verse., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: From whereis bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “Happy are they who dwell in Your house; they will yet praise You, Selah”(Psalms 84:5). It bis not stated: They praised you,in the verse; brather,the term b“they will praise you”is stated. bFrom here, resurrection of the deadis derived bfrom the Torah. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Anyone who recites songto God bin this world is privileged and recites it in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Happy are they who dwell in Your house; they will yet praise You, Selah.” /b, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: From whereis bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “Your watchmen, they raise the voice; together shall they sing,for they shall see eye to eye the Lord returning to Zion” (Isaiah 52:8). It bis not stated: They sang,in the verse; brather,the term “together bshall they sing”is stated. bFrom here resurrection of the deadis derived bfrom the Torah. And Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: All the prophets are all destined to recite song in one voice, as it is stated: “Your watchmen, they raise the voice; together shall they sing.” /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:With regard to banyone who withholds ihalakhafrombeing studied by bthe mouth of a studentwho seeks to study Torah, bit is as though he robs him of the inheritance of his ancestors, as it is stated: “Moses commanded us the Torah, an inheritance of the congregation of Jacob”(Deuteronomy 33:4), indicating that the Torah bis an inheritance for all of the Jewish people from the six days of Creation. Rav Ḥana bar Bizna saysthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida says:With regard to banyone who withholds ihalakhafrombeing studied by bthe mouth of a studentwho seeks to study Torah, beven fetuses in their mother’s womb curse him, as it is stated: “He who withholds ibar /i, /b
12. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

21b. ביום אחד או בארבעה ימים אין זה דבר,דרוקרת עיר המוציאה חמש מאות רגלי הוה ויצאו ממנה שלשה מתים ביום אחד גזר רב נחמן בר רב חסדא תעניתא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק כמאן כר"מ,דאמר ריחק נגיחותיו חייב קירב נגיחותיו לא כ"ש,א"ל רב נחמן בר רב חסדא לרב נחמן בר יצחק ליקום מר ליתי לגבן א"ל תנינא רבי יוסי אומר לא מקומו של אדם מכבדו אלא אדם מכבד את מקומו שכן מצינו בהר סיני שכל זמן שהשכינה שרויה עליו אמרה תורה (שמות לד, ג) גם הצאן והבקר אל ירעו אל מול ההר ההוא נסתלקה שכינה ממנו אמרה תורה (שמות יט, יג) במשוך היובל המה יעלו בהר,וכן מצינו באהל מועד שבמדבר שכל זמן שהוא נטוי אמרה תורה (במדבר ה, ב) וישלחו מן המחנה כל צרוע הוגללו הפרוכת הותרו זבין והמצורעים ליכנס שם,אמר ליה אי הכי ניקום אנא לגבי מר אמר ליה מוטב יבא מנה בן פרס אצל מנה בן מנה ואל יבא מנה בן מנה אצל מנה בן פרס,בסורא הוות דברתא בשיבבותיה דרב לא הוות דברתא סברו מיניה משום זכותיה דרב דנפיש איתחזי להו בחילמא רב דנפישא זכותיה טובא הא מילתא זוטרא ליה לרב אלא משום ההוא גברא דשייל מרא וזבילא לקבורה,בדרוקרת הוות דליקתא ובשיבבותיה דרב הונא לא הוות דליקתא סבור מינה בזכותא דרב הונא דנפיש איתחזי להו בחילמא האי זוטרא ליה לרב הונא אלא משום ההיא איתתא דמחממת תנורא ומשיילי לשיבבותיה,אמרו ליה לרב יהודה אתו קמצי גזר תעניתא אמרו ליה לא קא מפסדן אמר להו זוודא אייתו בהדייהו,אמרו ליה לרב יהודה איכא מותנא בחזירי גזר תעניתא נימא קסבר רב יהודה מכה משולחת ממין אחד משולחת מכל המינין לא שאני חזירי דדמיין מעייהו לבני אינשי,אמרו ליה לשמואל איכא מותנא בי חוזאי גזר תעניתא א"ל והא מרחק אמר ליכא מעברא הכא דפסיק ליה,אמרו ליה לרב נחמן איכא מותנא בארעא דישראל גזר תעניתא אמר אם גבירה לוקה שפחה לא כל שכן,טעמא דגבירה ושפחה הא שפחה ושפחה לא והא אמרו ליה לשמואל איכא מותנא בי חוזאי גזר תעניתא שאני התם כיון דאיכא שיירתא דלווי ואתיא בהדיה,אבא אומנא הוה אתי ליה שלמא ממתיבתא דרקיעא כל יומא ולאביי כל מעלי יומא דשבתא לרבא כל מעלי יומא דכיפורי הוה קא חלשא דעתיה דאביי משום דאבא אומנא אמרו ליה לא מצית למיעבד כעובדיה,ומאי הוו עובדיה דאבא אומנא דכי הוה עביד מילתא הוה מחית גברי לחוד ונשי לחוד ואית ליה לבושא דאית ביה קרנא דהוות בזיעא כי כוסילתא כי הוות אתיא ליה איתתא הוה מלביש לה כי היכי דלא ניסתכל בה ואית ליה דוכתא דצניעא דשדי ביה פשיטי דשקיל דאית ליה שדי ביה דלית ליה לא מיכסיף,כי הוה אתרמי ליה צורבא מרבנן אגרא מיניה לא שקיל ובתר דקאי יהיב ליה פשיטי ואמר ליה זיל בריא נפשך יומא חד שדר אביי זוגא דרבנן למיבדקיה אותבינהו ואכלינהו ואשקינהו ומך להו ביסתרקי בליליא 21b. If all three died bon one day or over four days,this is not a plague of bpestilence. /b,In explanation of the counterintuitive ruling that many deaths in one day is not indicative of a plague, the Gemara relates: bDrokartwas a city that bsent out five hundred infantrymen, and three dead were removed from it on one day. Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda decreed a faston account of the plague. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: In accordance with whose opiniondid you declare this fast? It must be bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir. /b,This is related to the definition of a forewarned ox, an animal that has gored enough times to be considered a dangerous beast that requires careful supervision, basRabbi Meir bsaid:The owner of an ox is bliableto pay full damages if bitsacts of bgoring were separated,i.e., if it gored three times on three consecutive days, as claimed by the Rabbis. If bitsacts of bgoring were neareach other, performed on a single day, is it bnot all the more sothat this animal should be classified as a forewarned ox? However, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak continued, this represents a minority opinion. Just as Rabbi Meir’s reasoning is rejected for ihalakhain the case of an ox, so too it is rejected with regard to a plague.,Upon hearing this impressive argument, bRav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda said to Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: Let the Master arise and cometo live bwith usas our community leader. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak bsaid to him: Wealready blearnedin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says:It is bnot the place of a personthat bhonors him; rather,the bperson honors his place, as we found with regard to Mount Sinai, that as long as the Divine Presence rested upon it, the Torah said: “Neither let the flocks nor the herds feed before that mount”(Exodus 34:3). Once bthe Divine Presence departed fromthe mountain, bthe Torah said: “When the ishofarsounds long they shall come up to the mount”(Exodus 19:13). This indicates that the sanctity was not inherent to the place but was due to the Divine Presence resting there., bAnd we likewise found with regard to the Tent of Meeting that was in the wilderness, that whenever it was erected, the Torah said: “That they put out of the camp every leper”(Numbers 5:2). Once bthe curtain was rolled upand the Tent of Meeting was prepared for travel, izavimand lepers were permitted to enterthe place where it had stood. The place itself had no intrinsic sanctity; rather, it was sacred only because the Divine Presence was there. Accordingly, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak maintained that there is no reason for him to move places to receive honor.,Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda bsaid toRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: bIf so, let me ariseand come bto the Master,to learn Torah from you. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak bsaid to him:It is bbetterthat bone hundred dinarsthat is the bson of a iperas /i,fifty dinars, bshould come to one hundred dinarsthat is the bson of one hundred dinars; but one hundred dinarsthat is the bson of one hundred dinars, should not come to one hundred dinarsthat is the bson of a iperas /i.In other words, although Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak was a learned scholar, comparable to one hundred dinars, it was nevertheless more appropriate for him to come to Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda. Whereas Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak was the son of a iperas /i, an ordinary man, Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda was the son of a scholar.,The Gemara relates another story involving a plague: Once bthere wasa plague of bpestilence in Sura,but bin the neighborhood of Rav there was no pestilence.The people btherefore thoughtthat this was bdue to Rav’s great merit.However, bit was revealed to them in a dreamthat bRav’s merit was too greatand bthis matter too small forthe merit of bRavto be involved. bRather,his neighborhood was spared bdue tothe acts of kindness of ba certain man, whowould blend his hoe [ imara /i] and shovel [ izevila /i]to prepare sites bfor burial. /b,The Gemara relates a similar incident. bIn Drokart there was a fire, but in the neighborhood of Rav Huna there was no fire.The people btherefore thoughtthat this was bdue to Rav Huna’s great merit. It was revealed to them in a dreamthat bthismatter was btoo small forthe merit of bRav Hunato have played a role. bRather,it was bdue to a certain woman who heats her oven and lends it,i.e., the use of her oven, bto her neighbors. /b, bThey said to Rav Yehuda: Locusts have cometo our region. Rav Yehuda bdecreed a fast. They said to him: They are not destroyinganything, as they are eating only a little. bHe said to them: Have they brought provisions with them,that they have something else to eat? Even if they are not damaging your crops now, they will certainly eat them soon.,On another occasion, bthey said to Rav Yehuda: There is pestilence among the pigs. Rav Yehuda decreed a fast.The Gemara asks: bLet us saythat bRav Yehuda maintainsthat ba plague affecting one specieswill come to baffect all species,and that is why he decreed a fast. The Gemara answers: bNo,in other cases there is no cause for concern. However, bpigs are different, as their intestines are similar tothose of bhumans.Consequently, their disease might spread to people., bThey said to Shmuel: There is pestilence inthe region of bBei Ḥozai,which is quite a distance from Babylonia. Shmuel bdecreed a fast. They said to him: But it is farfrom here. bHe said: There is no crossing here that will stopthe pestilence, and therefore there is cause for concern that it will reach us., bThey said to Rav Naḥman: There is pestilence in Eretz Yisrael. Rav Naḥman decreed a fastin Babylonia, bsaying: If the ladyof the house, i.e., Eretz Yisrael, bis afflicted,is it bnot all the more sothat bthe maidservant,Babylonia, will be afflicted?,The Gemara asks: The breasonfor this ruling is apparently only because Eretz Yisrael is ba ladyin comparison to the Diaspora, which is likened to ba maidservant.It may be inferred from this that in a case involving ba maidservant and a maidservant,i.e., two places in the Diaspora, there is no reason to fast. bButin the previous story, when bthey said to Shmuel: There is pestilence inthe region of bBei Ḥozai, he decreed a fastin Neharde’a, despite the fact that Neharde’a is not considered a lady with respect to Bei Ḥozai. The Gemara answers: It bis different there. Since there are caravansthat regularly travel from Bei Ḥozai to Neharde’a, the pestilence bwill join and accompanythem binthe caravans.,§ Apropos the above stories that deal with the merits of ordinary people, the Gemara relates: bAbba the Bloodletter would receive greetings from the yeshiva on High every day, and Abaye would receivethese greetings bevery Shabbat eve, and Rava would receivegreetings only once a year bon Yom Kippur eve.Abaye bwas distressed due to Abba the Bloodletter,as he did not understand why Abba received greater honor than he did. bThey said to him: You are unable to perform what he does,and therefore you do not merit the same honor.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what were theserighteous bdeeds of Abba the Bloodletter?The Gemara explains bthat when he would perform a matterof bloodletting, bhe would bring in men separately from women,for reasons of modesty. bAnd he hada special bgarmentthat bhad a slit in the place of the incision [ ikusilta /i]where the bloodletting instrument was inserted. bWhen a woman came to him, he wouldhave bher dress in that garment, so that he would not see herexposed. bAndfurthermore, bhe had a hidden placewhere he worked, bwherecustomers bwould place the coins [ ipeshitei /i] that he would takeas his fee. In this manner, bone who hadmoney bwould throwit bthere,while bone who did not have money was not embarrassed. /b, bWhen a Torah scholar came to himfor bloodletting, bhe would take no pay from him, and afterthe scholar barose,Abba bwould give him money and say to him: Goand purchase food with this money bto heal yourself,as it is important to eat healthy food after bloodletting. bOne day, Abaye sent a pair of Sages to investigatethe extent of Abba the Bloodletter’s righteousness. Abba the Bloodletter bsat them down, and gave themfood bto eat, and gave themsomething bto drink. And at night he spread out mats [ ibistarkei /i] for themto sleep on.
13. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 41, 17 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

14. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 30 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
amoraim, and decline of the generations Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 167
angel Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 266
assembly-house (bet vaad) Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 167
babylonia, babylonians, accused of refusal to settle in palestine, role of synagogue in israel and, distinguished Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
babylonian rabbis, sages, parallel to sophists, rhetors Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
bavli (babylonian talmud), vs. yerushalmi Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 167
clouds of glory, cloud Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 266
cohen, shaye Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 85
desert Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 266
eleazar b. azariah, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 167
gamaliel, rabban, deposition of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 167
gamaliel of yavneh, rabban, on nonconformity Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 85
hayes, christine Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 321
hermogenes of tarsus Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 85
huna, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 167
israel, role of synagogue in babylonia and, distinguished Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
kallah months Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 167
love Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 266
nahman b. r. hisda, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 167
nahman b. yizhaq, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 167
neusner, jacob Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 85
palestine, fluidity of class system Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
palestine, role of synagogue in babylonia and, distinguished Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
patriarch (under romans) Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 85
protection Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 266
rav (abba arikha) Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 167
rhetors, paralleled in babylonian rabbis Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
rome, roman empire, social mobility in Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
sanhedrin Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 167
schwartz, seth Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 85
shade Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 266
sophists, paralleled in babylonian rabbis Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
stern, david Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 85
sukka Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 266
symbol Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 266
synagogues, role in babylonia, israel, distinguished Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
yaakov b. sisi, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 167
yadin, azzan' Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 85
yehuda, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 167
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud), bavlis inxuence on Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 167