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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8660
Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, 9.1
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

33 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.12, 28.48 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.12. שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ 28.48. וְעָבַדְתָּ אֶת־אֹיְבֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ יְהוָה בָּךְ בְּרָעָב וּבְצָמָא וּבְעֵירֹם וּבְחֹסֶר כֹּל וְנָתַן עֹל בַּרְזֶל עַל־צַוָּארֶךָ עַד הִשְׁמִידוֹ אֹתָךְ׃ 5.12. Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee." 28.48. therefore shalt thou serve thine enemy whom the LORD shall send against thee, in hunger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of all things; and he shall put a yoke of iron upon thy neck, until he have destroyed thee."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.8. זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ 20.8. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 33.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

33.18. וַיָּבֹא יַעֲקֹב שָׁלֵם עִיר שְׁכֶם אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן בְּבֹאוֹ מִפַּדַּן אֲרָם וַיִּחַן אֶת־פְּנֵי הָעִיר׃ 33.18. And Jacob came in peace to the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Paddan-aram; and encamped before the city."
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 91.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

91.10. There shall no evil befall thee, Neither shall any plague come nigh thy tent."
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 61.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

61.5. וְעָמְדוּ זָרִים וְרָעוּ צֹאנְכֶם וּבְנֵי נֵכָר אִכָּרֵיכֶם וְכֹרְמֵיכֶם׃ 61.5. And strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, And aliens shall be your plowmen and your vinedressers."
6. Mishnah, Avot, 3.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.14. He used to say:Beloved is man for he was created in the image [of God]. Especially beloved is he for it was made known to him that he had been created in the image [of God], as it is said: “for in the image of God He made man” (Genesis 9:6). Beloved are Israel in that they were called children to the All-Present. Especially beloved are they for it was made known to them that they are called children of the All-Present, as it is said: “your are children to the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 14:1). Beloved are Israel in that a precious vessel was given to them. Especially beloved are they for it was made known to them that the desirable instrument, with which the world had been created, was given to them, as it is said: “for I give you good instruction; forsake not my teaching” (Proverbs 4:2)."
7. Tosefta, Sotah, 7.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 8.10, 10.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.1, 79.6, 97.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.1. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה רַבָּה פָּתַח (משלי ח, ל): וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשׁוּעִים יוֹם יוֹם וגו', אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, וְאִית דַּאֲמַר אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא. אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (במדבר יא, יב): כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָֹּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת הַיֹּנֵק. אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ד, ה): הָאֱמֻנִים עֲלֵי תוֹלָע וגו'. אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (אסתר ב, ז): וַיְהִי אֹמֵן אֶת הֲדַסָּה. אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא, כְּמָא דְתֵימָא (נחום ג, ח): הֲתֵיטְבִי מִנֹּא אָמוֹן, וּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן הַאַתְּ טָבָא מֵאֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיָא רַבָּתָא דְּיָתְבָא בֵּין נַהֲרוֹתָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר אָמוֹן, אֻמָּן. הַתּוֹרָה אוֹמֶרֶת אֲנִי הָיִיתִי כְּלִי אֻמְנוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם בּוֹנֶה פָּלָטִין, אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת אֻמָּן, וְהָאֻמָּן אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא דִּפְתְּרָאוֹת וּפִנְקְסָאוֹת יֵשׁ לוֹ, לָדַעַת הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה חֲדָרִים, הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה פִּשְׁפְּשִׁין. כָּךְ הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַבִּיט בַּתּוֹרָה וּבוֹרֵא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. 1.1. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה סָתוּם מִכָּל צְדָדָיו וּפָתוּחַ מִלְּפָנָיו, כָּךְ אֵין לְךָ רְשׁוּת לוֹמַר, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּפָנִים, מַה לְּאָחוֹר, אֶלָּא מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם וּלְהַבָּא. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, לְמִן הַיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ, וְאִי אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ וְחוֹקֵר, וְאִי אַתָּה חוֹקֵר לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן פָּזִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בַּהֲדֵיהּ דְּבַר קַפָּרָא, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמִים, הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלָמָּה בְּב' שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְלָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁלֹא לִתֵּן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לָאֶפִּיקוֹרְסִין לוֹמַר הֵיאַךְ הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד שֶׁהוּא נִבְרָא בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה בְּב' אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עוֹקְצִין, אֶחָד מִלְּמַעְלָה וְאֶחָד מִלְּמַטָּה מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, אוֹמְרִים לַב' מִי בְּרָאֲךָ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה בְּעוּקְצוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה, וְאוֹמֵר זֶה שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה בְּרָאָנִי. וּמַה שְּׁמוֹ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה לָהֶן בְּעוּקְצוֹ שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו, וְאוֹמֵר ה' שְׁמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר חֲנִינָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲחָא, עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דוֹרוֹת הָיְתָה הָאָלֶ"ף קוֹרֵא תִּגָּר לִפְנֵי כִסְאוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אָמְרָה לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל אוֹתִיּוֹת וְלֹא בָּרָאתָ עוֹלָמְךָ בִּי, אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אָרֶץ וגו', לְמָחָר אֲנִי בָּא לִתֵּן תּוֹרָה בְּסִינַי וְאֵינִי פּוֹתֵחַ תְּחִלָה אֶלָּא בָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אוֹמֵר לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ אָלֶ"ף, שֶׁהוּא מַסְכִּים מֵאָלֶ"ף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קה, ח): דָּבָר צִוָּה לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר. 79.6. וַיִּחַן אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר (בראשית לג, יח), חָנַן אֶת הַפָּנִים שֶׁבָּעִיר, הִתְחִיל מְשַׁלֵּחַ לָהֶם דּוֹרוֹנוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּחַן אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר, הִתְחִיל מַעֲמִיד הַטְּלִיסִין וּמוֹכֵר בְּזוֹל, הֲדָא אָמְרָת שֶׁאָדָם צָרִיךְ לְהַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ הֲנָאָה מִמֶּנּוּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרֵיהּ הֲווֹ טְמִירִין בִּמְעָרְתָא י"ג שָׁנָה בְּיוֹמֵי דִּשְׁמָדָא, וְהָיוּ אוֹכְלִין חֲרוּבִין שֶׁל גָּרוֹדָא עַד שֶׁהֶעֱלָה גּוּפָן חֲלוּדָה. לְסוֹף שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שְׁנִין נְפַק יְתֵיב עַל תְּרַע מְעָרְתָא, חֲמָא חַד צַיָּד קָאֵים וְצָיֵד צִיפֳּרִין, וְכַד הֲוָה שָׁמַע רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרַת קָלָא אָמְרָה מִן שְׁמַיָא דִּימוֹס דִּימוֹס, פַּסְגָּא. וְכַד הֲוָה שָׁמַע בְּרַת קָלָא אֲמָרַת סְפֶקוּלָא, הֲוַת מִתָּצְדָה וְנִלְכָּדָה. אָמַר, צִפּוֹר מִבַּלְעֲדֵי שְׁמַיָא לָא מִתָּצְדָא עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה נֶפֶשׁ דְּבַר נָשׁ, נְפַק וְאַשְׁכַּח מִלַּיָא מְשַׁדְּכָן, וְנִתְבַּטְּלָה הַגְּזֵרָה. אֲתוֹן וְאַסְחוֹן בַּהֲדָא בֵּי בָּנֵי דְּבֵית מוֹקֵד דִּטְבֶרְיָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּרֵיהּ כָּל הֲדָא טַבְתָא עֲבָדַת לָן טְבֶרְיָא וְלֵית אֲנַן מְדַכָּן יָתָהּ מִן קָטוֹלַיָא, אָמַר צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת טוֹבָה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהָיוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ עוֹשִׂים, שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹשִׂים אִיטְלוּסִין וּמוֹכְרִין בְּזוֹל, אָמַר צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לְדַכָּיָא טְבֶרְיָא, מָה עֲבַד, נְסַב תֻּרְמוּסָא וַהֲוָה מְקַצֵּץ תֻּרְמוּסָא וְשַׁדֵּי קְצוֹצוּתֵיהּ וּמְקַלֵּק בַּשּׁוּק, וְכָל אַתְרָא דַּהֲוָה קְטִילָא סָלֵיק וְאִינוּן מַפְקוּן וְנָפְקִין, וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁלֹא הָיְתָה שָׁמָּה טֻמְאָה תֻּרְמְסָא עוֹמֶדֶת, וְהוּא מְצַיֵּן אֵיזֶה מְקוֹם טֻמְאָה וּמְקוֹם טָהֳרָה, עַד זְמַן דְּדַכֵּי יָתָהּ מִן קָטִילַיָא. חֲמְתֵיהּ חַד כּוּתִי עַם דְאַרַע, אֲמַר לֵית אֲנָא אָזֵיל וּמַדְחַךְ בַּהֲדֵין סָבָא דִּיהוּדָאֵי, אִית דְּאָמְרֵי מִן הָדֵין שׁוּקָא דְּגַרְגִּינָא וְאִית דְּאָמְרֵי מִן הָדֵין שׁוּקָא דְּסַקָּאֵי, נְסַב קְטִיל וּטְמָרֵיהּ בְּשׁוּקָא דַּהֲווֹ מְדַכֵּי, בְּצַפְרָא אֲזַל אֲמַר לְהוֹן אַמְרִיתוּן דְּדַכֵּי בֶּן יוֹחָאי טְבֶרְיָא אֲתוֹן חֲמוּן הָדֵין קְטִילָא [נסח אחר: אזל לגביה אמר ליה לא דכיתא שוק פלן, אמר ליה הין, אמר ליה ואין אפיקת לך מיתין מן בתרך, אמר ליה גוד חמי ליה], צָפָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁהוּא נְתָנוֹ שָׁם, אָמַר גּוֹזֵר אֲנִי עַל הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁיֵּרֵד וְעַל הַתַּחְתּוֹן שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה, וַהֲוָה כֵן. וּסְלֵיק וּשְׁבַת בְּבֵיתֵיהּ, וַעֲבַר בְּהָדֵין מִגְדְּלָא דְּצַבָּעַיָא שְׁמַע קָלָא דְּנַקָּאי סַפְרָא, אָמַר לָא אַמְרִיתוּן דְּדַכֵּי בַּר יוֹחָאי לִטְבֶרְיָה, אָמְרִין אַשְׁכְּחוּן חַד קְטִילָא, אָמַר יָבוֹא עָלַי אִם אֵין בְּיָדִי הֲלָכוֹת כִּשְׂעַר רֹאשִׁי עַל טְבֶרְיָה שֶׁהִיא טְהוֹרָה חוּץ מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה וְאַתָּה לֹא הָיִיתָ בַּמִּנְיָן עִמָּנוּ שֶׁנִּטְהֲרָה, פָּרַצְתָּ גְּדֵרָן שֶׁל חֲכָמִים, וְעָלֶיךָ נֶאֱמַר (קהלת י, ח): וּפֹרֵץ גָּדֵר יִשְּׁכֶנּוּ נָחָשׁ, מִיָּד נַעֲשָׂה גַּל שֶׁל עֲצָמוֹת. עָבַר בַּהֲדָא בִּקְעַת דְּבֵית נְטוֹפָא, חֲמָא חַד בַּר נָשׁ קָאֵים וּמְלַקֵּט סְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית, אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא סְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית הֵן, אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא אַתָּה הוּא שֶׁהִתַּרְתָּ, לֹא כָךְ תְּנֵינַן רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר כָּל הַסְּפִיחִין מֻתָּרִין חוּץ מִסְּפִיחֵי כְּרוּב שֶׁאֵין כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם בְּיַרְקוֹת שָׂדֶה, אָמַר לוֹ וַהֲלוֹא חֲבֵרַי חוֹלְקִים עָלַי, פָּרַצְתָּ גְּדֵרָן שֶׁל חֲכָמִים וּפֹרֵץ גָּדֵר יִשְּׁכֶנּוּ נָחָשׁ, וְכֵן הֲוַת לֵיהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּחַן אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר, נִכְנַס בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת עִם דִּמְדּוּמֵי חַמָּה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וְקָבַע תְּחוּמִין מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. הֲדָא אָמְרָת שֶׁשָּׁמַר יַעֲקֹב אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתַּן. 1.1. The great Rabbi Hoshaya opened [with the verse (Mishlei 8:30),] \"I [the Torah] was an amon to Him and I was a plaything to Him every day.\" Amon means \"pedagogue\" (i.e. ny). Amon means \"covered.\" Amon means \"hidden.\" And there is one who says amon means \"great.\" Amon means \"ny,\" as in (Bamidbar 11:12) “As a ny (omein) carries the suckling child.\" Amon means \"covered,\" as in (Eichah 4:5) \"Those who were covered (emunim) in scarlet have embraced refuse heaps.\" Amon means \"hidden,\" as in (Esther 2:7) \"He hid away (omein) Hadassah.\" Amon means \"great,\" as in (Nahum 3:8) \"Are you better than No-amon [which dwells in the rivers]?\" which the Targum renders as, \"Are you better than Alexandria the Great (amon), which dwells between the rivers?\" Alternatively, amon means \"artisan.\" The Torah is saying, \"I was the artisan's tool of Hashem.\" In the way of the world, a king of flesh and blood who builds a castle does not do so from his own knowledge, but rather from the knowledge of an architect, and the architect does not build it from his own knowledge, but rather he has scrolls and books in order to know how to make rooms and doorways. So too Hashem gazed into the Torah and created the world. Similarly the Torah says, \"Through the reishis Hashem created [the heavens and the earth],\" and reishis means Torah, as in \"Hashem made me [the Torah] the beginning (reishis) of His way\" (Mishlei 8:22)."
10. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 48, 348 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

11. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, 1.1, 2.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

12. Palestinian Talmud, Moed Qatan, 3.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13. Palestinian Talmud, Sotah, 3.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14. Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

15. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

2a. מתני׳ big strongלפני /strong /big אידיהן של עובדי כוכבים שלשה ימים אסור לשאת ולתת עמהם להשאילן ולשאול מהן להלוותן וללוות מהן לפורען ולפרוע מהן רבי יהודה אומר נפרעין מהן מפני שמיצר הוא לו אמרו לו אע"פ שמיצר הוא עכשיו שמח הוא לאחר זמן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big רב ושמואל חד תני אידיהן וחד תני עידיהן מאן דתני אידיהן לא משתבש ומאן דתני עידיהן לא משתבש,מאן דתני אידיהן לא משתבש דכתיב (דברים לב, לה) כי קרוב יום אידם ומאן דתני עידיהן לא משתבש דכתיב (ישעיהו מג, ט) יתנו עידיהם ויצדקו,ומאן דתני אידיהן מאי טעמא לא תני עידיהן אמר לך תברא עדיף ומאן דתני עידיהן מאי טעמא לא תני אידיהן אמר לך מאן קא גרים להו תברא עדות שהעידו בעצמן הלכך עדות עדיפא,והאי יתנו עידיהם ויצדקו בעובדי כוכבים כתיב הא בישראל כתיב דאמר ריב"ל כל מצות שישראל עושין בעולם הזה באות ומעידות להם לעוה"ב שנאמר יתנו עידיהם ויצדקו אלו ישראל ישמעו ויאמרו אמת אלו עובדי כוכבים,אלא אמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע מאן דאמר עידיהן מהכא (ישעיהו מד, ט) יוצרי פסל כולם תוהו וחמודיהם בל יועילו ועידיהם המה,דרש ר' חנינא בר פפא ואיתימא ר' שמלאי לעתיד לבא מביא הקדוש ברוך הוא ס"ת [ומניחו] בחיקו ואומר למי שעסק בה יבא ויטול שכרו,מיד מתקבצין ובאין עובדי כוכבים בערבוביא שנאמר (ישעיהו מג, ט) כל הגוים נקבצו יחדו [וגו'] אמר להם הקדוש ברוך הוא אל תכנסו לפני בערבוביא אלא תכנס כל אומה ואומה 2a. strongMISHNA: /strong On the bthree days before the festivals of gentilesthe following actions are prohibited, as they would bring joy to the gentile, who would subsequently give thanks to his object of idol worship on his festival: It is bprohibited to engage in business with them; to lenditems bto them or to borrowitems bfrom them; to lendmoney bto them or to borrowmoney bfrom them;and bto repaydebts owed to bthem or to collect repaymentof debts bfrom them. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may collect repaymentof debts bfrom them because this causesthe gentile bdistress.The Rabbis bsaid toRabbi Yehuda: bEven though he is distressed now,when he repays the money, bhe is happy afterwardthat he is relieved of the debt, and therefore there is concern that he will give thanks to his object of idol worship on his festival., strongGEMARA: /strong bRav and Shmueldisagree with regard to the correct version of the text of the mishna. bOne teachesthe term meaning: Their festivals, as ieideihen /i,spelled with an ialefas the first letter, band one teaches ieideihen /iwith an iayinas the first letter. The Gemara comments: bThe one who teaches ieideihen /iwith an ialef bis not mistaken, and the one who teaches ieideihen /iwith an iayin bis not mistaken,as there is support for each version of the term.,The Gemara elaborates: bThe one who teaches ieideihen /iwith an ialef bis not mistaken, as it is written: “For the day of their calamity [ ieidam /i] is at hand”(Deuteronomy 32:35), and the future downfall mentioned in the verse is partly due to the festivals of idol worshippers. The term there is spelled with an ialef /i. bAndlikewise, bthe one who teaches ieideihen /iwith an iayin bis not mistaken, as it is written: “Let them bring their witnesses [ ieideihem /i], that they may be justified”(Isaiah 43:9), i.e., the festivals will serve as witnesses against gentile sinners, proving that they engaged in idol worship. The term there is spelled with an iayin /i.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe one who teaches ieideihen /iwith an ialef /i, bwhat is the reasonthat bhe did not teach ieideihen /iwith an iayin /i? The Gemara answers: He could have bsaid to youthat a term that refers to ba calamity is preferable.The Gemara asks: bAnd the one who teaches ieideihen /iwith an iayin /i, bwhat is the reasonthat bhe did not teach ieideihen /iwith an ialef /i? The Gemara answers: He could have bsaid to you: What causesthis bcalamityto happen to bthem?It is bthe testimony that they testified against themselves. Therefore,a term that references btestimony is preferable. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut is thisverse: b“Let them bring their witnesses that they may be justified,” written with regard to the nations of the world? Isn’t it written with regard to the Jewish people? As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: All the mitzvot that the Jews perform in this worldwill bcome and bear witness for them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Let them bring their witnesses that they may be justified.” These are the Jews,as their good deeds bear witness for them and demonstrate their righteousness. When the verse states: b“And let them hear, and say: It is truth”(Isaiah 43:9), bthese are the nations of the world,who will admit to the righteousness of the Jews., bRather, Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: The one who saysthat the correct word is ieideihen /iwith an iayinderived this use of the term bfrom here: “They that fashion a graven image are all of them vanity, and their delectable things shall not profit; and their own witnesses [ ieideihem /i]see not, nor know” (Isaiah 44:9). This demonstrates that the objects of idol worship will serve as witnesses against their worshippers.,§ The Gemara cites homiletic interpretations of the verse that was discussed earlier: “All the nations are gathered together, and let the peoples be assembled; who among them can declare this, and announce to us former matters? Let them bring their witnesses, that they may be justified; and let them hear, and say: It is truth” (Isaiah 43:9). bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught, and some saythat it was bRabbi Simlaiwho taught: bIn the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He,will bbring a Torah scroll and place it in His lap and say:Anyone bwho engaged in itsstudy bshould come and take his reward. /b, bImmediately, the nations of the worldwill bgathertogether band come intermingledwith each other, bas it is stated: “All the nations are gathered togetherand let the peoples be assembled.” bThe Holy One, Blessed be He,will bsay to them: Do not enter before Me intermingled; rather, let each and every nation enter /b
16. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

75a. קניגיא עם לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, כה) התמשוך לויתן בחכה ובחבל תשקיע לשונו ואלמלא הקב"ה עוזרו אין יכול לו שנאמר (איוב מ, יט) העושו יגש חרבו,כי אתא רב דימי אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שלויתן רעב מוציא הבל מפיו ומרתיח כל מימות שבמצולה שנאמר (איוב מא, כג) ירתיח כסיר מצולה ואלמלא מכניס ראשו לגן עדן אין כל בריה יכולה לעמוד בריחו שנאמר (איוב מא, כג) ים ישים כמרקחה,ובשעה שצמא עושה תלמים תלמים בים שנאמר (איוב מא, כד) אחריו יאיר נתיב אמר רב אחא בר יעקב אין תהום חוזר לאיתנו עד שבעים שנה שנאמר (איוב מא, כד) יחשוב תהום לשיבה ואין שיבה פחותה משבעים,אמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות סעודה לצדיקים מבשרו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, ל) יכרו עליו חברים ואין כרה אלא סעודה שנאמר (מלכים ב ו, כג) ויכרה להם כרה גדולה ויאכלו וישתו ואין חברים אלא תלמידי חכמים שנאמר (שיר השירים ח, יג) היושבת בגנים חברים מקשיבים לקולך השמיעני,והשאר מחלקין אותו ועושין בו סחורה בשוקי ירושלים שנאמר (איוב מ, ל) יחצוהו בין כנענים ואין כנענים אלא תגרים שנאמר (הושע יב, ח) כנען בידו מאזני מרמה לעשק אהב ואי בעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו כג, ח) אשר סוחריה שרים כנעניה נכבדי ארץ,ואמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות סוכה לצדיקים מעורו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, לא) התמלא בשכות עורו זכה עושין לו סוכה לא זכה עושין לו צלצל שנאמר (איוב מ, לא) ובצלצל דגים ראשו,זכה עושין לו צלצל לא זכה עושין לו ענק שנאמר (משלי א, ט) וענקים לגרגרותיך זכה עושין לו ענק לא זכה עושין לו קמיע שנאמר (איוב מ, כט) ותקשרנו לנערותיך,והשאר פורסו הקב"ה על חומות ירושלים וזיוו מבהיק מסוף העולם ועד סופו שנאמר (ישעיהו ס, ג) והלכו גוים לאורך ומלכים לנוגה זרחך:,(ישעיהו נד, יב) ושמתי כדכד שמשותיך א"ר שמואל בר נחמני פליגי תרי מלאכי ברקיעא גבריאל ומיכאל ואמרי לה תרי אמוראי במערבא ומאן אינון יהודה וחזקיה בני רבי חייא חד אמר שוהם וחד אמר ישפה אמר להו הקב"ה להוי כדין וכדין,(ישעיהו נד, יב) ושעריך לאבני אקדח כי הא דיתיב רבי יוחנן וקא דריש עתיד הקב"ה להביא אבנים טובות ומרגליות שהם שלשים על שלשים וחוקק בהן עשר על עשרים ומעמידן בשערי ירושלים לגלג עליו אותו תלמיד השתא כביעתא דציצלא לא משכחינן כולי האי משכחינן,לימים הפליגה ספינתו בים חזא מלאכי השרת דיתבי וקא מינסרי אבנים טובות ומרגליות שהם ל' על ל' וחקוק בהן עשר ברום עשרים אמר להו הני למאן אמרו ליה שעתיד הקב"ה להעמידן בשערי ירושלים אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן אמר ליה דרוש רבי לך נאה לדרוש כאשר אמרת כן ראיתי אמר לו ריקא אלמלא (לא) ראית לא האמנת מלגלג על דברי חכמים אתה נתן עיניו בו ונעשה גל של עצמות,מיתיבי (ויקרא כו, יג) ואולך אתכם קוממיות רבי מאיר אומר מאתים אמה כשתי קומות של אדם הראשון,רבי יהודה אומר מאה אמה כנגד היכל וכתליו שנאמר (תהלים קמד, יב) אשר בנינו כנטיעים מגודלים בנעוריהם בנותינו כזויות מחוטבות תבנית היכל כי קאמר ר' יוחנן לכווי דבי זיקא,ואמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות שבע חופות לכל צדיק וצדיק שנאמר (ישעיהו ד, ה) וברא ה' על כל מכון הר ציון ועל מקראיה ענן יומם ועשן ונוגה אש להבה לילה כי על כל כבוד חופה מלמד שכל אחד ואחד עושה לו הקדוש ברוך הוא חופה לפי כבודו,עשן בחופה למה אמר רבי חנינא שכל מי שעיניו צרות בתלמידי חכמים בעולם הזה מתמלאות עיניו עשן לעולם הבא ואש בחופה למה אמר רבי חנינא מלמד שכל אחד ואחד נכוה מחופתו של חבירו אוי לה לאותה בושה אוי לה לאותה כלימה,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (במדבר כז, כ) ונתתה מהודך עליו ולא כל הודך זקנים שבאותו הדור אמרו פני משה כפני חמה פני יהושע כפני לבנה אוי לה לאותה בושה אוי לה לאותה כלימה,אמר רבי חמא (בר) חנינא עשר חופות עשה הקדוש ברוך הוא לאדם הראשון בגן עדן שנאמר (יחזקאל כח, יג) בעדן גן אלהים היית כל אבן יקרה וגו' מר זוטרא אמר אחת עשרה שנאמר כל אבן יקרה אמר רבי יוחנן וגרוע שבכולן זהב דקא חשיב ליה לבסוף,מאי (יחזקאל כח, יג) מלאכת תופיך ונקביך בך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לחירם מלך צור בך נסתכלתי ובראתי נקבים נקבים באדם ואיכא דאמרי הכי קאמר בך נסתכלתי 75a. ba hunt of the leviathan, as it is stated: “Can you draw out leviathan with a fish hook? Or press down his tongue with a cord?”(Job 40:25). bAnd were the Holy One, Blessed be He, not assistingGabriel, bhe would not be able tohunt bit, as it is stated: “Only He Who made him can use His sword to approach him”(Job 40:19)., bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Whenthe bleviathan is hungry, he produces breath from his mouth andthereby bboils all of the waters in the depthsof the sea. bAs it is stated: “He makes the deep boil like a pot”(Job 41:23). bAnd ifthe leviathan bdid not place its head in the Garden of Eden, no creature could withstand hisfoul bsmell, as it is stated: “He makes the sea like a seething mixture [ imerkaḥa /i]”(Job 41:23), and the term imerkaḥais also used to describe something with a smell (see Exodus 30:25)., bAnd when he is thirsty, he makes many furrows in the sea, as it is stated: “He makes a path to shine after him”(Job 41:24). bRav Aḥa bar Yaakov says:After the leviathan drinks from the sea, bthe depthof the sea does bnot return to its normal condition until seventy yearshave passed, bas it is stated: “One would think the deep to be hoary”(Job 41:24), band hoaryindicates a person who is bno less than seventyyears old., bRabba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will make a feast for the righteous from the flesh of the leviathan, as it is stated: “The iḥabbarimwill make a feast [ iyikhru /i] of him”(Job 40:30). bAnd ikera /imeans bnothing other than a feast, as it is stated: “And he prepared [ iva’yikhreh /i] for them a great feast [ ikera /i]; and they ate and drank”(II Kings 6:23). bAnd iḥabbarim /imeans bnothing other than Torah scholars, as it is stated: “You that dwell in the gardens, the companions [ iḥaverim /i] hearken for your voice: Cause me to hear it”(Song of Songs 8:13). This verse is interpreted as referring to Torah scholars, who listen to God’s voice., bAndwith regard to bthe remainderof the leviathan, they will bdivide it and use it for commerce in the markets of Jerusalem, as it is stated: “They will part him among the ikena’anim /i”(Job 40:30). bAnd ikena’anim /imeans bnothing other than merchants, as it is stated: “As for the merchant [ ikena’an /i], the balances of deceit are in his hand. He loves to oppress”(Hosea 12:8). bAnd if you wish, saythat the proof is bfrom here: “Whose merchants are princes, whose traffickers [ ikieha /i] are the honorable of the earth”(Isaiah 23:8)., bAnd Rabba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will prepare a isukkafor the righteous from the skin ofthe bleviathan, as it is stated: “Can you fill his skin with barbed irons [ ibesukkot /i]”(Job 40:31). If one bis deservingof being called righteous, an entire isukkais prepared for himfrom the skin of the leviathan; if one is bnot deservingof this honor, ba covering is prepared for hishead, bas it is stated: “Or his head with fish-spears”(Job 40:31).,If one is bdeservingat least of this reward, ba covering is prepared for him,and if one is bnot deserving, a necklace is prepared for him, as it is stated: “And necklaces about your neck”(Proverbs 1:9). If one is somewhat bdeserving, a necklace is prepared for him,and if one is bnot deservingeven of this, only ban amu-let is prepared for himfrom the skin of the leviathan, bas it is stated: “Or will you bind him for your maidens”(Job 40:29), i.e., a small amulet is prepared for him, like the amulets tied on children’s necks., bAndwith regard to bthe remainingpart of the skin of the leviathan, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, spreads it on the walls of Jerusalem, and its glory radiates fromone bend of the world until theother bend. As it is stated: “And nations shall walk in your light, and kings at the brightness of your rising”(Isaiah 60:3).,§ With regard to the future glory of Jerusalem, the Gemara interprets the verse: b“And I will make your pinnacles of ikadkhod /i”(Isaiah 54:12). bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Two angels in heaven, Gabriel and Michael, disagreewith regard to the material that will be used to form the walls of Jerusalem. bAnd some saythat this dispute is between btwo iamora’imin the West,i.e., Eretz Yisrael. bAnd who are they?They are bYehuda and Ḥizkiyya, the sons of Rabbi Ḥiyya. One saidthey will be made of bonyx, and one saidof bjasper. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: Let it be like this [ ikedein /i] and like that [ iukhedein /i],i.e., let them be formed from both together. This compromise is indicated by the word ikadkhod /i, a combination of this [ ikedein /i] and that [ iukhedein /i].,The Gemara analyzes the rest of that verse: b“And your gates of precious stones”(Isaiah 54:12). This should be understood binlight of bthatincident bwhere Rabbi Yoḥa sat and taught:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will bring precious stones and pearls that are thirty by thirtycubits, band He will hollow out in thema hole of bten by twentycubits band set them in the gates of Jerusalem. A certainunnamed bstudent sneered at him,saying: bNow we do not findprecious stones even bofthe size of ban egg of a dove,and yet ball of this we will find? /b, bAftera period of btimethat student’s bship went to sea,where bhe saw ministering angels sitting and sawing precious stones and pearls that were thirty by thirtycubits, band hollowed out in themwere holes of bten by twentycubits. bHe said tothe angels: bFor whom are these? They said to him thatin the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will place them in the gates of Jerusalem.Later, the student bcame before Rabbi Yoḥaand bsaid to him:Continue to binterpret, my teacher, it is fitting for you to interpret,as bI sawjust bas you said.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Worthlessman, bif you had not seen, you would not have believed;clearly, byou are mocking the statement of the Sages.Rabbi Yoḥa bset his eyes upon him, andthe student was instantly killed band turned into a pile of bones. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionagainst Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement, based on a ibaraita /i. The verse states: b“And I will make you go upright [ ikomemiyyut /i]”(Leviticus 26:13). bRabbi Meir says:In the future, the Jewish people will have the stature of btwo hundred cubits, equivalent to twotimes the bheight [ ikomot /i] of Adam the firstman, whose height was one hundred cubits. Rabbi Meir interprets the word ikomemiyyutas two ikomot /i., bRabbi Yehuda says:They will have the stature of bone hundred cubits, corresponding to the Sanctuary and its walls, as it is stated: “We whose sons are as plants grown up in their youth; whose daughters are as corner-pillars carved after the fashion of the Sanctuary”(Psalms 144:12). But if they are each one hundred cubits tall, how could the Jews enter the gates of Jerusalem, whose entrance gate will be ten by twenty cubits, as claimed by Rabbi Yoḥa? The Gemara answers: bWhen Rabbi Yoḥa statedthat idea, he was not referring to the gates themselves but btothe bwindows thatallow bwindto enter.,§ bAnd Rabba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will fashion seven canopies for each and every righteousindividual, bas it is stated: “And the Lord will create over the whole habitation of Mount Zion, and over those who are invited to it, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night; for over all the glory shall be a canopy”(Isaiah 4:5). This bteaches thatfor beach and everyrighteous individual, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, fashions for him a canopyseven times over, bin accordance with his honor,i.e., greater individuals receive grander and larger canopies.,The Gemara asks a question with regard to the above verse: bWhyshould there be bsmoke in a canopy? Rabbi Ḥanina said:It is bbecause anyone whose eyes are narrow,i.e., is stingy, btoward Torah scholars in this world, his eyes fill with smoke in the World-to-Come. And whyshould there be bfire in a canopy? Rabbi Ḥanina said:This bteaches that each and every one is burned fromembarrassment at the size of bthe canopy of the other,and says: bWoe for this embarrassment, woe for this disgrace,that I did not merit a canopy as large as his., bIn a similar manner, youcan bsaythat God said to Moses about Joshua: b“And you shall put of your honor upon him”(Numbers 27:20), which indicates that you should put some of your honor, bbut not all of your honor. The elders of that generation said: The face of Moseswas as bright bas the face of the sun; the face of Joshuawas blike the face of the moon. Woe for this embarrassment, woe for this disgrace,that we did not merit another leader of the stature of Moses., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, fashioned ten canopies for Adam the firstman, bin the Garden of Eden; as it is statedto Hiram, king of Tyre: b“You were in Eden the garden of God; every precious stonewas your covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of your drums and of your holes was in you; they were prepared on the day that you were created” (Ezekiel 28:13). This verse mentions ten items, from carnelian to gold. bMar Zutra said:There were belevencanopies, bas it states: “Every precious stone,”which is also part of the tally. bRabbi Yoḥa said: And the worst of all of themwas bgold, as it is counted last,which indicates that the other items are more valuable.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“The workmanship of your drums and of your holes [ inekavekha /i]”(Ezekiel 28:13)? bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Hiram, king of Tyre:Were you in the Garden of Eden when I created all of this for you? bI looked at you,saw that you would one day claim divinity for yourself, band created many orifices [ inekavim /i] in man,i.e., the excretory system, so that you would know that you are human and not a god. bAnd there arethose bwho saythat bthisis what God bsaidto Hiram: bI looked at you /b
17. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

84b. ואפילו הכי לא סמך רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון אדעתיה קביל עליה יסורי באורתא הוו מייכי ליה שיתין נמטי לצפרא נגדי מתותיה שיתין משיכלי דמא וכיבא,למחר עבדה ליה דביתהו שיתין מיני לפדא ואכיל להו וברי ולא הות שבקא ליה דביתהו למיפק לבי מדרשא כי היכי דלא לדחקוהו רבנן,באורתא אמר להו אחיי ורעיי בואו בצפרא אמר להו זילו מפני ביטול תורה יומא חד שמעה דביתהו אמרה ליה את קא מייתית להו עילויך כלית ממון של בית אבא אימרדה אזלה לבית נשא,סליקו ואתו הנך [שיתין] ספונאי עיילו ליה שיתין עבדי כי נקיטי שיתין ארנקי ועבדו ליה שיתין מיני לפדא ואכיל להו,יומא חד אמרה לה לברתה זילי בקי באבוך מאי קא עביד האידנא אתיא אמר לה זילי אמרי לאמך שלנו גדול משלהם קרי אנפשיה (משלי לא, יד) היתה כאניות סוחר ממרחק תביא לחמה אכל ושתי וברי נפק לבי מדרשא,אייתו לקמיה שתין מיני דמא טהרינהו הוה קא מרנני רבנן ואמרי סלקא דעתך לית בהו חד ספק אמר להו אם כמותי הוא יהיו כולם זכרים ואם לאו תהא נקבה אחת ביניהם היו כולם זכרים ואסיקו להו ר' אלעזר על שמיה,תניא אמר רבי כמה פריה ורביה ביטלה רשעה זו מישראל,כי הוה קא ניחא נפשיה אמר לה לדביתהו ידענא בדרבנן דרתיחי עלי ולא מיעסקי בי שפיר אוגנין בעיליתאי ולא תידחלין מינאי א"ר שמואל בר נחמני אישתעיא לי אימיה דרבי יונתן דאישתעיא לה דביתהו דרבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון לא פחות מתמני סרי ולא טפי מעשרין ותרין שנין אוגניתיה בעיליתא,כי הוה סליקנא מעיננא ליה במזייה כי הוה משתמטא ביניתא מיניה הוה אתי דמא יומא חד חזאי ריחשא דקא נפיק מאוניה חלש דעתאי איתחזי לי בחלמא אמר לי לא מידי הוא יומא חד שמעי בזילותא דצורבא מרבנן ולא מחאי כדבעי לי,כי הוו אתו בי תרי לדינא הוו קיימי אבבא אמר מר מילתיה ומר מילתיה נפיק קלא מעיליתיה ואמר איש פלוני אתה חייב איש פלוני אתה זכאי יומא חד הוה קא מינציא דביתהו בהדי שבבתא אמרה לה תהא כבעלה שלא ניתן לקבורה אמרי רבנן כולי האי ודאי לאו אורח ארעא,איכא דאמרי רבי שמעון בן יוחאי איתחזאי להו בחלמא אמר להו פרידה אחת יש לי ביניכם ואי אתם רוצים להביאה אצלי אזול רבנן לאעסוקי ביה לא שבקו בני עכבריא דכל שני דהוה ניים רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון בעיליתיה לא סליק חיה רעה למתייהו,יומא חד מעלי יומא דכיפורי הוה הוו טרידי שדרו רבנן לבני בירי ואסקוהו לערסיה ואמטיוה למערתא דאבוה אשכחוה לעכנא דהדרא לה למערתא אמרו לה עכנא עכנא פתחי פיך ויכנס בן אצל אביו פתח להו,שלח רבי לדבר באשתו שלחה ליה כלי שנשתמש בו קודש ישתמש בו חול תמן אמרין באתר דמרי ביתא תלא זייניה כולבא רעיא קולתיה תלא שלח לה נהי דבתורה גדול ממני אבל במעשים טובים מי גדול ממני שלחה ליה בתורה מיהא גדול ממך לא ידענא במעשים ידענא דהא קביל עליה יסורי,בתורה מאי היא דכי הוו יתבי רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבי יהושע בן קרחה אספסלי יתבי קמייהו רבי אלעזר בר' שמעון ורבי אארעא,מקשו ומפרקו אמרי מימיהן אנו שותים והם יושבים על גבי קרקע עבדו להו ספסלי אסקינהו,אמר להן רבן שמעון בן גמליאל פרידה אחת יש לי ביניכם ואתם מבקשים לאבדה הימני אחתוהו לרבי אמר להן רבי יהושע בן קרחה מי שיש לו אב יחיה ומי שאין לו אב ימות אחתוהו נמי לרבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון חלש דעתיה אמר קא חשביתו ליה כוותי,עד ההוא יומא כי הוה אמר רבי מילתא הוה מסייע ליה רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון מכאן ואילך כי הוה אמר רבי יש לי להשיב אמר ליה רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון כך וכך יש לך להשיב זו היא תשובתך השתא היקפתנו תשובות חבילות שאין בהן ממש,חלש דעתיה דרבי אתא א"ל לאבוה אמר ליה בני אל ירע לך שהוא ארי בן ארי ואתה ארי בן שועל,והיינו דאמר רבי שלשה ענוותנין הן ואלו הן אבא 84b. § After this digression, the Gemara returns to the story of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bAndalthough his flesh did not putrefy, beven so Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,still bdid not rely on hisown bopinion,as he was worried that he may have erred in one of his decisions. bHe accepted afflictions upon himselfas atonement for his possible sins. bAt nighthis attendants bwould spread out sixty feltbed coverings bfor him. In the morning,despite the bed coverings, bthey would remove sixty basins of blood and pus from underneath him. /b, bThe following day,i.e., every morning, bhis wife would prepare for him sixty types of relish [ ilifda /i]made from figs, band he would eat them and become healthy. His wife,concerned for his health, bwould not allow him to go to the study hall, so that the Rabbis would not push himbeyond his limits., bIn the evening, hewould bsay tohis pains: bMy brothers and my friends, come! In the morning hewould bsay to them: Goaway, bdue tothe bderelictionof bTorahstudy that you cause me. bOne day his wife heard himinviting his pains. bShe said to him: You are bringingthe pains bupon yourself. You have diminished the money ofmy bfather’s homedue to the costs of treating your self-imposed afflictions. bShe rebelledagainst him and bwentback bto her father’s home,and he was left with no one to care for him.,Meanwhile, there were bthese sixty sailorswho bcame and enteredto visit Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bThey brought him sixty servants,each bbearing sixty purses, and prepared him sixty types of relish and he ate them.When they had encountered trouble at sea, these sailors had prayed to be saved in the merit of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. Upon returning to dry land, they presented him with these gifts., bOne day,the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bsaid to her daughter: Goand bcheck on your fatherand see bwhat he is doing now.The daughter bcameto her father, who bsaid to her: Goand btell your motherthat bours is greater than theirs,i.e., my current ficial status is greater than that of your father’s household. bHe readthe verse babout himself: “She is like the merchant-ships; she brings her food from afar”(Proverbs 31:14). As he was unhindered by his wife from going to the study hall, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bate and drank and became healthy and went out to the study hall. /b,The students bbrought sixtyquestionable bsamples of blood before himfor inspection, to determine whether or not they were menstrual blood. bHe deemed themall britually pure,thereby permitting the women to engage in intercourse with their husbands. bThe Rabbisof the academy bwere murmuring aboutRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, band saying:Can it benter your mindthat bthere is not one uncertainsample bamong them?He must be mistaken. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bsaid to them: Ifthe ihalakha bisin accordance with bmyruling, blet allthe children born from these women bbe males. And if not, let there be one female among them.It turned out that ballof the children bwere males, andthey bwere called Elazar in his name. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi lamented and bsaidconcerning the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: bHow much procreationhas bthis evil woman prevented from the Jewish people.She caused women not to have children by preventing her husband from going to the study hall and rendering his halakhic rulings., bAsRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bwas dying, he said to his wife: I know that the Rabbis are angry at mefor arresting several thieves who are their relatives, bandtherefore bthey will not properly tend to myburial. When I die, blay me in my attic and do not be afraid of me,i.e., do not fear that anything will happen to my corpse. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Rabbi Yonatan’s mother told me that the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, told her: I laid him in the atticfor bno less than eighteenyears bandfor bno more than twenty-two years. /b,His wife continued: bWhen I would go upto the attic bI would check his hair,and bwhen a hair would fall out fromhis head, bblood would comeand appear in its place, i.e., his corpse did not decompose. bOne day I saw a worm emerging from his ear,and bI becamevery bdistressedthat perhaps his corpse had begun to decompose. My husband bappeared to me in a dreamand bsaid to me: It is no matterfor concern. Rather, this is a consequence for a sin of mine, as bone day I heard a Torah scholar being insulted and I did not protest as I should have.Therefore, I received this punishment in my ear, measure for measure.,During this period, bwhen twopeople bwould come for adjudication ofa dispute, bthey would stand by the doorwayto the home of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bOnelitigant bwould state hisside of the bmatter, and the otherlitigant would state bhisside of the bmatter. A voice would issue forth from his attic, saying: So-and-so, you are guilty; so-and-so, you are innocent.The Gemara relates: bOne day, the wife ofRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bwas quarreling with a neighbor.The neighbor bsaid to heras a curse: This woman bshould be like her husband, who was not buried.When word spread that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had not been buried, bthe Rabbis said: This much,i.e., now that the matter is known, to continue in this state is bcertainly not proper conduct,and they decided to bury him., bThere arethose bwho saythat the Sages found out that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had not been buried when bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai,his father, bappeared to them in a dream and said to them: I have a single fledgling among you,i.e., my son, band you do not wish to bring it to meby burying him next to me. Consequently, bthe Sages went to tend tohis burial. bThe residents of Akhbaria,the town where the corpse of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was resting, bdid not allowthem to do so, basthey realized that ball the years that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had been resting in his attic, no wild beast had entered their town.The townspeople attributed this phenomenon to his merit and they did not want to lose this protection., bOne day,which bwas Yom Kippur eve,everyone in the town bwas preoccupiedwith preparations for the Festival. bThe Rabbis senta message bto the residents ofthe adjacent town bof Biriinstructing them to help remove the body of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, from the attic, band they removed his bier and brought it to his father’sburial bcave. They found a serpent [ ile’akhna /i] thathad placed its tail in its mouth and completely bencircledthe entrance to bthe cave,denying them access. bThey said to it: Serpent, serpent! Open your mouth to allow a son to enter next to his father. It openedits mouth bfor themand uncoiled, and they buried Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, alongside his father.,The Gemara continues: After this incident, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsenta messenger bto speak with the wife ofRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and propose marriage. bShe senta message bto himin response: Shall ba vessel used bysomeone bsacred,i.e., Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bbe used bysomeone who is, relative to him, bprofane? There,in Eretz Yisrael, bthey saythat she used the colloquial adage: bIn the locationwhere bthe master of the house hangs his sword,shall bthe contemptible shepherd hang his basket [ ikultei /i]?Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsenta message back bto her: Granted that in Torah he was greater than I, but washe bgreater than I in pious deeds? She senta message back bto him: Whetherhe was bgreater than you in Torah I do not know;but bI do knowthat he was greater than you binpious bdeeds, as he accepted afflictions upon himself. /b,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to Torahknowledge, bwhat isthe event that demonstrated the superiority of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, over Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? The Gemara answers: bWhen Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa,the leading Sages of the generation, bwere sitting on benches [ iasafselei /i]teaching Torah along with the other Sages, the youthful pair bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould sit before them on the groundout of respect.,These two young students would engage in discussions with the Sages, in which they would braise difficulties and answerthem brilliantly. Seeing the young scholars’ brilliance, the leading Sages bsaid: From their waters we drink,i.e., we are learning from them, band they arethe ones bsitting on the ground? Benches were prepared forRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, band they were promotedto sit alongside the other Sages., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel said tothe other Sages present: bI have a single fledgling among you,i.e., my son Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, band you are seeking to take it from me?By promoting my son to such a prestigious position at such a young age, his chances of being adversely affected by the evil eye are greatly increased. bThey demoted RabbiYehuda HaNasi to sit on the ground, at his father’s request. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said tothe Sages: Should bone who has a fatherto care for him, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, be demoted so that he may blive, whilethe other bone, who does not have a fatherto care for him, i.e., Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, should be allowed to bdie?Upon hearing his argument, the Sages balso demoted Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,without explaining to him the reason for his demotion. bHe became offendedand bsaidto them: bYou are equatingRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bto me,by demoting us together. In fact, I am much greater than he.,As a result of that incident, the relationship of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, with Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi changed. Up buntil that day, when RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould state a matterof Torah, bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would support himby citing proofs for his opinion. bFrom thispoint bforward, whenthey were discussing a subject and bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould say: I havean argument bto respond, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, wouldpreempt him by bsaying to him: Such and such is what you have to respond,and bthis is the refutation of yourclaim. bNowthat you asked these questions, byou have surrounded us with bundles of refutations that have no substance,i.e., you have forced us to give unnecessary answers. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would anticipate Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s comments and immediately dismiss them as having no value., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bbecame offended. He cameand btold his fatherwhat had transpired. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel bsaidto him: bMy son, do not lethis actions boffendyou, bas he is a lion, son of a lion, and you are a lion, son of a fox.Rabbi Elazar’s father, Rabbi Shimon, was a renowned Sage, and therefore Rabbi Elazar’s sagacity is not surprising. In any event, this incident demonstrates the superiority of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi with regard to knowledge of Torah.,The Gemara concludes: bThisincident bisthe background to a statement bwhich RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: There are threeprototypical bmodestpeople, band they are: Father,i.e., Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel;
18. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

92a. יכול אפילו מעולה בדמים ת"ל רק,שמואל אייתי ליה אריסיה תמרי אכיל טעים בהו טעמא דחמרא א"ל מאי האי א"ל ביני גופני קיימי אמר מכחשי בחמרא כולי האי למחר אייתי לי מקורייהו:,רב חסדא חזא תאלי בי גופני אמר ליה לאריסיה עקרינהו גופני קני דקלי דקלי לא קני גופני:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אע"פ שהוא נותן לו אין נמחל לו עד שיבקש ממנו שנאמר (בראשית כ, ז) ועתה השב אשת וגו' ומנין שאם לא מחל לו שהוא אכזרי שנאמר (בראשית כ, יז) ויתפלל אברהם אל האלהים וירפא אלהים את אבימלך וגו',האומר סמא את עיני קטע את ידי שבר את רגלי חייב ע"מ לפטור חייב,קרע את כסותי שבר את כדי חייב ע"מ לפטור פטור עשה כן לאיש פלוני על מנת לפטור חייב בין בגופו בין בממונו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר כל אלו שאמרו דמי בושתו אבל צערו אפי' הביא כל אילי נביות שבעולם אין נמחל לו עד שיבקש ממנו שנאמר (בראשית כ, ז) השב אשת האיש כי נביא הוא ויתפלל בעדך,דאשת נביא בעי אהדורי אשת אחר לא בעי אהדורי,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן השב אשת האיש מכל מקום ודקא אמרת (בראשית כ, ד) הגוי גם צדיק תהרוג הלא הוא אמר לי אחותי היא והיא גם היא אמרה אחי הוא נביא הוא וכבר לימד אכסנאי שבא לעיר על עסקי אכילה ושתיה שואלין אותו או על עסקי אשתו שואלין אותו אשתך היא אחותך היא,מכאן לבן נח שנהרג שהיה לו ללמוד ולא למד:,(בראשית כ, יח) כי עצר עצר ה' אמר ר' אלעזר שתי עצירות הללו למה אחת באיש שכבת זרע שתים באשה שכבת זרע ולידה,במתניתא תנא שתים באיש שכבת זרע וקטנים שלשה באשה שכבת זרע וקטנים ולידה,רבינא אמר שלש באיש שכבת זרע וקטנים ופי טבעת ארבעה באשה שכבת זרע ולידה וקטנים ופי טבעת:,(בראשית כ, יח) בעד כל רחם אמרי דבי ר' ינאי אפילו תרנגולת של בית אבימלך לא הטילה ביצתה,א"ל רבא לרבה בר מרי מנא הא מילתא דאמור רבנן כל המבקש רחמים על חבירו והוא צריך לאותו דבר הוא נענה תחילה א"ל דכתיב (איוב מב, י) וה' שב את שבות איוב בהתפללו בעד רעהו,אמר ליה את אמרת מהתם ואנא אמינא מהכא (בראשית כ, יז) ויתפלל אברהם אל האלהים וירפא אלהים את אבימלך ואת אשתו ואמהותיו [וגו'] וכתיב (בראשית כא, א) וה' פקד את שרה כאשר אמר וגו' כאשר אמר אברהם אל אבימלך,אמר ליה רבא לרבה בר מרי מנא הא מילתא דאמרי אינשי בהדי הוצא לקי כרבא א"ל דכתיב (ירמיהו ב, כט) למה תריבו אלי כלכם פשעתם בי נאם ה',אמר ליה את אמרת מהתם ואנא אמינא מהכא (שמות טז, כח) עד אנה מאנתם לשמור מצותי ותורותי,אמר ליה רבא לרבה בר מרי כתיב (בראשית מז, ב) ומקצה אחיו לקח חמשה אנשים מאן נינהו חמשה א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן אותן שהוכפלו בשמות,יהודה נמי איכפולי מיכפל,אמר ליה למילתיה הוא דאיכפל דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מאי דכתיב (דברים לג, ו) יחי ראובן ואל ימות ויהי מתיו מספר וזאת ליהודה,כל אותן ארבעים שנה שהיו ישראל במדבר היו עצמותיו של יהודה מגולגלין בארון עד שבא משה ובקש רחמים אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם מי גרם לראובן שיודה יהודה,מיד שמע ה' קול יהודה על איבריה לשפא לא הוו קא מסקי למתיבתא דרקיעא (דברים לג, ז) ואל עמו תביאנו לא הוה ידע מאי קאמרי רבנן ולמשקל ומיטרח בהדי רבנן (דברים לג, ז) ידיו רב לו לא הוה סליק ליה שמעתתא אליבא דהלכתא (דברים לג, ז) ועזר מצריו תהיה,אמר ליה רבא לרבה בר מרי מנא הא מילתא דאמרי אינשי בתר עניא אזלא עניותא אמר ליה דתנן עשירים מביאין בכורים בקלתות של זהב ושל כסף ועניים בסלי נצרים של ערבה קלופה הסלים והבכורים נותנים לכהנים אמר ליה את אמרת מהתם ואנא אמינא מהכא 92a. One bmighthave thought that he must give precedence to the cutting down of a barren tree bevenif the barren tree is bgreater in monetaryvalue than the fruit-bearing tree. bThe verse states: “Only,”which teaches that there is an exception to the rule. Similarly, if the fruit-bearing tree itself would be worth more as lumber than for its fruits, it would be permitted for one to cut it down.,The Gemara relates: The bsharecropper of Shmuel brought him dates.Shmuel batethem, and btasted the taste of wine in them. He said tohis sharecropper: bWhat is this?The sharecropper bsaid to him:The date palms bstand among the grapevinesand therefore contain a taste of wine from the grapes. Shmuel bsaid:Do bthey weaken the wine,i.e., the grapevines, bso muchthat it is possible to taste the wine in the dates? bTomorrow,cut down the date palms and bbring me from their marrowto eat.,The Gemara relates a similar incident: bRav Ḥisda saw date palmsgrowing bamong grapevineson his estate. bHe said to his sharecropper: Uproot thedate palms, since one can bpurchase date palmswith bgrapevines,as grapevines are more valuable, while one bcannot purchase grapevineswith bdate palms. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bDespitethe fact bthatthe assailant who caused damage bgives tothe victim all of the required payments for the injury, his transgression is bnot forgiven for himin the heavenly court buntil he requestsforgiveness bfromthe victim, bas it is statedthat God told Abimelech after he had taken Sarah from Abraham: b“Now therefore restore the wifeof the man; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for you, and you shall live” (Genesis 20:7). bAnd from whereis it derived bthat ifthe victim bdoes not forgive him that he is cruel? As it is stated: “And Abraham prayed to God; and God healed Abimelech,and his wife, and his maidservants; and they bore children” (Genesis 20:17).,The mishna continues: With regard to bone who saysto another: bBlind my eye,or: bcut off my hand,or: bbreak my leg,and he does so, the one who performed these actions is bliableto pay for the damage, despite having been instructed to do so. Even if he explicitly instructed him: Do so bon the condition thatyou will bbe exemptfrom payment, he is nevertheless bliable. /b,With regard to one who says to another: bTear my garment,or: bbreak my jug,and he does so, he is bliableto pay for the damage. But if he instructed him explicitly: Do so bon the condition thatyou will bbe exemptfrom payment, he is bexemptfrom payment. If one says to another: bDo so,i.e., cause damage, bto so-and-so on the condition thatyou will bbe exemptfrom payment, and he did so, he is bliable, whetherthe instructions were bwith regard tothe victim bhimself,or bwhetherthe instructions were bwith regard to his property. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught: All thesesums bthatin the previous mishna bthey saidone is liable to pay for humiliating another are the bcompensation for his humiliation,for which there is a set amount. bButfor the victim’s bpaincaused by the assailant, beven ifthe assailant bbringsas offerings ball the rams of Nebaioth(see Isaiah 60:7) bthat are in the world,which are of the best quality, his transgression bis not forgiven for himin the heavenly court buntil he requestsforgiveness bfromthe victim, bas it is stated: “Restore the wife of the man; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for you”(Genesis 20:7).,Having quoted the verse, the Gemara asks: Shall one infer from here bthat the wife of a prophet needs to be returned,but bthe wife of anotherindividual bneed not be returned? /b,The Gemara answers. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:This is how the verse should be understood: b“Restore the wife of the man” in any case,since she is his wife. bAndwith regard to that bwhich you,Abimelech, bsaid: “Will you slay even a righteous nation? Did he not say himself to me: She is my sister, and she, even she herself, said: He is my brother?”(Genesis 20:4–5), the answer is that you, Abimelech, are not so righteous, since the reason Abraham said that Sarah was his sister is that bhe is a prophet, and he already learnedhow to conduct himself based on your behavior. As with regard to ba guest [ iakhsenai /i] who comes to town, does one ask him about matters concerning eating and drinking, or does one ask him about matters concerning his wife?Does one ask a guest: bIs she your wife? Is she your sister?Abimelech was to be blamed, since Abraham thought that he intended to steal his wife.,The Gemara remarks: bFrom hereit can be derived bthat a gentile is executedfor having transgressed a prohibition without awareness that the act was prohibited, bsince he should have learned and he did not learn. /b,Having mentioned the verses concerning the incident of Abraham and Abimelech, the Gemara explains other related verses. b“For the Lord had obstructed [ iatzor atzar /i]all the wombs of the house of Abimelech” (Genesis 20:18). bRabbi Elazar says: Whyare bthese two obstructions [ iatzor atzar /i]both stated? bOneis stated bwith regard to a man,that bsemenwill not be discharged, and btwoare stated bwith regard to a woman,that bsemenwill not be discharged from her, bandthat she will not give bbirth. /b,It bwas taught in a ibaraita /i: Twoare stated bwith regard to a man: Semen and urine,i.e., that the men were unable to both urinate and discharge semen; bthreeare stated bwith regard to a woman: Semen, and urine, and birth. /b, bRavina says: Threeare stated bwith regard to a man: Semen, and urine, andthe banal sphincter,i.e., that they were unable to discharge stool as well. Consequently, they would be unable to relieve themselves at all. bFourare stated bwith regard to a woman: Semen, and birth, and urine, andthe banal sphincter. /b,The verse states: “For the Lord had obstructed ball the wombsof the house of Abimelech.” The Sages bof the school of Rabbi Yannai say: Even a hen of the house of Abimelech did not lay her eggduring that time.,§ The Gemara cites a series of questions that Rava asked Rabba bar Mari, the first one being related to the previous topic of discussion. bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matterderived bwhereby the Sages stated: Anyone who asksfor bcompassionfrom Heaven bonbehalf of banother, and he requirescompassion from Heaven bconcerning that same matter, he is answered first?Rabba bar Mari bsaid to himthat the source for this is bas it is written: “And the Lord changed the fortune of Job, when he prayed for his friends”(Job 42:10).,Rava bsaid to him: You saidthe proof bfrom there,from a verse in the Writings, band I saythe proof bfrom here,from a verse in the Torah. As it is written: b“And Abraham prayed to God; and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maidservants,and they bore children” (Genesis 20:17), band it is writtenimmediately following that: b“And the Lord remembered Sarah, as He had said”(Genesis 21:1), with the pronoun interpreted homiletically: bAs Abraham said with regard to Abimelech.Because Abraham prayed for Abimelech that the women of his household should give birth, Abraham himself was answered concerning that matter., bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matterderived bwhereby people say: The cabbage is damaged together with the thorn,since the cabbage is sometimes harmed when the thorn is removed? Rabba bar Mari bsaid to himthat the source is bas it is written: “Why will you contend with Me? You all have transgressed against Me, says the Lord”(Jeremiah 2:29). The term “you all” includes even those who have not sinned.,Rava bsaid to him: You saidthe proof bfrom there,from a verse in the Prophets, band I saythe proof bfrom here,from a verse in the Torah. The Lord said to Moses after some of the people collected the manna on Shabbat: b“How long do you refuse [ ime’antem /i] to keep My commandments and My laws?”(Exodus 16:28). The term “you refuse [ ime’antem /i]” is written in the plural, indicating that even Moses was included, although he did not sin., bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: It is writtenwith regard to Joseph: b“And from among his brothers he took five men,and presented them to Pharaoh” (Genesis 47:2). bWho are these fivemen? Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him: This is what Rabbi Yoḥa says: Those whose names were repeatedin the blessings with which Moses later blessed the twelve tribes. They are Dan, Zebulun, Gad, Asher, and Naftali (see Deuteronomy 35). Since they were weak, Joseph brought them before Pharaoh.,Rava said: bJudah alsohad his name brepeatedin the blessings, and he was strong.,Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him: Hisname bwas repeated for hisown bmatter, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenconcerning Reuben and Judah in Moses’ blessing of the tribes at the end of his life: b“Let Reuben live and not die in that his men become few”(Deuteronomy 33:6), and immediately afterward in the following verse it states: b“And this for Judah,and he said: Hear Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him in unto his people; may his hands fight on his behalf, and You shall be a help against his adversaries” (Deuteronomy 33:7)? What is the connection between the blessing of Reuben and that of Judah, juxtaposed with the conjunction “and”?,Rabbi Yoḥa said: bAll those forty years that the Jewish people were in the desert, the bones of Judah,which the Jewish people took with them from Egypt along with the bones of his brothers, bwere rollingaround bin the coffin, until Moses came and asked for mercyon Judah’s behalf. Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, whoserved as the bimpetus for Reuben that he should confesshis sin, through which he merited a blessing and was not excluded from the count of the twelve sons of Jacob (see Genesis 35:22)? It was bJudah,as Reuben saw him confess his sin, and thereby did the same., bImmediatelyafter Moses prayed, the verse states: b“Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah”(Deuteronomy 33:7). bHis bonesthen benteredtheir bsockets [ ileshafa /i],and his skeleton became attached. The angels still bdid not elevatehim binto the heavenly study hall.Moses then prayed: b“And bring him in unto his people”(Deuteronomy 33:7), i.e., bring him to those in the heavenly study hall. This prayer was accepted, but bhestill bdid not know what the sages were saying, andhe was unable bto deliberatein Torah matters bwith the sages.Moses then prayed: b“May his hands fight on his behalf”(Deuteronomy 33:7), meaning that he should have the ability to contend with them in study. But still bhe was unable to drawconclusions from bhis discussion in accordance with the ihalakha /i.Moses then prayed: b“And You shall be a help against his adversaries”(Deuteronomy 33:7)., bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matterderived bwhereby people say: Poverty follows the poor?Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him: As we learnedin a mishna ( iBikkurim3:8): bRichpeople would bbring first fruits in baskets of gold and of silver, and poorpeople would bring first fruits bin wicker basketsmade bof peeled willow,and bthey would give the baskets and the first fruits to the priests.The rich would have their baskets returned to them, while the poor would not. Rava bsaid to him: You saidthe proof bfrom there,from a mishna, band I saythe proof bfrom here,from a verse in the Torah:
19. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17b. אין פרץ שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של דוד שיצא ממנו אחיתופל ואין יוצאת שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של שאול שיצא ממנו דואג האדומי ואין צוחה שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של אלישע שיצא ממנו גחזי ברחובותינו שלא יהא לנו בן או תלמיד שמקדיח תבשילו ברבים: (ישעיהו מו, יב),שמעו אלי אבירי לב הרחוקים מצדקה רב ושמואל ואמרי לה רבי יוחנן ורבי אלעזר חד אמר כל העולם כולו נזונין בצדקה והם נזונין בזרוע וחד אמר כל העולם כולו נזונין בזכותם והם אפילו בזכות עצמן אין נזונין כדרב יהודה אמר רב,דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב בכל יום ויום בת קול יוצאת מהר חורב ואומרת כל העולם כולו נזונין בשביל חנינא בני וחנינא בני די לו בקב חרובין מערב שבת לערב שבת,ופליגא דרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה מאן אבירי לב גובאי טפשאי אמר רב יוסף תדע דהא לא איגייר גיורא מינייהו,אמר רב אשי בני מתא מחסיא אבירי לב נינהו דקא חזו יקרא דאורייתא תרי זמני בשתא ולא קמגייר גיורא מינייהו:,חתן אם רוצה לקרות וכו':,למימרא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל חייש ליוהרא ורבנן לא חיישי ליוהרא והא איפכא שמעינן להו דתנן מקום שנהגו לעשות מלאכה בתשעה באב עושין מקום שנהגו שלא לעשות אין עושין וכל מקום תלמידי חכמים בטלים רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לעולם יעשה כל אדם את עצמו כתלמיד חכם,קשיא דרבנן אדרבנן קשיא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל אדרבן שמעון בן גמליאל,אמר רבי יוחנן מוחלפת השיטה רב שישא בריה דרב אידי אמר לעולם לא תחליף דרבנן אדרבנן לא קשיא ק"ש כיון דכ"ע קא קרו ואיהו נמי קרי לא מיחזי כיוהרא הכא כיון דכולי עלמא עבדי מלאכה ואיהו לא קא עביד מיחזי כיוהרא,דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל אדרבן שמעון בן גמליאל לא קשיא התם בכונה תליא מילתא ואנן סהדי דלא מצי לכווני דעתיה אבל הכא הרואה אומר מלאכה הוא דאין לו פוק חזי כמה בטלני איכא בשוקא:, br br big strongהדרן עלך היה קורא /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongמי /strong /big שמתו מוטל לפניו פטור מק"ש ומן התפלה ומן התפילין ומכל מצות האמורות בתורה,נושאי המטה וחלופיהן וחלופי חלופיהן את שלפני המטה ואת שלאחר המטה את שלפני המטה צורך בהם פטורים ואת שלאחר המטה צורך בהם חייבין ואלו ואלו פטורים מן התפלה,קברו את המת וחזרו אם יכולין להתחיל ולגמור עד שלא יגיעו לשורה יתחילו ואם לאו לא יתחילו,העומדים בשורה הפנימיים פטורים והחיצונים חייבים (נשים ועבדים וקטנים פטורים מק"ש ומן התפילין וחייבין בתפלה ובמזוזה ובברכת המזון):, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מוטל לפניו אין ושאינו מוטל לפניו לא,ורמינהי מי שמתו מוטל לפניו אוכל בבית אחר ואם אין לו בית אחר אוכל בבית חבירו ואם אין לו בית חבירו עושה מחיצה ואוכל ואם אין לו דבר לעשות מחיצה מחזיר פניו ואוכל ואינו מיסב ואוכל ואינו אוכל בשר ואינו שותה יין ואינו מברך ואינו מזמן 17b. b“There is no breach”; that our factionof Sages bshould not be like the faction of David, from which Ahitophel emerged,who caused a breach in the kingdom of David. br b“And no going forth”; that our faction should not be like the faction of Saul, from which Doeg the Edomite emerged,who set forth on an evil path. br b“And no outcry”; that our faction should not be like the faction of Elisha, from which Geihazi emerged. br b“In our open places”; that we should not have a child or student who overcooks his food in public,i.e., who sins in public and causes others to sin, basin the well-known case of bJesus the Nazarene. /b,Having cited a dispute with regard to the interpretation of a verse where we are uncertain whether the dispute is between Rav and Shmuel or Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar, the Gemara cites another verse with regard to which there is a similar dispute. It is said: b“Hear Me, stubborn-hearted who are far from charity”(Isaiah 46:12). While both agree that the verse refers to the righteous, bRav and Shmuel, and some say Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar,disagreed as to how to interpret the verse. bOne said: The entire world is sustained byGod’s bcharity,not because it deserves to exist, bwhilethe righteous who are far from God’s charity bare sustained by force,as due to their own good deeds they have the right to demand their sustece. bAnd one said: The entire world is sustained by the meritof btheirrighteousness, bwhile they are not sustainedat all, bnot even by their own merit, in accordance withthe statement that bRav Yehudasaid that bRav said. /b, bAs Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Every day a Divine Voice emerges from Mount Horeb and says: The entire world is sustained bythe merit of bḤaninaben Dosa, bmy son, andfor bḤanina, my son, a ikavof carobs is sufficientto sustain him for an entire week, bfromone bShabbat eve tothe next bShabbat eve. /b, bAndthis exegesis bdisagrees withthe opinion of bRav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda said, who are the stubborn-hearted?They are the bfoolishheathens bof Gova’ei. Rav Yosef said: Knowthat this is so, bas no convert has ever converted from theirranks.,Similarly, bRav Ashi said:The heathen residents bofthe city bMata Meḥasya are the stubborn-hearted, as they witness the glory of the Torah twice a yearat the ikallagatherings in Adar and Elul, when thousands of people congregate and study Torah ien masse /i, byet no convert has ever converted from theirranks.,We learned in our mishna that bif a groom wishes to recite iShemaon the first night of his marriage, he may do so, and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel prohibited doing so because of the appearance of presumptuousness.,The Gemara asks: bIs that to say that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is concerned about presumptuousness and the Rabbis are not concerned about presumptuousness? Didn’t we learnthat btheysay bthe opposite? As we learnedin a mishna: bA place where they were accustomed to perform labor on Ninth of Av, onemay bperformlabor. bA place where they were accustomed not to performlabor on Ninth of Av, bonemay bnot performlabor. bAnd everywhere, Torah scholars are idleand do not perform labor. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:With regard to performing labor on the Ninth of Av, bone should always conduct himself as a Torah scholar. /b,If so, bthere is a contradiction betweenthe statement of bthe Rabbishere bandthe statement of bthe Rabbisthere. And, bthere is a contradiction betweenthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielhere bandthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielthere., bRabbi Yoḥa said: The attributionof the opinions bis reversedin one of the sources in the interest of avoiding contradiction. bRav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said: Actually,you need bnot reversethe opinions, as the contradiction between the statement of bthe Rabbishere bandthe statement of bthe Rabbisthere bis not difficult.In the case of bthe recitation of iShema /ion his wedding night, bsince everyone is reciting iShema band he is also reciting iShema /i, he is not conspicuous and bit does not appear as presumptuousness. Here,in the case of the Ninth of Av, however, bsince everyone is performing labor and he is not performing labor,his idleness is conspicuous and bappears as presumptuousness. /b,So too, the contradiction bbetweenthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielhere bandthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielthere bis not difficult. There,in the case of the recitation of iShemaon his wedding night, bthe matter is dependent upon hiscapacity to bconcentrate,and bit is clear to allthat bhe is unable to concentrate.Reciting iShemaunder those circumstances is a display of presumptuousness. bBut here,in the case of the Ninth of Av, bone who seeshim idle bsays: It isbecause bhe has no laborto perform. bGo out and see how many idle people there are in the marketplace,even on days when one is permitted to work. Consequently, his idleness is not conspicuous.,, strongMISHNA: /strong bOne whose deceasedrelative bis laid outunburied bbefore him is exempt from the recitation of iShema /i, fromthe iAmida bprayer, and fromthe mitzva to don bphylacteries, as well as allpositive bmitzvot mentioned in the Torah,until the deceased has been buried.,With regard to bthe pallbearers and their replacements and the replacements of their replacements, thoselocated bbefore the bierwho have not yet carried the deceased band thoselocated bafter the bier. Those before the bier who are neededto carry the bier bare exemptfrom reciting iShema /i; bwhile those after the bier,even if bthey arestill bneededto carry it, since they have already carried the deceased, they are bobligatedto recite iShema /i. However, both bthese and those are exempt fromreciting the iAmida bprayer,since they are preoccupied and are unable to focus and pray with the appropriate intent.,After bthey buried the deceased and returned, if theyhave sufficient time to bbeginto recite iShema band conclude before they arrive at the row,formed by those who attended the burial, through which the bereaved family will pass in order to receive consolation, bthey should begin. Ifthey do bnothave sufficient time to conclude reciting the entire iShema /i, then bthey should not begin. /b,And bthose standing in the row, thosein the binteriorrow, directly before whom the mourners will pass and who will console them, bare exemptfrom reciting iShema /i, while bthosein the bexteriorrow, who stand there only to show their respect, bare obligatedto recite iShema /i. bWomen, slaves and minors are exempt from the recitation of iShemaand from phylacteries, but are obligated in prayer, imezuzaand Grace after Meals. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong We learned in the mishna that one whose deceased relative is laid out before him is exempt from the recitation of iShemaand other positive mitzvot. The Gemara deduces: When the corpse is blaid out before him, yes,he is exempt, but when the corpse is bnotphysically blaid out before him, no,he is not exempt from these mitzvot.,The Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraita /i: bOne whose deceasedrelative bis laid out before him eats in another room. If he does not have another room, he eats in the house of a friend. If he does not have a friend’s houseavailable, bhe makes a partitionbetween him and the deceased band eats. If he does not have materialwith which bto make a partition, he averts his facefrom the dead and beats. Andin any case, bhe does not recline while he eats,as reclining is characteristic of a festive meal. bFurthermore, he neither eats meat nor drinks wine, and does not recitea bblessingbefore eating, band does notrecite the formula to binvitethe participants in the meal to join together in the Grace after Meals [ izimmun /i], i.e., he is exempt from the obligation of Grace after Meals.
20. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53a. וגשרים ונפשות שיש בהן בית דירה מוציאין את המדה כנגדן ועושין אותה כמין טבלא מרובעת כדי שיהא נשכר את הזויות:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big רב ושמואל חד תני מעברין וחד תני מאברין,מאן דתני מאברין אבר אבר ומאן דתני מעברין כאשה עוברה (בראשית כג, ט),מערת המכפלה רב ושמואל חד אמר שני בתים זה לפנים מזה וחד אמר בית ועלייה על גביו,בשלמא למאן דאמר זה על גב זה היינו מכפלה אלא למאן דאמר שני בתים זה לפנים מזה מאי מכפלה,שכפולה בזוגות (בראשית לה, כז) ממרא קרית ארבע א"ר יצחק קרית הארבע זוגות אדם וחוה אברהם ושרה יצחק ורבקה יעקב ולאה (בראשית יד, א),ויהי בימי אמרפל רב ושמואל חד אמר נמרוד שמו ולמה נקרא שמו אמרפל שאמר והפיל לאברהם אבינו בתוך כבשן האש וחד אמר אמרפל שמו ולמה נקרא שמו נמרוד שהמריד את כל העולם כולו עליו במלכותו (שמות א, ח),ויקם מלך חדש על מצרים רב ושמואל חד אמר חדש ממש וחד אמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו,מ"ד חדש ממש דכתיב חדש ומאן דאמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו מדלא כתיב וימת וימלוך,ולמאן דאמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו הא כתיב (שמות א, ח) אשר לא ידע את יוסף מאי אשר לא ידע את יוסף דהוה דמי כמאן דלא ידע ליה ליוסף כלל:,(סימן שמונה עשרה ושנים עשר למדנו בדוד ויבן):,א"ר יוחנן י"ח ימים גידלתי אצל רבי אושעיא בריבי ולא למדתי ממנו אלא דבר אחד במשנתינו כיצד מאברין את הערים באלף,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן י"ב תלמידים היו לו לרבי אושעיא בריבי וי"ח ימים גידלתי ביניהן ולמדתי לב כל אחד ואחד וחכמת כל אחד ואחד,לב כל אחד ואחד וחכמת כל אחד ואחד גמר גמרא לא גמר איבעית אימא מנייהו דידהו גמר מיניה דידיה לא גמר ואב"א דבר אחד במשנתינו קאמר,וא"ר יוחנן כשהיינו לומדין תורה אצל ר' אושעיא היינו יושבין ארבעה ארבעה באמה אמר רבי כשהיינו לומדין תורה אצל רבי אלעזר בן שמוע היינו יושבין ששה ששה באמה,א"ר יוחנן רבי אושעיא בריבי בדורו כר' מאיר בדורו מה רבי מאיר בדורו לא יכלו חבריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו אף רבי אושעיא לא יכלו חבריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו,אמר ר' יוחנן לבן של ראשונים כפתחו של אולם ושל אחרונים כפתחו של היכל ואנו כמלא נקב מחט סידקית,ראשונים ר"ע אחרונים ר"א בן שמוע איכא דאמרי ראשונים ר' אלעזר בן שמוע אחרונים ר' אושעיא בריבי ואנו כמלא נקב מחט סידקית,אמר אביי ואנן כי סיכתא בגודא לגמרא אמר רבא ואנן כי אצבעתא בקירא לסברא אמר רב אשי אנן כי אצבעתא בבירא לשכחה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בני יהודה שהקפידו על לשונם נתקיימה תורתם בידם בני גליל שלא הקפידו על לשונם לא נתקיימה תורתם בידם,מידי בקפידא תליא מילתא אלא בני יהודה דדייקי לישנא ומתנחי להו סימנא נתקיימה תורתן בידן בני גליל דלא דייקי לישנא ולא מתנחי להו סימנא לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,בני יהודה גמרו מחד רבה נתקיימה תורתן בידם בני גליל דלא גמרי מחד רבה לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,רבינא אמר בני יהודה דגלו מסכתא נתקיימה תורתן בידם בני גליל דלא גלו מסכתא לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,דוד גלי מסכתא שאול לא גלי מסכתא דוד דגלי מסכתא כתיב ביה (תהלים קיט, עד) יראיך יראוני וישמחו שאול דלא גלי מסכתא כתיב ביה ((שמואל א יד, מז) אל כל) אשר יפנה 53a. band bridges and monumentsover graves bin which there is a residence, one extends the measureof that side of the city as though there were other structures bopposite themin the adjacent corner of the city. bAndprior to measuring the Shabbat limit, bone rendersthe city blike a square tablet so that it gains the corners,although there are actually no houses in those corners., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara cites a dispute with regard to the mishna’s terminology. bRav and Shmueldisagreed: bOne taughtthat the term in the mishna is ime’abberin /i,with the letter iayin /i, band one taughtthat the term in the mishna is ime’abberin /i,with the letter ialef /i.,The Gemara explains: bThe one who taught ime’abberin /iwith an ialefexplained the term in the sense of blimb[iever/b] by blimb.Determination of the city’s borders involves the addition of limbs to the core section of the city. bAnd the one who taught ime’abberin /iwith an iayinexplained the term in the sense of ba pregt woman[iubbera/b] whose belly protrudes. In similar fashion, all the city’s protrusions are incorporated in its Shabbat limit.,Apropos this dispute, the Gemara cites similar disputes between Rav and Shmuel. With regard to bthe Machpelah Cave,in which the Patriarchs and Matriarchs are buried, bRav and Shmueldisagreed. bOne said:The cave consists of btwo rooms, onefarther binthan bthe other. And one said:It consists of ba room anda second bstory above it. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,this is understandable baccording to the one who saidthe cave consists of boneroom babove the other,as bthat isthe meaning of bMachpelah, double. However, according to the one who saidit consists of btwo rooms, onefarther binthan bthe other,in bwhatsense is it bMachpelah?Even ordinary houses contain two rooms.,Rather, it is called Machpelah in the sense bthat it is doubled withthe Patriarchs and Matriarchs, who are buried there bin pairs.This is similar to the homiletic interpretation of the alternative name for Hebron mentioned in the Torah: b“Mamreof bKiryat Ha’Arba,which is Hebron” (Genesis 35:27). bRabbi Yitzḥak said:The city is called Kiryat Ha’Arba, the city of four, because it is bthe city of the four couplesburied there: bAdam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca,and bJacob and Leah. /b,They disagreed about this verse as well: b“And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel”(Genesis 14:1). bRav and Shmuelboth identified Amraphel with Nimrod. However, bone said: Nimrod was his name. And why was his name called Amraphel?It is a contraction of two Hebrew words: bAs he said [ iamar /i]the command band cast [ ihippil /i] our father Abraham into the fiery furnace,when Abraham rebelled against and challenged his proclaimed divinity. bAnd one said: Amraphel was his name. And why was his name called Nimrod? Because he caused the entire world to rebel [ ihimrid /i]against bGod during his reign. /b,They also disagreed about this verse: b“There arose a new king over Egypt,who knew not Joseph” (Exodus 1:8). bRav and Shmueldisagreed. bOne said:He was bactuallya bnewking, band one said:He was in fact the old king, but bhis decrees were new. /b,The Gemara explains. bThe one who saidhe was bactuallya bnewking based his opinion on the fact bthat it is writtenin the verse that he was bnew. And the one who said that his decrees were newderived his opinion bfromthe fact bthat it is not written: Andthe king bdied, andhis successor breigned,as it is written, for example, with regard to the kings of Edom (Genesis 36).,The Gemara asks: bAnd according to the one who said that his decrees were new, isn’t it written: “Who knew not Joseph”?If it were the same king, how could he not know Joseph? The Gemara explains: bWhat isthe meaning of the phrase: b“Who knew not Joseph”?It means bthat heconducted himself blike one who did not know Joseph at all. /b,The Gemara cites a bmnemonicof key words from a series of traditions cited below: bEighteen and twelve we studied, with regard to David, and he will understand. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said: I spent eighteen days with Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished [ iBeribbi /i], and I learned from him only one matter in our Mishna.In the phrase: bHow does one extend cities,the word ime’abberinis spelled bwith an ialef /i. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs this so? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished had twelve students, and I spent eighteen days among them, and I learned the heart of each and every one,i.e., the nature and character of each student, band theextent of the bwisdom of each and every one?How could Rabbi Yoḥa say that he learned only one matter?,The Gemara answers: It is possible that bhe learned the heart of each and every one and the wisdom of each and every one,but bhe did not learnsubstantive btradition.And bif you wish, sayinstead: bFromthe students bthemselves he learnedmany things; bfromRabbi Oshaya bhimself he did not learnanything beyond that one matter. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: Rabbi Yoḥa meant to bsaythat he learned only one matter bin our Mishnafrom Rabbi Oshaya, but he learned other matters from him based on ibaraitotand other sources., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saidabout that period: bWhen we were studying Torah with Rabbi Oshaya,it was so crowded with students that bwe would sit four in eachsquare bcubit.Similarly, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: When we were studying Torah with Rabbi Elazar ben Shamua, we would sit six in eachsquare bcubit. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa saidabout his teacher: bRabbi Oshaya the Distinguishedwas as great bin his generation as Rabbi Meirwas bin his generation: Just aswith regard to bRabbi Meir, in his generation his colleagues were unable to fully graspthe profundity of bhis thinkingdue to the subtlety of his great mind, bsoit was with bRabbi Oshaya; his colleagues were unable to fully graspthe profundity of bhis thinking. /b,Similarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The hearts,i.e., the wisdom, bofthe bearlySages were blike the doorway to the Entrance Hallof the Temple, which was twenty by forty cubits, bandthe hearts bofthe blaterSages bwere like the doorway to the Sanctuary,which was ten by twenty cubits. bAnd we,i.e., our hearts, bare likethe beye of a fine needle. /b,He explains: The term bearlySages is referring to bRabbi Akiva,and the term blaterSages is referring to his student, bRabbi Elazar ben Shamua. Some saythat the term bearlySages refers to bRabbi Elazar ben Shamuaand that the term the blaterSages refers to bRabbi Oshaya the Distinguished. And we are likethe beye of a fine needle. /b,On the topic of the steady decline of the generations, bAbaye said: And we,as far as our capabilities are concerned, bare like a peg in the wall with regard toTorah bstudy.Just as a peg enters a wall with difficulty, our studies penetrate our minds only with difficulty. bRava said: And we are like a finger in wax [ ikira /i] with regard to logical reasoning.A finger is not easily pushed into wax, and it extracts nothing from the wax. bRav Ashi said: We are like a finger in a pit with regard to forgetfulness.Just as a finger easily enters a large pit, similarly, we quickly forget our studies.,The Gemara continues the discussion relating to study and comprehension, and cites that which bRav Yehuda said that Rav said:With regard to bthe people of Judea, who were particular in their speechand always made certain that it was both precise and refined, btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who were not particular in their speech, their Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,The Gemara asks: bIsthis bmatter at all dependent onbeing bparticularwith one’s language? bRather,with regard to bthe people of Judea, who were precise in their language andwho bwould formulate mnemonicsfor their studies, btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who were not precise in their language andwho bwould not formulate mnemonics, their Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,Furthermore, with regard to bthe people of Judea,who bstudied from one teacher, their Torahknowledge bendured for them,as their teacher provided them with a consistent approach; however, with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who did not study from one teacher,but rather from several teachers, btheir Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them,as it was a combination of the approaches and opinions of a variety of Sages., bRavina said:With regard to bthe people of Judea, who wouldpublicly bdisclose the tractateto be studied in the coming term so that everyone could prepare and study it in advance ( ige’onim /i), btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who would not disclose the tractateto be studied in the coming term, btheir Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,The Gemara relates that King bDavid would disclose the tractateto be studied in advance, whereas bSaul would not disclose the tractateto be studied. bWith regard to David, who would disclose the tractate, it is written: “Those who fear You will see me and be glad”(Psalms 119:74), since all were prepared and could enjoy his Torah. bWith regard to Saul, who would not disclose the tractateto be studied, bit is written: “And wherever he turned himself /b
21. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14a. קודם שנברא העולם ולא נבראו עמד הקב"ה ושתלן בכל דור ודור והן הן עזי פנים שבדור,ורב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אשר קומטו לברכה הוא דכתיב אלו תלמידי חכמים שמקמטין עצמן על דברי תורה בעולם הזה הקב"ה מגלה להם סוד לעולם הבא שנאמר (איוב כב, טז) נהר יוצק יסודם,אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אריא תא אימא לך מילתא מהני מילי מעליותא דהוה אמר אבוך כל יומא ויומא נבראין מלאכי השרת מנהר דינור ואמרי שירה ובטלי שנאמר (איכה ג, כג) חדשים לבקרים רבה אמונתך ופליגא דר' שמואל בר נחמני דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל דיבור ודיבור שיוצא מפי הקב"ה נברא ממנו מלאך אחד שנאמר (תהלים לג, ו) בדבר ה' שמים נעשו וברוח פיו כל צבאם,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) לבושיה כתלג חיור ושער (רישיה) כעמר נקא וכתיב (שיר השירים ה, יא) קוצותיו תלתלים שחורות כעורב לא קשיא כאן בישיבה כאן במלחמה דאמר מר אין לך נאה בישיבה אלא זקן ואין לך נאה במלחמה אלא בחור,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) כרסיה שביבין דינור וכתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב לא קשיא אחד לו ואחד לדוד כדתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר' עקיבא אמר לו ר' יוסי הגלילי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קיבלה מיניה או לא קיבלה מיניה ת"ש אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי רבי עקיבא אמר לו ר"א בן עזריה עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך מדברותיך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו שנאמר (ישעיהו סו, א) השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי,כי אתא רב דימי אמר שמונה עשרה קללות קילל ישעיה את ישראל ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שאמר להם המקרא הזה (ישעיהו ג, ה) ירהבו הנער בזקן והנקלה בנכבד,שמונה עשרה קללות מאי נינהו דכתיב (ישעיהו ג, א) כי הנה האדון ה' צבאות מסיר מירושלם ומיהודה משען ומשענה כל משען לחם וכל משען מים גבור ואיש מלחמה שופט ונביא וקוסם וזקן שר חמשים ונשוא פנים ויועץ וחכם חרשים ונבון לחש ונתתי נערים שריהם ותעלולים ימשלו בם וגו',משען אלו בעלי מקרא משענה אלו בעלי משנה כגון ר"י בן תימא וחביריו פליגו בה רב פפא ורבנן חד אמר שש מאות סדרי משנה וחד אמר שבע מאות סדרי משנה,כל משען לחם אלו בעלי תלמוד שנאמר (משלי ט, ה) לכו לחמו בלחמי ושתו ביין מסכתי וכל משען מים אלו בעלי אגדה שמושכין לבו של אדם כמים באגדה גבור זה בעל שמועות ואיש מלחמה זה שיודע לישא וליתן במלחמתה של תורה שופט זה דיין שדן דין אמת לאמיתו נביא כמשמעו קוסם זה מלך שנאמר (משלי טז, י) קסם על שפתי מלך זקן זה שראוי לישיבה,שר חמשים אל תקרי שר חמשים אלא שר חומשין זה שיודע לישא וליתן בחמשה חומשי תורה דבר אחר שר חמשים כדרבי אבהו דאמר רבי אבהו מכאן שאין מעמידין מתורגמן על הצבור פחות מחמשים שנה ונשוא פנים זה שנושאין פנים לדורו בעבורו למעלה כגון רבי חנינא בן דוסא למטה כגון רבי אבהו בי קיסר,יועץ שיודע לעבר שנים ולקבוע חדשים וחכם זה תלמיד המחכים את רבותיו חרשים בשעה שפותח בדברי תורה הכל נעשין כחרשין ונבון זה המבין דבר מתוך דבר לחש זה שראוי למסור לו דברי תורה שניתנה בלחש,ונתתי נערים שריהם מאי ונתתי נערים שריהם א"ר אלעזר אלו בני אדם שמנוערין מן המצות,ותעלולים ימשלו בם אמר רב (פפא) בר יעקב תעלי בני תעלי ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שאמר להם ירהבו הנער בזקן (והנקלה בנכבד) אלו בני אדם שמנוערין מן המצות ירהבו במי שממולא במצות כרמון והנקלה בנכבד יבא מי שחמורות דומות עליו כקלות וירהבו במי שקלות דומות עליו כחמורות,אמר רב קטינא אפי' בשעת כשלונה של ירושלים לא פסקו מהם בעלי אמנה שנא' (ישעיהו ג, ו) כי יתפש איש באחיו בית אביו (לאמר) שמלה לך קצין תהיה לנו דברים שבני אדם מתכסין כשמלה ישנן תחת ידך,(ישעיהו ג, ו) והמכשלה הזאת מאי והמכשלה הזאת דברים שאין בני אדם עומדין עליהן אא"כ נכשל בהן ישנן תחת ידך (ישעיהו ג, ז) ישא ביום ההוא לאמר לא אהיה חובש ובביתי אין לחם ואין שמלה לא תשימוני קצין עם ישא אין ישא אלא לשון שבועה שנאמר (שמות כ, ו) לא תשא את שם ה' אלהיך לא אהיה חובש לא הייתי מחובשי בית המדרש ובביתי אין לחם ואין שמלה שאין בידי לא מקרא ולא משנה ולא גמרא,ודלמא שאני התם דאי אמר להו גמירנא אמרי ליה אימא לן הוה ליה למימר גמר ושכח מאי לא אהיה חובש לא אהיה חובש כלל,איני והאמר רבא לא חרבה ירושלים עד שפסקו ממנה בעלי אמנה שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, א) שוטטו בחוצות ירושלם וראו נא ודעו ובקשו ברחובותיה אם תמצאו איש אם יש עושה משפט מבקש אמונה ואסלח לה לא קשיא 14a. bbefore the creation of the world, but they were not created.The Torah was supposed to have been given a thousand generations after the world was created, as it is written: “He commanded His word for a thousand generations” (Psalms 105:8), but God gave it earlier, after only twenty-six generations, so that nine-hundred and seventy-four generations should have been created but were not. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, acted by plantinga few of bthem in each and every generation, and they are the insolent ones of the generation,as they belonged to generations that should not have been created at all., bAnd Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saidthat the verse: b“Who were snatched [ ikumtu /i]”(Job 22:16), bis written for a blessing,as the verse is not referring to lowly, cursed people, but to the blessed. bThese are Torah scholars, who shrivel [ imekamtin /i],i.e., humble, bthemselves over the words of Torah in this world. The Holy One, Blessed be He, reveals a secret to them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Whose foundation [ iyesodam /i] was poured out as a stream”(Job 22:16), implying that He will provide them with an abundant knowledge of secret matters [ isod /i]., bShmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of great ones, come and I will tell you something of the great things that your father would say: Each and every day, ministering angels are created from the River Dinur, and they recite songto God bandthen immediately bceaseto exist, bas it is stated: “They are new every morning; great is Your faithfulness”(Lamentations 3:23), indicating that new angels praise God each morning. The Gemara comments: bAndthis opinion bdisagrees withthat bof Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said:With beach and every word that emerges from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, an angel is created, as it is stated: “By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and by the breath of His mouth all their hosts”(Psalms 33:6). The hosts of heaven are the angels, who, he claims, are created from the mouth of God, rather than from the River Dinur.,§ The Gemara continues to reconcile verses that seem to contradict each other: bOne verse states: “His raiment was as white snow, and the hair of his head like purewhite bwool”(Daniel 7:9), band it is written: “His locks are curled, black as a raven”(Song of Songs 5:11). The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Herethe verse in Daniel is referring to when He is bin theheavenly bacademy,while btherethe verse in Song of Songs speaks of when He is bat war, for the Master said: There is no finerindividual to study Torah bin an academy than an old man, and there is no finerindividual to wage war bthan a youth.A different metaphor is therefore used to describe God on each occasion.,The Gemara poses another question: bOne verse states: “His throne was fiery flames”(Daniel 7:9), bandanother phrase in the same bverse states: “Till thrones were placed, and one who was ancient of days sat,”implying the existence of two thrones. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Onethrone is bfor Him and oneis bfor David, as it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to this issue: bOnethrone bfor Him and one for David;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei HaGelili said to him: Akiva, how long shall you make the Divine Presence profane,by presenting it as though one could sit next to Him? bRather,the two thrones are designated for different purposes: bOne for judgment and one for righteousness. /b,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva bacceptthis rebuff bfrom him, or did he not acceptit bfrom him?The Gemara offers a proof: bComeand bhearthe following teaching of a different ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor judgment and oneis bfor righteousness;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva, what are you doingoccupying yourself bwiththe study of iaggada /i?This is not your field of expertise. bTake [ ikelakh /i] your words tothe topics of bplagues and tents.Meaning, it is preferable that you teach the ihalakhotof the impurity of leprosy and the impurity of the dead, which are within your field of expertise. bRather,with regard to the two thrones: bOnethrone is bfor a seat and oneis bfor a small seat.The bseatis bto sit on,and the bsmall seatis bfor His footstool, as it is stated: “The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool”(Isaiah 66:1).,§ The Gemara stated earlier that one who studies the secrets of Torah must be “a captain of fifty and a man of favor” (Isaiah 3:3), but it did not explain the meaning of these requirements. It now returns to analyze that verse in detail. bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Israel to Babylonia, bhe said: Isaiah cursed Israel with eighteen curses, and his mind was not calmed,i.e., he was not satisfied, buntil he said to them thegreat curse of the bfollowing verse: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable”(Isaiah 3:5).,The Gemara asks: bWhat are these eighteen curses?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “For behold, the Master, the Lord of hosts, shall take away from Jerusalem and from Judah support and staff, every support of bread, and every support of water; the mighty man, and the man of war; the judge, and the prophet, and the diviner, and the elder; the captain of fifty, and the man of favor, and the counselor, and the cunning charmer, and the skillful enchanter. And I will make children their princes, and babes shall rule over them”(Isaiah 3:1–4). The eighteen items listed in these verses shall be removed from Israel.,The Gemara proceeds to clarify the homiletical meaning of these terms: b“Support”; these are masters of the Bible. “Staff”; these are masters of Mishna, such as Rabbi Yehuda ben Teima and his colleagues.The Gemara interjects: bRav Pappa and the Rabbis disagreed with regard to this. Oneof them bsaid:They were proficient in bsix hundred orders of Mishna, andthe other bone said:In bseven hundred orders of Mishna,only six of which remain today., b“Every support of bread”; these are masters of Talmud, as it is stated: “Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine that I have mingled”(Proverbs 9:5). b“And every support of water”; these are the masters of iaggada /i, who draw people’s hearts like water bymeans of iaggada /i. “The mighty man”; this is the master of halakhic tradition,one who masters the ihalakhottransmitted to him from his rabbis. b“And the man of war”; this is one who knows how to engage in the discourse of Torah,generating novel teachings bin the war of Torah. “A judge”; this is a judge who judges a true judgment truthfully. “A prophet”; as it literally indicates. “A diviner”; this is a king.Why is he called a diviner? bFor it is stated: “A divine sentence is on the lips of the king”(Proverbs 16:10). b“An elder”; this is one fit forthe position of head of ban academy. /b, b“A captain of fifty,” do not readit as b“ isar ḥamishim /i,” ratherread it as b“ isar ḥumashin /i”; this is one who knows how to engage in discoursewith regard to bthe five books of [ iḥamisha ḥumshei /i] the Torah. Alternatively, “a captain of fifty”should be understood binaccordance with bRabbi Abbahu, for Rabbi Abbahu said: From herewe learn bthat one may not appoint a disseminator over the publicto transmit words of Torah or teachings of the Sages if he is bless than fifty yearsof age. b“And the man of favor”; this isone bfor whose sake favor is shown to his generation.The Gemara provides different examples of this: Some garner favor babove, such as Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa,whose prayers for his generation would invariably be answered. Others gain favor bbelow, for example: Rabbi Abbahu,who would plead Israel’s case bin the house ofthe bemperor. /b, b“The counselor”;this is referring to one bwho knows how to intercalate years and determine months,due to his expertise in the phases of the moon and the calculation of the yearly cycle. b“The cunning”; this is a student who makes his rabbis wisethrough his questions. b“Charmer [ iḥarashim /i]”;this is referring to one so wise bthat when he begins speaking matters of Torah, allthose listening bare as though deaf [ iḥershin /i],as they are unable to comprehend the profundity of his comments. b“The skillful”; this is one who understands somethingnew bfrom something elsehe has learned. b“Enchanter [ ilaḥash /i]”; thisis referring to one bwho is worthy of having words of the Torah that were given in whispers [ ilaḥash /i],i.e., the secrets of the Torah, btransmitted to him. /b,The Gemara continues to interpret this verse: b“And I will make children their princes”(Isaiah 3:4). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of b“And I will make children [ ine’arim /i] their princes”? Rabbi Elazar said: These are people who are devoid [ imenu’arin /i] of mitzvot;such people will become the leaders of the nation., b“And babes [ ita’alulim /i] shall rule over them”; Rav Pappa bar Ya’akov said: iTa’alulimmeans bfoxes [ ita’alei /i], sons of foxes.In other words, inferior people both in terms of deeds and in terms of lineage. bAndthe prophet Isaiah’s bmind was not calmed until he said to them: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable”(Isaiah 3:5). “The child” [ ina’ar /i]; bthese are people who are devoid of mitzvot,who bwill behave insolently toward one who is as filled with mitzvot as a pomegranate. “And the base [ inikleh /i] against the honorable [ inikhbad /i]”;this means that bone for whom major [ ikaved /i]transgressions bare like minor ones [ ikalot /i] in his mind will come and behave insolently with one for whomeven bminortransgressions bare like major ones in his mind. /b,§ The Gemara continues its explanation of the chapter in Isaiah. bRav Ketina said: Even at the time of Jerusalem’s downfall, trustworthy men did not cease to existamong its people, bas it is stated: “For a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father,and say: bYou have a cloak, be our ruler”(Isaiah 3:6). The Gemara explains that they would approach someone and say to him: bThings that peopleare careful to keep bcovered as with a cloak,i.e., words of Torah that are covered and concealed, bare under your hand,as you are an expert with regard to them., bWhat isthe meaning of the end of that verse: b“And this stumbling block”(Isaiah 3:6)? bThings that people cannot grasp unless they have stumbled over them,as they can be understood only with much effort, bare under your hand. Althoughthey will approach an individual with these statements, he b“shall swear that day, saying: I will not be a healer, for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak; you shall not make me ruler of a people”(Isaiah 3:7). When the verse states: b“Shall swear [ iyissa /i],” iyissais noneother bthan an expression of an oath, as it is stated: “You shall not take [ itissa /i] the name of the Lord your Godin vain” (Exodus 20:6). Therefore, the inhabitant of Jerusalem swears: b“I will not be a healer [ iḥovesh /i]”(Isaiah 3:7), which means: bI was neverone bof those who sit [ imeḥovshei /i] in the study hall; “for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak,” as I possessknowledge of bneitherthe bBible, nor Mishna, nor Gemara.This shows that even at Jerusalem’s lowest spiritual ebb, its inhabitants would admit the truth and own up to their complete ignorance.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut perhaps it is different there, for if he had said: I have learned, they would have said to him: Tell us,and people do not lie about things that can be easily verified. The Gemara rejects this claim: If he were a liar, bhe would have saidthat bhe learned and forgot,thereby avoiding shame. bWhat isthe meaning of b“I will not be a healer,”which seems to imply that he had learned in the past? It means: bI will not be a healer at all,as I have never learned. Consequently, there were trustworthy men in Jerusalem after all.,The Gemara raises another difficulty: bIs that so? But didn’t Rava say: Jerusalem was not destroyed until trustworthy men ceased to exist in it, as it is stated: “Run to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see now and know, and seek in its broad places, if you can find a man, if there is any that acts justly, that seeks truth, and I will pardon her”(Jeremiah 5:1), implying there were no trustworthy people at that time? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult: /b
22. Babylonian Talmud, Horayot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14a. לא היה קרב אמר לו מי הם הללו שמימיהם אנו שותים ושמותם אין אנו מזכירים אמר ליה בני אדם שבקשו לעקור כבודך וכבוד בית אביך,אמר ליה (קהלת ט, ו) גם אהבתם גם שנאתם גם קנאתם כבר אבדה אמר ליה (תהלים ט, ז) האויב תמו חרבות לנצח אמר ליה הני מלי היכא דאהנו מעשייהו רבנן לא אהנו מעשייהו הדר אתני ליה אמרו משום רבי מאיר אילו היה תמורה לא היה קרב אמר רבא אפילו רבי דענוותנא הוא תנא אמרו משום ר"מ אמר ר"מ לא אמר,אמר רבי יוחנן פליגו בה רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבנן חד אמר סיני עדיף וחד אמר עוקר הרים עדיף,רב יוסף סיני רבה עוקר הרים שלחו לתמן איזה מהם קודם שלחו להו סיני עדיף דאמר מר הכל צריכין למרי חטיא ואפילו הכי לא קביל רב יוסף עליה מלך רבה עשרין ותרתי שנין והדר מלך רב יוסף וכל שני דמלך רבה רב יוסף אפילו אומנא לביתיה לא חליף,אביי ורבא ורבי זירא ורבה בר מתנה הוו יתבי והוו צריכי רישא אמרי כל דאמר מלתא ולא מפריך להוי רישא דכולהו איפריך דאביי לא איפריך חזייה רבה לאביי דגבה רישא א"ל נחמני פתח ואימא,איבעיא להו רבי זירא ורבה בר רב מתנה הי מנייהו עדיף רבי זירא חריף ומקשה ורבה בר רב מתנה מתון ומסיק מאי תיקו:, br br big strongהדרן עלך כהן משיח וסליקא לה מסכת הוריות /strong /big br br
23. Babylonian Talmud, Makkot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. דכתיב (הושע ו, ח) גלעד קרית פועלי און עקובה מדם מאי עקובה מדם א"ר אלעזר שהיו עוקבין להרוג נפשות,ומאי שנא מהאי גיסא ומהאי גיסא דמרחקי ומאי שנא מציעאי דמקרבי,אמר אביי בשכם נמי שכיחי רוצחים דכתיב (הושע ו, ט) וכחכי איש גדודים חבר כהנים דרך ירצחו שכמה וגו' מאי חבר כהנים א"ר אלעזר שהיו מתחברין להרוג נפשות ככהנים הללו שמתחברין לחלוק תרומות בבית הגרנות,ותו ליכא והא כתיב (במדבר לה, ו) ועליהם תתנו ארבעים ושתים עיר אמר אביי הללו קולטות בין לדעת בין שלא לדעת הללו לדעת קולטות שלא לדעת אינן קולטות,וחברון עיר מקלט הוא והכתיב (שופטים א, כ) ויתנו לכלב את חברון כאשר דבר משה אמר אביי פרוודהא דכתיב (יהושע כא, יב) ואת שדה העיר ואת חצריה נתנו לכלב בן יפנה,וקדש עיר מקלט הואי והכתיב (יהושע יט, לה) וערי מבצר הצדים צר וחמת רקת וכנרת [וגו'] וקדש ואדרעי ועין חצור ותניא ערים הללו אין עושין אותן לא טירין קטנים ולא כרכים גדולים אלא עיירות בינוניות אמר רב יוסף תרתי קדש הואי אמר רב אשי כגון סליקום ואקרא דסליקום,גופא ערים הללו אין עושין אותן לא טירין קטנים ולא כרכין גדולים אלא עיירות בינוניות ואין מושיבין אותן אלא במקום מים ואם אין שם מים מביאין להם מים ואין מושיבין אותן אלא במקום שווקים ואין מושיבין אותן אלא במקום אוכלוסין נתמעטו אוכלוסיהן מוסיפין עליהן נתמעטו דיוריהן מביאין להם כהנים לוים וישראלים,ואין מוכרין בהן לא כלי זיין ולא כלי מצודה דברי רבי נחמיה וחכמים מתירין ושוין שאין פורסין בתוכן מצודות ואין מפשילין לתוכן חבלים כדי שלא תהא רגל גואל הדם מצויה שם,א"ר יצחק מאי קרא (דברים ד, מב) ונס אל אחת מן הערים האל וחי עביד ליה מידי דתהוי ליה חיותא,תנא תלמיד שגלה מגלין רבו עמו שנאמר וחי עביד ליה מידי דתהוי ליה חיותא אמר ר' זעירא מכאן שלא ישנה אדם לתלמיד שאינו הגון,א"ר יוחנן הרב שגלה מגלין ישיבתו עמו איני והא א"ר יוחנן מנין לדברי תורה שהן קולטין שנאמר (דברים ד, מג) את בצר במדבר וגו' [וכתיב בתריה] (דברים ד, מד) וזאת התורה,לא קשיא הא בעידנא דעסיק בה הא בעידנא דלא עסיק בה,ואי בעית אימא מאי קולטין ממלאך המות כי הא דרב חסדא הוה יתיב וגריס בבי רב ולא הוה קא יכול שליחא [דמלאכא דמותא] למיקרב לגביה דלא הוה שתיק פומיה מגירסא סליק ויתיב אארזא דבי רב פקע ארזא ושתיק ויכיל ליה,א"ר תנחום בר חנילאי מפני מה זכה ראובן לימנות בהצלה תחלה מפני שהוא פתח בהצלה תחלה שנאמר (בראשית לז, כא) וישמע ראובן ויצילהו מידם,דרש רבי שמלאי מאי דכתיב (דברים ד, מא) אז יבדיל משה שלש ערים בעבר הירדן מזרחה [שמש] אמר לו הקב"ה למשה הזרח שמש לרוצחים איכא דאמרי א"ל הזרחת שמש לרוצחים,דרש רבי סימאי מאי דכתיב (קהלת ה, ט) אוהב כסף לא ישבע כסף ומי אוהב בהמון לא תבואה אוהב כסף לא ישבע כסף זה משה רבינו שהיה יודע שאין שלש ערים שבעבר הירדן קולטות עד שלא נבחרו שלש בארץ כנען ואמר מצוה שבאה לידי אקיימנה,ומי אוהב בהמון לא תבואה למי נאה ללמד בהמון מי שכל תבואה שלו והיינו דא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים קו, ב) מי ימלל גבורות ה' ישמיע כל תהלתו למי נאה (ללמד) [למלל] גבורות ה' מי שיכול להשמיע כל תהלתו,ורבנן ואיתימא רבה בר מרי אמר מי אוהב בהמון לו תבואה כל האוהב (למלמד) בהמון לו תבואה יהבו ביה רבנן עינייהו ברבא בריה דרבה,(סימן אשי ללמוד רבינא ללמד),רב אשי אמר כל האוהב ללמוד בהמון לו תבואה והיינו דא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו נ, לו) חרב אל הבדים ונואלו חרב על צוארי שונאיהם של ת"ח שיושבין ועוסקין בתורה בד בבד ולא עוד אלא שמטפשין כתיב הכא ונואלו וכתיב התם (במדבר יב, יא) אשר נואלנו ולא עוד אלא שחוטאין שנאמר ואשר חטאנו ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו יט, יג) נואלו שרי צוען,רבינא אמר כל האוהב ללמד בהמון לו תבואה והיינו דאמר רבי הרבה תורה למדתי מרבותי ומחבירי יותר מהם ומתלמידי יותר מכולן,א"ר יהושע בן לוי מאי דכתיב (תהלים קכב, ב) עומדות היו רגלינו בשעריך ירושלם מי גרם לרגלינו שיעמדו במלחמה שערי ירושלם שהיו עוסקים בתורה,וא"ר יהושע בן לוי מאי דכתיב (תהלים קכב, א) שיר המעלות לדוד שמחתי באומרים לי בית ה' נלך אמר דוד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבש"ע שמעתי בני אדם שהיו אומרים מתי ימות זקן זה ויבא שלמה בנו ויבנה בית הבחירה ונעלה לרגל ושמחתי אמר לו הקב"ה (תהלים פד, יא) כי טוב יום בחצריך מאלף טוב לי יום אחד שאתה עוסק בתורה לפני מאלף עולות שעתיד שלמה בנך להקריב לפני על גבי המזבח:,ומכוונות להם דרכים וכו': תניא ר' אליעזר בן יעקב אומר 10a. Therefore, a greater number of cities of refuge per capita were required there, bas it is written: “Gilead is a city of those who work iniquity; it is covered [ iakuba /i] with blood”(Hosea 6:8). bWhatis the meaning of: bCovered [ iakuba /i] with blood? Rabbi Elazar says:It means bthat they would set an ambush [ iokevin /i] to kill people. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is differentabout the cities of refuge closest to the border on bthissouthern bsideof the country band fromthe border on bthatnorthern bsideof the country, bthat are distancedone-quarter of the length of Eretz Yisrael from the border, band what is differentabout the city of refuge in the bmiddleof the country, bwhich isrelatively bcloseto any potential murderers? The maximum distance that one would need to travel to reach the middle city is one-half the distance from the northern and southern borders to their respective cities of refuge., bAbaye said: Murderers are also common in Shechem, as it is written: “And as troops of robbers wait for a man, so does the band of priests; they murder in the way toward Shechem,yes, they commit enormity” (Hosea 6:9). bWhatis the meaning of b“the band of priests”? Rabbi Elazar says:It means bthatthe people bwould band together to kill people, like those priests who band together to distribute iteruma /iamong themselves bin the granaries. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd are there no morecities of refuge beyond these six? bBut isn’t it written:“And the cities that you shall give to the Levites: The six cities of refuge you shall give for the murderer to flee there, band beyond them you shall give forty-two cities”(Numbers 35:6), indicating that the status of all the Levite cities is that of cities of refuge? bAbaye said:With regard to bthesesix cities designated specifically for this purpose, unintentional murderers in need of refuge are badmittedthere bwhetherthey entered the cities bdeliberately,aware that they are cities of refuge, or bwhetherthey entered binadvertently.By contrast, with regard to bthoseforty-two Levite cities, unintentional murderers are badmittedonly if they entered the cities bdeliberately,but if they entered the cities binadvertently,they are bnot admittedto the cities.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is Hebron a city of refuge? But isn’t it written: “And they gave Hebron to Caleb, as Moses had spoken”(Judges 1:20)? This indicates that Hebron belonged to Caleb from the tribe of Judah, and it was not a Levite city. bAbaye said: Its suburbs [ iparvadaha /i]were given to Caleb; the city itself was a city of priests, bas it is writtenin the context of the distribution of the Levite cities: “And they gave them Kiryat Arba…which is Hebron… band the field of the city and its courtyards they gave to Caleb, son of Jephunneh”(Joshua 21:11–12).,The Gemara further asks: bAnd is Kadesh a city of refuge? But isn’t it written: “And the fortified cities were Ziddim Zer, and Hammath, Rakkath, and Chinnereth…and Kedesh and Edrei and En Hazor”(Joshua 19:35–37), band it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bthese citiesof refuge, bone does not establish themin bsmall settlements [ itirin /i] orin blarge cities; rather,one establishes them in bintermediate /b-sized btowns?Apparently, Kadesh was a large, fortified city. bRav Yosef said: There were twocities named bKedesh,and the one listed among the fortified cities in the book of Joshua is not the one that was a city of refuge. bRav Ashi said:The listing of Kadesh among the fortified cities is not difficult, as it is bsimilar tothe two adjacent yet separate cities of bSelikum and the fortification [ ive’akra /i] of Selikum.Likewise, there was the fortified city of Kadesh, mentioned in Joshua, and the city itself, which was an intermediate city that served as city of refuge.,§ The Gemara discusses bthematter bitself,and it cites the complete ibaraita /i: With regard to bthese citiesof refuge, bone does not establish themin bsmall settlements orin blarge cities; rather,one establishes them in bintermediate- /bsized btowns. And one establishes them only in a placewhere bwateris available, band if there is no wateravailable bthere,as there is no spring accessible from the city, bone brings them waterby digging a canal. bAnd one establishes them only in a placewhere there are bmarkets, and one establishes them only in a populated place,where there are many people who regularly frequent the town. If the bpopulationof the surrounding areas bdiminishes, one adds to it.If the number of bresidentsin the city of refuge itself bdiminishes, one bringsnew residents to the city, among them bpriests, Levites, and Israelites. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd one may not sell weapons or hunting toolsin the cities of refuge, to prevent the blood redeemer from gaining access to means that he could exploit to kill the unintentional murderer who fled to the city of refuge; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Neḥemya. And the Rabbis permitselling weapons and hunting tools. bAndRabbi Neḥemya and the Rabbis bagree that one may not spread nets inthe cities of refuge, bnor may they braid [ imafshilin /i] ropes inthose cities, bso that the foot of the blood redeemer will not be found there.If the blood redeemer were to enter the city of refuge to purchase nets or ropes, he is apt to encounter the murderer and kill him., bRabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the versefrom which these matters are derived? It is written: b“And he shall flee to one of these cities and live”(Deuteronomy 4:42), meaning: bPerform someactions bforthe unintentional murderer so bthatlife in the city of refuge bwill beconducive to bliving for him.All these steps are taken to facilitate that objective.,The Sages btaught:In the case of ba student who was exiled, his teacher is exiledto the city of refuge bwith him,so that the student can continue studying Torah with him there, bas it is stated:“And he shall flee to one of these cities band live,”from which it is derived: bPerform someactions bforthe unintentional murderer so bthatlife in the city bwill beconducive to bliving for him.Since Torah study is an integral component of his life, arrangements must be made to ensure continuity in that facet of his existence. bRabbi Zeira says: From hereone learns bthat a person should not teach a student who is not fit,as that may result in the teacher following the student into exile., bRabbi Yoḥa says:In the case of ba teacherof Torah bwho was exiled, his school is exiled with him.The Gemara asks: bIs that sothat a teacher of Torah is exiled? bBut doesn’t Rabbi Yoḥahimself bsay: From whereis it derived bthat matters of Torah provide refuge,i.e., that the blood redeemer may not harm one who is engaged in Torah? It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “Bezer in the wilderness,in the flatlands, for the Reubenites; and Ramoth in Gilead, for the Gadites; and Golan in Bashan, for the Manassites” (Deuteronomy 4:43), in the list of cities of refuge designated by Moses, band it is written thereafter: “And this is the Torah”(Deuteronomy 4:44). Based on that juxtaposition it is derived that the status of Torah is like that of a city of refuge.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,as bthisstatement of Rabbi Yoḥa, that the status of Torah is like that of a city of refuge, is referring to Torah bat the time that one is engaged in itsstudy, and bthatstatement of Rabbi Yoḥa, that the teacher of Torah must take his school to the city of refuge, is referring to the teacher of Torah bat the time that he is not engaged in itsstudy. His mere presence in a city of refuge provides him with continuous protection., bAnd if you wish, say: Whatis the meaning of Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement that matters of Torah bprovide refuge?It means protection, but not for an unintentional murderer from the blood redeemer; rather, it means protection bfrom the Angel of Death.This is basit was in bthisincident bwhere Rav Ḥisda was sitting and studying in the study hall of Rav and the agent of the Angel of Death was unable to approach himand take his life bbecause his mouth was not silent from his studyfor even a moment. The agent bascended and sat on the cedartree bof the study hall of Rav. The cedartree bbroke and Rav Ḥisda wasmomentarily bsilent,startled by the sudden noise, bandthe agent of the Angel of Death bovercame him.Apparently, matters of Torah provide protection from the Angel of Death only when one is actively engaged in their study.,§ bRabbi Tanḥum bar Ḥanilai says: For whatreason bwas Reuben privileged to be enumerated first in the rescue,as the first city of refuge listed is Bezer (see Deuteronomy 4:43), which is located in the tribal portion of Reuben? It is bdue tothe fact bthat he began the rescueof Joseph bfirst, as it is stated: “And Reuben heard and delivered him from their hands”(Genesis 37:21)., bRabbi Simlai taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Then Moses separated three cities beyond the Jordan, to the east of the sun [ imizreḥa shamesh /i]”(Deuteronomy 4:41)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Shine the sun [ ihazraḥ shemesh /i] for murderers,i.e., provide them with the hope of rescue. bSome saythat God bsaid toMoses: In designating these cities of refuge byou have shined the sun for murderers. /b,On a related note, bRabbi Simai taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “He who loves silver shall not be satisfied with silver; nor he who loves abundance with increase”(Ecclesiastes 5:9)? b“He who loves silver shall not be satisfied with silver”; thisis a reference to bMoses our teacher,whose love of mitzvot was so great bthatalthough bhe knew thatan unintentional murderer bwould not be admitted to the three citiesof refuge bthat were inthe east bbank of the Jordan untilthe bthreecities of refuge bthatwere bin the land of Canaan were selected, andthat his designation of cities of refuge would have no practical ramifications in his lifetime, bhenevertheless bsaid:When there is ba mitzva that has come my way, I will fulfill it. /b,The next phrase in that verse: b“Nor he who loves abundance with increase,”is also interpreted as referring to Torah: bFor whom is it fitting to teach an abundanceof people? bOnefor bwhom allits bincrease belongs to him,i.e., one who knows all the content of the Torah is worthy of teaching it in public. bAnd that isidentical to that bwhich Rabbi Elazar says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who can express the mighty acts of God, or make all His praise heard”(Psalms 106:2)? bFor whom is it fitting to express the mighty acts of God?It is bone who can make all His praise heard.One who knows only part of it is unfit to teach the multitudes., bAnd the Rabbissay, band some say Rabba bar Mari says,that the passage b“nor he who loves abundance with increase”means bwhoever lovesa Torah scholar bwho teaches inthe presence of ban abundanceof people, bto him shall be increase,i.e., sons who are Torah scholars. The Gemara relates: When they heard that interpretation, bthe Sages cast their eyes upon Rava, son of Rabba,who loved Torah scholars who disseminate Torah, and he was blessed with sons who were Torah scholars.,The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the ensuing interpretations of the second part of the verse cited earlier (Ecclesiastes 5:9): bAshi to study, Ravina to teach. /b, bRav Ashi says: Anyone who loves to study in abundance,i.e., with many colleagues, bto him shall be increase,i.e., he will succeed in his studies. bAnd that isparallel to that bwhich Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “A sword is upon the ibaddim /i, iveno’alu /i”(Jeremiah 50:36)? It is fitting that ba swordbe placed bon the necks of the enemies of Torah scholars,a euphemism for Torah scholars, bwho sit and engage inthe study of bthe Torah individually [ ibad bevad /i]. Moreover, they grow foolishthrough individual study, as bit is written here: iVeno’alu /i, and it is written there: “For we have been foolish [ ino’alnu /i]”(Numbers 12:11). bMoreover, theythereby bsin, as it is statedimmediately thereafter: b“And for we have sinned.” And if you wish, saythat bfrom hereit is derived that ino’alumeans sinned: b“The ministers of Zoan have sinned [ ino’alu /i]”(Isaiah 19:13)., bRavina saysthat there is a different interpretation of the verse cited earlier (Ecclesiastes 5:9): bAnyone who loves to teach in abundance,before the multitudes, bto him shall be increase,as his Torah knowledge is enhanced through those lectures. bAnd that isthe parallel to that bwhich RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Much Torah have I studied from my teachers, andI have learned bmore from my colleaguesthan bfrom them, andI have learned bmore from my studentsthan bfrom all of them. /b,Apropos the virtue of Torah study, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Our feet were standing in your gates, Jerusalem”(Psalms 122:2)? bWhat caused our feet to withstandthe enemies bin war?It is bthe gates of Jerusalem, where they were engaged in Torahstudy. He interprets the term “in your gates” to mean: Because of your gates, the place of justice and Torah., bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “A song of the ascents to David: I rejoiced when they said to me, let us go to the house of God”(Psalms 122:1)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I heard people who were sayingin reference to me: bWhen will this old man die, and Solomon his son will comeand succeed him band build the Temple and we will ascendthere bfor the pilgrimage Festival?It was common knowledge that the Temple would be constructed by David’s successor. David continued: bAnddespite my pain that I am not privileged to build the Temple, bI rejoiced. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: “For better is one day in your courtyard than one thousand”(Psalms 84:11), meaning, bI prefer one dayduring bwhich you engage inthe study of bTorah before Me thanthe bone thousand burnt-offerings that your son Solomon is destined to sacrifice before Me upon the altar(see I Kings 3:4).,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd roads were aligned for themfrom this city to that city. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: /b
24. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. יכשל בו דאמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב בשביל משקל שני סלעים מילת שהוסיף יעקב ליוסף משאר אחיו נתגלגל הדבר וירדו אבותינו למצרים אמר רבי בנימן בר יפת רמז רמז לו שעתיד בן לצאת ממנו שיצא מלפני המלך בחמשה לבושי מלכות שנאמר ומרדכי יצא בלבוש מלכות תכלת וגו',(בראשית מה, יד) ויפול על צוארי בנימן אחיו כמה צוארין הוו ליה לבנימין אמר רבי אלעזר בכה על שני מקדשים שעתידין להיות בחלקו של בנימין ועתידין ליחרב ובנימין בכה על צואריו בכה על משכן שילה שעתיד להיות בחלקו של יוסף ועתיד ליחרב,(בראשית מה, יב) והנה עיניכם רואות ועיני אחי בנימין אמר רבי אלעזר אמר להם כשם שאין בלבי על בנימין אחי שלא היה במכירתי כך אין בלבי עליכם כי פי המדבר אליכם כפי כן לבי,(בראשית מה, כג) ולאביו שלח כזאת עשרה חמורים נושאים מטוב מצרים מאי מטוב מצרים אמר ר' בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר שלח לו יין [ישן] שדעת זקנים נוחה הימנו,(בראשית נ, יח) וילכו גם אחיו ויפלו לפניו אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר היינו דאמרי אינשי תעלא בעידניה סגיד ליה,תעלא מאי בצירותיה מאחווה אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר (בראשית מז, לא) וישתחו ישראל על ראש המטה אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר תעלא בעידניה סגיד ליה,(בראשית נ, כא) וינחם אותם וידבר על לבם אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שאמר להם דברים שמתקבלין על הלב ומה עשרה נרות לא יכלו לכבות נר אחד נר אחד היאך יכול לכבות עשרה נרות,(אסתר ח, טז) ליהודים היתה אורה ושמחה וששון ויקר אמר רב יהודה אורה זו תורה וכן הוא אומר (משלי ו, כג) כי נר מצוה ותורה אור שמחה זה יום טוב וכן הוא אומר (דברים טז, יד) ושמחת בחגך ששון זו מילה וכן הוא אומר (תהלים קיט, קסב) שש אנכי על אמרתך,ויקר אלו תפלין וכן הוא אומר (דברים כח, י) וראו כל עמי הארץ כי שם ה' נקרא עליך ויראו ממך ותניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר אלו תפלין שבראש,ואת פרשנדתא וגו' עשרת בני המן אמר רב אדא דמן יפו עשרת בני המן ועשרת צריך לממרינהו בנשימה אחת מאי טעמא כולהו בהדי הדדי נפקו נשמתייהו אמר רבי יוחנן ויו דויזתא צריך למימתחה בזקיפא כמורדיא דלברות מאי טעמא כולהו בחד זקיפא אזדקיפו,אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דרש ר' שילא איש כפר תמרתא כל השירות כולן נכתבות אריח על גבי לבינה ולבינה על גבי אריח,חוץ משירה זו ומלכי כנען שאריח על גבי אריח ולבינה על גבי לבינה מ"ט שלא תהא תקומה למפלתן,ויאמר המלך לאסתר המלכה בשושן הבירה הרגו היהודים אמר רבי אבהו מלמד שבא מלאך וסטרו על פיו,ובבאה לפני המלך אמר עם הספר אמר אמרה מיבעי ליה אמר רבי יוחנן אמרה לו יאמר בפה מה שכתוב בספר,דברי שלום ואמת אמר רבי תנחום ואמרי לה אמר רבי אסי מלמד שצריכה שרטוט כאמיתה של תורה,ומאמר אסתר קיים מאמר אסתר אין דברי הצומות לא אמר רבי יוחנן דברי הצומות ומאמר אסתר קיים (את ימי) הפורים האלה,כי מרדכי היהודי משנה למלך אחשורוש וגדול ליהודים ורצוי לרוב אחיו לרוב אחיו ולא לכל אחיו מלמד שפירשו ממנו מקצת סנהדרין,אמר רב יוסף גדול ת"ת יותר מהצלת נפשות דמעיקרא חשיב ליה למרדכי בתר ד' ולבסוף בתר חמשה מעיקרא כתיב (עזרא ב, ב) אשר באו עם זרובבל ישוע נחמיה שריה רעליה מרדכי בלשן ולבסוף כתיב (נחמיה ז, ז) הבאים עם זרובבל ישוע נחמיה עזריה רעמיה נחמני מרדכי בלשן,אמר רב ואיתימא רב שמואל בר מרתא גדול תלמוד תורה יותר מבנין בית המקדש שכל זמן שברוך בן נריה קיים לא הניחו עזרא ועלה,אמר רבה אמר רב יצחק בר שמואל בר מרתא גדול תלמוד תורה יותר מכבוד אב ואם שכל אותן שנים שהיה יעקב אבינו בבית עבר לא נענש דאמר מר 16b. bhehimself bshould stumbleby showing favoritism to Benjamin? bAs Rava bar Meḥaseyya saidthat bRav Ḥama bar Gurya saidthat bRav said: Due tothe weight of btwo sela of fine wool that Jacobgave to Joseph, which he badded towhat he gave bJoseph beyondwhat he gave bthe rest of his brothers,as he made him his special coat, bthe story progressed and our forefathers went down to Egypt.How then could Joseph have displayed similar favoritism toward Benjamin? bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet said: Hewas not showing favoritism. Rather, he bintimated to him that a descendant was destined to issue from him who would go out from the presence of the kingwearing bfive royal garments, as it is stated: “And Mordecai went forthfrom the presence of the king bin royal apparel of sky blueand white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a wrap of fine linen and purple” (Esther 8:15).,The Gemara elaborates on certain elements in the story of Joseph and his brothers. The verse states with regard to Joseph: b“And he fell on his brother Benjamin’s neck [ itzavarei/b] and wept” (Genesis 45:14). The wording of the verse gives rise to a question, as the word itzavareiis plural, meaning necks: bHow many necks did Benjamin have,such that the verse should use the plural itzavareirather than the singular itzavar /i? bRabbi Elazar said:This intimates bthatJoseph bcried over the two Temples that were destined to be in thetribal bterritory of Benjamin and were destined to be destroyed.The same verse continues: b“And Benjamin wept on his neck”(Genesis 45:14); bhe cried over the tabernacle of Shiloh that was destined to be in thetribal bterritory of Joseph and was destined to be destroyed. /b,The verse states: b“And behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin”(Genesis 45:12). bRabbi Elazar said:Joseph bsaid tohis brothers as follows: bJust as Icertainly bharbor noresentment bin my heart toward my brother Benjamin, for he was noteven bpresent when I was sold, so too, I harbor noresentment btoward you.The verse continues: b“That it is my mouth [ iki fi /i] that speaks to you”(Genesis 45:12), i.e., bAs my mouth [ ikefi /i] is, so is my heart. /b,The verse states: b“And to his father he sent after this manner ten donkeys laden with the good things of Egypt”(Genesis 45:23). The Gemara asks: bWhat are “the good things of Egypt”that are mentioned but not specified here? bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: He sent him aged wine, which the elderly find pleasing. /b,Following Jacob’s death, it states concerning Joseph: b“And his brothers even went and fell down before him”(Genesis 50:18). bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: Thisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: When the fox is in its hour, bow down to it,i.e., if a fox is appointed king, one must bow down before and submit oneself to it.,The Gemara expresses astonishment at the use of this parable: Are you calling Joseph ba fox? What, was he inferior to his brotherssuch that in relation to them you call him a fox? bRather, if such a statement was stated, it was stated as follows,not in connection with this verse, but rather in connection with a different verse. The verse states: b“And Israel bowed himself upon the head of the bed”(Genesis 47:31). With regard to this, bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: When the fox is in its hour, bow down to it,as Jacob had to bow down before his son Joseph, who had reached greatness.,It says with regard to Joseph’s remarks to his brothers: b“And he comforted them and spoke to their hearts”(Genesis 50:21). bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said:This bteaches that he spoke to them words that are acceptable to the heart,and alleviated their fears. This is what he said: bIf ten lights could not put out one light,as all of you were unable to do me harm, bhow can one light put out ten lights? /b,§ The Gemara returns to its explanation of the Megilla. The verse states: b“The Jews had light and gladness, and joy and honor”(Esther 8:16). bRav Yehuda said: “Light”; thisis referring to the bTorahthat they once again studied. bAnd similarly it says: “For the mitzva is a lamp and the Torah is light”(Proverbs 6:23). b“Gladness” [ isimḥa /i]; thisis referring to bthe Festivalsthat they once again observed. bAnd similarly it says: “And you shall be glad [ ivesamakhta /i] on your Festival”(Deuteronomy 16:14). b“Joy” [ isasson /i]; thisis referring to bcircumcision,as they once again circumcised their sons. bAnd similarly it says: “I rejoice [ isas /i] at Your word”(Psalms 119:162), which the Sages understood as referring to David’s rejoicing over the mitzva of circumcision., b“Honor”; this isreferring to bphylacteries,which they once again donned. bAnd similarly it says: “And all peoples of the earth will see that you are called by the name of the Lord; and they will be afraid of you”(Deuteronomy 28:10). bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer the Great said: Thisis referring to bthe phylacteries worn on the head.Haman had banned the fulfillment of all the mitzvot mentioned, but upon Haman’s demise the Jews returned to their observance.,The verse states: “And in Shushan the capital the Jews slew and destroyed five hundred men. bAnd Parshandatha… /band Vaizatha, bthe ten sons of Haman”(Esther 9:6–10). bRav Adda from Jaffa said:When reading the Megilla, the names of bthe ten sons of Haman andthe word b“ten” must be said in one breath. What is the reasonfor this? It is that btheir souls all departed together. Rabbi Yoḥa said:The letter ivavinthe name b“Vaizatha”is a lengthened ivavand bmust be elongated as a pole, like a steering oar of a ship [ iliberot /i]. What is the reasonfor this? To indicate that bthey were all hanged on one pole. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa saidthat bRabbi Sheila, a man of the village of Timarta, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Allof bthe songsin the Bible bare writtenin the form of ba half brick arranged upon a whole brick and a whole brick arranged upon a half brick,i.e., each line of the song is divided into a stitch of text, referred to as a half brick, which is separated by a blank space, referred to as a whole brick, from the concluding stitch of that line of text.,The next line of the song inverts the sequence. bThis is the principle for all songs in the Bible exceptfor bthis song,referring to the list of Haman’s sons, bandthe song listing bthe kings of Canaanwho were defeated by Joshua. These two songs are written in the form of ba half brick arranged upon a half brick and a whole brick arranged upon a whole brick,i.e., one stitch of text over another, and one blank space over another. bWhat is the reasonthat these two songs are written in this anomalous fashion? bSo that they should never rise from their downfall.Just as a wall that is built in this manner will not stand, so too, these individuals should have no resurgence.,The verse states: b“And the king said to Esther the queen: The Jews have slainand destroyed five hundred men bin Shushan the capital,and also the ten sons of Haman; what have they done in the rest of the king’s provinces? Now what is your petition and it shall be granted to you; and what more do you request, and it shall be done” (Esther 9:12). bRabbi Abbahu said: This teaches that an angel came and slapped him on his mouth,so that he was unable to finish what he was saying; he started with a complaint about what the Jews were doing, but ended on an entirely different note.,The verse states: b“But when she came before the king, he said with a letter”(Esther 9:25). Why does it say: b“He said”? It should have said: “She said,”as it was Esther who changed the decree. bRabbi Yoḥa said: She said toAhasuerus: bLet it be said byword of bmouth,indicating that bthat which is written in the lettershould also be ordered verbally.,With regard to what is stated: b“Words of peace and truth”(Esther 9:30), bRabbi Tanḥum said, and some saythat bRabbi Asisaid: This bteaches thata Megilla scroll brequires scoring,i.e., that the lines for the text must be scored onto the parchment, bas the Torah itself,i.e., as is done in a Torah scroll.,The verses say: “The matters of the fasts and their cry. bAnd the decree of Esther confirmedthese matters of Purim” (Esther 9:31–32). The Gemara asks: Should we say that b“the decree of Esther” indeedconfirmed these matters of Purim, but b“the matters of the fasts”did bnot?But didn’t the fasts also contribute to the miracle? bRabbi Yoḥa said:These two verses, b“The matters of the fastsand their cry. bAnd the decree of Esther confirmed these matters of Purim,”should be read as one.,The verse states: b“For Mordecai the Jew was second to the king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted by the majority of his brethren”(Esther 10:3). The Gemara comments: The verse indicates that Mordecai was accepted only b“By the majority of his brethren,” but not by all his brethren.This bteaches that somemembers bof the Sanhedrin parted from him,because he occupied himself with community needs, and was therefore compelled to neglect his Torah study. They felt that this was a mistake and that he should have remained active on the Sanhedrin., bRav Yosef said: Studying Torah is greater than saving lives, as initially,when listing the Jewish leaders who came to Eretz Yisrael, bMordecai was mentioned after fourother people, bbut at the endhe was listed bafter five.This is taken to indicate that his involvement in governmental affairs instead of in Torah study lowered his stature one notch. The Gemara proves this: bAt first it is written: “Who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mordecai, Bilshan”(Ezra 2:2); bbut in the endin a later list bit is written: “Who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Azariah, Raamiah, Nahmani, Mordecai, Bilshan”(Nehemiah 7:7)., bRav said, and some saythat bRav Shmuel bar Martasaid: bStudying Torah is greaterand more important bthan building the Temple.A proof of this is that bfor as long as Baruch ben Neriah was alivein Babylonia, bEzra,who was his disciple, bdid not leave him and go upto Eretz Yisrael to build the Temple., bRabba saidthat bRav Yitzḥak bar Shmuel bar Marta said: Studying Torah isgreater and bmoreimportant bthan honoring one’s father and mother,and a proof of this is bthat for all those years that our father Jacob spent in the house of Eberand studied Torah there bhe was not punishedfor having neglected to fulfill the mitzva of honoring one’s parents. bAs the Master said: /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32a. מפני שנתעסק במלון תחילה שנאמר ויהי בדרך במלון (שמות ד, כד),רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא למשה רבינו ביקש שטן להרוג אלא לאותו תינוק שנאמר כי חתן דמים אתה לי (שמות ד כה) צא וראה מי קרוי חתן הוי אומר זה התינוק,דרש רבי יהודה בר ביזנא בשעה שנתרשל משה רבינו מן המילה באו אף וחימה ובלעוהו ולא שיירו ממנו אלא רגליו מיד ותקח צפורה צור ותכרת את ערלת בנה (שמות ד, כה) מיד וירף ממנו (שמות ד, כו),באותה שעה ביקש משה רבינו להורגן שנאמר הרף מאף ועזוב חמה (תהלים לז, ח) ויש אומרים לחימה הֲרָגוֹ שנאמר חמה אין לי (ישעיהו כז, ד) והכתיב כי יגרתי מפני האף והחמה (דברים ט, יט) תרי חימה הוו ואיבעית אימא גונדא דחימה,תניא רבי אומר גדולה מילה שאין לך מי שנתעסק במצוות כאברהם אבינו ולא נקרא תמים אלא על שם מילה שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) וכתיב ואתנה בריתי ביני ובינך (בראשית יז, ב),דבר אחר גדולה מילה ששקולה כנגד כל המצוות שבתורה שנאמר כי על פי הדברים האלה וגו' (שמות לד, כז) דבר אחר גדולה מילה שאילמלא מילה לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה וגו' (ירמיהו לג, כה),ופליגא דרבי אליעזר דאמר רבי אליעזר גדולה תורה שאילמלא תורה לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שאמר לו הקב"ה לאברהם אבינו התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) אחזתו רעדה אמר שמא יש בי דבר מגונה כיוון שאמר לו ואתנה בריתי ביני ובינך (בראשית יז, ב) נתקררה דעתו,ויוצא אותו החוצה (בראשית טו, ה) אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם הסתכלתי במזל שלי ואין לי אלא בן אחד אמר לו צא מאיצטגנינות שלך אין מזל לישראל,אמר רבי יצחק כל המתמים עצמו הקב"ה מתמים עמו שנאמר עם חסיד תתחסד עם גבר תמים תתמם (תהלים יח, כו),אמר רבי הושעיא כל המתמים עצמו שעה עומדת לו שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) וכתיב והיית לאב המון גוים (בראשית יז, ד),אמר רבי כל המנחש לו נחש שנאמר כי לא נחש ביעקב (במדבר כג, כג) והא בלמ"ד אל"ף כתיב אלא משום מידה כנגד מידה,תני אהבה בריה דרבי זירא כל אדם שאינו מנחש מכניסין אותו במחיצה שאפילו מלאכי השרת אין יכולין ליכנס בתוכה שנאמר כי לא נחש ביעקב ולא קסם בישראל וגו' (במדבר כג, כג),אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי אלעזר מפני מה נענש אברהם אבינו ונשתעבדו בניו למצרים מאתיים ועשר שנים מפני שעשה אנגרייא בתלמידי חכמים שנאמר וירק את חניכיו ילידי ביתו (בראשית יד, יד),ושמואל אמר מפני שהפריז על מדותיו של הקב"ה שנאמר במה אדע כי אירשנה (בראשית טו, ח) ורבי יוחנן אמר שהפריש בני אדם מלהכנס תחת כנפי השכינה שנאמר תן לי הנפש והרכוש קח לך (בראשית יד, כא),וירק את חניכיו ילידי ביתו (בראשית יד, יד) רב אמר שהוריקן בתורה ושמואל אמר שהוריקן בזהב,שמנה עשר ושלש מאות (בראשית יד, יד) אמר רבי אמי בר אבא אליעזר כנגד כולם איכא דאמרי אליעזר הוא דחושבניה הכי הוי,ואמר רבי אמי בר אבא בן שלוש שנים הכיר אברהם את בוראו שנאמר עקב אשר שמע אברהם בקולי (בראשית כו, ה) חושבניה מאה ושבעין ותרין,ואמר רמי בר אבא 32a. bBecause he was occupied with lodging firstand did not immediately perform the mitzva of circumcision, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass on the way at the lodging-place”(Exodus 4:24)., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: It was not Moses our teacherthat bSatan wanted to kill, but rather, that infantwho was not circumcised, bas it is stated: “Surely a bridegroom of blood are you to me”(Exodus 4:25). bGo out and see: Whodoes it make sense would be the one that bis called the bridegroomin this instance? bYou must say this is the infant,since he is the one who entered the covet of Abraham by means of the circumcision., bRabbi Yehuda bar Bizna taught: At the time that Moses our teacher was negligent about the circumcision,the destructive angels named bAf,meaning anger, band Ḥeima,meaning wrath, bcame and swallowed him, and only his legs were leftoutside. bImmediately, “Zipporah took a flint, and cut off the foreskin of her son”(Exodus 4:25), and bimmediately “He let him alone”(Exodus 4:26)., bAt that moment, Moses our teacher wanted to kill them, as it is stated: “Cease from anger [ iaf] and forsake wrath [ iḥeima /i]”(Psalms 37:8), which indicates that he wanted to harm them. bAnd there are those who say: He killedthe angel named bḤeima, as it is stated: “Wrath is not in me”(Isaiah 27:4). The Gemara asks: How is it possible to say that he killed Ḥeima? bIsn’t it writtenthat Moses himself said much later: b“For I was in dread of the anger and wrath”(Deuteronomy 9:19)? The Gemara answers: bThere are twotypes of bwrath. And if you wish, saythat bthe army of Ḥeimaremained but not the angel itself., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Great isthe mitzva of bcircumcision, for there is no one who was engaged in mitzvot like Abraham our Patriarch, andyet bhe was called wholehearted only due tothe mitzva of bcircumcision, as it is stated: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), band it is writtenin the next verse: b“And I will make My covet between Me and you”(Genesis 17:2), and Abraham was then commanded with regard to circumcision. This indicates that he was not called wholehearted until he performed circumcision., bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that it is equal to all the mitzvot of the Torah, as it is statedat the giving of the Torah: b“For according to these wordsI have made a covet with you and with Israel” (Exodus 34:27), and “covet” refers to circumcision. bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that if not for circumcision heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: “If My covet be not with day and night,I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25), and the covet that exists day and night is the covet of circumcision, as it is always found on the person’s body.,The Gemara comments: bAndthis statement bdisagreeswith the words bof Rabbi Eliezer, for Rabbi Eliezer said: Great is the Torah, for if not for Torah, heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: “If My covet be not with day and night,I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25). According to Rabbi Eliezer, the covet that exists day and night is the Torah, as it says: “You should contemplate it day and night” (Joshua 1:8)., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham our Patriarch: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), a sensation of btrembling seized himand bhe said: Perhaps there is something disgraceful about medue to a transgression that I committed, and therefore I cannot be called complete. bWhenGod bsaid to him: “And I will make My covet between Me and you”(Genesis 17:2), bhis mind was set at ease,since he understood that the removal of the foreskin that he was now commanded to do was the reason he had not yet achieved completion.,The Gemara expounds the verse b“and He brought him outside”(Genesis 15:5): Abraham bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, I looked at my constellation andaccording to it bIwill bhave only one son,and a son has already been born to me, i.e., Ishmael. bHe said to him: Emerge from your astrologybecause bthere is no constellation for the Jewish people,as they are not subject to the influence of astrology., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who conducts himself with wholeheartedness, the Holy One, Blessed be He, treats him with wholeheartedness, as it is stated: “With the devout You act devoutly, and with the one who is strong in his wholeheartedness You act wholeheartedly”(II Samuel 22:26)., bRabbi Hoshaya said: Anyone who acts wholeheartedly, time will stand for him,i.e., he will be successful, bas it is stated: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), band it is written: “And you shall be the father of a multitude of nations”(Genesis 17:4)., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Anyone who divines,i.e., he guesses and looks for signs about the future, bthe signwill injure bhim, as it is stated: “For there is to him [ ilo /i] divination with Jacob”(Numbers 23:23). The Gemara asks: bBut it is written ilo bwiththe letters ilamed alef /i,meaning “no divination,” as opposed to with the letters ilamed vav /i, meaning “there is to him divination.” The straightforward meaning of the verse is that there is no divination with regard to Jacob. bRather,the reason that he will be injured is not based on the verse but rather bdue tothe concept of bmeasure for measure:Since he attempts to tell his fortune, it injures him., bAhava, son of Rabbi Zeira, teaches: Any person who does not divinehis future bis brought inside a partitionclose to God to a place bthat even the ministering angels cannot enter inside, as it is stated: “For there is no divination with Jacob, neither is there any enchantment with Israel,now it is said to Jacob and Israel what has God wrought” (Numbers 23:23). In other words, matters are revealed to Israel that even the angels do not know, since Israel is closer to God than the angels., bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: For what reason was Abraham our Patriarch punished and his children enslaved to Egyptfor b210 years? Because he made a draft [ iangarya /i] of Torah scholars, as it is stated: “He led forth his trained men, born in his house”(Genesis 14:14). These trained men that he took to war were actually his disciples, who were Torah scholars., bAnd Shmuel said: Because he greatly examined [ ihifriz /i] the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?”(Genesis 15:8). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said:He was punished bbecause he distanced people from entering under the wings of the Divine Presence, as it is statedthat the king of Sodom said to him: b“Give me the people and take the goods to yourself”(Genesis 14:21), but Abraham refused to take any goods either. If he had not listened to the king of Sodom and had allowed the people to remain with him, he would have brought the prisoners under the wings of the Divine Presence.,The Gemara returns to discuss one of the verses cited previously: b“He led forth [ ivayyarek /i] his trained men, born in his house”(Genesis 14:14). bRav said: He showered them [ ihorikan /i] with Torahlike someone who pours from one vessel into another, band Shmuel said: He showered them [ ihorikan /i] with goldand gave them an abundance of money so that they would go to war with him.,The Torah states that he took b“eighteen and three hundred”(Genesis 14:14) men to war. bRabbi Ami bar Abba said: Eliezerwas bequivalentto ball of them. There arethose bwho say:Only bEliezer isreferred to here, bas the numerical valueof the letters of his name bis thisamount, i.e., 318., bAnd Rabbi Ami bar Abba said: Abraham recognized his Creator at the age of three years, as it is stated: “Because [ iekev /i] Abraham hearkened to My voice”(Genesis 26:5). bThe numerical valueof the letters of the word iekevis b172,indicating that he observed the ihalakhafor this many years. If Abraham lived until 175 then his first recognition of the Creator must have been at the age of three., bAnd Rami bar Abba saidin a similar manner:
26. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

100a. לא שרו לן עורבא ולא אסרו לן יונה,רבא כי הוו מייתי טריפתא דבי בנימין קמיה כי הוה חזי בה טעמא להיתירא אמר להו תחזו דקא שרינא לכו עורבא כי הוה חזי לה טעמא לאיסורא אמר להו תחזו דקא אסרנא לכו יונה,רב פפא אמר כגון דאמר הני רבנן רב פפא אישתלי ואמר כגון הני רבנן ואיתיב בתעניתא,לוי בר שמואל ורב הונא בר חייא הוו קא מתקני מטפחות ספרי דבי רב יהודה כי מטו מגילת אסתר אמרי הא [מגילת אסתר] לא בעי מטפחת אמר להו כי האי גוונא נמי מיחזי כי אפקירותא,רב נחמן אמר זה הקורא רבו בשמו דאמר רבי יוחנן מפני מה נענש גיחזי מפני שקרא לרבו בשמו שנאמר (מלכים ב ח, ה) ויאמר גחזי אדני המלך זאת האשה וזה בנה אשר החיה אלישע,יתיב רבי ירמיה קמיה דרבי זירא ויתיב וקאמר עתיד הקב"ה להוציא נחל מבית קדשי הקדשים ועליו כל מיני מגדים שנאמר (יחזקאל מז, יב) ועל הנחל יעלה על שפתו מזה ומזה כל עץ מאכל לא יבול עלהו ולא יתם פריו לחדשיו יבכר כי מימיו מן המקדש [המה] יוצאים והיה פריו למאכל ועלהו לתרופה א"ל ההוא סבא יישר וכן אמר ר' יוחנן (יישר) אמר ליה ר' ירמיה לרבי זירא כי האי גונא מיחזי אפקרותא,אמר ליה הא [האי] סיועי קא מסייע (ליה) [לך] אלא אי שמיע לך הא שמיע לך כי הא דיתיב רבי יוחנן וקא דריש עתיד הקב"ה להביא אבנים טובות ומרגליות שהן שלשים על שלשים אמות וחוקק בהם עשר ברום עשרים ומעמידן בשערי ירושלים שנאמר (ישעיהו נד, יב) ושמתי כדכוד שמשותיך ושעריך לאבני אקדח וגו' לגלג עליו אותו תלמיד אמר השתא כביעתא דצילצלא לא משכחינן כולי האי משכחינן,לימים הפליגה ספינתו בים חזינהו למלאכי השרת דקא מנסרי אבנים טובות ומרגליות אמר להו הני למאן אמרי עתיד הקב"ה להעמידן בשערי ירושלים כי הדר אשכחיה לר' יוחנן דיתיב וקא דריש א"ל רבי דרוש ולך נאה לדרוש כשם שאמרת כך ראיתי אמר לו ריקה אם לא ראית לא האמנת מלגלג על דברי חכמים אתה יהב ביה עיניה ועשאו גל של עצמות,מיתבי (ויקרא כו, יג) ואולך אתכם קוממיות ר"מ אומר מאתים אמה כשתי קומות של אדם הראשון רבי יהודה אומר ק' אמה כנגד היכל וכותליו שנאמר (תהלים קמד, יב) אשר בנינו כנטיעים מגודלים בנעוריהם בנותינו כזויות מחוטבות תבנית היכל וגו',כי קאמר ר' יוחנן לכוי דבי זיקא,מאי ועלהו לתרופה ר' יצחק בר אבודימי ורב חסדא חד אמר להתיר פה של מעלה וחד אמר להתיר פה של מטה,איתמר (נמי) חזקיה אמר להתיר פה אילמין בר קפרא אמר להתיר פה עקרות ר' יוחנן אמר לתרופה ממש מאי לתרופה ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר לתואר פנים של בעלי הפה,דרש ר' יהודה ברבי סימון כל המשחיר פניו על דברי תורה בעולם הזה הקב"ה מבהיק זיויו לעולם הבא שנאמר (שיר השירים ה, טו) מראהו כלבנון בחור כארזים,אמר ר' תנחום בר' חנילאי כל המרעיב עצמו על דברי תורה בעולם הזה הקב"ה משביעו לעולם הבא שנאמר (תהלים לו, ט) ירויון מדשן ביתך ונחל עדניך תשקם,כי אתא רב דימי אמר עתיד הקב"ה ליתן לכל צדיק וצדיק מלא עומסו שנאמר (תהלים סח, כ) ברוך ה' יום יום יעמס לנו האל ישועתנו סלה א"ל אביי וכי אפשר לומר כן והלא כבר נאמר (ישעיהו מ, יב) מי מדד בשעלו מים ושמים בזרת תכן,אמר מאי טעמא לא שכיחת באגדתא דאמרי במערבא משמיה דרבא בר מרי עתיד הקב"ה ליתן לכל צדיק וצדיק ג' מאות ועשרה עולמות שנא' (משלי ח, כא) להנחיל אוהבי יש ואוצרותיהם אמלא יש בגימטריא תלת מאה ועשרה הוי,תניא ר' מאיר אומר במדה שאדם מודד מודדין לו דכתיב (ישעיהו כז, ח) בסאסאה בשלחה תריבנה,אמר ר' יהושע וכי אפשר לומר כן אדם נותן מלא עומסו לעני בעולם הזה הקב"ה נותן לו מלא עומסו לעולם הבא והכתיב (ישעיהו מ, יב) שמים בזרת תכן ואתה אי אומר כן איזו היא מדה מרובה מדת טובה מרובה או מדת פורענות 100a. bhave they permitted a raven for us nor have they prohibited a dove for us.They merely tell us matters stated explicitly in the Torah.,The Gemara relates with regard to bRava: When they would bringa possible itereifafrom the house of Binyamin before him, when he would see in it a reason to permitits consumption, Rava would bsay to them: See that I am permitting a raven for you,as this is an animal that appeared forbidden. bWhen he would see in it a reason to prohibitits consumption, Rava would bsay to them: See that I am prohibiting a dove for you. /b, bRav Pappa says:The iepikorosmentioned in the mishna is referring to one who conducts himself blike one who says: Those Sages,with contemptuous overtones. The Gemara relates that bRav Pappahimself bforgotin one instance band said: Like those Sages, and he observed a fastto achieve atonement for expressing himself in that manner.,The Gemara relates: bLevi bar Shmuel and Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya were mending mantles forthe sacred bscrolls of the school of Rav Yehuda. When they reached the scroll of Esther they said: This scroll of Esther does not require a mantle,as it is not as significant as the other sacred scrolls. Rav Yehuda bsaid to them:A statement bof that sort also seemsto express irreverence blikethe birreverencetypical of an iepikoros /i, as you should not have referred to the scroll of Esther as: This scroll., bRav Naḥman says:An iepikoros bis one who calls his teacher by his nameand does not call him Rabbi, bas Rabbi Yoḥa said: For whatreason bwas Gehazi punished?It is bdue tothe fact bthat he called his teacher by his name, as it is stated: “And Gehazi said: My lord the king, this is the woman, and this is her son, whom Elisha revived”(II Kings 8:5).,§ The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yirmeya sat before Rabbi Zeira, and sat and said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, will cause a river to emerge from the Holy of Holies, and alongside it all sorts of delicacieswill grow, bas it is stated: “And the river upon its bank, on this side and on that side shall grow every tree for food, whose leaf shall not wither, neither shall its fruit fall; it shall bring forth new fruit every month, because their waters emerged from the Sanctuary; and its fruit shall be for food and its leaf for medicine”(Ezekiel 47:12). bA certain elder said toRabbi Yirmeya: bWell done, and so Rabbi Yoḥa said: Well done. Rabbi Yirmeya said to Rabbi Zeira:Does a statement bof that sort,when one who is not a Torah scholar says to a Sage that his statement is correct, bseem likethe birreverencetypical of an iepikoros /i?,Rabbi Zeira bsaid to him: But isn’t he supporting yourstatement? He meant no disrespect. bRather, if you heardthat at times supporting the statement of a Sage is irreverent, bthisis what byou heard:It is blike thatcase in bwhich Rabbi Yoḥa sat and taught: The Holy One, Blessed be He, is destined to bring precious stones and jewels that are thirty by thirty cubits, and He will bore in theman opening btencubits wide bby twentycubits bin height and place themto serve bas the gates of Jerusalem, as it is stated: “And I will make your pinnacles of rubies and your gates of carbuncles”(Isaiah 54:12). bA certain student mocked himand bsaid: Now,at present, bwe do not findprecious stones bcomparablein size to bthe egg of a palm dove.Will bwe findstones bas large asthose bthatyou described?, bSometimelater that student’s bship set sail at sea. He saw the ministering angels cutting precious stonesthat size. bHe said tothe angels: bFor whomare bthesestones? The angels bsaidto him: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, is destined to place them at the gates of Jerusalem. Whenthe student breturned, he found Rabbi Yoḥa, who was sitting and teaching.The student bsaid to him: My teacher, teach, and it is fitting for you to teach. Just as you saidwith regard to the precious stones, bso I saw.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Good-for-nothing, if you did not seeit, byou would not believeit? bYouare one who bmocks the statements of the Sages.Rabbi Yoḥa bdirected his eyes toward himin anger band rendered him a pile of bones. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraitato the statement of Rabbi Yoḥa that the gates will be twenty cubits high. The Sages engaged in a dispute concerning the interpretation of the verse: b“And I made you go upright [ ikomemiyyut /i]”(Leviticus 26:13). bRabbi Meir saysthat in the end of days people will be btwo hundred cubitstall, bthe equivalent of twice the height of Adam the firstman, who was one hundred cubits tall. bRabbi Yehuda says:People will be bone hundred cubitstall, bcorresponding tothe height of the bSanctuary and its walls, as it is stated: “For our sons are as plants grown up in their youth; our daughters as cornerstones, carved in the fashion of a palace”(Psalms 144:12), indicating that the sons and daughters will be one hundred cubits tall, the height of the Sanctuary. If the people are that tall, how will they enter gates twenty cubits high?,The Gemara answers: bWhen Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat the openings would be twenty cubits high he is referring bto the windowsthrough which bwind enters.The gates through which people enter will extend considerably higher.,§ Apropos the river that will emerge from the Holy of Holies, the Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: bAnd its leaf for medicine [ iliterufa /i]? Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Avudimi and Rav Ḥisdadisagree. bOne says:This is an abbreviation for the phrase: bTo unlock the mouth [ ilehattir peh /i]that is babove,i.e., the leaf heals the mute. bAnd one says:That is the abbreviation, but it means bto unlock the mouththat is bbelow,a euphemism for healing the womb of a barren woman., bIt was also statedthat other Sages engaged in a dispute concerning this matter. bḤizkiyya saysthat the reference is: bTo unlock the mouth of mutes,and bbar Kappara saysthat the reference is: bTo unlock the mouth of barren women. Rabbi Yoḥa says:The reference is bto actual medicine.The Gemara asks: According to that opinion, bwhat isthe meaning of the term: bFor medicine [ iliterufa /i]? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says:It is an abbreviation meaning btobeautify bthe countece [ iletoar panim /i] of the keepers of the mouth [ ipeh /i],i.e., the Sages, who labored with their mouths to study Torah in this world., bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Simon, taught:For banyone who blackens his facewhile toiling bover matters of Torah in this world, the Holy One, Blessed be He, shines his brightness in the World-to-Come, as it is stated:“His locks are curly black as a raven” (Song of Songs 5:11), and thereafter it is written: b“His countece is like Lebanon, excellent as the cedars”(Song of Songs 5:15), followed by: “His palate is like sweets” (Song of Songs 5:16). One who engages in sweets, i.e., Torah study, in this world, until he is blackened, black as a raven, is privileged to shining brightness in the World-to-Come., bRabbi Tanḥum, son of Rabbi Ḥanilai, says:With regard to banyone who starves himself over matters of Torah in this world, the Holy One, Blessed be He, satisfies him in the World-to-Come, as it is stated:“Your judgments are like the great deep” (Psalms 36:7), indicating that God is exacting with the righteous and does not reward them in this world, and it is stated thereafter: b“They are abundantly satisfied with the plenty of Your house, and You feed them drink of the river of Your pleasures”(Psalms 36:9)., bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia bhe said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, will give each and every righteous person His handful, as it is stated: “Blessed be the Lord, Who day by day bears our burden; God is our salvation, Selah”(Psalms 68:20). bAbaye said to him: And is it possible to say so,that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will give them His handful? bBut wasn’t it already stated: “Who has measured the waters in the hollow of His hand, and meted out heaven with the span,and comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure” (Isaiah 40:12)? And if the span of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is as great as the heavens, how can a person receive a handful from the Holy One, Blessed be He?,Rav Dimi bsaid: What is the reasonthat byou are not familiar withmatters of iaggada /i? As they say in the West,Eretz Yisrael, bin the name of Rava bar Mari: The Holy One, Blessed be He, will give every righteous person 310 worlds as it is stated: “To bequeath to those who love Me substance [ iyesh /i]; and I will fill their treasuries”(Proverbs 8:21). bInterms of its bnumerical value,the word iyesh /i,spelled iyod /i, ishin /i, bis 310,indicating that God grants the righteous a full measure.,In a related matter, bit is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir says: In accordance with the measure that a person metesout for others the heavenly court bmetesout bfor him,i.e., the response is commensurate with the action, bas it is written: “In full measure [ ibesasse’a /i] when You send her away do You contend with her”(Isaiah 27:8). The term ibesasse’ais interpreted as ibese’a se’a /i, meaning that one receives a measure [ ise’a /i] commensurate with the measure [ ibese’a /i] that he meted out., bRabbi Yehoshua saidto Rabbi Meir: bAnd is it possible to say thatif ba person gives his handful to a pauper in this world, the Holy One, Blessed be He, gives him His handful in the World-to-Come? But isn’t it written: “And meted out heaven with the span”(Isaiah 40:12)? He asked how one can receive so bountiful a reward. Rabbi Meir answered him: bAnd you do not say so? Whichof God’s battributes is greater?Is bthe attribute of reward greater oris bthe attribute of punishmentgreater?
28. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

33b. על המעשר ר' אלעזר בר' יוסי אומר על לשון הרע אמר רבא ואיתימא ריב"ל מאי קראה (תהלים סג, יב) והמלך ישמח באלהים יתהלל כל הנשבע בו כי יסכר פי דוברי שקר,איבעיא להו רבי אלעזר ברבי יוסי על לשון הרע קאמר או דילמא אף על לשון הרע נמי קאמר ת"ש כשנכנסו רבותינו לכרם ביבנה היה שם רבי יהודה ור' אלעזר בר' יוסי ור"ש נשאלה שאלה זו בפניהם מכה זו מפני מה מתחלת בבני מעיים וגומרת בפה נענה רבי יהודה ברבי אלעאי ראש המדברים בכל מקום ואמר אע"פ שכליות יועצות ולב מבין ולשון מחתך פה גומר נענה רבי אלעזר ברבי יוסי ואמר מפני שאוכלין בה דברים טמאין דברים טמאים סלקא דעתך אלא שאוכלין בה דברים שאינן מתוקנים נענה ר' שמעון ואמר בעון ביטול תורה,אמרו לו נשים יוכיחו שמבטלות את בעליהן נכרים יוכיחו שמבטלין את ישראל תינוקות יוכיחו שמבטלין את אביהן תינוקות של בית רבן יוכיחו,התם כדרבי גוריון דאמר רבי גוריון ואיתימא רב יוסף ברבי שמעיה בזמן שהצדיקים בדור צדיקים נתפסים על הדור אין צדיקים בדור תינוקות של בית רבן נתפסים על הדור א"ר יצחק בר זעירי ואמרי לה א"ר שמעון בן נזירא מאי קראה (שיר השירים א, ח) אם לא תדעי לך היפה בנשים צאי לך בעקבי הצאן וגו' ואמרינן גדיים הממושכנין על הרועים ש"מ אף על לשון הרע נמי קאמר ש"מ,ואמאי קרו ליה ראש המדברים בכל מקום דיתבי רבי יהודה ורבי יוסי ורבי שמעון ויתיב יהודה בן גרים גבייהו פתח ר' יהודה ואמר כמה נאים מעשיהן של אומה זו תקנו שווקים תקנו גשרים תקנו מרחצאות ר' יוסי שתק נענה רשב"י ואמר כל מה שתקנו לא תקנו אלא לצורך עצמן תקנו שווקין להושיב בהן זונות מרחצאות לעדן בהן עצמן גשרים ליטול מהן מכס הלך יהודה בן גרים וסיפר דבריהם ונשמעו למלכות אמרו יהודה שעילה יתעלה יוסי ששתק יגלה לציפורי שמעון שגינה יהרג,אזל הוא ובריה טשו בי מדרשא כל יומא הוה מייתי להו דביתהו ריפתא וכוזא דמיא וכרכי כי תקיף גזירתא א"ל לבריה נשים דעתן קלה עליהן דילמא מצערי לה ומגליא לן אזלו טשו במערתא איתרחיש ניסא איברי להו חרובא ועינא דמיא והוו משלחי מנייהו והוו יתבי עד צוארייהו בחלא כולי יומא גרסי בעידן צלויי לבשו מיכסו ומצלו והדר משלחי מנייהו כי היכי דלא ליבלו איתבו תריסר שני במערתא אתא אליהו וקם אפיתחא דמערתא אמר מאן לודעיה לבר יוחי דמית קיסר ובטיל גזירתיה,נפקו חזו אינשי דקא כרבי וזרעי אמר מניחין חיי עולם ועוסקין בחיי שעה כל מקום שנותנין עיניהן מיד נשרף יצתה בת קול ואמרה להם להחריב עולמי יצאתם חיזרו למערתכם הדור אזול איתיבו תריסר ירחי שתא אמרי משפט רשעים בגיהנם י"ב חדש יצתה בת קול ואמרה צאו ממערתכם נפקו כל היכא דהוה מחי ר' אלעזר הוה מסי ר"ש אמר לו בני די לעולם אני ואתה,בהדי פניא דמעלי שבתא חזו ההוא סבא דהוה נקיט תרי מדאני אסא ורהיט בין השמשות אמרו ליה הני למה לך אמר להו לכבוד שבת ותיסגי לך בחד חד כנגד (שמות כ, ז) זכור וחד כנגד (דברים ה, יא) שמור א"ל לבריה חזי כמה חביבין מצות על ישראל יתיב דעתייהו,שמע ר' פנחס בן יאיר חתניה ונפק לאפיה עייליה לבי בניה הוה קא אריך ליה לבישריה חזי דהוה ביה פילי בגופיה הוה קא בכי וקא נתרו דמעת עיניה וקמצוחא ליה א"ל אוי לי שראיתיך בכך א"ל אשריך שראיתני בכך שאילמלא לא ראיתני בכך לא מצאת בי כך דמעיקרא כי הוה מקשי ר"ש בן יוחי קושיא הוה מפרק ליה ר' פנחס בן יאיר תריסר פירוקי לסוף כי הוה מקשי ר"פ בן יאיר קושיא הוה מפרק ליה רשב"י עשרין וארבעה פירוקי,אמר הואיל ואיתרחיש ניסא איזיל אתקין מילתא דכתיב (בראשית לג, יח) ויבא יעקב שלם ואמר רב שלם בגופו שלם בממונו שלם בתורתו (בראשית לג, יח) ויחן את פני העיר אמר רב מטבע תיקן להם ושמואל אמר שווקים תיקן להם ור' יוחנן אמר מרחצאות תיקן להם אמר איכא מילתא דבעי לתקוני אמרו ליה איכא דוכתא דאית ביה ספק טומאה 33b. bforneglecting to separate btithes. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: iAskaracomes as punishment for bslander. Rava said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Yehoshua ben Leviwho said it: bWhat is the versethat alludes to this? b“But the king shall rejoice in God; every one that swears by Him shall glory; for the mouth of them that speak lies shall be stopped”(Psalms 63:12). The punishment for lying is that the mouth will be stopped. iAskaraaffects the mouth along with other parts of the body., bA dilemma was raised beforethose who were sitting in the study hall: Did bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, saythat iaskaracomes as punishment only bfor slander, or perhaps he saidit was balso for slander? Comeand bheara resolution to this dilemma from that which was taught in a ibaraita /i: bWhen our Sages entered the vineyard in Yavne, Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Shimon were there, and a question was asked before themwith regard to bthis plagueof iaskara /i: bWhy does it begin in the intestines and end in the mouth? Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ila’i,who was bthe head of the speakers in every place, responded and said: Even though the kidneys advise, and the heart understands, and the tongue shapesthe voice that emerges from the mouth, still, bthe mouth completesthe formation of the voice. Therefore, the disease begins in the same place that slander begins and it ends in the mouth. bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, responded and said:This disease ends in the mouth bbecause one eats with it non-kosher things.They immediately wondered about this: bDoes it enter your mindto say that iaskarais caused by eating bnon-kosher food?Are those who eat non-kosher food so numerous? bRather,it comes as a punishment bfor eatingfoods bthat were notritually bprepared,i.e., were not tithed. bRabbi Shimon responded and said:This disease comes as a punishment bfor the sin of dereliction inthe study of bTorah. /b, bThey said to him: Women will provethat dereliction in the study of Torah is not the cause, as they are not obligated to study Torah and, nevertheless, they contract iaskara /i. He answered them: They are punished because bthey cause their husbands to be idlefrom the study of Torah. They said to him: bGentiles will provethat this is not the cause, as they also contract iaskaraeven though they are not obligated to study Torah. He answered them: They are also punished because bthey cause Israel to be idlefrom the study of Torah. They said to him: bChildren will provethat this is not the cause, for they are not at all obligated to study Torah and they also suffer from iaskara /i. He answered them: They are punished because bthey cause their fathers to be idlefrom the study of Torah. They said to him: bSchool children will provethat this is not the cause, as they study Torah and, nevertheless, they suffer from iaskara /i.,The Gemara answers: bThere /b, it must be understood bin accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Guryon,as bRabbi Guryon said, and some saythat it was bRav Yosef, son of Rabbi Shemaya,who said it: bAt a time whenthere are brighteous people in the generation,the brighteous are seized /b, i.e., they die or suffer, bforthe sins of bthe generation. If there are no righteous people in the generation, school children,who are also without sin, bare seized forthe sins of bthe generation /b. bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Ze’iri said, and some saythat bRabbi Shimon ben Nezira said: What is the versethat alludes to this? b“If you know not, you fairest among women, go your way forth by the footsteps of the flockand feed your kids, beside the shepherds’ tents [ imishkenot /i] b” ( /bSong of Songs 1:8). bAnd we sayin explanation of this verse: They are the blambs that are taken as collateral [ ihamemushkanin /i],which is etymologically similar to the word imishkenot /i, bin place of the shepherds.If the shepherds and leaders of the generation corrupt the multitudes, young children die because of their sins. With regard to the dilemma, bconclude from itthat Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsaidthat the illness of iaskara balsoresults from bslander,as the ibaraitaprovides an additional cause of the illness. The Gemara comments: Indeed, bconclude from it. /b,In this ibaraitaRabbi Yehuda is described as head of the speakers in every place. The Gemara asks: bAnd why did they call him head of the speakers in every place?The Gemara relates that this resulted due to an incident that took place bwhen Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon were sitting, and Yehuda, son of converts, sat beside them. Rabbi Yehuda opened and said: How pleasant are the actions of this nation,the Romans, as bthey established marketplaces, established bridges,and bestablished bathhouses. Rabbi Yosei was silent. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai responded and said: Everything that they established, they established only for their own purposes. They established marketplaces, to place prostitutes in them; bathhouses, to pamper themselves;and bbridges, to collect taxes fromall who pass over bthem. Yehuda, son of converts, went and related their statementsto his household, bandthose statements continued to spread until bthey were heard by the monarchy. Theyruled and bsaid: Yehuda, who elevatedthe Roman regime, bshall be elevatedand appointed as head of the Sages, the head of the speakers in every place. bYosei, who remained silent, shall be exiledfrom his home in Judea as punishment, and sent btothe city of bTzipporiin the Galilee. bAnd Shimon, who denouncedthe government, bshall be killed. /b,Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai band his son,Rabbi Elazar, bwentand bhid in the study hall. Every dayRabbi Shimon’s bwife would bring them bread and a jug of water and they would eat. When the decree intensified,Rabbi Shimon bsaid to his son: Women are easily impressionableand, therefore, there is room for concern blestthe authorities btorture her and she reveal ourwhereabouts. bThey went and they hid in a cave. A miracle occurredand ba carobtree bwas created for them as well as a spring of water. They would remove their clothes and sitcovered bin sand up to their necks /b. bThey would studyTorah ball dayin that manner. bAt the time of prayer, they would dress, cover themselves, and pray, and they would again remove their clothes afterward so that they would not become tattered. They sat in the cave for twelve years. Elijahthe Prophet bcame and stood at the entrance to the caveand bsaid: Who will inform bar Yoḥai thatthe bemperor died and his decree has been abrogated? /b, bThey emergedfrom the cave, and bsaw people who were plowing and sowing.Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai bsaid:These people babandon eternal lifeof Torah study band engage in temporal lifefor their own sustece. The Gemara relates that bevery place thatRabbi Shimon and his son Rabbi Elazar bdirected their eyes was immediately burned. A Divine Voice emerged and said to them:Did byou emergefrom the cave in order bto destroy My world? Return to your cave. They again wentand bsatthere bfor twelve months. They said: The judgment of the wicked in Gehenna lastsfor btwelve months.Surely their sin was atoned in that time. bA Divine Voice emerged and saidto them: bEmerge from your cave. They emerged. Everywhere that Rabbi Elazar would strike, Rabbi Shimon would heal.Rabbi Shimon bsaid toRabbi Elazar: bMy son, you and I suffice for theentire bworld,as the two of us are engaged in the proper study of Torah., bAs the sun was setting on Shabbat eve, they saw an elderly man who was holding two bundles of myrtle branches and running at twilight. They said to him: Why do you have these? He said to them: In honor of Shabbat.They said to him: bAnd let one suffice.He answered them: bOneis bcorresponding to: “Rememberthe Shabbat day, to keep it holy” (Exodus 20:8), bandone is bcorresponding to: “Observethe Shabbat day, to keep it holy” (Deuteronomy 5:12). Rabbi Shimon bsaid to his son: See how beloved the mitzvot are to Israel. Their minds wereput bat easeand they were no longer as upset that people were not engaged in Torah study., bRabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir,Rabbi Shimon’s bson-in-law /b, bheard and went out togreet bhim. He brought him into the bathhouse andbegan btending to his flesh. He saw thatRabbi Shimon bhad cracks inthe skin on bhis body. He was crying, and the tears fell from his eyes and causedRabbi Shimon bpain.Rabbi Pineḥas bsaid toRabbi Shimon, his father-in-law: bWoe is me, that I have seen you like this.Rabbi Shimon bsaid to him: Happy are you that you have seen me like this, as had you not seen me like this, you would not have found in me thisprominence in Torah, basthe Gemara relates: bAt first, when Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai would raise a difficulty, Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir would respondto his question with btwelve answers. Ultimately, when Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir would raise a difficulty /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai would respondwith btwenty-four answers. /b,Rabbi Shimon bsaid: Since a miracle transpiredfor me, bI will goand brepair somethingfor the sake of others in gratitude for God’s kindness, bas it is written: “And Jacob came wholeto the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Paddan-aram; and he graced the countece of the city” (Genesis 33:18). bRav said,the meaning of: And Jacob came whole, is: bWhole in his body, whole in his money, whole in his Torah.And what did he do? bAnd he graced the countece of the city;he performed gracious acts to benefit the city. bRav said:Jacob bestablished a currency for them. And Shmuel said: He established marketplaces for them. And Rabbi Yoḥa said: He established bathhouses for them.In any event, clearly one for whom a miracle transpires should perform an act of kindness for his neighbors as a sign of gratitude. bHe said: Is there something that needs repair? They said to him: There is a place where there is uncertainty with regard to ritual impurity /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7b. וקטליאות נזמים וטבעות מעבירין ממנה כדי לנוולה ואחר כך מביא חבל מצרי וקושרו למעלה מדדיה,וכל הרוצה לראות בא לראות חוץ מעבדיה ושפחותיה מפני שלבה גס בהן וכל הנשים מותרות לראותה שנאמר (יחזקאל כג, מח) ונוסרו כל הנשים ולא תעשינה כזמתכנה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנהני מילי א"ר חייא בר גמדא א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא אתיא תורה תורה כתיב הכא (במדבר ה, ל) ועשה לה הכהן את כל התורה וכתיב התם (דברים יז, יא) על פי התורה אשר יורוך מה להלן בשבעים ואחד אף כאן בשבעים ואחד,ומאיימין עליה וכו' ורמינהו כדרך שמאיימין עליה שלא תשתה כך מאיימין עליה שתשתה אומרים לה בתי אם ברור לך הדבר שטהורה את עמדי על בורייך ושתי לפי שאין מים המרים דומין אלא לסם יבש שמונח על בשר חי אם יש שם מכה מחלחל ויורד אין שם מכה אינו מועיל כלום,לא קשיא כאן קודם שנמחקה מגילה כאן לאחר שנמחקה מגילה,ואומר לפניה וכו' ת"ר אומר לפניה דברים של הגדה ומעשים שאירעו בכתובים הראשונים כגון (איוב טו, יח) אשר חכמים יגידו ולא כחדו מאבותם,יהודה הודה ולא בוש מה היה סופו נחל חיי העולם הבא ראובן הודה ולא בוש מה היה סופו נחל חיי העולם הבא ומה שכרן מה שכרן כדקא אמרינן אלא מה שכרן בעולם הזה (איוב טו, יט) להם לבדם נתנה הארץ ולא עבר זר בתוכם,בשלמא ביהודה אשכחן דאודי דכתיב (בראשית לח, כו) ויכר יהודה ויאמר צדקה ממני אלא ראובן מנלן דאודי,דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יוחנן מאי דכתיב (דברים לג, ו) יחי ראובן ואל ימות (דברים לג, ז) וזאת ליהודה,כל אותן שנים שהיו ישראל במדבר היו עצמותיו. של יהודה מגולגלין בארון עד שעמד משה ובקש עליו רחמים אמר לפניו רבש"ע מי גרם לראובן שהודה יהודה וזאת ליהודה,מיד (דברים לג, ז) שמע ה' קול יהודה על איבריה לשפא ולא הוה קא מעיילין ליה למתיבתא דרקיעא (דברים לג, ז) ואל עמו תביאנו ולא הוה קא ידע משקל ומטרח בשמעתא בהדי רבנן (דברים לג, ז) ידיו רב לו לא הוה קא סלקא ליה שמעתא אליבא דהילכתא (דברים לג, ז) ועזר מצריו תהיה,בשלמא יהודה דאודי כי היכי דלא תישרף תמר אלא ראובן למה ליה דאודי והאמר רב ששת חציף עלי (בר ישראל) דמפריט חטאיה כי היכי דלא ליחשדו אחוהי,אם אמרה טמאה אני וכו' שמעת מינה כותבין שובר,אמר אביי תני מקרעת א"ל רבא והא שוברת קתני אלא אמר רבא במקום שאין כותבין כתובה עסקינן,ואם אמרה טהורה אני מעלין אותה לשערי מזרח מעלין אותה 7b. bor chokers [ ikatliyot /i],or bnose rings, orfinger brings, they removed them from her in order to render her unattractive. And afterwardthe priest bwould bring an Egyptian ropefashioned from palm fibers, band he would tie it above her breasts. /b, bAnd anyone who desires to watch her may come to watch, except for her slaves and maidservants,who are not permitted to watch bbecause her heart is emboldened by them,as seeing one’s slaves reinforces one’s feeling of pride, and their presence may cause her to maintain her innocence. bAnd all of the women are permitted to watch her, as it is stated:“Thus will I cause lewdness to cease out of the land, bthat all women may be taught not to do after your lewdness”(Ezekiel 23:48)., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks concerning the ihalakhathat the isotais brought before the Sanhedrin: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Gamda saysthat bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:This bis derivedby means of a verbal analogy between the words b“ itora /i”and b“ itora /i.”It bis written here,with regard to a isota /i: b“And the priest shall execute upon her all this law [ itora /i]”(Numbers 5:30), bandit bis written there,with regard to a rebellious Elder, who must go to the place chosen by God and follow the ruling of the Sanhedrin: b“According to the law [ itora /i] that they shall teach you”(Deuteronomy 17:11). bJust as therethe verse is referring to what occurs binthe presence of the Sanhedrin of bseventy-onejudges, bso too here,with regard to a isota /i, the verse is referring to what occurs binthe presence of the Sanhedrin of bseventy-onejudges.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd they threaten herin order that she admit her sin, to obviate the need to erase God’s name. bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom that which was taught in a ibaraitain the iTosefta(1:6): bIn the same manner that they threaten her so that she will not drink, so too, they threaten her so that she will drink,as bthey say to her: My daughter, if the matter is clear to you that you are pure, arise forthe sake of byour clearposition band drink.If you are innocent you have nothing to fear, bbecause the bitter water is similar only to a dry poison placed on the flesh. If there is a woundthere, the poison will bpenetrate and enterthe blood stream, but if bthere is no wound there, it does not have any effect.This teaches that the woman is warned not to drink if she is guilty, but if she is not guilty she is encouraged to drink. There is no mention of the latter in the mishna.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Herethe mishna is referring to bbefore the scroll was erased,and at that point the woman is warned only not to drink if she is guilty, so that the name of God will not be erased. bTherethe ibaraitais referring to bafter the scroll was erased.Then she is warned that if she is innocent she should drink because if she now refuses to drink, it will turn out that the scroll was erased for no purpose.,§ The mishna teaches: bAndthe judge bsays in her presencematters that are not worthy of being heard by her and all her father’s family in order to encourage her to admit her sin. The Gemara cites a ibaraitathat details what was said. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The judge bsays in her presence words of homileticalinterpretation bandmentions bincidents that happenedto previous generations that are recorded bin the earlyprophetic bwritings. For example,they expound the following verse: b“That wise men told and did not hide from their fathers”(Job 15:18); this teaches that even during the time of the forefathers, there were people who admitted their sins despite the shame they incurred.,For example, bJudah admittedthat he sinned with Tamar band was not embarrassedto do so, and bwhat was his end? He inherited the life of the World-to-Come. Reuben admittedthat he lay with his father’s concubine Bilhah band was not embarrassed,and bwhat was his end? Hetoo binherited the life of the World-to-Come.The Gemara asks: bAnd what is their reward?The Gemara interjects: bWhat is their reward?Their reward was clearly bas we say,that they inherited the life of the World-to-Come. The Gemara clarifies: bRather,the second question was: bWhat is their reward in this world?The Gemara answers by citing the next verse in the book of Job: b“To them alone the land was given, and no stranger passed among them”(Job 15:19). Judah was given the kingship, and Reuben inherited a portion of land in the Transjordan before the other tribes.,The Gemara questions the source for Reuben’s admission. bGranted, with regard to Judah we have founda source bthat he admittedhis sin with Tamar, bas it is written: “And Judah acknowledged them and said: She is more righteous than I”(Genesis 38:26). Judah admitted that he was the one who had impregnated Tamar. bBut from where do wederive bthat Reuben admittedhis sin?,The Gemara answers: It is bas Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is writtenconcerning Reuben and Judah in Moses’ blessing of the tribes at the end of his life: b“Let Reuben live and not die in that his men become few”(Deuteronomy 33:6), and immediately afterward, in the following verse, it is stated: b“And this for Judah,and he said: Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him in unto his people; his hands shall contend for him, and You shall be a help against his adversaries” (Deuteronomy 33:7). What is the connection between the blessing of Reuben and that of Judah, juxtaposed with the conjunction “and”?,Rabbi Yoḥa says: bAll those years that the Jewish people were in the desert, the bones of Judah,which the Jewish people took with them from Egypt along with the bones of his brothers, bwere rollingaround bin the coffin, until Moses arose and asked for compassion onJudah’s behalf. Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, who served as the impetus for Reuben that he admithis sin, through which he merited a blessing and was not excluded from the count of the twelve sons of Jacob (see Genesis 35:22)? It was bJudah,as Reuben saw him confess his sin, and thereby did the same. Moses continues in the next verse: b“And this for Judah,”as if to say: Is this Judah’s reward for serving as an example of confessing to one’s sins, that his bones roll around?, bImmediatelyafter Moses prayed, the verse states: b“Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah”(Deuteronomy 33:7). bHis bonesthen benteredtheir bsockets [ ishafa /i],and his skeleton was reassembled. bButthe angels still bdid not elevatehim binto the heavenly study hall.Moses then prayed: b“And bring him in unto his people”(Deuteronomy 33:7), i.e., those in the heavenly study hall. This prayer was accepted, bbut hestill bdid not knowhow bto deliberatein Torah matters bwith theheavenly bsages.Moses then prayed: b“His hands shall contend for him”(Deuteronomy 33:7), meaning that he should have the ability to contend with them in study. But still bhe was unable to drawconclusions from bhis discussion in accordance with the ihalakha /i.Moses then prayed: b“And You shall be a help against his adversaries”(Deuteronomy 33:7).,The Gemara discusses the propriety of admitting one’s sins in public. bGranted,with regard to bJudah,it was proper bthat he admittedhis sin in public, as he did so bin order that Tamar not be burnedinnocently. bBut why did Reuben admithis sin in public? bBut didn’t Rav Sheshet say: Iconsider one bwho specifies his sinsin public to be bbrazen,as one who does so indicates that he is not embarrassed by his actions? The Gemara answers: The reason he admitted his sin in public was bin order that his brothers should not be suspectedof having committed the deed.,§ The mishna teaches: bIfafter the judge’s warning bshe says: I am defiled,she writes a receipt for her marriage contract. The Gemara comments: bYoucan blearn from thismishna bthat one writes a receiptto serve as proof that a debt has been paid rather than tearing the promissory note. This matter is the subject of a dispute between the itanna’imin tractate iBava Batra(170b)., bAbaye said: Teachin the mishna differently. Rather than understanding that she writes a receipt, explain it to mean: bShe tearsher marriage contract. bRava said to him: Butthe mishna bteachesexplicitly that bshe writes a receipt. Rather,to explain the mishna, bRava said: We are dealing with a place inwhich bthey do not write a marriage contract,as they rely on the rabbinical ordice that all wives are entitled to the sum of a standard marriage contract upon divorce or being widowed, even if no marriage contract has been written. Because there is no marriage contract to tear, a receipt is written so that the man can prove that he no longer has a monetary obligation. However, generally, it is possible that the document would be torn, and no proof can be adduced from this mishna.,§ The mishna teaches: bBut ifafter the warning bshemaintains her innocence and bsays: I am pure, theywould bbring her up to the Eastern Gate.The Gemara asks: Would bthey bring her up? /b
30. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

45b. אסרו חג בעבותים עד קרנות המזבח א"ר ירמיה משום ר"ש בן יוחי ור' יוחנן משום ר"ש המחוזי משום ר' יוחנן המכותי כל העושה איסור לחג באכילה ושתיה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו בנה מזבח והקריב עליו קרבן שנא' אסרו חג בעבותים עד קרנות המזבח,אמר חזקיה א"ר ירמיה משום רשב"י כל המצות כולן אין אדם יוצא בהן אלא דרך גדילתן שנאמר (שמות כו, טו) עצי שטים עומדים,תנ"ה עצי שטים עומדים שעומדים דרך גדילתן דבר אחר עומדים שמעמידין את ציפוין דבר אחר עומדים שמא תאמר אבד סיברם ובטל סיכויין ת"ל עצי שטים עומדים שעומדים לעולם ולעולמי עולמים,ואמר חזקיה א"ר ירמיה משום רשב"י יכול אני לפטור את כל העולם כולו מן הדין מיום שנבראתי עד עתה ואילמלי אליעזר בני עמי מיום שנברא העולם ועד עכשיו ואילמלי יותם בן עוזיהו עמנו מיום שנברא העולם עד סופו,ואמר חזקיה א"ר ירמיה משום רשב"י ראיתי בני עלייה והן מועטין אם אלף הן אני ובני מהן אם מאה הם אני ובני מהן אם שנים הן אני ובני הן ומי זוטרי כולי האי והא אמר רבא תמני סרי אלפי דרא הוה דקמיה קודשא בריך הוא שנאמר (יחזקאל מח, לה) סביב שמנה עשר אלף ל"ק הא דמסתכלי באספקלריא המאירה הא דלא מסתכלי באספקלריא המאירה,ודמסתכלי באספקלריא המאירה מי זוטרי כולי האי והא אמר אביי לא פחות עלמא מתלתין ושיתא צדיקי דמקבלי אפי שכינה בכל יום שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, יח) אשרי כל חוכי לו ל"ו בגימטריא תלתין ושיתא הוו ל"ק הא דעיילי בבר הא דעיילי בלא בר:,בשעת פטירתן מה הן אומרים וכו': והא קא משתתף שם שמים ודבר אחר ותניא כל המשתף שם שמים ודבר אחר נעקר מן העולם שנאמר (שמות כב, יט) בלתי לה' לבדו הכי קאמר ליה אנחנו מודים ולך אנו משבחין ליה אנחנו מודים ולך אנו מקלסין:,כמעשהו בחול: אמר רב הונא מ"ט דר' יוחנן בן ברוקה דכתיב (ויקרא כג, מ) כפות שנים אחת ללולב ואחת למזבח ורבנן אמרי כפת כתיב,ר' לוי אומר כתמר מה תמר זה אין לו אלא לב אחד אף ישראל אין להם אלא לב אחד לאביהם שבשמים,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל לולב שבעה וסוכה יום אחד מ"ט לולב דמפסקי לילות מימים כל יומא מצוה באפיה נפשיה הוא סוכה דלא מפסקי לילות מימים כולהו שבעה כחד יומא אריכא דמו,ורבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן סוכה שבעה ולולב יום אחד מאי טעמא סוכה דאורייתא שבעה לולב דרבנן סגי ליה בחד יומא,כי אתא רבין אמר רבי יוחנן אחד זה ואחד זה שבעה אמר רב יוסף נקוט דרבה בר בר חנה בידך דכולהו אמוראי קיימי כוותיה בסוכה,מיתיבי 45b. b“Bind [ iisru /i] with dense-leaved branches [ iba’avotim /i] on the Festival until the horns of the altar”(Psalms 118:27), which alludes to both the binding of the ilulavand to the myrtle branch, referred to in the Torah as the branch of a dense-leaved tree [ ianaf etz avot /i]. bRabbi Yirmeya said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, and Rabbi Yoḥasaid bin the name of Rabbi Shimon HaMeḥozi,who said bin the name of Rabbi Yoḥa HaMakkoti:With regard to banyone who establishes an addition [ iissur /i] to the Festivalon the day after the Festival bby eating and drinking, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he built an altar and sacrificed an offering upon it, as it is stated: “Add [ iisru /i] to the Festival with fattened animals [ iba’avotim /i] until the horns of the altar.” /b,§ Apropos the ihalakhacited by Rabbi Yirmeya in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, the Gemara cites additional ihalakhot /i. bḤizkiya saidthat bRabbi Yirmeya said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai:With regard to ballobjects used in performance of beach and everyone of bthe mitzvot, a person fulfills his obligation onlywhen the objects are positioned bin the manner of their growth.One must take the ilulavwith the bottom of the branch facing down, bas it is statedwith regard to the beams of the Tabernacle: b“Acacia wood, standing”(Exodus 26:15), indicating that the beams stood in the manner of their growth., bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Acacia wood, standing,”indicating bthat they standin the Tabernacle bin the manner of their growthin nature. bAlternatively, standingmeans bthatthe beams bsupport theirgold bplatingthat is affixed to the beams with nails. bAlternatively, standingteaches: bLest you saythat after the destruction of the Tabernacle btheir hope is lost and their prospect is abolished,and they will never serve a sacred purpose again, therefore bthe verse states: “Acacia wood, standing,”meaning bthat they stand forever and for all timeand will yet be revealed and utilized again., bAnd Ḥizkiya saidthat bRabbi Yirmeya said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: I am able to absolve the entire world from judgmentfor sins committed bfrom the day I was created until now.The merit that he accrued through his righteousness and the suffering that he endured atone for the sins of the entire world. bAnd werethe merit accrued by bEliezer, my son,calculated along bwith myown, we would absolve the world from judgment for sins committed bfrom the day that the world was created until now. And werethe merit accrued by the righteous king, bJotham ben Uzziah,calculated bwith ourown, we would absolve the world from judgment for sins committed bfrom the day that the world was created until its end.The righteousness of these three serves as a counterbalance to all the evil deeds committed throughout the generations, and it validates the ongoing existence of the world., bAnd Ḥizkiya saidthat bRabbi Yirmeya said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: I have seen membersof the caste bofthe spiritually bprominent,who are truly righteous, band they are few. If theynumber bone thousand, I and my son are among them. If theynumber bone hundred, I and my son are among them; and if theynumber btwo, I and my son are they.The Gemara asks: bAre they so few? But didn’t Rava say: There are eighteen thousandrighteous individuals bin a row before the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Surrounding are eighteen thousand”(Ezekiel 48:35)? Apparently, the righteous are numerous. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai is referring to the very few bwho viewthe Divine Presence bthrough a bright,mirror-like bpartition,while bthatstatement of Rava is referring to those bwho do not viewthe Divine Presence bthrough a bright partition. /b,The Gemara asks further: bAnd arethose bwho viewthe Divine Presence through ba bright partition so few? But didn’t Abaye say: The worldhas bno fewer than thirty-six righteouspeople in each generation bwho greet the Divine Presence every day, as it is stated: “Happy are all they that wait for Him [ ilo /i]”(Isaiah 30:18)? bThe numerological value of ilo /i,spelled ilamed vav /i, bis thirty-six,alluding to the fact that there are at least thirty-six full-fledged righteous individuals in each generation. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement of Abaye is referring to those bwho enterto greet the Divine Presence bbyrequesting and being granted bpermission,while bthatstatement of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai is referring to those bwho entereven bwithoutrequesting bpermission,for whom the gates of Heaven are open at all times. They are very few indeed.,§ The mishna asks: bAt the time of their departureat the end of the Festival, bwhatwould bthey say?The mishna answers that they would praise the altar and glorify God. The Gemara challenges this: bButin doing so baren’t they joining the name of Heaven and another entity, and it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAnyone who joins the name of Heaven and another entity is uprooted from the world, as it is stated:“He that sacrifices unto the gods, bsave unto the Lord only,shall be utterly destroyed” (Exodus 22:19)? The Gemara answers that bthis is whatthe people bare sayingwhen they depart the Temple: bTo the Lord, we acknowledgethat He is our God, band to you,the altar, bwe give praise; to the Lord, we acknowledgethat He is our God, band to you,the altar, bwe give acclaim.The praise to God and the praise to the altar are clearly distinct.,§ The mishna continues: bAs its performance during the week,so is its performance on Shabbat. And according to Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka, on the seventh day of the Festival they would bring palm branches to the Temple. bRav Huna said: What is the rationalefor the opinion bof Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka?It is bas it is written:“And you shall take for yourselves on the first day the fruit of a beautiful tree, bbranchesof a date palm” (Leviticus 23:40). Branches in the plural indicates that btwobranches must be taken, bone for the ilulavand one forplacement around bthe altar. And the Rabbis say:Although the word is vocalized in the plural, based on tradition it bis written ikappot /i,without the letter ivav /i. Therefore, it is interpreted as if it were written ikappat /i, indicating that only one palm branch need be taken., bRabbi Levi says:The rationale for the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka is not based on a verse. Rather, it is a custom that developed to express praise for the Jewish people, blikeningthem to ba date palm /b. bJust as the date palm has only one heart,as branches do not grow from its trunk but rather the trunk rises and branches emerge only at the top, bso too, the Jewish people have only one heartdirected btoward their Father in Heaven. /b,§ bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:The blessing over the mitzva of ilulav /iis recited bsevendays bandthe blessing over the mitzva of isukka /iis recited bone day. What is the rationalefor this distinction? It is written explicitly in the Torah that the mitzva to sit in the isukkaapplies all seven days. The Gemara explains: With regard to the ilulav /i, where the nights are distinct from the days,as the mitzva of ilulavis not in effect at night, beach day is a mitzva in and of itself.A separate blessing is recited over each mitzva. However, with regard to isukka /i, where the nights are not distinct from the days,as the mitzva of isukkais in effect at night just as it is during the day, the legal status of ball sevendays of the Festival bis likethat of bone long day. /b, bBut Rabba bar bar Ḥanasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said:The blessing over the mitzva of isukka /iis recited bsevendays and the blessing over the mitzva of ilulav /iis recited bone day. What is the rationalefor this distinction? The Gemara explains: The mitzva of isukka /iis a mitzva bby Torahlaw all seven days of the Festival. Therefore, a blessing is recited for bsevendays. However, the mitzva of ilulav /i,other than on the first day, is a mitzva bby rabbiniclaw, as the Sages instituted an ordice to take the ilulavfor all seven days to commemorate the practice in the Temple. Therefore, bit is enoughto recite the blessing bone day,on the first day., bWhen Ravin camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that bRabbi Yoḥa said:One recites a blessing over bboth this,the mitzva of isukka /i, bandover bthat,the mitzva of ilulav /i, all bsevendays. bRav Yosef said: Takethe statement bof Rabba bar bar Ḥana in your hand, as all the iamora’im /iwho transmitted statements of Rabbi Yoḥa bhold in accordance with hisopinion binmatters related to isukka /i. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionbased on a ibaraita /i:
31. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

21a. משום דנפישי בני חילא דמחוזא,אילפא ור' יוחנן הוו גרסי באורייתא דחיקא להו מילתא טובא אמרי ניקום וניזיל וניעבד עיסקא ונקיים בנפשין (דברים טו, ד) אפס כי לא יהיה בך אביון אזלו אותבי תותי גודא רעיעא הוו קא כרכי ריפתא אתו תרי מלאכי השרת,שמעיה רבי יוחנן דאמר חד לחבריה נישדי עלייהו האי גודא ונקטלינהו שמניחין חיי עולם הבא ועוסקין בחיי שעה אמר ליה אידך שבקינהו דאיכא בהו חד דקיימא ליה שעתא רבי יוחנן שמע אילפא לא שמע אמר ליה ר' יוחנן לאילפא שמע מר מידי אמר ליה לא אמר מדשמעי אנא ואילפא לא שמע ש"מ לדידי קיימא לי שעתא,אמר ליה רבי יוחנן איהדר ואוקי בנפשאי (דברים טו, יא) כי לא יחדל אביון מקרב הארץ ר' יוחנן הדר אילפא לא הדר עד דאתא אילפא מליך רבי יוחנן,אמרו לו אי אתיב מר וגריס לא הוה מליך מר אזל תלא נפשיה באסקריא דספינתא אמר אי איכא דשאיל לי במתניתא דר' חייא ורבי אושעיא ולא פשטינא ליה ממתני' נפילנא מאסקריא דספינתא וטבענא,אתא ההוא סבא תנא ליה האומר תנו שקל לבניי בשבת והן ראויין לתת להם סלע נותנין להם סלע ואם אמר אל תתנו להם אלא שקל אין נותנין להם אלא שקל,אם אמר מתו ירשו אחרים תחתיהם בין שאמר תנו בין שאמר אל תתנו אין נותנין להם אלא שקל א"ל הא מני ר"מ היא דאמר מצוה לקיים דברי המת,אמרו עליו על נחום איש גם זו שהיה סומא משתי עיניו גידם משתי ידיו קיטע משתי רגליו וכל גופו מלא שחין והיה מוטל בבית רעוע ורגלי מטתו מונחין בספלין של מים כדי שלא יעלו עליו נמלים פעם אחת [היתה מטתו מונחת בבית רעוע] בקשו תלמידיו לפנות מטתו ואח"כ לפנות את הכלים אמר להם בניי פנו את הכלים ואח"כ פנו את מטתי שמובטח לכם כל זמן שאני בבית אין הבית נופל פינו את הכלים ואחר כך פינו את מטתו ונפל הבית,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי וכי מאחר שצדיק גמור אתה למה עלתה לך כך אמר להם בניי אני גרמתי לעצמי שפעם אחת הייתי מהלך בדרך לבית חמי והיה עמי משוי ג' חמורים אחד של מאכל ואחד של משתה ואחד של מיני מגדים בא עני אחד ועמד לי בדרך ואמר לי רבי פרנסני אמרתי לו המתן עד שאפרוק מן החמור לא הספקתי לפרוק מן החמור עד שיצתה נשמתו,הלכתי ונפלתי על פניו ואמרתי עיני שלא חסו על עיניך יסומו ידיי שלא חסו על ידיך יתגדמו רגליי שלא חסו על רגליך יתקטעו ולא נתקררה דעתי עד שאמרתי כל גופי יהא מלא שחין אמרו לו אוי לנו שראינוך בכך אמר להם אוי לי אם לא ראיתוני בכך,ואמאי קרו ליה נחום איש גם זו דכל מילתא דהוה סלקא ליה אמר גם זו לטובה זימנא חדא בעו לשדורי ישראל דורון לבי קיסר אמרו מאן ייזיל ייזיל נחום איש גם זו דמלומד בניסין הוא שדרו בידיה מלא סיפטא דאבנים טובות ומרגליות אזל בת בההוא דירה בליליא קמו הנך דיוראי ושקלינהו לסיפטיה ומלונהו עפרא (למחר כי חזנהו אמר גם זו לטובה),כי מטא התם [שרינהו לסיפטא חזנהו דמלו עפרא] בעא מלכא למקטלינהו לכולהו אמר קא מחייכו בי יהודאי [אמר גם זו לטובה] אתא אליהו אדמי ליה כחד מינייהו א"ל דלמא הא עפרא מעפרא דאברהם אבוהון הוא דכי הוה שדי עפרא הוו סייפיה גילי הוו גירי דכתיב (ישעיהו מא, ב) יתן כעפר חרבו כקש נדף קשתו,הויא חדא מדינתא דלא מצו למיכבשה בדקו מיניה וכבשוה עיילו לבי גנזיה ומלוהו לסיפטיה אבנים טובות ומרגליות ושדרוהו ביקרא רבה,כי אתו ביתו בההוא דיורא אמרו ליה מאי אייתית בהדך דעבדי לך יקרא כולי האי אמר להו מאי דשקלי מהכא אמטי להתם סתרו לדירייהו ואמטינהו לבי מלכא אמרו ליה האי עפרא דאייתי הכא מדידן הוא בדקוה ולא אשכחוה וקטלינהו להנך דיוראי:,אי זו היא דבר עיר המוציאה חמש מאות רגלי כו': ת"ר עיר המוציאה חמש מאות ואלף רגלי כגון כפר עכו ויצאו הימנה תשעה מתים בשלשה ימים זה אחר זה הרי זה דבר,ביום אחד או בד' ימים אין זה דבר ועיר המוציאה חמש מאות רגלי כגון כפר עמיקו ויצאו ממנה שלשה מתים בג' ימים זה אחר זה הרי זה דבר 21a. bdue tothe fact that bthere are many soldiers inthe city of bMeḥoza,and if I let them all eat, they will take all the food I own.,§ The Gemara relates another story that involves an unstable wall. bIlfa and Rabbi Yoḥa studied Torahtogether, and as a result bthey became very hard-pressedfor money. bThey said: Let us get up and go and engage in commerce, and we will fulfill, with regard to ourselves,the verse: b“Although there should be no needy among you”(Deuteronomy 15:4), as we will no longer be complete paupers. bThey went and sat under a dilapidated walland bwere eating bread,when btwo ministering angels arrived. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa heard that oneangel bsaid to the other: Let us knock this wall down upon them and kill them, as they abandon eternal lifeof Torah study band engage in temporal lifefor their own sustece. bThe otherangel bsaid to him: Leave them, as there is one of them whose timeof achievement bstands before him,i.e., his time has yet to come. bRabbi Yoḥa heardall this, but bIlfa did not hearthe angels’ conversation. bRabbi Yoḥa said to Ilfa: Did the Master hear anything?Ilfa bsaid to him: No.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaidto himself: bSince I heardthe angels band Ilfa did not hear,I can blearn from thisthat it is bI whose timeof achievement bstands before me. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said to Ilfa: I will returnhome and bfulfill with regard to myselfthe contrary verse: b“For the poor shall never cease out of the land”(Deuteronomy 15:11). bRabbi Yoḥa returnedto the study hall, and bIlfa did not return,but went to engage in business instead. bBythe time bthat Ilfa cameback from his business travels, bRabbi Yoḥahad been bappointedhead of the academy, and his ficial situation had improved.,His colleagues bsaid toIlfa: bIf the Master had sat and studied,instead of going off to his business ventures, bwouldn’t the Master havebeen bappointedhead of the academy? Ilfa bwent and suspended himself from the mast [ iaskariya /i] of a ship, saying: If there is anyone who can ask mea question bconcerning a ibaraitaof Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Oshaya, and I do not resolve hisproblem bfrom a mishna, I will fall from the mast of this ship and be drowned.Ilfa sought to demonstrate that despite the time he had spent in business, he still retained his extensive Torah knowledge., bA certain old man came and taughta ibaraitabefore bhim:If there is a man bwho,upon his deathbed, bsaysin his will: bGive a shekel to my sonsevery bweek, butthis is a situation bwhere,based on their needs, bthey are fitfor the bcourt to give them a isela /i,i.e., double the amount, bthey give them a isela /i.When the dying man mentioned a shekel, he presumably meant that they should be given a sum in accordance with their actual requirements, not that specific amount. bBut if he said: Give them only a shekel,the court bgives them only a shekeland no more.,The ibaraitafurther states that bif one said: Ifmy sons bdie, others should inherittheir portion bin their stead,regardless of bwhether he said: Give thema shekel, or bwhether he said: Give them onlya shekel, then the court bgiveshis sons bonly a shekelper week, as their father clearly stated that he wishes to give his sons only a specific stipend and that he intends to leave the bulk of his property to others. Ilfa bsaid tothe old man: In accordance with bwhoseopinion bis thisruling? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Meir, who said: It is a mitzva to fulfill the statement of the dead.This entire ibaraitacan be explained based on a principle that appears in a mishna: In all cases, one should try to execute the wishes of the deceased.,§ The Gemara relates another story about a rundown building. bThey said about Naḥum of Gam Zu that he was blind in both eyes, both his arms were amputated, both his legs were amputated, and his entire body was covered in boils. And he was lying in a dilapidated house, and legs of his bed were placed in buckets of water so that ants should not climb onto him,as he was unable to keep them off in any other manner. bOnce his students sought to remove his bedfrom the house band afterward removehis other bvessels. He said to them: My sons, remove the vessels first, and afterward remove my bed, as I can guarantee you that as long as I am in the house, the house will not fall.Indeed bthey removed the vessels and afterward they removed his bed, andimmediately bthe house collapsed. /b, bHis students said to him: Rabbi, since you areevidently ba wholly righteous man,as we have just seen that as long as you were in your house it did not fall, bwhy has thissuffering bbefallen you? He said to them: My sons, I brought it upon myself.Naḥum of Gam Zu related to them the following: bAs once I was traveling along the road to my father-in-law’s house, and I had with me a loaddistributed among bthree donkeys, one of food, one of drink, and one of delicacies. A poor person came and stoodbefore me bin the road, saying: My rabbi, sustain me. I said to him: Wait until I unload the donkey,after which I will give you something to eat. However, bI had not managed to unload the donkey before his soul lefthis body., bI went and fell upon his face and said: May my eyes, which had no compassion on your eyes, be blinded; may my hands, which had no compassion on your hands, be amputated; may my legs, which had no compassion on your legs, be amputated. And my mind did not rest until I said: May my whole body be covered in boils.Naḥum of Gam Zu prayed that his suffering might atone for his failure. His students bsaid to him:Even so, bwoe to us that we have seen you in thisstate. bHe said to them: Woe is me if you had not seen me in thisstate, as this suffering atones for me.,The Gemara inquires: bAnd why did they call him Naḥum of Gam Zu?The reason is bthatwith regard to bany matter that occurred to him, hewould bsay: This too is for the good [ igam zu letova /i]. Once, the Jews wished to send a gift [ idoron /i] to the house of the emperor. They said: Who should goand present this gift? bLet Naḥum of Gam Zu go, as he is accustomed to miracles. They sent with him a chest [ isifta /i] full of jewels and pearls,and bhe went and spent the night in a certain inn. During the night, these residentsof the inn arose and btook all ofthe precious jewels and pearls from bthe chest, and filled it with earth.The next day, when he saw what had happened, Naḥum of Gam Zu said: This too is for the good., bWhen he arrived there,at the ruler’s palace, bthey opened the chestand bsaw that it was filled with earth. The king wished to put allthe Jewish emissaries bto death. He said: The Jews are mocking me.Naḥum of Gam Zu bsaid: This too is for the good. Elijahthe Prophet bcame and appeared beforethe ruler bas one ofhis ministers. He bsaid tothe ruler: bPerhaps this earth is from the earth of their father Abraham. As when he threw earth, it turned into swords,and when he threw bstubble, it turned into arrows, as it is writtenin a prophecy that the Sages interpreted this verse as a reference to Abraham: b“His sword makes them as the dust, his bow as the driven stubble”(Isaiah 41:2)., bThere was one province thatthe Romans bwere unable to conquer.They took some of this earth, btested itby throwing it at their enemies, band conqueredthat province. When the ruler saw that this earth indeed had miraculous powers, his servants bentered his treasury and filledNaḥum of Gam Zu’s bchest with precious jewels and pearls and sent him off with great honor. /b, bWhenNaḥum of Gam Zu bcame to spend the night at thatsame binn,the residents bsaid to him: What did you bring with youto the emperor bthat he bestowed upon you such great honor? He said to them: That which I took from here, I brought there.When they heard this, the residents of the inn thought that the soil upon which their house stood had miraculous powers. bThey tore down their inn and broughtthe soil underneath bto the king’s palace. They said to him: That earth that was brought here was from ourproperty. The miracle had been performed only in the merit of Naḥum of Gam Zu. The emperor btestedthe inn’s soil in battle, band it was not foundto have miraculous powers, band hehad bthese residentsof the inn bput to death. /b,§ The mishna taught: bWhat isconsidered a plague of bpestilence?If it is ba city that sends out five hundred infantrymen,and three dead are removed from it on three consecutive days, one dead per day, this is a plague of pestilence. bThe Sages taught:If ba city that sends out fifteen hundred infantrymen,i.e., one that has a population of at least fifteen hundred men, e.g., bthe village of Akko, and nine dead are removed from it on three consecutive days,i.e., three dead per day, bthis isconsidered a plague of bpestilence. /b,If all nine died bon a single day,while none died on the other days, borif the nine died bovera period of bfour days, this is nota plague of bpestilence. And a city that sends out five hundred infantrymen, for example, the village of Amiko, and three dead are removed from it on three consecutive days, this isa plague of bpestilence. /b
32. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

78a. מפכין עתידין להיות יוצאין מתחת מפתן הבית מכאן ואילך היה מתגבר ועולה עד שמגיע לפתח בית דוד כיון שמגיע לפתח בית דוד נעשה כנחל שוטף שבו רוחצין זבין וזבות נדות ויולדות שנאמר (זכריה יג, א) ביום ההוא יהיה מקור נפתח לבית דוד וליושבי ירושלם לחטאת ולנדה,אמר רב יוסף מכאן רמז לנדה שצריכה לישב עד צוארה במים ולית הילכתא כוותיה,(תינח יום הכפורים דליכא מנעל) שבת דאיכא מנעל מאי אמר נחמיה חתניה דבי נשיאה אנא חזיתיה לרבי אמי ורבי אסי דמטו עורקומא דמיא ועברוה דרך מלבוש,תינח מנעל סנדל מאי איכא למימר אמר רב ריחומי אנא חזיתיה לרבינא דעבר דרך מלבוש רב אשי אמר סנדל לכתחלה לא,ריש גלותא איקלע להגרוניא לבי רב נתן רפרם וכולהו רבנן אתו לפירקא רבינא לא אתא למחר בעי רפרם לאפוקי לרבינא מדעתיה דריש גלותא אמר ליה מאי טעמא לא אתא מר לפירקא אמר ליה הוה כאיב לי כרעאי איבעי לך למיסם מסאני גבא דכרעא הוה,איבעי לך למרמא סנדלא אמר ליה עורקמא דמיא הוה באורחא איבעי לך למעבריה דרך מלבוש אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר להא דאמר רב אשי סנדל לכתחלה לא,תני יהודה בר גרוגרות אסור לישב על גבי טינא ביום הכפורים אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי ובטינא מטפחת אמר אביי ובטופח על מנת להטפיח אמר רב יהודה מותר להצטנן בפירות רב יהודה מצטנן בקרא,רבה מצטנן בינוקא רבא מצטנן בכסא דכספא אמר רב פפא כסא דכספא מלא אסור חסר שרי דפחרא אידי ואידי אסור משום דמישחל שחיל רב (פפא) אמר כסא דכספא חסר נמי אסור משום דמזדריב,זעירא בר חמא אושפיזכנין דרבי אמי ורבי אסי ורבי יהושע בן לוי ודכולהו רבנן דקיסרי הוה אמר ליה לרב יוסף בריה דרבי יהושע בן לוי בר אריא תא אימא לך מילתא מעליתא דהוה עביד אבוך מטפחת היה לו בערב יום הכפורים ושורה אותה במים ועושה אותה כמין כלים נגובין ולמחר מקנח בה פניו ידיו ורגליו ערב תשעה באב שורה אותה במים ולמחר מעבירה על גבי עיניו,וכן כי אתא רבה בר מרי אמר בערב תשעה באב מביאין לו מטפחת ושורה אותה במים ומניחה תחת מראשותיו ולמחר מקנח פניו ידיו ורגליו בערב יום הכפורים מביאין לו מטפחת ושורה אותה במים ועושה אותה כמין כלים נגובין ולמחר מעבירה על גבי עיניו אמר ליה ר' יעקב לרבי ירמיה בר תחליפא איפכא אמרת לן ואותיבנך סחיטה,אמר רב מנשיא בר תחליפא אמר רב עמרם אמר רבה בר בר חנה שאלו את רבי אלעזר זקן ויושב בישיבה צריך ליטול רשות להתיר בכורות או אינו צריך,מאי קא מיבעי להו הכי קא מיבעי להו כי הא דאמר רב אידי בר אבין דבר זה הניחו להם לבי נשיאה כדי להתגדר בו צריך ליטול רשות או דילמא כיון דזקן ויושב בישיבה אין צריך עמד ר' צדוק בן חלוקה על רגליו ואמר אני ראיתי את רבי יוסי בן זימרא שזקן ויושב בישיבה היה ועמד במעלה מזקנו של זה ונטל רשות להתיר בכורות,אמר ליה ר' אבא לא כך היה מעשה אלא כך היה מעשה ר' יוסי בן זימרא כהן היה והכי קא מיבעיא ליה הלכה כר"מ דאמר החשוד בדבר לא דנו ולא מעידו או דילמא הלכה כרבן שמעון בן גמליאל דאמר נאמן הוא על של חבירו ואינו נאמן על של עצמו ופשט ליה הלכה כרשב"ג,ותו קא מבעיא להו מהו לצאת בסנדל של 78a. bin the future, will bubble from under the threshold of the Temple. From thispoint bforward,the spring bwill grow in strength and rise until it reaches the opening of David’s house,i.e., his grave, which is outside of Jerusalem. bWhen it reaches the opening of David’s house, it will become a flowing river in which izavimand izavot /i, menstruating women, and women after childbirth will batheto purify themselves. bAs it is stated: “On that day there shall be a fountain opened for the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem for purification and for sprinkling”(Zechariah 13:1)., bRav Yosef said: From here, there is an allusion that a menstruating woman mustbe able to bsit up to her neck in water,i.e., that this is the appropriate depth for waters of a ritual bath to purify. The Gemara comments: bBut the ihalakhais not in accordance with hisopinion. Rather, the depth of the water is irrelevant. As long as the water can cover an entire adult body, the ritual bath is kosher.,§ The Gemara investigates the permissibility of crossing water in order to fulfill a mitzva: It works out bwellthat on bYom Kippurit is permitted because bthere are no shoes,and there is no problem going through water barefoot. However, on bShabbat, when there are shoes, whatis the ihalakha /i? Is one permitted to cross water wearing shoes? Is there a concern that his shoe might come off and he may pick it up, thereby violating the prohibition of carrying out? bNeḥemya, the son-in-law of the iNasi /i, said: I saw Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi come to a pool of waterthat they had to cross on Shabbat, band they crossed it while wearingtheir shoes without removing them first.,The Gemara asks: It works out bwellthat bshoesare permitted, since one can tie them tightly, but bwhat is there to sayabout bsandals?Since they do not fit tightly on the foot, they might come off in the water. bRav Riḥumi said: I saw Ravina crossa river while bwearingsandals on his feet. bRav Ashi said: If he iswearing bsandals,he should bnotcross the water iab initio /i,lest the sandal fall off his foot and he violate the prohibition of carrying on Shabbat by picking it up.,Incidental to this, the Gemara reports: bThe Exilarch came todeliver a lecture in bRav Natan’s study hall in Hagronya. Rafram and all the Sages came to the lecture,but bRavina did not come. The next day,when he came, bRafram wanted to removeany anger towards bRavina from the mindof bthe Exilarch,for missing the lecture. Rafram therefore asked Ravina: bWhat is the reasonthat bthe Master did not come to the lecture? He said to him: My foot hurt.He said to him: bYou should have put shoes on.Ravina answered him: bIt was the back of the footthat hurt, so wearing shoes would have been hard for me.,Rafram said to Ravina: bYou should have worn sandals,which leave the heel exposed. bHe said to him: There was a pool of water on the waythat I would have had to cross. bHe said to him: You should have crossed it wearingthe sandals. bHe said to him: Does the Master not holdwith that which bRav Ashi said:One should bnotwear bsandalswhen crossing a river on Shabbat, iab initio /i?From this conversation, the Exilarch understood that Ravina meant no disrespect in not attending the lecture.,§ The Gemara continues to discuss the laws of Yom Kippur: bYehuda bar Gerogarot taught: It is prohibited to sit ondamp bclay on Yom Kippur. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:This prohibition applies only when the bclayis bdripping wet,when one feels its wetness when touching it. bAbaye saidin clarification: It must be bdripping wet enough to make something else wet. Rav Yehuda said:One is bpermitted to cool off with fruiton Yom Kippur, and it is not considered bathing. Similarly, when bRav Yehudasuffered from the heat on Yom Kippur he bcooled offby putting ba squashon himself., bRabba cooled off byplacing ba baby [ iyanuka /i]next to him, because a baby’s body is cold. bRava cooled off with a silver cup. Rav Pappa said:If the bsilver cupis bfull, it is prohibited;however, if it is bnot full, it is permitted.With regard to ba ceramiccup, both bthis and that are prohibited, sincethe water bseeps throughthe cup, causing a violation of the prohibition of bathing. bRavAshi bsaid: A silver cup that is not full is also prohibited because it can slip [ imizderiv /i]from his hand and spill., bZe’eira bar Ḥama,the bhostof the home where bRabbi Ami, and Rabbi Asi, and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, and all the Sages of Caesareastayed, bsaid to Rav Yosef, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Son of a lion, come, I will tell youabout ba wonderful custom that your father used to perform. He had a cloth thathe would prepare bon the day before Yom Kippur by soaking it in water andwringing it out, bmaking italmost blike a dried cloth. And the next day he wiped his face, hands, and feet with it.On bthe day before the Ninth of Av,on which the prohibition of bathing is by rabbinic law and not Torah law, he would bsoak thecloth bin water and the next day pass it over his eyes. /b, bSimilarly, when Rabba bar Mari camefrom Eretz Yisrael bhe said: The day before the Ninth of Av they bring one a cloth, and hemay bsoak it in water and place it under his head. The next day,when only some moisture remains, bhemay bwipe his face, hands, and feetwith it. bOn the day before Yom Kippur, they bring one a cloth, and hemay bsoak it in water andwring it out to bmake it like a dried cloth. The next day, hemay bpass it over his eyes. Rabbi Ya’akov said to Rabbi Yirmeya bar Taḥlifa: You told us the opposite.What you told us about Yom Kippur was really what he did on the Ninth of Av, band we objected to youwith regard to the prohibition of bwringing,since Yom Kippur has the same prohibition of wringing that Shabbat has.,§ bRav Menashya bar Taḥalifa saidthat bRav Amram saidthat bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: They asked Rabbi Elazarben Pedat: Must ban Elder who sitsand studies Torah bin a yeshiva receive permissionfrom the iNasi bto permithim to render bfirstborn animals permitted,like others who must get permission from the iNasi btorender bfirstborn animals permitted, or not?A firstborn animal may not be eaten until it has a blemish. Knowing which blemishes are permanent and permit the animal to be eaten and which are temporary is specialized knowledge.,The Gemara asks: bWhat are they asking?What is the basis of the question? The Gemara explains: bThis is what they are asking, like thisstatement of bRav Idi bar Avin,who bsaid: This matter,the authority of the iNasito grant permission, bwas given to the house of the iNasito raise its stature.Therefore, bmust permission be received,since the request itself honors the iNasi /i? bOr, perhaps becausethe individual in question bis an Elder who sitsand studies Torah bin a yeshiva, there is no need. Rav Tzadok ben Ḥaluka rose to his feet and said: I saw Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra, who was an Elder who sat in the yeshiva and who stood before the grandfather of thiscurrent iNasi /i, bask permissionfrom him bto permit firstborn animals. /b, bRabbi Abba said to him:The way you described it bwas not how the incident was. Rather this was the incident: Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra was a priest, and he raised the following dilemma: Is the ihalakhain accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir,who bsaid: One who is suspect ina certain bareamay bnot judge it andmay bnot testifyabout bit?Priests are suspected of inflicting blemishes on firstborn animals because after the destruction of the Temple, even priests may not benefit from a firstborn animal until it becomes blemished. The question was not one of seeking permission from the iNasi /i, but it was a question of ihalakha /i. Are priests who are Torah scholars also suspected of inflicting blemishes? bOr perhaps the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel,who bsaid:One who is suspect bis believed about his fellow but is not believed about himself. He resolvedthe question for bhim:The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel. /b,§ bThey raisedanother bdilemmabefore bthem,the same Sages mentioned: bWhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to bgoing out in sandals made of /b
33. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 4.7, 11.18-11.25



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abahu, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
abaye Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171, 174
aha, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
akiba, r., and moses Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
akiva, r. Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 92
ami, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
aramaic Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 139
asi, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
banning, of judah Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
baraitot (tannaitic sources not in mishna), knowledge of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
bat kol (heavenly voice) Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 135, 138, 143, 146
bavli (babylonian talmud), parallels to Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
ben-shalom, israel Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 139, 151, 153
beth hillel Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 89
beth shammai Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 89
christians, persecution of Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 154
doeg Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
eleazar b. r. shimon, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
elijah (biblical) Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 135, 143
evil eye Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 144, 145, 146
fonrobert, charlotte Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 151
gamaliel of yavneh, rabban, on nonconformity Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 89, 92
geller, mark Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 232
god (g-d) Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 43
heavenly realm, judah banned from Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
hermogenes of tarsus Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 89, 92
herr, moshe david Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 139
hidary, richard Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 92
holy men, rise of, in late antique christianity Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 152
identity Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 232
ilfa Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
israel, land of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
jerome Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 154
jesus Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 232
judah, in heavenly realm Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
kahana, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
latin Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 43
leibner, uzi Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 142
levine, lee Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 140, 141, 142, 147, 149, 151, 152
literature, rabbinic, search for historical data in Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 142, 143, 150, 151
meir, ofra Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 142, 143, 146, 149, 151, 153
meir, r. Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 92
moses, and r. akiba Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
onkelos Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 232
palestinian sources, and rabbi Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
palestinian sources, on study-house Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
palestinian sources, on torah study Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
palestinian sources, parallels to bavli in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
papa, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
philosophy Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 151
plato Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 151
r. eleazar b. r. shimon Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 135, 136, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144
r. phinḥas b. yair Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 136, 147, 149
rabbah Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
rabbi (yehuda hanasi), and r. eleazer b. r. shimon Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
rabbi johannan Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 232
rabbi shimon (bar yocahi) Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 232
rabbis, persecution of, by roman authorities Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 139, 142, 143
rashbi (r. shimon bar yoḥai), as a monastic i gure Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 138, 152, 153, 154
rashbi (r. shimon bar yoḥai), purification of tiberias Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 136, 137, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152
rashbi (r. shimon bar yoḥai), suffering of Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 147
rashbi (r. shimon bar yoḥai), supernatural powers of Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 149, 150
rashbi (r. shimon bar yoḥai), views on work and torah study Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 143, 144
rashi Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
rav sheshet Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 232
romans, in the babylonian talmud Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 138, 139
rosenfeld, ben zion Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 152
rubenstein, jeffrey Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 142; Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 92
sabbatical Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 92
shimon Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 43
shimon b. gamaliel, rabban Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
shimon b. yochai Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 43
shimon b. yohai, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
shimon bar yoḥai, r., on nonconformity' Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 92
shimon bar yoḥai, r., on nonconformity Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 89
stammaim, on study-house/academy Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
study-house (bet midrash) Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
talmud, babylonian, redaction of Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 138
talmud, babylonian, use of palestinian material Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 138, 142, 143, 153, 154
theology Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 43
titus Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 232
torah study, bavli on Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
torah study, palestinian sources on Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
torah study Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 143, 144
yehuda, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
yerushalmi Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 43
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud), on r. kahana Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud), parallels to bavli in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud), shimon b. gamaliel in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 174
yohanan, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171, 174
zellentin, holger Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 152