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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8660
Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, 1.5
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1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 4.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.1. וַיֹּאמֶר מֶה עָשִׂיתָ קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צֹעֲקִים אֵלַי מִן־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 4.1. וְהָאָדָם יָדַע אֶת־חַוָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת־קַיִן וַתֹּאמֶר קָנִיתִי אִישׁ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 4.1. And the man knew Eve his wife; and she conceived and bore Cain, and said: ‘I have agotten a man with the help of the LORD.’"
2. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.14, 22.2, 53.15, 82.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.14. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אָמַר לוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁשִּׁמַּשְׁתָּ אֶת נַחוּם אִישׁ גַּם זוּ עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁתַּיִם שָׁנָה, אַכִין וְרַקִּין מִעוּטִין, אֶתִין וְגַמִּין רִבּוּיִן, הָדֵין אֶת דִּכְתִיב הָכָא, מַה הוּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ, אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ, הָיִינוּ אוֹמְרִים הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ אֱלָהוּת הֵן, אֲמַר לֵיהּ (דברים לב, מז): כִּי לֹא דָבָר רֵק הוּא מִכֶּם, וְאִם רֵק הוּא מִכֶּם, לָמָּה שֶׁאֵין אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִין לִדְרשׁ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאִי אַתֶּם יְגֵעִין בּוֹ, (דברים לב, מז): כִּי הוּא חַיֵּיכֶם, אֵימָתַי הוּא חַיֵּיכֶם, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאַתֶּם יְגֵעִין בּוֹ. אֶלָּא אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם, לְרַבּוֹת חַמָּה וּלְבָנָה וּמַזָּלוֹת, וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ, לְרַבּוֹת אִילָנוֹת וּדְשָׁאִין וְגַן עֵדֶן. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא מִשּׁוּם רַב הוּנָא אָמַר (שמות לח, כב): וּבְצַלְאֵל בֶּן אוּרִי בֶּן חוּר לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה עָשָׂה אֵת אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֹתוֹ משֶׁה, לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא אֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה ה' אֶת משֶׁה, אֲפִלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁלֹא שָׁמַע מִפִּי רַבּוֹ, הִסְכִּימָה דַעְתּוֹ לְמַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר לְמשֶׁה בְּסִינַי. רַבִּי חוֹנְיָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אָמַר (מלאכי ב, ו): תּוֹרַת אֱמֶת הָיְתָה בְּפִיהוּ, אֵלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁשָּׁמַע מִפִּי רַבּוֹ. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי (משלי ג, כו): כִּי ה' יִהְיֶה בְכִסְלֶךָ, אֲפִלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאַתָּה כְּסִיל בָּהֶן, (משלי ג, כו): וְשָׁמַר רַגְלְךָ מִלָּכֶד, רַבִּי דוֹסָאי אָמַר, מִן הַהוֹרָיָה. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אָמַר, מִן הָעֲבֵרָה. רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, מִן הַמַּזִּיקִין. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבְדִימוּס, אִם נָתַתָּ מִכִּסְךָ צְדָקָה, הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְשַׁמֶּרְךָ מִן הַפִּיסִין וּמִן הַזִּמְיוֹנוֹת, מִן הַגֻּלְגְּלָאוֹת וּמִן הָאַרְנוֹנִית. 22.2. וְהָאָדָם יָדַע וגו', רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בְּרַבִּי אָבִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר, לֹא שִׁמְשָׁה בְּרִיָּה קֹדֶם לְאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וַיֵּדַע אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא וְהָאָדָם יָדַע אֶת חַוָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ, הוֹדִיעַ דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ לַכֹּל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְהָאָדָם יָדַע, יָדַע מֵאֵיזוֹ שַׁלְוָה נִשְׁלָה, יָדַע מָה עָבְדַת לֵיהּ חַוָּה. אָמַר רַב אַחָא חִיוְיָא חִיוְיִךְ וְאַתְּ חִיוְיָא דְאָדָם. וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת קַיִן, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה שְׁלשָׁה פְּלָאִים נַעֲשׂוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם נִבְרְאוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שִׁמְּשׁוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הוֹצִיאוּ תּוֹלָדוֹת. אָמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה עָלוּ לַמִּטָּה שְׁנַיִם וְיָרְדוּ שִׁבְעָה, קַיִּן וּתְאוֹמָתוֹ, וְהֶבֶל וּשְׁתֵּי תְאוֹמוֹתָיו, וַתֹּאמֶר קָנִיתִי אִישׁ אֶת ה', חָמַת לָהּ הָא אִיתְּתָא בְּנִין, אָמְרָה הָא קִנְיַן בַּעֲלִי בְּיָדִי. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אָמַר לוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁשִּׁמַּשְׁתָּ נַחוּם אִישׁ גַּם זוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁתַּיִם שָׁנָה, אַכִין וְרַקִּין מִעוּטִים, אֶתִין וְגַמִּין רִבּוּיִים, הַאי אֶת דִּכְתִיב הָכָא מַהוּ, אָמַר אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר קָנִיתִי אִישׁ ה', הָיָה הַדָּבָר קָשֶׁה, אֶלָּא אֶת ה'. אָמַר לֵיהּ (דברים לב, מז): כִּי לֹא דָּבָר רֵק הוּא מִכֶּם, וְאִם רֵק הוּא מִכֶּם, שֶׁאֵין אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִים לִדְרשׁ, אֶלָּא אֶת ה', לְשֶׁעָבַר אָדָם נִבְרָא מֵאֲדָמָה, וְחַוָּה נִבְרֵאת מֵאָדָם, מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ (בראשית א, כו): בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ, לֹא אִישׁ בְּלֹא אִשָּׁה וְלֹא אִשָּׁה בְּלֹא אִישׁ, וְלֹא שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּלֹא שְׁכִינָה. 53.15. וַיְהִי אֱלֹהִים אֶת הַנַּעַר וַיִּגְדָּל (בראשית כא, כ), רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אָמַר לוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁשִּׁמַּשְׁתָּ נַחוּם אִישׁ גַּם זוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁתַּיִם שָׁנָה, אַכִים וְרַקִּים מִעוּטִים, אֶתִין וְגַמִּין רִבּוּיִם, הָדֵין אֶת דִּכְתִיב הָכָא מַהוּ, אָמַר לוֹ אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר וַיְהִי אֱלֹהִים הַנַּעַר, הָיָה הַדָּבָר קָשֶׁה, אֶלָּא אֶת הַנַּעַר. אָמַר לוֹ (דברים לב, מז): כִּי לֹא דָּבָר רֵק הוּא מִכֶּם, וְאִם רֵק מִכֶּם, שֶׁאֵין אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִים לִדְרשׁ, אֶלָא אֶת הַנַּעַר, הוּא וְחַמָּרָיו וְגַמָּלָיו וּבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ. (בראשית כא, כ): וַיְהִי רֹבֶה קַשָּׁת, רָבֶה וְקַשְׁיוּתוֹ עִמּוֹ [נסח אחר: וקשיותו אמו], רָבֶה, מִתְלַמֵּד בְּקֶּשֶׁת, רָבֶה עַל כָּל הַמּוֹרִים בַּקֶּשֶׁת. (בראשית כא, כא): וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּמִדְבַּר פָּארָן, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק זְרוֹק חוּטְרָא לַאֲוִירָא וְעַל עִקְרֵיהּ הוּא קָאֵים, כָּךְ לְפִי שֶׁכָּתוּב (בראשית טז, א): וְלָהּ שִׁפְחָה מִצְרִית וּשְׁמָהּ הָגָר, לְפִיכָךְ (בראשית כא, כא): וַתִּקַּח לוֹ אִמּוֹ אִשָּׁה מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם. 82.8. וַיְהִי בְהַקְשֹׁתָהּ בְּלִדְתָּהּ וגו' (בראשית לה, יז), שְׁנֵי תַּלְמִידִים מִשֶּׁל רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שִׁנּוּ עֲטִיפָתָן בִּשְׁעַת הַשְּׁמַד, פָּגַע בָּהֶם סַרְדְּיוֹט אֶחָד, אָמַר לָהֶם, אִם אַתֶּם בָּנֶיהָ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה תְּנוּ נַפְשְׁכֶם עָלֶיהָ, וְאִם אֵין אַתֶּם בָּנֶיהָ לָמָּה אַתֶּם נֶהֱרָגִים עָלֶיהָ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, בָּנֶיהָ אָנוּ וְעָלֶיהָ אָנוּ נֶהֱרָגִים אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם לְאַבֵּד אֶת עַצְמוֹ לָדַעַת. אָמַר לָהֶם, שְׁלשָׁה שְׁאֵלוֹת אֲנִי שׁוֹאֵל אֶתְכֶם אִם הֲשִׁיבוֹתֶם לִי הֲרֵי מוּטָב, וְאִם לָאו הֲרֵי אֲנִי מְשַׁמֵּד אֶתְכֶם. אָמַר לָהֶם, כָּתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר (ישעיה ג, יג): נִצָּב לָרִיב ה', וּכְתִיב (יואל ד, יב): כִּי שָׁם אֵשֵׁב לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת כָּל הַגּוֹיִם וגו'. אָמְרִין לוֹן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא דָּן אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל דָּן אוֹתָן מְעֻמָּד מְקַצֵּר בַּדִּין וּמְפַשֵּׁר בַּדִּין, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהוּא דָּן אֶת אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, דָּן מְיֻשָּׁב וּמְדַקְדֵּק בַּדִּין וּמַאֲרִיךְ בַּדִּין. אָמַר לָהֶם לֹא כָּךְ דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ רַבְּכֶם אֶלָּא אֶחָד זֶה וְאֶחָד זֶה בְּאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, מִשֶּׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא דָּן אֶת אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם מְיֻשָּׁב דָּן אוֹתָם וּמְדַקְדֵּק בַּדִּין וּמַאֲרִיךְ בַּדִּין, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הוּא נַעֲשָׂה אַנְטְדִיקוֹס כְּנֶגְדָן. אָמַר לָהֶם, מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב (משלי כח, יט): עֹבֵד אַדְמָתוֹ יִשְׂבַּע לָחֶם וגו'. אָמְרוּ לוֹ טוֹב מִי שֶׁהוּא חוֹכֵר שָׂדֶה אַחַת וּמְזַבְּלָהּ וּמְעַדְּרָהּ מִמִּי שֶׁהוּא חוֹכֵר שָׂדוֹת הַרְבֵּה וּמוֹבִירָן. אָמַר לָהֶם לֹא כָּךְ דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ רַבְּכֶם, אֶלָּא עוֹבֵד אֱלֹהִים עַד יוֹם מוֹתוֹ יִשְׂבַּע לָחֶם, מִלַּחְמוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם הַבָּא. (משלי כח, יט): וּמְרַדֵּף רֵיקִים יִשְׂבַּע רִישׁ, אֵלּוּ עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁמְרַדְּפִים אַחֲרֵי הָרֵיק אַחַר עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁלָּהֶם. אָמַר לָהֶם, מַהוּ דֵין דִּכְתִיב: וַיְהִי בְהַקְשֹׁתָהּ בְּלִדְתָּהּ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ כָּךְ מְמַסְמְסִין נַפְשָׁהּ שֶׁל חָיָה וְאוֹמְרִים לָהּ בִּשְׁעַת הַלֵּדָה אַל תִּירְאִי כִּי בֵּן זָכָר יָלָדְתְּ. אָמַר לָהֶם לֹא כָּךְ דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ רַבְּכֶם אֶלָּא כָּל שֵׁבֶט וְשֵׁבֶט נוֹלְדָה תְּאוֹמָתוֹ עִמּוֹ, כְּהַהִיא דְּאָמַר אַבָּא חַלְפוֹי בֶּן קוּרְיָה תְּאוֹמָה יְתֵרָה נוֹלְדָה עִם בִּנְיָמִין. 1.14. Rabbi Yishmael asked Rabbi Akiva and said to him \"seeing as you served Nahum, the man from Gamzu, twenty two years, [who teaches that] iachand iraqare [hermeneutic tools for] dimunition ( imi'ut /i) and ietand igamare [tools for] expansion ( iribuy /i) what is your opinion on the ietwritten here; what is it?\" and he said to him: \"if it was said \"in the beginning God created heavens and earth\" we would say that the heavens and the earth are divinities.\" He said to him \"\"for this is no empty thing for you\" (Deuteronomy 32:47) and if it seems empty to you, then it is because you do not know to interpret correctly when you are not careful with it \"for it is your life\" (Deuteronomy 32:47). When is it your life? When you are careful with it.\" But, ietthe heavens, [this iet /i] expands to include the sun and moon and zodiac signs, and ietthe earth, [this iet /i] expands to include the trees and grass and the Garden of Eden. Rabbi Tanchuma from Rav Huna said \"And Bezalel son of Uri son of Hur from the tribe of Judah made what Moses commanded him\" (Exodus 38:22), does it not say \" ietall which Hashem commanded Moses\", even the words which he did not hear from the mouth of his master, he planned his judgment from what was spoken to Moses on Sinai. Rabbi Chonya in the name of Rabbi said \"\"The Torah of truth was from his mouth\" (Malachi 2:6) these are the words which he heard from the mouth of his master\". And the rabbis said \"For Hashem will be your confidence\" (Proverbs 3:26), even though you are confident in them, \"He will guard your foot from being caught\" (Proverbs 3:26)\". Rabbi Dosai said \"from erroneous decisions\". Rabbi Abbahu said \"from sin\". Rabbi Levi said \"from harm\". Said Rabbi Avdimus \"if you gave charity from your money, the Holy One, blessed be He, guards you from tariffs and from fines, from head-taxes and from forced contributions\". " 22.2. Now the man knew his woman Chava, etc. Rabbi Huna and Rabbi Yaakov the son of Rabbi Avin, in the name of Rabbi Aba bar Kahana said: Before the man, the creations had never had sexual relations, behold here it is not written \"and he knows\" rather, and it is written \"and he knew\", that is, he made known the way of the land to all. Another interpretation: And Adam knew - he knew from what bliss he was expelled; he knew what Chava did to him. Said Rav Acha: Chivyiah [the snake] is your snake, and you are the snake of Adam. 'And she conceived and gave birth to Kayin' - Said Rabbi Eleazar ben Azaryiah three wonders happened on that day:on that day they were created, on that day they had relations, on that day they had children. Said Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korcha: two went up to the bed and seven descended, Kayin and his female twin, Hevel and his two female twins. 'And she said: I acquired a man with God' - the woman sees herself with a baby and says 'behold the acquiring of my husband [is definitely] in my hand.'Rabbi Ishmael asked Rabbi Akiva: since you have served Nachum Ish Gam Zu for twenty two years, and [he taught that] every 'ach' and every 'rak' make for exclusion and every 'et' and every 'gam' make for inclusion, in this verse what is 'et' doing here? He [Akiva] answered: if it were written 'I acquired a man of God [w/o the 'et']' that would be a difficult thing, rather it says 'I acquired a man with God'. He said to him: 'Because this is not an empty thing for you' (Devarim 32:47), and if it was empty, it is because of you, because you cannot LIDROSH, rather 'with God' [means] that in the past Adam was created from the adamah and Chavah was created from the adam. From here and onward, “in our image as our likeness”—not man without woman and not woman without man, and not both of them without Shekhinah [God’s presence]."
3. Palestinian Talmud, Ketuvot, 8.11 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

4. Palestinian Talmud, Shabbat, 1.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

5. Palestinian Talmud, Peah, 1.1, 2.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

6. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

60a. מי קוראין לא הוה בידיה אתא ושייליה לרבי יצחק נפחא א"ל אחריהן קוראין ת"ח הממונין פרנסים על הצבור ואחריהן ת"ח הראויין למנותם פרנסים על הציבור ואחריהן בני ת"ח שאבותיהן ממונים פרנסים על הצבור ואחריהן ראשי כנסיות וכל אדם,שלחו ליה בני גליל לר' חלבו מהו לקרות בחומשים בבהכ"נ בציבור לא הוה בידיה אתא שייליה לר' יצחק נפחא לא הוה בידיה אתא שאיל בי מדרשא ופשטוה מהא דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יוחנן ס"ת שחסר יריעה אחת אין קורין בו,ולא היא התם מחסר במילתיה הכא לא מחסר במילתיה רבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו אין קוראין בחומשין בבית הכנסת משום כבוד צבור,ורבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו האי ספר אפטרתא אסור למקרי ביה בשבת מאי טעמא דלא ניתן ליכתב,מר בר רב אשי אמר לטלטולי נמי אסור מ"ט דהא לא חזי למיקרי ביה ולא היא שרי לטלטולי ושרי למיקרי ביה,דר' יוחנן ור"ש בן לקיש מעייני בספרא דאגדתא בשבתא והא לא ניתן ליכתב אלא כיון דלא אפשר (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך ה"נ כיון דלא אפשר עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך,בעא מיניה אביי מרבה מהו לכתוב מגילה לתינוק להתלמד בה תיבעי למאן דאמר תורה מגילה מגילה ניתנה תיבעי למאן דאמר תורה חתומה ניתנה,תיבעי למ"ד תורה מגילה מגילה ניתנה כיון דמגילה מגילה ניתנה כותבין או דילמא כיון דאידבק אידבק,תיבעי למ"ד תורה חתומה ניתנה כיון דחתומה ניתנה אין כותבין או דילמא כיון דלא אפשר כתבינן א"ל אין כותבין ומה טעם לפי שאין כותבין,איתיביה אף היא עשתה טבלא של זהב שפרשת סוטה כתובה עליה א"ר שמעון בן לקיש משום ר' ינאי באל"ף בי"ת,איתיביה כשהוא כותב רואה וכותב מה שכתוב בטבלא אימא כמה שכתוב בטבלא,איתיביה כשהוא כותב רואה בטבלא וכותב מה שכתוב בטבלא מה הוא כתוב בטבלא (במדבר ה, יט) אם שכב אם לא שכב הכא במאי עסקינן בסירוגין,כתנאי אין כותבין מגילה לתינוק להתלמד בה ואם דעתו להשלים מותר ר' יהודה אומר בבראשית עד דור המבול בתורת כהנים עד ויהי ביום השמיני,א"ר יוחנן משום רבי בנאה תורה מגילה מגילה ניתנה שנא' (תהלים מ, ח) אז אמרתי הנה באתי במגילת ספר כתוב עלי ר"ש בן לקיש אומר תורה חתומה ניתנה שנאמר (דברים לא, כו) לקוח את ספר התורה הזאת,ואידך נמי הכתיב לקוח ההוא לבתר דאידבק,ואידך נמי הכתיב במגילת ספר כתוב עלי ההוא דכל התורה כולה איקרי מגילה דכתיב (זכריה ה, ב) ויאמר אלי מה אתה רואה ואומר אני רואה מגילה עפה,אי נמי לכדרבי לוי דאמר רבי לוי שמנה פרשיות נאמרו ביום שהוקם בו המשכן אלו הן פרשת כהנים ופרשת לוים ופרשת טמאים ופרשת שילוח טמאים ופרשת אחרי מות 60a. bwho readsfrom the Torah? An answer bwas notreadily bavailable to him. He came and asked Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa,who bsaid to him: After them readthe bTorah scholars who are appointed as leaders [ iparnasim /i] of the community. And after themread bTorah scholars who are fit to be appointed as leaders of the community,even if in practice they received no such appointment. The Sages said that a Torah scholar who knows how to answer any question asked of him is fit to be appointed as leader of the community. bAnd after themread bthe sons of Torah scholars whose fathers were appointed as leaders of the community. And after themread bthe heads of synagogues, andafter them bany person. /b, bThe people of the Galilee senta question bto Rabbi Ḥelbo: What isthe ihalakhawith regard bto reading from iḥumashim /i,i.e., scrolls containing only one of the five books of the Torah, bin the synagogue in public?Is this permitted, or is it necessary to read from a complete Torah scroll? An answer bwas notreadily bavailable to him. He came and asked Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa,but an answer bwas notreadily bavailable to himeither. Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa bcame and askedthis question bin the study hall, and they resolvedthe difficulty bfrom that which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to ba Torah scroll that is missingeven bone sheetof parchment, bone may not read from itin public. This indicates that an incomplete Torah scroll may not be used for a public Torah reading.,The Gemara rejects this argument: bButthat bis not so,i.e., this cannot serve as a proof to the matter at hand. bThere,it is blackingpart bof the matterit is addressing, as a sheet of parchment is missing, whereas bhere, it is not lackingpart bof the matterit is addressing, as it contains a complete book. bRabba and Rav Yosef both say: One does not read from iḥumashimin the synagogue out of respect for the community. /b, bAnd Rabba and Rav Yosef both say: It is prohibited topublicly breadthe ihaftara /i, the portion from the Prophets that is read after the weekly Torah portion, bon Shabbat, from a scrollcontaining only bthe ihaftarot /i. What is the reasonfor this? It is bbecausethis type of scroll bmay not be written,as the words of the Prophets must also be written as complete books., bMar bar Rav Ashi said: To handlesuch a scroll on Shabbat bis also prohibited. What is the reasonfor this? It is bbecause it is not fit to be read.Consequently, it is treated as set-aside [ imuktze /i] on Shabbat. The Gemara rejects this argument: bButthat bis not so;rather, bit is permitted to handlesuch a scroll band it is permitted to read from it. /b,And a proof for this is bthat Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish used to read from a scroll of iaggada /icontaining the words of the Sages bon Shabbat. Butsuch a scroll bmay not be written,for in principle, the statements of the Oral Law may not be committed to writing. bRather, since it is not possibleto remember the Oral Law without writing it down, it is permitted to violate the ihalakha /i, as indicated by the verse: b“It is time to act for the Lord; they have nullified your Torah”(Psalms 119:126). bHere too,in the case of a ihaftarascroll, bsince it is notalways bpossibleto write complete books of the Bible, due to the expense, it is permitted to apply the reasoning of b“It is time to act for the Lord; they have nullified your Torah.” /b, bAbaye raised a dilemma before Rabba: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether it is permitted bto write a scrollcontaining only one portion of the Torah bforthe purpose of enabling ba child to study it?The Gemara notes: bLet the dilemma be raised according to the one who saysthat bthe Torah was givenfrom the outset bscroll by scroll,meaning that Moses would teach the Jewish people one portion of the Torah, and then write it down, and then teach them the next portion of the Torah, and then write that down, and continue in this way until he committed the entire Torah to writing. And blet the dilemmaalso bbe raised according to the one who saysthat bthe Torah was givenas ba completebook, meaning that the Torah was not written down incrementally, but rather, after teaching the Jewish people the entire Torah, Moses committed it to writing all at once.,The Gemara explains the two sides of the dilemma according to each opinion: bLet the dilemma be raised according to the one who saysthat bthe Torah was given scroll by scroll.On the one hand it is possible to say that bsincethe Torah bwasoriginally bgiven scroll by scroll,today as well bone may writethe Torah in separate scrolls. bOron the other hand, bperhapsone should say that bsince it wasultimately bjoinedtogether to form a single scroll, bit was joinedtogether and can no longer be written in separate scrolls.,And blet the dilemmaalso bbe raised according to the one who saysthat bthe Torah was givenas ba completebook. On the one hand it is possible to say that bsince it was givenfrom the outset as ba completebook, bone may not writeit today in separate scrolls. bOron the other hand, bperhapsone could say that bsince it is notalways bpossibleto write a complete Torah, bone may writeit in separate scrolls. Rabba bsaid to him: One may not writethe Torah in separate scrolls. bAnd what is the reason? Because one may not writea scroll that is only part of the Torah.,Abaye braised an objection to hisopinion from a mishna ( iYoma37b) where it was taught: Queen Helene balso fashioned a golden tabletas a gift for the Temple bon which theTorah bportiondiscussing ba isotawas written.When the priest would write the scroll of a isotain the Temple, he would copy this Torah portion from the tablet, so that a Torah scroll need not be taken out for that purpose. This indicates that it is permitted for one to write a single portion of the Torah. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says in the name of Rabbi Yannai:There is no proof from this mishna, as the tablet prepared by Queen Helene was not written in an ordinary manner, but rather it consisted of the letters bofthe ialef-beit /i,i.e., only the first letter of each word was written on the tablet, and by looking at it the priest writing the isotascroll would remember what to write.,The Gemara braised an objectionfrom a ibaraitathat teaches: bWhenthe priest bwritesthe isotascroll, bhe looksat band writes that which is written on the tablet,which indicates that the full text of the passage was written on the tablet. The Gemara rejects this argument: Emend the ibaraitaand bsaythat it should read as follows: He looks at and writes blike that which is written on the tablet.The tablet aids the priest in remembering the text that must actually be written.,The Gemara braised an objectionfrom a different ibaraita /i: bWhen he writes, he looks at the tablet and writes that which is written on the tablet.And bwhat is written on the tablet? “Ifa man blaywith you…and bif he did not laywith you” (see Numbers 5:19). Apparently, the full text of the passage was written on the tablet. The Gemara answers: bWith what are we dealing here?The tablet fashioned by Queen Helene was written bby alternatingcomplete words and initials. The first words of each verse were written there, but the rest of the words in the verse were represented by initials. Therefore, this contribution of Queen Helene does not resolve the question of whether writing a scroll for a child is permitted.,The Gemara comments: The question of whether or not writing a scroll for a child is permitted is bsubject toa dispute between itanna’im /i,as it is taught in the following ibaraita /i: bOne may not write a scrollcontaining only one portion of the Torah bforthe purpose of enabling ba child to study, but ifthe writer’s bintention is to completethe scroll, bit is permitted. Rabbi Yehuda says: Inthe book of bGenesishe may write a scroll from the beginning buntil the generation of the flood. In iTorat Kohanim /i,the book of Leviticus, he may write a scroll from the beginning buntil “And it came to pass on the eighth day”(Leviticus 9:1).,The Gemara returns to discuss the previously mentioned dispute. bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Bana’a: The Torah was givenfrom the outset bscroll by scroll, as it is stated: “Then I said, behold, I come with the scroll of the book that is written for me”(Psalms 40:8). King David is saying about himself that there is a section of the Torah, “the scroll of the book,” that alludes to him, i.e., “that is written for me.” This indicates that each portion of the Torah constitutes a separate scroll. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The Torah was givenas ba completebook, bas it is stated: “Take this scroll of the Torah”(Deuteronomy 31:26), which teaches that from the outset the Torah was given as a complete unit.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe otherSage, Rabbi Yoḥa, bas well, isn’t it written “take,”indicating that the Torah scroll was given whole? How does he explain this verse? The Gemara answers: bThatverse is speaking about the Torah bafter it was joinedtogether to form a single unit.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe otherSage, Reish Lakish, bas well, isn’t it written: “With the scroll of the book that is written for me,”indicating that the Torah was given scroll by scroll? How does he explain this verse? The Gemara answers: bThatverse teaches that bthe entire Torah is called a scroll.This is indicated in another verse as well, bas it is written: “And He said to me: What do you see? And I said: I see a flying scroll”(Zechariah 5:2)., bAlternatively,this verse serves to allude btothe sections of the Torah discussed in bthatstatement bof Rabbi Levi, as Rabbi Levi says: Eight sections were said on the day that the Tabernacle was erected,on the first of Nisan. bThey are: The section of the priests(Leviticus 21:1–22:26); bthe section of the Levites(Numbers 8:5–26); bthe section of the impure(Leviticus 13:1– 14:57); bthe section of the sending away of the impure(Numbers 5:1–4); bthe sectionbeginning with the words b“After the death”(Leviticus, chapter 16);
7. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18a. (הושע ג, ה) אחר ישובו בני ישראל ובקשו את ה' אלהיהם ואת דוד מלכם וכיון שבא דוד באתה תפלה שנאמר (ישעיהו נו, ז) והביאותים אל הר קדשי ושמחתים בבית תפלתי,וכיון שבאת תפלה באת עבודה שנאמר עולותיהם וזבחיהם לרצון על מזבחי וכיון שבאת עבודה באתה תודה שנאמר (תהלים נ, כג) זובח תודה יכבדנני,ומה ראו לומר ברכת כהנים אחר הודאה דכתיב (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם וירד מעשות החטאת והעולה והשלמים,אימא קודם עבודה לא ס"ד דכתיב וירד מעשות החטאת וגו' מי כתיב לעשות מעשות כתיב,ולימרה אחר העבודה לא ס"ד דכתיב זובח תודה,מאי חזית דסמכת אהאי סמוך אהאי מסתברא עבודה והודאה חדא מילתא היא,ומה ראו לומר שים שלום אחר ברכת כהנים דכתיב (במדבר ו, כז) ושמו את שמי על בני ישראל ואני אברכם ברכה דהקב"ה שלום שנאמר (תהלים כט, יא) ה' יברך את עמו בשלום,וכי מאחר דמאה ועשרים זקנים ומהם כמה נביאים תקנו תפלה על הסדר שמעון הפקולי מאי הסדיר שכחום וחזר וסדרום,מכאן ואילך אסור לספר בשבחו של הקב"ה דא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים קו, ב) מי ימלל גבורות ה' ישמיע כל תהלתו למי נאה למלל גבורות ה' למי שיכול להשמיע כל תהלתו,אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן המספר בשבחו של הקב"ה יותר מדאי נעקר מן העולם שנאמר (איוב לז, כ) היסופר לו כי אדבר אם אמר איש כי יבלע,דרש ר' יהודה איש כפר גבוריא ואמרי לה איש כפר גבור חיל מאי דכתיב (תהלים סה, ב) לך דומיה תהלה סמא דכולה משתוקא כי אתא רב דימי אמר אמרי במערבא מלה בסלע משתוקא בתרין:,קראה על פה לא יצא וכו': מנלן אמר רבא אתיא זכירה זכירה כתיב הכא והימים האלה נזכרים וכתיב התם (שמות יז, יד) כתב זאת זכרון בספר מה להלן בספר אף כאן בספר,וממאי דהאי זכירה קריאה היא דלמא עיון בעלמא לא סלקא דעתך (דכתיב) (דברים כה, יז) זכור יכול בלב כשהוא אומר לא תשכח הרי שכחת הלב אמור הא מה אני מקיים זכור בפה:,קראה תרגום לא יצא וכו': היכי דמי אילימא דכתיבה מקרא וקרי לה תרגום היינו על פה לא צריכא דכתיבה תרגום וקרי לה תרגום:,אבל קורין אותה ללועזות בלעז וכו': והא אמרת קראה בכל לשון לא יצא רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו בלעז יווני,היכי דמי אילימא דכתיבה אשורית וקרי לה יוונית היינו על פה א"ר אחא א"ר אלעזר שכתובה בלעז יוונית,וא"ר אחא א"ר אלעזר מנין שקראו הקב"ה ליעקב אל שנאמר (בראשית לג, כ) ויקרא לו אל אלהי ישראל דאי סלקא דעתך למזבח קרא ליה יעקב אל ויקרא לו יעקב מיבעי ליה אלא ויקרא לו ליעקב אל ומי קראו אל אלהי ישראל,מיתיבי קראה גיפטית עברית עילמית מדית יוונית לא יצא,הא לא דמיא אלא להא גיפטית לגיפטים עברית לעברים עילמית לעילמים יוונית ליוונים יצא,אי הכי רב ושמואל אמאי מוקמי לה למתני' בלעז יוונית לוקמה בכל לעז [אלא מתניתין כברייתא] וכי איתמר דרב ושמואל בעלמא איתמר רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו לעז יווני לכל כשר,והא קתני יוונית ליוונים אין לכולי עלמא לא אינהו דאמור כרשב"ג דתנן רשב"ג אומר אף ספרים לא התירו שיכתבו אלא יוונית,ולימרו הלכה כרשב"ג אי אמרי הלכה כרשב"ג הוה אמינא הני מילי שאר ספרים אבל מגילה דכתיב בה ככתבם אימא לא קמ"ל:,והלועז ששמע אשורית יצא וכו': והא לא ידע מאי קאמרי מידי דהוה אנשים ועמי הארץ,מתקיף לה רבינא אטו אנן האחשתרנים בני הרמכים מי ידעינן אלא מצות קריאה ופרסומי ניסא הכא נמי מצות קריאה ופרסומי ניסא:,קראה סירוגין יצא וכו': לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי סירוגין שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דקאמרה להו לרבנן דהוי עיילי פסקי פסקי לבי רבי עד מתי אתם נכנסין סירוגין סירוגין,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי חלוגלוגות שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דאמרה ליה לההוא גברא דהוה קא מבדר פרפחיני עד מתי אתה מפזר חלוגלוגך,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי (משלי ד, ח) סלסלה ותרוממך שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דהוות אמרה לההוא גברא דהוה מהפך במזייה אמרה ליה עד מתי אתה מסלסל בשערך,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי (תהלים נה, כג) השלך על ה' יהבך אמר רבה בר בר חנה זימנא חדא הוה אזילנא בהדי ההוא טייעא וקא דרינא טונא ואמר לי שקול יהביך ושדי אגמלאי,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי (ישעיהו יד, כג) וטאטאתיה במטאטא השמד שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דהוות אמרה לחברתה שקולי טאטיתא וטאטי ביתא,ת"ר קראה סירוגין יצא 18a. b“Afterward the children of Israel shall return, and seek the Lord their God and David their king”(Hosea 3:5), and consequently, the blessing of the kingdom of David follows the blessing of the building of Jerusalem. bAnd oncethe scion of bDavid comes,the time for bprayer will come, as it is stated: “I will bring them to My sacred mountain and make them joyful in My house of prayer”(Isaiah 56:7). Therefore, the blessing of hearing prayer is recited after the blessing of the kingdom of David., bAnd after prayer comes, theTemple bservice will arrive, as it is statedin the continuation of that verse: b“Their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices shall be accepted on My altar”(Isaiah 56:7). The blessing of restoration of the Temple service follows the blessing of hearing prayer. bAnd when theTemple bservice comes,with it will also bcome thanksgiving, as it is stated: “Whoever sacrifices a thanks-offering honors Me”(Psalms 50:23), which teaches that thanksgiving follows sacrifice. Therefore, the blessing of thanksgiving follows the blessing of restoration of the Temple service., bAnd why did they seefit to institute that one bsays the Priestly Benediction afterthe blessing of bthanksgiving? As it is written: “And Aaron lifted up his hand toward the people and blessed them, and he came down from sacrificing the sin-offering, and the burnt-offering, and the peace-offerings”(Leviticus 9:22), teaching that the Priestly Benediction follows the sacrificial service, which includes the thanks-offering.,The Gemara asks: But the cited verse indicates that Aaron blessed the people and then sacrificed the offerings. Should we not then bsaythe Priestly Benediction bbefore theblessing of the Temple bservice?The Gemara answers: bIt should not enter your mindto say this, bas it is written: “And he came down from sacrificing the sin-offering.” Is it writtenthat he came down bto sacrificethe offerings, implying that after blessing the people Aaron came down and sacrificed the offerings? No, bit is written, “from sacrificing,”indicating that the offerings had already been sacrificed.,The Gemara asks: If, as derived from this verse, the Priestly Benediction follows the sacrificial service, the Priestly Benediction should be bsaidimmediately bafterthe blessing of restoration of btheTemple bservice,without the interruption of the blessing of thanksgiving. The Gemara rejects this argument: bIt should not enter your mindto say this, bas it is written: “Whoever sacrifices a thanks-offeringhonors Me,” from which we learn that thanksgiving follows sacrifice, as already explained.,The Gemara asks: bWhat did you see to rely on thisverse and juxtapose thanksgiving with sacrifice? bRelyrather bon the otherverse, which indicates that it is the Priestly Benediction that should be juxtaposed with the sacrificial service. The Gemara answers: bIt stands to reasonto have the blessing of thanksgiving immediately following the blessing of the sacrificial service, since the sacrificial bservice and thanksgiving,which are closely related conceptually, bare one matter. /b, bAnd why did they seefit to institute that one bsaysthe blessing beginning with the words: bGrant peace, after the Priestly Benediction? As it is writtenimmediately following the Priestly Benediction: b“And they shall put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them”(Numbers 6:27). The Priestly Benediction is followed by God’s blessing, and bthe blessing of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is peace, as it is stated: “The Lord blesses His people with peace”(Psalms 29:11).,The Gemara returns to the ibaraitacited at the beginning of the discussion: bNow, sincethe ibaraitateaches that ba hundred and twenty Elders, including many prophets, established the iAmida bprayer in itsfixed border, whatis it that bShimon HaPakuli arrangedin a much later period of time, as related by Rabbi Yoḥa? The Gemara answers: Indeed, the blessings of the iAmidaprayer were originally arranged by the hundred and twenty members of the Great Assembly, but over the course of time the people bforgot them, andShimon HaPakuli then barranged them again. /b,The Gemara comments: These nineteen blessings are a fixed number, and bbeyond this it is prohibitedfor one bto declare the praises of the Holy One, Blessed be He,by adding additional blessings to the iAmida /i. As bRabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who can utter the mighty acts of the Lord? Who can declare all His praise?”(Psalms 106:2)? It means: bFor whom is it fitting to utter the mighty acts of the Lord?Only bfor one who can declare all His praise.And since no one is capable of declaring all of God’s praises, we must suffice with the set formula established by the Sages., bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to bone who excessively declares the praises of the Holy One, Blessed be He,his fate bisto be buprooted from the world,as it appears as if he had exhausted all of God’s praises. bAs it is stated: “Shall it be told to Him when I speak? If a man saysit, bhe would be swallowed up”(Job 37:20). The Gemara interprets the verse as saying: Can all of God’s praises be expressed when I speak? If a man would say such a thing, he would be “swallowed up” as punishment.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yehuda, a man of Kefar Gibboraya, and some sayhe was ba man of Kefar Gibbor Ĥayil, taught: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For You silence is praise”(Psalms 65:2)? bThebest bremedy of all is silence,i.e., the optimum form of praising God is silence. The Gemara relates: bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Israel to Babylonia, bhe said: In the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthey sayan adage: If ba word isworth one isela /i, silence isworth btwo. /b,§ It is taught in the mishna: bIf one readthe Megilla bby heart he has not fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bRava said:This is bderivedby means of a verbal analogy between one instance of the term bremembranceand another instance of the term bremembrance. It is written here,with regard to the Megilla: b“That these days should be remembered”(Esther 9:28), band it is written elsewhere: “And the Lord said to Moses: Write this for a memorial in the book,and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: That I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under the heavens” (Exodus 17:14). bJust as there,with regard to Amalek, remembrance is referring specifically to something written bin a book,as it is stated, “in the book,” bso too here,the Megilla remembrance is through being written bin a book. /b,The Gemara raises a question: bBut from wheredo we know bthat this remembrancethat is stated with regard to Amalek and to the Megilla involves breadingit out loud from a book? bPerhapsit requires bmerely looking intothe book, reading it silently. The Gemara answers: bIt should not enter your mindto say this, as it was taught in a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“Rememberwhat Amalek did to you” (Deuteronomy 25:17). One bmighthave thought that it suffices for one to remember this silently, bin his heart.But this cannot be, since bwhen it sayssubsequently: b“You shall not forget”(Deuteronomy 25:19), bit isalready breferring to forgetting from the heart. How,then, bdo I upholdthe meaning of b“remember”?What does this command to remember add to the command to not forget? Therefore, it means that the remembrance must be expressed out loud, bwith the mouth. /b,§ It was taught further in the mishna: bIf one readthe Megilla binAramaic btranslation he has not fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this case? bIf we say thatthe Megilla bwas written inthe original bbiblical text,i.e., in Hebrew, band he read it inAramaic btranslation,then bthis isthe same as reading it bby heart,as he is not reading the words written in the text, and the mishna has already stated that one does not fulfill his obligation by reading the Megilla by heart. The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessaryto teach this case as well, as it is referring to a case in which the Megilla bwas writtennot in the original Hebrew but binAramaic btranslation, and he read itas written, binAramaic btranslation. /b,§ The mishna continues: bHowever, for those who speak a foreign language, one may readthe Megilla binthat bforeign language.The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut didn’t you sayin the mishna: bIf he read it in anyother blanguage he has not fulfilledhis obligation? The Gemara cites the answer of bRav and Shmuel, who both say:When the mishna says: A foreign language, it is referring specifically to bthe Greek foreign language,which has a unique status with regard to biblical translation.,The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof the case? bIf we say thatthe Megilla bwas written in iAshurit /i,i.e., in Hebrew, band he read it in Greek, this isthe same as reading it bby heart,and the mishna teaches that one does not fulfill his obligation by reading by heart. The Gemara answers: bRabbi Aḥa saidthat bRabbi Elazar said:The mishna is dealing with a case in which the Megilla bwas written in the Greek foreign languageand was also read in that language.,Apropos statements in this line of tradition, the Gemara adds: bAnd Rabbi Aḥafurther bsaidthat bRabbi Elazar said: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, called Jacob El,meaning God? bAs it is stated:“And he erected there an altar, band he called it El, God of Israel”(Genesis 33:20). It is also possible to translate this as: And He, i.e., the God of Israel, called him, Jacob, El. Indeed, it must be understood this way, bas if it enters your mindto say that the verse should be understood as saying that bJacob called the altar El, it should havespecified the subject of the verb and written: bAnd Jacob called itEl. bButsince the verse is not written this way, the verse must be understood as follows: bHe called Jacob El; and who called him El? The God of Israel. /b,The Gemara returns to discussing languages for reading the Megilla and braises an objectionagainst Rav and Shmuel, who said that one may read the Megilla in Greek but not in other foreign languages. It is taught in a ibaraita /i: bIf one readthe Megilla bin Coptic [ iGiptit /i], iIvrit /i, Elamite, Median, or Greek, he has not fulfilledhis obligation, indicating that one cannot fulfill his obligation by reading the Megilla in Greek.,The Gemara answers: The clause in the mishna that teaches that the Megilla may be read in a foreign language to one who speaks that foreign language bis comparable only to thatwhich was taught in a different ibaraita /i: If one reads the Megilla bin Coptic to Copts,in iIvritto iIvrim /i, in Elamite to Elamites, or in Greek to Greeks, he has fulfilledhis obligation. The Megilla may be read in any language, provided the listener understands that language.,The Gemara asks: But bif so,that one who reads the Megilla in a foreign language that he speaks fulfills his obligation, bwhy did Rav and Shmuel establish theruling of the bmishna asreferring specifically bto Greek? Let them interpret itas referring bto any foreign languagethat one speaks. The Gemara explains: bRather, the mishnais to be understood blike the ibaraita /i,that one who reads the Megilla in a language that he speaks fulfills his obligation; band that which was statedin the name of bRav and Shmuel was saidas a bgeneralstatement, not relating to the mishna but as an independent ruling, as follows: bRav and Shmuel both say: The Greek language is acceptable for everyone,i.e., anyone who reads the Megilla in Greek has fulfilled his obligation, even if he does not understand Greek.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut doesn’tthe ibaraitacited above bteachthat if one reads the Megilla in bGreek to Greekshe has fulfilled his obligation? This implies that reading in Greek, byes,this is acceptable for Greeks, but bfor everyoneelse, bno,it is not. The Gemara answers: Rav and Shmuel disagree with this statement of the ibaraita /i, because they bagree withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel. As we learnedin a mishna ( iMegilla8b): bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Evenfor bbooksof the Bible, the Sages bdid not permit them to be writtenin any foreign language bother than Greek,indicating that Greek has a special status, and is treated like the original Hebrew.,The Gemara asks: But if this was the intention of Rav and Shmuel, blet them stateexplicitly: bThe ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel.Why did Rav and Shmuel formulate their statement as if they were issuing a new ruling? The Gemara answers: bHad they saidsimply bthat the ihalakhais in accordance with Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, I would have saidthat bthis appliesonly bto the other booksof the Bible, bbutwith regard to bthe Megilla, of which it is written: “According to their writing,” I would saythat one does bnotfulfill his obligation if he reads it in Greek. Therefore they stated their own opinion to bteach usthat even in the case of the Megilla one fulfills his obligation if he reads it in Greek.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bAnd one who speaks a foreign language who heardthe Megilla being read bin iAshurit /i,i.e., in Hebrew, bhas fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’tit so that bhe does not understand what they are saying?Since he does not understand Hebrew, how does he fulfill his obligation? The Gemara answers: bIt is just as it iswith bwomen and uneducated people;they too understand little Hebrew, but nevertheless they fulfill their obligation when they hear the Megilla read in that language., bRavina strongly objects tothe premise of the question raised above, i.e., that someone who does not understand the original, untranslated language of the Megilla cannot fulfill his obligation. bIs that to saythat even bwe,the Sages, who are very well acquainted with Hebrew, bknowfor certain the meaning of the obscure words iha’aḥashteranim benei haramakhim /i(Esther 8:10), often translated as: “Used in the royal service, bred from the stud”? bButnevertheless, we fulfill the bmitzva of readingthe Megilla band publicizing the miracleof Purim by reading these words as they appear in the original text. bHere too,one who speaks a foreign language who hears the Megilla being read in Hebrew fulfills the bmitzva of readingthe Megilla band publicizing thePurim bmiracle,even if he does not understand the words themselves.,§ The mishna continues: bIf one readsthe Megilla bat intervals[iseirugin/b] bhe has fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara relates that bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word iseirugin /i.One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse saying to the Sages who were entering the house intermittentlyrather than in a single group: bHow long are you going to enter iseirugin seirugin /i?As she lived in Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s house and certainly heard the most proper Hebrew being spoken, they understood from this that the word iseiruginmeans at intervals.,It is similarly related that bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word iḥalogelogot /i,which appears in various imishnayotand ibaraitot /i. One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse saying to a certain man who was scattering purslane: How long will you go on scattering your iḥalogelogot /i?And from this they understood that iḥalogelogotis purslane.,Likewise, bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by isalselehain the verse: “Get iwisdom…salselehaand it will exalt you”(Proverbs 4:7–8). One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse talking to a certain man who was twirling his hair, saying to him: How long will you go on twirling[imesalsel/b] byour hair?And from this they understood that the verse is saying: Turn wisdom around and around, and it will exalt you.,The Gemara relates additional examples: bThe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word iyehavin the verse: b“Cast upon the Lord your iyehav /i”(Psalms 55:23). bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: One time I was traveling with a certain Arab[iTayya’a/b] band I was carrying a load, and he said to me: Take your iyehavand throw it on my camel,and I understood that iyehavmeans a load or burden.,And similarly, bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word imatateiin the verse: b“And I will itateiit with the imatateiof destruction”(Isaiah 14:23). One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse saying to her friend: Take a itateitaand itatithe house,from which they understood that a imatateiis a broom, and the verb itatimeans to sweep.,On the matter of reading the Megilla with interruptions, bthe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i: bIf one reads the Megilla at intervals,pausing and resuming at intervals, bhe has fulfilledhis obligation.
8. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

104a. עלויי קא מעלי ליה דאמר רב חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין אלא סתום ועשאו פתוח גרועי קא מגרע ליה דאמר ר' ירמיה ואיתימא ר' חייא בר אבא מנצפך צופים אמרום,ותיסברא והכתיב (ויקרא כז, לד) אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא מיהוה הואי מידע לא הוה ידעין הי באמצע תיבה הי בסוף תיבה ואתו צופים תקנינהו ואכתי אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,גופא א"ר חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין ואמר רב חסדא כתב שבלוחות נקרא מבפנים ונקרא מבחוץ כגון נבוב בובן (רהב בהר) סרו ורס:,אמרי ליה רבנן לריב"ל אתו דרדקי האידנא לבי מדרשא ואמרו מילי דאפילו בימי יהושע בן נו"ן לא איתמר כוותייהו אל"ף בי"ת אלף בינה גימ"ל דל"ת גמול דלים מ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דגימ"ל לגבי דל"ת שכן דרכו של גומל חסדים לרוץ אחר דלים ומ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דדל"ת לגבי גימ"ל דלימציה ליה נפשיה ומ"ט מהדר אפיה דדל"ת מגימ"ל דליתן ליה בצינעה כי היכי דלא ליכסיף מיניה,ה"ו זה שמו של הקב"ה ז"ח ט"י כ"ל ואם אתה עושה כן הקב"ה זן אותך וחן אותך ומטיב לך ונותן לך ירושה וקושר לך כתר לעוה"ב מ"ם פתוחה מ"ם סתומה מאמר פתוח מאמר סתום נו"ן כפופה נו"ן פשוטה נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט,ס"ע סמוך עניים ל"א סימנין עשה בתורה וקנה אותה פ' כפופה פ' פשוטה פה פתוח פה סתום צד"י כפופה וצד"י פשוטה צדיק כפוף צדיק פשוט היינו נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט הוסיף לך הכתוב כפיפה על כפיפתו מכאן שנתנה התורה במנוד ראש,קו"ף קדוש רי"ש רשע מאי טעמא מהדר אפיה דקו"ף מרי"ש אמר הקב"ה אין אני יכול להסתכל ברשע ומאי טעמא מהדרה תגיה דקו"ף לגבי רי"ש אמר הקב"ה אם חוזר בו אני קושר לו כתר כמותי ומ"ט כרעיה דקו"ף תלויה דאי הדר ביה ליעייל,וליעול בהך מסייע ליה לריש לקיש) דאמר ר"ל מ"ד (משלי ג, לד) אם ללצים הוא יליץ ולענוים יתן חן בא ליטמא פותחין לו בא ליטהר מסייעים אותו,שי"ן שקר תי"ו אמת מאי טעמא שקר מקרבן מיליה אמת מרחקא מיליה שיקרא שכיח קושטא לא שכיח ומ"ט שיקרא אחדא כרעיה קאי ואמת מלבן לבוניה קושטא קאי שיקרא לא קאי,א"ת ב"ש אותי תעב אתאוה לו ב"ש בי לא חשק שמי יחול עליו ג"ר גופו טימא ארחם עליו ד"ק דלתותי נעל קרניו לא אגדע עד כאן מדת רשעים,אבל מדת צדיקים א"ת ב"ש אם אתה בוש ג"ר ד"ק אם אתה עושה כן גור בדוק ה"ץ ו"ף חציצה הוי בינך לאף ז"ע ח"ס ט"ן ואין אתה מזדעזע מן השטן י"ם כ"ל אמר [שר של] גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם לים כל,אמר הקב"ה אח"ס בט"ע גי"ף אני חס עליהם מפני שבעטו בגי"ף דכ"ץ דכים הם כנים הם צדיקים הם הל"ק אין לך חלק בהן ומרז"ן ש"ת אמר גיהנם לפניו רבונו של עולם מרי זניני מזרעו של שת,א"ל א"ל ב"ם ג"ן ד"ס להיכן אוליכן לגן הדס ה"ע ו"ף אמר גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם עיף אנכי ז"ץ ח"ק הללו זרעו של יצחק ט"ר י"ש כ"ת טר יש לי כיתות כיתות של עובדי כוכבים שאני נותן לך: 104a. bhe elevates itsstatus, as bRav Ḥisda said:The letters imemand isamekhthat were in the tablets were standing miraculously.Each letter was chiseled all the way through the tablets. In that case, the segment of the tablets at the center of the isamekhand final imem /i, letters that are completely closed, should have fallen. Miraculously, they remained in place. Consequently, rendering an open imemclosed elevates its status. bHowever,if bone rendered a closedletter bopen, he diminishes itsstatus, as bRabbi Yirmeya said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbawho said: bThe prophets institutedthe difference between the open and closed forms of the letters imem /i, inun /i, itzadi /i, ipeh /i, ikaf /i.Since the closed letters date back to the Ten Commandments, apparently the prophets introduced the open versions of the letters, which are therefore less significant.,The Gemara rejects this: bAnd is that reasonable? Isn’t it written: “These are the commandmentsthat the Lord commanded Moses to tell the children of Israel at Mount Sinai” (Leviticus 27:34). The word “these” underscores bthat a prophet is not permitted to introduce anynew belementrelated to the Torah and its mitzvot bfrom here on. Rather,the prophets did not innovate these forms. Both the open and closed versions bexistedbefore then. However, people bdid not know whichform appeared bin the middle of a wordand bwhichform bat the end of a word. And the prophets cameand binstituted theirset positions. The Gemara asks: bAnd stillthe question remains: Didn’t the Sages derive from the verse: b“These are the commandments,” that a prophet is not permitted to introduce anynew belement from here on?How could they institute the position of the letters? bRather,over the course of time, the people bforgot theirpositions in the words bandthe prophets bthen reestablished theirpositions. Apparently, closed letters are no more significant than the open ones.,The Gemara returns to discuss bthe matter itself. Rav Ḥisda said:The letters imemand isamekhthat were in the tablets were standing miraculously. Andfurthermore, bRav Ḥisda said:The bwriting on the tablets was read from the inside,from one side of the tablets, band read from the outside,the other side of the tablets, in reverse order. The Gemara cites words that appear elsewhere in the Bible: iNevuv /iwas read as ibet /i, ivav /i, ibet /i, inun /i; irahav /ias ibeit /i, iheh /i, ireish /i;and isaru /ias ivav /i, ireish /i, isamekh /i. /b, bThe Sages said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Young students cametoday bto the study hall and said thingsthe likes of bwhich were not saideven bin the days of Joshua bin Nun.These children who only knew the Hebrew alphabet interpreted the letters homiletically. briAlef beit /imeans blearn[ielaf/b] the bwisdom[ibina/b] of the Torah. briGimmel dalet /imeans bgive to the poor[igemol dalim/b]. bWhy is the leg of the igimmelextended towardthe idalet /i? Because it is the manner of one who bestows loving-kindness to pursue the poor. And whyis the bleg ofthe idaletextended towardthe igimmel /i?It is so bthata poor person bwill make himself available to himwho wants to give him charity. bAnd why does the idaletface away fromthe igimmel /i?It is to teach bthat one should givecharity bdiscreetly so thatthe poor person bwill not be embarrassed by him. /b,The children continued to interpret the letters. briHeh vav /i: That isthe principal bname of the Holy One, Blessed be He.briZayin ḥet /i, itet yod /i, ikaf lamed /i: And if you do so, the Holy One, Blessed be He, feeds [ izan /i] you, and shows you favor [ iḥan /i], and bestows goodness [ imeitiv /i] upon you, and gives you an inheritance [ iyerusha /i], and ties a crown [ iketer /i] for you in the World to Come [ ila’olam haba /i].brThe bopen imemand closed imem /iindicate that the Torah contains ban open statement,understood by all, and ban esoteric statement.brThe bbent inun /iand the bstraight inun /iat the end of a word refer to ba faithful person who is bent [ ine’eman kafuf /i]and is modest now, who will ultimately become a bwell-known faithful person [ ine’eman pashut /i]. /b,iSamekh ayin /i: Support the poor [ isemokh aniyyim /i]to prevent them from falling further. bAnother version: Make mnemonicsigns b[ isimanim aseh /i]to remember bthe Torah and acquire it.brThe bbent ipeh /iand the bstraight ipeh /i:Sometimes one needs to have ban open mouth [ ipeh patuaḥ /i]and speak, and sometimes one needs to have ba closed mouth [ ipeh satum /i].brThe bbent itzadi /iand the bstraight itzadi /iindicate that ba righteousperson who is bbentand humble b[ itzaddik kafuf /i]now will ultimately become ba well-known righteousperson b[ itzaddik pashut /i]whose righteousness is apparent to all. The Gemara asks: bThat is identicalto the interpretation of the bent and straight inun /i: iNe’eman kafuf /i, ine’eman pashut /i.The Gemara explains: bThe verse addedthe bbendingof the righteous person bto the bending ofthe faithful person. bFrom hereit is derived bthat the Torah was given inan atmosphere of bgravity.One must receive the Torah with a sense of awe and extreme humility.,The children continued: briKuf /i: Holy [ ikadosh /i],referring to God. briReish /i: A wicked person [ irasha /i]. Why is the ikuffacing away fromthe ireish /i?This question was phrased euphemistically, as it is the ireishthat is facing away from the ikuf /i. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I am unable look at a wicked person,i.e., the wicked person does not want to look toward God. bAnd why is the crown ofthe letter ikufturned towardthe ireish /i? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Ifthe wicked person brepentshis evil ways bI will tie a crown for him like My own. And why is the leg ofthe ikufsuspendedand not connected to the roof of the letter? bBecause ifthe wicked person brepents he can enterthrough this opening if he so desires.,The Gemara asks: bLet him enter through thatopening, as the ikufis open on both sides at the bottom. The Gemara answers: This bsupportsthe statement of bReish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “If it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, and unto the humble He gives grace”(Proverbs 3:34)? One who bcomesin order bto become impure,i.e., to sin, bthey,in Heaven, bprovide him with an openingto do so, and he is not prevented from sinning. However, if he bcomesin order bto become purified,not only is he allowed to do so, but bthey,in Heaven, bassist him. /b,They further taught: briShin /i: Falsehood [ isheker /i]. iTav /i: Truth [ iemet /i].br bWhy are the letters ofthe word ishekeradjacentto one another in the alphabet, while bthe letters of iemetare distantfrom one another? That is because while bfalsehood iseasily bfound, truth is foundonly with great difficulty. bAnd why dothe letters that comprise the word isheker /iall bstand on one foot, andthe letters that comprise the word iemet /istand on bases that are wide like bbricks?Because the btruth standseternal and bfalsehood does not standeternal.,The Gemara cites another midrash that also deals with the letters of the alphabet. This one uses a code in which the first letter is paired with the last letter, the second letter with the penultimate one, and so on b[ ialef tav /i, ibeit shin /i]. iAlef tav /i, God said: If bhe despised Me [ ioti ti’ev /i]would bI desire [ ietaveh /i] him? iBeit shin /i:If bhe does not desireto worship bMe [ ibi /i],shall bMy name [ ishemi /i] rest upon him? iGimmel reish /i:He bdefiled his body [ igufo /i];shall bI have mercy [ iaraḥem /i] on him?The word comprised of the letters igimmeland ireishin Aramaic means licentiousness. iDalet kuf /i:He blocked My doors [ idaltotai /i],shall bI not cut off his horns [ ikarnav /i]? To this point,the Gemara interpreted the letters as referring to bthe attribute of the wicked. /b, bHowever,with regard to bthe attribute of the righteousit is taught differently. iAlef tav /i, ibeit shin /i: If you have shame [ iata bosh /i], igimmel reish /i, idalet kuf /i: If you do so,you will breside [ igur /i] inthe bheavens [ ibedok /i],as the verse says: “Who stretches out the Heavens like a curtain [ idok /i]” (Isaiah 40:22). iHeh tzadi /i, ivav peh /i: There is a partition [ iḥatzitza havei /i] between you and anger [ iaf /i]. iZayin ayin /i, iḥet samekh /i, itet nun /i: And you will not be shaken [ imizdaze’a /i] by the Satan. iYod mem /i, ikaf lamed /i: The minister of Gehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe,send the righteous as well into the bseato which ballgo b[ iyam kol /i],Gehenna.,The interpretation of the alphabet continues with other combinations of letters. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: iAlef ḥet samekh /i, ibet tet ayin /i, igimmel yod peh /i: I have mercy on them [ iAni ḥas aleihem /i] because they spurned [ iba’atu /i] adultery [ igif /i].The Gemara continues with this combination of the letters: iDalet kaf tzadi /i: They are pure [ idakkim /i], they are honest [ ikenim /i], they are righteous [ itzaddikim /i]. iHeh lamed kuf /i: You have no portion [ iḥelek /i] with them,based on the interchange of the letters iḥetand iheh /i. iVav mem reish zayin nun /i, ishin tav /i:The minister of bGehenna said [ iamar /i],based on ivav mem reish /i, bbefore Him: Master of the Universe, my Master [ iMari /i], sustain me [ izaneini /i] with the seed of Seth [ iShet /i],which refers to all humankind, including the Jewish people.,The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to himusing another configuration of the alphabet: iAlef lamed /i, ibeit mem /i: Not with them [ ial bam /i],i.e., you will have no portion of them. iGimmel nun /i, idalet samekh /i: To where will I lead them?I will lead them bto the garden of myrtle [ igan hadas /i],i.e., the Garden of Eden. iHeh ayin /i, ivav peh /i:The minister of bGehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I am tired [ iayef anokhi /i]and thirsty and need people to care for me. The Holy One, Blessed be He, responded: iZayin tzadi /i, iḥet kuf /i: These are the descendants [ izaro /i] of Isaac [ iYitzḥak /i]. iTet reish /i, iyod shin /i, ikaf tav /i: Wait [ itar /i], I have groupsupon bgroups [ iyesh li kittot kittot /i] ofother bnations that I will give youinstead.
9. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

44a. אמרי לדידהו נמי לא דחי ואלא קשיא הני תרתי דתנא חדא כל העם מוליכין את לולביהן להר הבית ותני' אידך לבית הכנסת ומתרצינן כאן בזמן שבית המקדש קיים כאן בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים,לא אידי ואידי בזמן שבית המקדש קיים ולא קשיא כאן במקדש כאן בגבולין,א"ל אביי לרבא מאי שנא לולב דעבדינן ליה שבעה זכר למקדש ומאי שנא ערבה דלא עבדינן לה שבעה זכר למקדש א"ל הואיל ואדם יוצא ידי חובתו בערבה שבלולב א"ל ההוא משום לולב הוא דקא עביד ליה וכי תימא דקא מגבה ליה והדר מגבה ליה והא מעשים בכל יום דלא קא עבדינן הכי,אמר רב זביד משמיה דרבא לולב דאורייתא עבדינן שבעה זכר למקדש ערבה דרבנן לא עבדינן לה שבעה זכר למקדש,למאן אילימא לאבא שאול האמר (ויקרא כג, מ) ערבי נחל כתיב שתים אחת ללולב ואחת למקדש אי לרבנן הלכתא גמירי לה דא"ר אסי א"ר יוחנן משום ר' נחוניא איש בקעת בית חורתן עשר נטיעות ערבה וניסוך המים הלכה למשה מסיני,אלא אמר רב זביד משמיה דרבא לולב דאית ליה עיקר מה"ת בגבולין עבדינן ליה שבעה זכר למקדש ערבה דלית לה עיקר מן התורה בגבולין לא עבדינן שבעה זכר למקדש,אמר ר"ל כהנים בעלי מומין נכנסין בין האולם ולמזבח כדי לצאת בערבה א"ל ר' יוחנן מי אמרה מי אמרה הא איהו אמר דא"ר אסי א"ר יוחנן משום ר' נחוניא איש בקעת בית חורתן עשר נטיעות ערבה וניסוך המים הלכה למשה מסיני,אלא מי אמרה בנטילה דלמא בזקיפה מי אמרה בבעלי מומין דלמא בתמימים,אתמר ר' יוחנן ור' יהושע בן לוי חד אמר ערבה יסוד נביאים וחד אמר (ערבה) מנהג נביאים תסתיים דר' יוחנן הוא דאמר יסוד נביאים דא"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן ערבה יסוד נביאים הוא תסתיים,א"ל ר' זירא לר' אבהו מי א"ר יוחנן הכי והא"ר יוחנן משום ר' נחוניא איש בקעת בית חורתן עשר נטיעות ערבה וניסוך המים הלכה למשה מסיני (דניאל ד, טז) אשתומם כשעה חדא ואמר שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,ומי א"ר יוחנן הכי והא"ר יוחנן דלכון אמרי דלהון היא ל"ק 44a. The Sages bsay: For themin Eretz Yisrael bit also does not overrideShabbat. The Gemara asks: bButif that is the case, the contradiction between bthese twosources is bdifficult, as it was taught in onemishna: bAll the people bring their ilulavimto the Temple Mounton Friday, band it was taught in anothermishna that they bring their ilulavim bto the synagogue. And we resolvedthis contradiction as follows: bHere,where the mishna says that they bring their ilulavimto the Temple Mount, it is referring to bwhen the Temple is standing,and bthere,where the mishna says that they bring their ilulavimto the synagogue, it is referring to bwhen the Temple is not standing.Based on the above, when the Temple is not in existence the mitzva of ilulavdoes not override Shabbat.,The Gemara resolves the contradiction: bNo,both bthismishna band thatmishna are referring to Eretz Yisrael bwhen the Temple is in existence; andnevertheless, it is bnot difficult. Here,where the mishna says that they bring their ilulavimto the Temple Mount, it is referring to the procedure bin the Temple.And bthere,where the mishna says that they bring their ilulavimto the synagogue, it is referring to the procedure bin the outlying areasin the rest of Eretz Yisrael, where they knew when the new month was established. However, today, neither in the Diaspora nor in Eretz Yisrael does the mitzva of ilulavoverride Shabbat., bAbaye said to Rava: What is differentabout ilulav /isuch bthat we performthe mitzva bsevendays bin commemoration of the Temple, and what is differentabout the bwillow branch that we do not performthe mitzva bsevendays bin commemoration of the Temple?Rava bsaid to him: Since a person fulfills his obligation with the willow branch in the ilulav /i,no additional commemoration is necessary. Abaye bsaid to him:That is not a satisfactory answer, as bhe is performing thataction bdue to themitzva of taking the ilulav /iand the other species. bAnd if you say that he liftsthe willow branch bound with the ilulavto fulfill the mitzva of the four species band then lifts it againin commemoration of the willow branch in the Temple, baren’t actionsperformed bdailyproof bthat we do not do so,as no one lifts the ilulavtwice?, bRav Zevid said in the name of Rava:Since the mitzva of ilulav /iis a mitzva bby Torahlaw, bwe perform it sevendays bin commemoration of the Templeeven today. Since the mitzva of the bwillow branchis a mitzva bby rabbiniclaw, bwe do not perform it sevendays bin commemoration of the Temple. /b,The Gemara asks: In accordance bwith whoseopinion did Rava say this? bIf we saythat Rava said this in accordance with the opinion of bAbba Shaul, didn’t he say that it is written: Willows of the river,i.e., in the plural, indicating btwowillow branches, bone for the ilulavand one for the Temple?In his opinion, the mitzva of the willow branch in the Temple is also a mitzva by Torah law. bIfRava said this in accordance bwiththe opinion of bthe Rabbis, they learned thisas ba ihalakha /itransmitted to Moses from Sinai, bas Rabbi Asi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Neḥunya of the valley of Beit Ḥortan:The ihalakhaof the bten saplings,the mitzva of the bwillow branchin the Temple, bandthe mitzva of bthe water libationon the altar during the festival of iSukkotare each ba ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai. /b, bRather, Rav Zevid said in the name of Rava:With regard to the mitzva of ilulav /i, which hasits bbasiswritten explicitly bin the Torah, in the outlying areas we perform it sevendays bin commemoration of the Temple.With regard to the mitzva of the bwillow branch, which does not haveits bbasiswritten explicitly bin the Torah, in the outlying areas we do not perform it sevendays bin commemoration of the Temple. /b,Apropos the willow branch in the Temple, bReish Lakish said: Priests withphysical bdefects enter between the Entrance Hall and the altar in order to fulfillthe obligation of the mitzva of bthe willow branch.Although due to their blemishes it is prohibited for them to pass there, as they circle the altar with the willow branches they inevitably pass between the Entrance Hall and the altar. bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: Who statedthis ihalakha /i? The Gemara wonders about Rabbi Yoḥa’s question: bWho stated it? Didn’tRabbi Yoḥa bhimself stateit? bAs Rabbi Asi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Neḥunya of the valley of Beit Ḥortan:The ihalakhaof the bten saplings,the mitzva of the bwillow branchin the Temple, bandthe mitzva of bthe water libationon the altar during the festival of iSukkotare each ba ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai. /b, bRather,Rabbi Yoḥa’s question was: bWho saidthat the mitzva is fulfilled bby takingthe willow branch and circling the altar? bPerhapsthe mitzva is only fulfilled bby standingthe willow branches buprightsurrounding the altar. bWho saidthat the mitzva may be fulfilled even bbythose bwithphysical bdefects? Perhapsit may be fulfilled only bby unblemishedpriests., bIt was statedthat there is a dispute between bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. One saidthat the mitzva of the bwillow branchis ban ordice ofthe bprophets,as Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi instituted it in the Temple as obligatory. bAnd one saidthat the mitzva of the bwillow branchis an ancient bcustompracticed by the bprophetsand adopted by others as well. It was not instituted as a binding ordice. The Gemara suggests: bConclude that it was Rabbi Yoḥa who saidthat it is ban ordice ofthe bprophets, as Rabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The mitzva of the bwillow branch is an ordice ofthe bprophets.The Gemara concurs: Indeed, bconcludethat it is so., bRabbi Zeira said to Rabbi Abbahu: Did Rabbi Yoḥaactually bsay that? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say in the name of Rabbi Neḥunya of the valley of Beit Ḥortan:The ihalakhaof the bten saplings,the mitzva of the bwillow branchin the Temple, bandthe mitzva of bthe water libationon the altar during the festival of iSukkotare each ba ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai?How then could he attribute the origin of the mitzva of the willow branch to the prophets? b“He was astonished for a while”(Daniel 4:16), bandafter considering the apparent contradiction bhe saidthat indeed Rabbi Yoḥa maintains that the mitzva of the willow branch is a ihalakhatransmitted to Moses from Sinai. However, over the course of time during the Babylonian exile bthey forgotsome ihalakhot /i, including the mitzva of the willow branch, band thenthe prophets breinstituted them. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd did Rabbi Yoḥaactually bsaythat it is a ihalakhatransmitted to Moses from Sinai? bAnd didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: Yours,i.e., the Babylonian Sages, bsay thatthis ordice bis theirs,instituted by the Sages, and it is neither a ihalakhatransmitted to Moses from Sinai nor an ordice instituted by the prophets. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult; /b
10. Babylonian Talmud, Temurah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. ולא תיסמי מנחת נסכים ממתני' ולא קשיא כאן בנסכים הבאין עם הזבח כאן בנסכים הבאין בפני עצמן,ואי הוה ליה איגרתא מי אפשר למישלחא והא אמר רבי אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כותבי הלכות כשורף התורה והלמד מהן אינו נוטל שכר,דרש ר' יהודה בר נחמני מתורגמניה דר"ל כתוב אחד אומר (שמות לד, כז) כתוב לך את הדברים האלה וכתוב אחד אומר (שמות לד, כז) כי על פי הדברים האלה לומר לך דברים שעל פה אי אתה רשאי לאומרן בכתב ושבכתב אי אתה רשאי לאומרן על פה,ותנא דבי רבי ישמעאל כתוב לך את הדברים האלה אלה אתה כותב אבל אין אתה כותב הלכות,אמרי דלמא מילתא חדתא שאני דהא רבי יוחנן ור"ל מעייני בסיפרא דאגדתא בשבתא ודרשי הכי (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך אמרי מוטב תיעקר תורה ואל תשתכח תורה מישראל,אמר רב פפא השתא דאמרת נסכים הבאין בפני עצמן קריבין אפי' בלילה נזדמנו נסכים בלילה מקדישין בלילה ומקריבין,אמר ליה רב יוסף בריה דרב שמעיה לרב פפא תניא דמסייע לך זה הכלל כל הקרב ביום אינו קדוש אלא ביום וכל הקרב בלילה קדוש (בין ביום בין) בלילה,אמר רב אדא בר אהבה ועלות השחר פוסלת בהן כאברין,כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יהוצדק (במדבר כט, לט) אלה תעשו לה' במועדיכם אלו חובות הבאות חובה ברגל,לבד מנדריכם ונדבותיכם לימד על נדרים ונדבות שקרבין בחולו של מועד,ולעולותיכם במה הכתוב מדבר אי בעולת נדר הרי כבר אמור נדריכם ואי בעולת נדבה הרי כבר אמור ונדבותיכם הא אינו מדבר אלא בעולת יולדת ועולת מצורע,ולמנחותיכם במה הכתוב מדבר אי במנחת נדר הרי כבר אמור אי במנחת נדבה הרי כבר אמור הא אינו מדבר אלא במנחת סוטה ובמנחת קנאות,ולנסכיכם ולשלמיכם מקיש נסכים לשלמים מה שלמים ביום אף נסכים ביום ולשלמיכם לרבות שלמי נזיר,א"ל אביי ולימא מר שלמי פסח דאי שלמי נזיר נידר ונידב הוא,דהתניא זה הכלל כל שהוא נידב ונידר קרב בבמת יחיד ושאינו נידב ונידר אינו קרב בבמת יחיד,ותנן המנחות והנזירות קריבין בבמת יחיד דברי ר"מ סמי מכאן נזירות,מי איכא למ"ד דנזיר לאו נידר ונידב הוא והכתיב (שמואל ב טו, ז) מקץ ארבעים שנה ויאמר אבשלום אל המלך אלכה נא ואשלם את נדרי אשר נדרתי לה' בחברון כי נדר נדר עבדך וגו' מאי לאו אקרבן,לא אעיקר נדרו אמר עיקר נדרו בחברון הוה והלא בגשור הוה,אמר רב אחא ואיתימא רבה בר רב חנן לא הלך אבשלום אלא להביא כבשים מחברון ה"נ מסתברא דאי תימא לאקרובי הוא דאזיל שביק ירושלים ואזיל ומקריב בחברון,ואלא מאי להביא כבשים מחברון האי אשר נדרתי לה' בחברון מחברון מיבעי ליה,אלא לעולם לאקרובי ודקא קשיא לך אמאי שבק ירושלים ומקריב בחברון תיקשי לך גבעון דמקום קדוש הוא אלא כיון שהותרו הבמות כל היכא דבעי מקריב,ארבעים שנה למאן תניא רבי נהוראי אומר משום רבי יהושע מקץ ארבעים שנה ששאלו להם מלך דתניא אותה שנה ששאלו להם מלך אותה שנה עשירית של שמואל היתה 14b. bandin light of this ruling bhe will not deletethe phrase: bThe meal offeringthat accompanies bthe libations, from the ibaraita /i. Andinstead, the apparent contradiction between the ibaraitotcan be explained as follows: It is bnot difficult; here,the ibaraitathat states that meal offerings accompanying libations are sacrificed only in the day is referring bto libations that come withan animal boffering,whereas bthere,the ibaraitathat permits sacrificing a meal offering that accompanies the libations at night is referring bto libations that cometo be sacrificed bby themselves,i.e., which do not accompany the sacrifice of an offering.,The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to Rav Dimi’s suggestion to write this opinion in a letter. bAndeven bif he hadsomeone to write ba letterfor him, bwouldit have been bpossible to send it? But didn’t Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, saythat bRabbi Yoḥa said:Those bwho write ihalakhotareconsidered blikethose who bburn the Torah, and one who learns fromwritten ihalakhot bdoes not receivethe brewardof studying Torah. Evidently, it is prohibited to send ihalakhotin letters.,Before resolving the difficulty, the Gemara further discusses the prohibition of writing down the Torah: bRabbi Yehuda bar Naḥmani, the disseminator for Reish Lakish, expoundedas follows: bOne verse says: “Write you these words,” and one verse says,i.e., it states later in that same verse: b“For by the mouth of these words”(Exodus 34:27). These phrases serve bto say to you: Words that weretaught borally you may not recite in writing, andwords bthat are written you may not recite orally,i.e., by heart., bAndfurthermore, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:The word “these” in the command b“write you these words”serves to emphasize that bthesewords, i.e., those recorded in the Written Law, byou may write, but you may not write ihalakhot /i,i.e., the imishnayotand the rest of the Oral Law., bThey saidin response to the question of how Rav Dimi could propose writing down the ihalakhain a letter: bPerhapswith regard to ba new matterit bis different,i.e., it might be permitted to write down new material so that it not be forgotten. One proof for this suggestion is bthat Rabbi Yoḥa and Reish Lakishwould bread from a scroll of iaggada /i,containing the words of the Sages, bon Shabbat. Andthey did so because bthey taught as follows:Since one cannot remember the Oral Law without writing it down, it is permitted to violate the ihalakha /i, as derived from the verse: b“It is time to work for the Lord; they have made void your Torah”(Psalms 119:126). bThey said it is better to uproota single ihalakhaof the bTorah,i.e., the prohibition of writing down the Oral Torah, bandthereby ensure bthat the Torah is not forgotten from the Jewish peopleentirely.,§ With regard to Rav Dimi’s differentiation between libations that come with an animal offering and libations that are sacrificed by themselves, bRav Pappa said: Now that you have saidthat blibations that come by themselves are sacrificed even at night,if one bhappenedto have blibationsof this kind bat night,they may be bconsecratedby placing them in a service vessel bat night andthey may be bsacrificedat night., bRav Yosef, son of Rav Shemaya, said to Rav Pappa:A ibaraita bis taught that supports youropinion. bThis is the principle: Anyoffering bthat is sacrificed in the day is consecratedby being placed in a service vessel bonly in the day; but anyoffering bthat is sacrificed at night is consecrated both in the day and at night. /b,With regard to the topic of libations sacrificed by themselves, bRav Adda bar Ahava says: And dawn disqualifies them, likethe ihalakhaof blimbsof offerings that have had their blood sprinkled during the day. Such limbs are left to burn on the altar all night long, but at dawn they are disqualified and may no longer be placed on the altar.,§ The Gemara returns to discuss the verse: “These you shall offer to the Lord in your appointed seasons, beside your vows, and your voluntary offerings, and your burnt offerings, and your meal offerings, and your libations, and your peace offerings” (Numbers 29:39). bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: “These you shall offer to the Lord in your appointed seasons,”i.e., btheseare the bobligatoryofferings bthat cometo be sacrificed as bobligatoryofferings bon the pilgrimage Festival,e.g., the burnt offerings of appearance, the Festival offerings, and the additional offerings.,The verse continues: b“Beside your vows and your voluntary offerings.”This bteaches with regard to vows and voluntary offerings that they are sacrificed on the intermediate days of a Festival. /b,The verse further states: b“And your burnt offerings.”The Gemara inquires: bWith regard to whatcase bis the verse speaking? Ifit is referring bto a vow burnt offering,the verse balready said: “Your vows.” And ifit is referring bto a voluntary burnt offering,the verse balready said: “Your voluntary offerings.” Consequently, it is speaking of nothing other than a burnt offering of a woman who gave birth,i.e., the lamb that she sacrifices on the forty-first day after giving birth to a son or the eighty-first day after giving birth to a daughter, band a burnt offering of a leper,which is the lamb that is sacrificed after a leper is purified. The verse teaches that these obligatory offerings may be sacrificed on the intermediate days of a Festival.,The verse continues: b“And your meal offerings.”The Gemara again asks: bWith regard to whatcase bis the verse speaking? Ifit is referring bto a meal offeringbrought in fulfillment of ba vow,the verse balready said:“Your vows.” bIfit is referring bto a voluntary meal offering,the verse balready said:“Your voluntary offerings.” bConsequently, it is speaking of nothing other thanthe bmeal offering of a isota /i, and thatis the bmeal offering of jealousy. /b,The verse further states: b“And your libations and your peace offerings.”The Torah here bjuxtaposes libations to peace offerings: Just as peace offeringsare sacrificed only bduring the day,not at night, bso too, libationsare sacrificed only bduring the day,not at night. Finally, the verse states: b“And your peace offerings.”This serves bto include the peace offering of a nazirite,which he brings at the completion of his term of naziriteship. This offering may also be sacrificed on the intermediate days of a Festival.,With regard to the last ihalakha /i, bAbaye said toRav Dimi, when he cited this statement in the name of Rabbi Yoḥa: bBut let the Master saythat the phrase “and your peace offerings” serves to include the bpeace offeringthat is brought together with ba Paschal offering.This offering is sacrificed on the fourteenth of Nisan by a large group of people when they will not receive enough meat from their Paschal offering to feed them all. The suggested derivation from the verse is that if a peace offering separated for this purpose was not sacrificed on the fourteenth of Nisan, it may be brought during the intermediate days of the Festival. Abaye further adds: It is more reasonable to include this peace offering, bas, ifthe verse is referring to bthe peace offering of a nazirite, it isalready included by the verse in the categories of offerings that are bvowed or contributedvoluntarily.,Abaye elaborates: bAs isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThis is the principle: Anyoffering bthat is vowed or contributedvoluntarily, e.g., a burnt offering or a peace offering, bis sacrificed on a private altar. Andany offering bthat is not vowed or contributedvoluntarily bmay not be sacrificed on a private altar. /b, bAnd we learnedin another ibaraita /i: bThe meal offerings and theofferings of ba nazirite are sacrificed on a private altar; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir.It is clear from these ibaraitotthat the peace offering of a nazirite belongs in the category of offerings that are vowed or contributed voluntarily. If so, there is no need for it to be included separately by the verse. Rav Dimi replied to Abaye: bDeletethe phrase: offering of ba nazirite from here,i.e., from the ibaraitathat considers it an offering that is vowed or contributed voluntarily. Only the nazirite vow itself is classified as voluntary; once the vow has been uttered, the ensuing offerings are obligatory.,The Gemara asks: bIs there one who said thatthe offering of ba nazirite is not vowed or contributedvoluntarily? bBut isn’t it written: “And it came to pass at the end of forty years, that Absalom said to the king: Please let me go and pay my vow, which I have vowed to the Lord, in Hebron. For your servant vowed a vowwhile I dwelled at Geshur in Aram, saying: If the Lord shall indeed bring me back to Jerusalem, then I will serve the Lord” (II Samuel 15:7–8). The Gemara explains the difficulty: bWhat, is it notthe case that Absalom asked his father for permission for him to go to Hebron btosacrifice ban offeringon a private altar?,The Gemara answers: bNo,Absalom did not go to Hebron to sacrifice his nazirite offerings. Rather, Absalom actually bsaid thathe undertook bthe principal vowto be a nazirite when he was in Hebron. The Gemara asks: bWas his principal vowto be a nazirite in fact uttered bin Hebron? But wasn’tthe vow made when Absalom was bin Geshur?After all, the verse states explicitly: “For your servant vowed a vow while I dwelled at Geshur.”, bRav Aḥa said, and some saythat it was bRabba bar Rav Ḥawho said: The verse means that bAbsalom went to Hebron onlyin order bto bring sheepspecifically from there. The Gemara adds that bthis also stands to reason, as, if you say thatAbsalom bwentto Hebron bto sacrificehis offering, would he have babandoned Jerusalem and gone to sacrifice in Hebron? /b,The Gemara rejects Rabba bar Rav Ḥa’s answer: bBut rather, whatis our explanation of the verse? That Absalom went bto bring sheep from Hebron?If so, bthisverse that states: “Please let me go and pay my vow, bwhich I have vowed to the Lord, in Hebron”(II Samuel 15:7), bshouldinstead bhavestated: Which I have vowed to the Lord bfrom Hebron. /b, bRather,the Gemara explains that bactuallyAbsalom did go to Hebron bto sacrificehis peace offering as a nazirite. bAnd thatwhich is bdifficult for you,i.e., bwhyAbsalom babandoned Jerusalem and sacrificedhis offering bin Hebron,should not pose a difficulty for you; rather, it is the question of why Absalom did not sacrifice his offering in bGibeonthat bshould pose a difficulty for you, asat that time the Tabernacle and the communal altar were in Gibeon, and bit was a sanctified place.Why, then, did Absalom go to Hebron rather than Gibeon? bRather, since theprivate baltars were permitted,he was permitted to bsacrifice wherever he wished,and he chose to go to Hebron. There was no reason for him to choose to go to Gibeon rather than any private altar.,The verse states that Absalom submitted his request to his father “at the end of forty years.” The Gemara asks: bForty years, according to whosecounting, i.e., forty years from when? It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Nehorai says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua:The verse is referring bto the end of forty yearsfrom bwhenthe Jewish people brequested for themselves a king,in the days of Samuel (see I Samuel, chapter 8). bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bthat year when they requested for themselves a king, that year was the tenthyear of the leadership bof Samuel. /b
11. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
akiva, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 223
apostate, apostasy Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 223
jew Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 223
moses Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 223
peshat Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 223
recital, recitation Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 223
sinai Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 223
torah, oral Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 223
torah study Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 223
yehoshua ben hananiah, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 223
yishmael, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 223
– governing rules of Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 223
– vs. midrash' Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 223