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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8646
Palestinian Talmud, Shabbat, 1.4
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1. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. Rabbi Judah said: Rabbi Ishmael put this question to Rabbi Joshua as they were walking on the way, “Why have they forbidden the cheese of non-Jews?” He replied, because they curdle it with the rennet of a nevelah (an animal that was not properly slaughtered.” He (Rabbi Ishmael) said: “but is not the rennet of a burnt-offering more strictly forbidden than the rennet of a nevelah? [and yet] it was said that a priest who is not fastidious may suck it out raw.” (Though the Sages disagreed with this opinion, and they said that no benefit may be derived from it, although one who consumed it did not trespass [temple property). Rabbi Joshua responded: “The reason then is because they curdle it with the rennet from calves sacrificed to idols.” He (Rabbi Ishmael) said to him: “if that be so, why do they not extend the prohibition to any benefit derived from it?” He (Rabbi Joshua) diverted him to another matter, saying: “Ishmael, how do you read for your [masc.] love is more delightful than wine” or “your [fem.] love etc. (Song of Songs 1:2” He replied: “your [fem.] love is better …” He said to him: this is not so, as it is proved by its fellow [-verse]: your ointments [masc.] have a goodly fragrance … [therefore do the maidens love you] (Song of Songs 1:3).”"
2. Mishnah, Avot, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. He used to say: The more flesh, the more worms; The more property, the more anxiety; The more wives, the more witchcraft; The more female slaves, the more lewdness; The more slaves, the more robbery; [But] the more Torah, the more life; The more sitting [in the company of scholars], the more wisdom; The more counsel, the more understanding; The more charity, the more peace. If one acquires a good name, he has acquired something for himself; If one acquires for himself knowledge of torah, he has acquired life in the world to come."
3. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 54.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

5. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 30.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

30.1. וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן (ויקרא כג, מ), רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא פָּתַח (משלי ח, י): קְחוּ מוּסָרִי וְאַל כָּסֶף, קְחוּ מוּסָרָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה וְאַל כָּסֶף, (ישעיה נה, ב): לָמָּה תִשְׁקְלוּ כֶסֶף בְּלוֹא לֶחֶם, לָמָּה אַתֶּם שׁוֹקְלִים כֶּסֶף לִבְנֵי עֵשָׂו בְּלוֹא לֶחֶם, עַל שֶׁלֹּא שְׂבַעְתֶּם מִלַּחְמָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה. (ישעיה נה, ב): וִיגִיעֲכֶם בְּלוֹא לְשָׂבְעָה, לָמָּה אַתֶּם יְגֵעִים וְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם שְׂבֵעִים, בְּלֹא לְשָׂבְעָה, עַל שֶׁלֹּא שְׂבַעְתֶּם מִיֵּינָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, דִּכְתִיב (משלי ט, ה): וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חִיָּא אֲבוֹי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן נְהוֹרָאי אָמַר, כְּתִיב (ירמיה ל, כ): וּפָקַדְתִּי עַל כָּל לֹחֲצָיו, אֲפִלּוּ עַל גַּבָּאֵי צְדָקָה, חוּץ מִשְּׂכַר סוֹפְרִים וּמַשְׁנִים, שֶׁאֵינָן נוֹטְלִין אֶלָּא שְׂכַר בַּטָּלָה בִּלְבָד, אֲבָל שְׂכַר דָּבָר אֶחָד מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵין כָּל בְּרִיָּה יְכוֹלָה לִתֵּן מַתַּן שְׂכָרָהּ. תָּנֵי מֵרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה נִקְצָצִין מְזוֹנוֹתָיו שֶׁל אָדָם חוּץ מִמַּה שֶּׁמּוֹצִיא בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים וְרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים וּמַה שֶּׁהַתִּינוֹקוֹת מוֹלִיכִים לְבֵית רַבָּן, אִם מוֹסִיף מוֹסִיפִים לוֹ אִם פּוֹחֵת פּוֹחֲתִין לוֹ. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֲוָה מְטַיֵּל, סָלֵק מִטְבֶרְיָא לְצִפּוֹרִין, וַהֲוָה רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא מִסְמַךְ לֵיהּ, מָטוֹן חַד בֵּית חֲקַל אֲמַר הָדֵין בֵּית חַקְלָא הֲוָה דִידִי וְזַבֵּינִית יָתֵיהּ בִּגְלַל לְמִזְכֵּי בְּאוֹרַיְתָא. מָטוֹן חַד דְּבֵית כַּרְמָא אֲמַר הָדֵין בֵּית כַּרְמָא דִידִי הֲוֵית וְזַבֵּינִית יָתֵיהּ בִּגְלַל לְמִזְכֵּי בְּאוֹרַיְתָא. מָטוֹן חַד דְּבֵית זֵיתָא, אֲמַר הָדֵין בֵּית זֵיתָא דִידִי הֲוָה וְזַבֵּינִית יָתֵיהּ בִּגְלַל לְמִזְכֵּי בְּאוֹרַיְתָא, שָׁרֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא בָּכֵי, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מָה אַתְּ בָּכֵי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ עַל דְּלָא שְׁבַקְתְּ לְסִיבוּתָךְ כְּלוּם. אָמַר לוֹ קַלָּה הִיא בְּעֵינֶיךָ מַה שֶּׁעָשִׂיתִי שֶׁמָּכַרְתִּי דָבָר שֶׁנִּבְרָא לְשִׁשָּׁה יָמִים וְקָנִיתִי דָּבָר שֶׁנִּתַּן לְאַרְבָּעִים יוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לד, כח): וַיְהִי שָׁם עִם ה' אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה, וּכְתִיב (דברים ט, ט): וָאֵשֵׁב בָּהָר אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה. כַּד דְּמַךְ רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֲוָה דּוֹרוֹ קוֹרֵא עָלָיו (שיר השירים ח, ז): אִם יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶת כָּל הוֹן בֵּיתוֹ בָּאַהֲבָה, שֶׁאָהַב רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, (דברים ט, ט): בּוֹז יָבוּזוּ לוֹ. כַּד דְּמַךְ רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אִישׁ טִירְיָא רָאוּ מִטָּתוֹ שֶׁפָּרְחָה בָּאֲוִיר, וְהָיָה דּוֹרוֹ קוֹרֵא עָלָיו (שיר השירים ח, ז): אִם יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶת כָּל הוֹן בֵּיתוֹ בָּאַהֲבָה, שֶׁאָהַב הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַבָּא הוֹשַׁעְיָא אִישׁ טִירְיָא, בּוֹז יָבוּזוּ לוֹ. כַּד דְּמַךְ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, הָיָה דּוֹרוֹ קוֹרֵא עָלָיו (שיר השירים ג, ו): מִי זֹאת עֹלָה מִן הַמִּדְבָּר כְּתִימְרוֹת עָשָׁן מְקֻטֶּרֶת מֹר וּלְבוֹנָה מִכֹּל אַבְקַת רוֹכֵל, מַהוּ מִכֹּל אַבְקַת רוֹכֵל, אֶלָּא דַהֲוָה קָרָיי וְתָנָיי וּפַּיְיטָן וְדַרְשָׁן. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא מִשְּׂכַר לְקִיחָה אַתָּה לָמֵד שְׂכַר לְקִיחָה, בְּמִצְרַיִם כְּתִיב (שמות יב, כב): וּלְקַחְתֶּם אֲגֻדַּת אֵזוֹב, בְּכַמָּה הֲוָת טִימְיָא דִּידֵיהּ בְּאַרְבָּעָה מִינֵי, וְהוּא גָּרַם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לִירַשׁ בִּזַּת הַיָּם, בִּזַּת סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג, בִּזַּת שְׁלשִׁים וְאֶחָד מְלָכִים. לוּלָב שֶׁעוֹמֵד עַל הָאָדָם בְּכַמָּה דָּמִים, וְכַמָּה מִצְווֹת יֵשׁ בּוֹ, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם: וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן. 30.1. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר, זֶה אַבְרָהָם שֶׁהִדְּרוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כד, א): וְאַבְרָהָם זָקֵן בָּא בַּיָּמִים, וּכְתִיב (ויקרא יט, לב): וְהָדַרְתָּ פְּנֵי זָקֵן. כַּפֹּת תְּמָרִים, זֶה יִצְחָק, שֶׁהָיָה כָּפוּת וְעָקוּד עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. וַעֲנַף עֵץ עָבֹת, זֶה יַעֲקֹב, מָה הֲדַס זֶה רָחוּשׁ בְּעָלִין, כָּךְ הָיָה יַעֲקֹב רָחוּשׁ בְּבָנִים. וְעַרְבֵי נָחַל, זֶה יוֹסֵף, מָה עֲרָבָה זוֹ כְּמוּשָׁה לִפְנֵי שְׁלשָׁה מִינִין הַלָּלוּ, כָּךְ מֵת יוֹסֵף לִפְנֵי אֶחָיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר, זוֹ שָׂרָה שֶׁהִדְּרָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יח, יא): וְאַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה זְקֵנִים. כַּפֹּת תְּמָרִים, זוֹ רִבְקָה, מַה תְּמָרָה זוֹ יֵשׁ בָּהּ אֹכֶל וְיֵשׁ בָּהּ עֳקָצִין, כָּךְ הֶעֱמִידָה רִבְקָה צַדִּיק וְרָשָׁע. וַעֲנַף עֵץ עָבֹת, זוֹ לֵאָה, מָה הֲדַס זֶה רָחוּשׁ בְּעָלִין, כָּךְ הָיְתָה לֵאָה רְחוּשָׁה בְּבָנִים. וְעַרְבֵי נָחַל, זוֹ רָחֵל, מָה עֲרָבָה זוֹ כְּמוּשָׁה לִפְנֵי שְׁלשֶׁת הַמִּינִין, כָּךְ רָחֵל מֵתָה לִפְנֵי אֲחוֹתָהּ.
6. Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, 1.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

7. Palestinian Talmud, Peah, 1.1, 2.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

33b. בימי רבי נשנית משנה זו שבקו כולא עלמא מתניתין ואזלו בתר גמרא הדר דרש להו ולעולם הוי רץ למשנה יותר מן הגמרא,מאי דרוש כדדריש רבי יהודה ברבי אלעאי מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו נח, א) הגד לעמי פשעם ולבית יעקב חטאתם,הגד לעמי פשעם אלו תלמידי חכמים ששגגות נעשות להם כזדונות ולבית יעקב חטאתם אלו עמי הארץ שזדונות נעשות להם כשגגות והיינו דתנן ר' יהודה אומר הוי זהיר בתלמוד ששגגת תלמוד עולה זדון,דרש ר' יהודה בר' אלעאי מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו סו, ה) שמעו דבר ה' החרדים אל דברו אלו תלמידי חכמים [אמרו] אחיכם אלו בעלי מקרא שנאיכם אלו בעלי משנה מנדיכם אלו עמי הארץ,שמא תאמר פסק סברם ובטל סיכוים ת"ל ונראה בשמחתכם שמא תאמר ישראל יבושו תלמוד לומר והם יבושו עובדי כוכבים יבושו וישראל ישמחו:, br br big strongהדרן עלך אלו מציאות /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongהמפקיד /strong /big אצל חבירו בהמה או כלים ונגנבו או שאבדו שילם ולא רצה לישבע שהרי אמרו שומר חנם נשבע ויוצא,נמצא הגנב משלם תשלומי כפל טבח ומכר משלם תשלומי ארבעה וחמשה למי משלם למי שהפקדון אצלו,נשבע ולא רצה לשלם נמצא הגנב משלם תשלומי כפל טבח ומכר משלם תשלומי ארבעה וחמשה למי משלם לבעל הפקדון:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big למה ליה למתני בהמה ולמה ליה למתני כלים,צריכי דאי תנא בהמה הוה אמינא בהמה הוא דמקני ליה כפילא משום דנפיש טירחה לעיולה ולאפוקה אבל כלים דלא נפיש טירחייהו אימא לא מקני ליה כפילא,ואי תנא כלים הוה אמינא כלים הוא דקמקני ליה כפילא משום דלא נפיש כפלייהו אבל בהמה דכי טבח ומכר משלם תשלומי ד' וה' אימא לא מקני ליה כפילא צריכא,מתקיף לה רמי בר חמא והא אין אדם מקנה דבר שלא בא לעולם ואפילו לר"מ דאמר אדם מקנה דבר שלא בא לעולם ה"מ כגון פירות דקל דעבידי דאתו,אבל הכא 33b. It was bduring the era of RabbiYehuda HaNasi that the beginning of bthis ibaraita /iextolling the study of Talmud bwas taught.The result was that beveryone abandonedstudy of the bMishna and pursuedthe study of bthe Talmud.It was bthenthat Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi btaughtthem: bAnd always pursuestudy bofthe bMishna more thanstudy of bthe Talmud,as without a firm basis in the fundamental ihalakhotof the Mishna, talmudic discourse is futile.,The Gemara asks: On the basis of bwhat homiletic interpretationdid the itannastate that there is no virtue greater than the study of Talmud? It bisjust bas Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Elai, interpreted homiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“Cry aloud, spare not, lift up your voice like a horn, and bdeclare to My people their transgression and to the house of Jacob their sins”(Isaiah 58:1)?,In the phrase b“declare to My people their transgression,” thesepeople bare the Torah scholars, whose unwittingtransgressions bbecome for them tantamount to intentionaltransgressions. Due to their erudition, they are held to a higher standard. b“And to the house of Jacob their sins,” these are the ignoramuses, whose intentionaltransgressions bbecome for them tantamount to unwittingtransgressions. Due to their lack of erudition, they are held to a lower standard. bAnd that isthe basis of that which bwe learnedin a mishna (Avot 4:13), that bRabbi Yehuda says: Be careful inthe study of bthe Talmud, asa transgression based on ban unwittingmisinterpretation of the bTalmud is considered an intentionaltransgression., bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Elai, interpreteda verse bhomiletically. Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“Hear the word of the Lord, you who tremble at His word: Your brothers that hate you, that ostracize you for My name’s sake, have said: Let the Lord be glorified, that we may gaze upon your joy, but they shall be ashamed” (Isaiah 66:5)? b“Hear the word of the Lord, you who tremble at His word,” these are Torah scholars; “your brothers…have said,” these are masters of the Bible,who are aware of their shortcomings and treat the Torah scholars with deference; b“that hate you,” these are masters of Mishna,who consider themselves the equals of Torah scholars and resent the fact that the Torah scholars do not treat them as equals; b“that ostracize you,” these are ignoramuses,who distance themselves with their actions from the Torah scholars., bLest you say,with regard to those groups who are not Torah scholars, that btheir hope has ceased and their chances are eliminated, the verse states: “That we may gaze upon your joy.”All of the Jewish people, including the groups listed above, will gaze upon the joy of the Torah scholars. bLest you say that the Jewish people will be ashamed, the verse states: “But they shall be ashamed,”meaning that bgentiles will be ashamed, but the Jewish people will be joyous. /b,, strongMISHNA: /strong In the case of bone who deposits an animal or vessels with another,who is acting as an unpaid bailee, band they were stolen or they were lost,and the bailee bpaidthe owner the value of the deposit, band did not wish to take an oaththat he did not misappropriate the item and that he was not negligent in safeguarding it, that will effect who keeps the deposit if it is found or returned. The bailee may also choose to take the oath, basthe Sages bsaid: An unpaid bailee takes an oath, and he isthereby breleasedfrom the liability to pay the owner.,If bthe thief islater bfound,the thief bpaysthe bdouble payment.If the deposited item was a sheep or an ox and the thief bslaughtered or soldit, bhe paysthe bfourfold or fivefold payment. To whom doesthe thief bpay?He gives the payment bto the one whohad bthe deposit in hispossession when it was stolen, i.e., the bailee. When the bailee paid the owner for the stolen item, the owner granted the rights to the item to the bailee. Therefore, the bailee is entitled to any payment the thief presents for the item, be it compensation for the item’s value or a fine.,In the case of a bailee who btook an oath and did not wish to pay,if bthe thief isthen bfoundand required to bpaythe bdouble payment,or if he bslaughtered or soldthe animal and is required to bpay the fourfold or fivefold payment, to whom doesthe thief bpay?He gives the payment bto the owner of the deposit,not the bailee., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWhy doesthe mishna need bto teachthe case of one who deposits ban animal, and why doesthe mishna need bto teachthe case of one who deposits bvessels?The mishna could have sufficed with a general ihalakhaabout one who deposits any item.,The Gemara explains: Both bare necessary, as, ifthe mishna btaughtonly the case of one who deposits ban animal, I would say:It bisonly with regard to ban animal thatthe owner agrees to btransferrights to bthe double paymentto the bailee when the bailee pays for the stolen item. This is bdue tothe fact bthat the exertionrequired to tend to the animal, bto bringthe animal bin and to take it out, is great.Consequently, when it becomes clear that the bailee was not responsible for the theft of the animal but nevertheless compensated the owner, the owner waives his rights to any compensation the thief will pay. bButin the case of bvessels, where the exertionthat is required to tend to the vessels bis not great, say thatthe owner bdoes not transferto the bailee rights to the bdouble payment. /b, bAnd hadthe mishna btaughtonly the case of one who deposits bvessels, I would say:It bisonly with regard to bvessels that the owner transfersrights to bthe double paymentto the bailee when the bailee pays for the lost item. This is bdue tothe fact bthat double payment,in btheircase, bis not substantial,as that is the maximum payment that he could receive. bButin the case of ban animal, where ifthe thief bslaughtered or soldit, bhe pays the fourfold or fivefold payment,which is substantial, bIwould bsay thatthe owner bdoes not transferthe rights to the bdouble paymentto the bailee. Therefore, both cases are bnecessary. /b, bRami bar Ḥama objects tothe fundamental reasoning. How can the owner of the deposit transfer rights to the double payment to the bailee? bBut isn’tthere a principle that bone cannot transferto another bownership of an entity that has notyet bcome into the world?Since the thief was not yet liable to pay the double payment when the bailee paid the owner for the item, there was no way to transfer rights to that payment to another person. bAnd even according to Rabbi Meir, who saysthat ba personcan btransferto another bownership of an entity that has notyet bcome into the world, that statementapplies to items bsuch as the fruits of a date palm, which are likely to comeinto being, as they grow on a regular basis., bBut here,where the transfer of rights to the payment is part of the initial agreement between the owner and the bailee, taking effect when the item is deposited
9. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27b. לא כנגד רבו ולא אחורי רבו,ותניא רבי אליעזר אומר המתפלל אחורי רבו והנותן שלום לרבו והמחזיר שלום לרבו והחולק על ישיבתו של רבו והאומר דבר שלא שמע מפי רבו גורם לשכינה שתסתלק מישראל,שאני רבי ירמיה בר אבא דתלמיד חבר הוה והיינו דקאמר ליה רבי ירמיה בר אבא לרב מי בדלת אמר ליה אין בדילנא ולא אמר מי בדיל מר,ומי בדיל והאמר רבי אבין פעם אחת התפלל רבי של שבת בערב שבת ונכנס למרחץ ויצא ושנה לן פרקין ועדיין לא חשכה אמר רבא ההוא דנכנס להזיע וקודם גזירה הוה,איני והא אביי שרא ליה לרב דימי בר ליואי לכברויי סלי,ההוא טעותא הואי,וטעותא מי הדרא והא אמר אבידן פעם אחת נתקשרו שמים בעבים כסבורים העם לומר חשכה הוא ונכנסו לבית הכנסת והתפללו של מוצאי שבת בשבת ונתפזרו העבים וזרחה החמה,ובאו ושאלו את רבי ואמר הואיל והתפללו התפללו שאני צבור דלא מטרחינן להו:,א"ר חייא בר אבין רב צלי של שבת בערב שבת רבי יאשיה מצלי של מוצאי שבת בשבת רב צלי של שבת בערב שבת אומר קדושה על הכוס או אינו אומר קדושה על הכוס ת"ש דאמר רב נחמן אמר שמואל מתפלל אדם של שבת בערב שבת ואומר קדושה על הכוס והלכתא כוותיה,רבי יאשיה מצלי של מוצאי שבת בשבת אומר הבדלה על הכוס או אינו אומר הבדלה על הכוס ת"ש דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מתפלל אדם של מוצאי שבת בשבת ואומר הבדלה על הכוס,אמר ר' זירא אמר רבי אסי אמר ר' אלעזר א"ר חנינא אמר רב בצד עמוד זה התפלל ר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי של שבת בערב שבת,כי אתא עולא אמר בצד תמרה הוה ולא בצד עמוד הוה ולא ר' ישמעאל ברבי יוסי הוה אלא ר' אלעזר בר' יוסי הוה ולא של שבת בערב שבת הוה אלא של מוצאי שבת בשבת הוה:,תפלת הערב אין לה קבע: מאי אין לה קבע אילימא דאי בעי מצלי כוליה ליליא ליתני תפלת הערב כל הלילה אלא מאי אין לה קבע,כמאן דאמר תפלת ערבית רשות דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל תפלת ערבית רבן גמליאל אומר חובה ר' יהושע אומר רשות אמר אביי הלכה כדברי האומר חובה ורבא אמר הלכה כדברי האומר רשות.,ת"ר מעשה בתלמיד אחד שבא לפני ר' יהושע א"ל תפלת ערבית רשות או חובה אמר ליה רשות,בא לפני רבן גמליאל א"ל תפלת ערבית רשות או חובה א"ל חובה א"ל והלא ר' יהושע אמר לי רשות א"ל המתן עד שיכנסו בעלי תריסין לבית המדרש,כשנכנסו בעלי תריסין עמד השואל ושאל תפלת ערבית רשות או חובה א"ל רבן גמליאל חובה אמר להם רבן גמליאל לחכמים כלום יש אדם שחולק בדבר זה אמר ליה ר' יהושע לאו א"ל והלא משמך אמרו לי רשות,אמר ליה יהושע עמוד על רגליך ויעידו בך עמד רבי יהושע על רגליו ואמר אלמלא אני חי והוא מת יכול החי להכחיש את המת ועכשיו שאני חי והוא חי היאך יכול החי להכחיש את החי,היה רבן גמליאל יושב ודורש ור' יהושע עומד על רגליו עד שרננו כל העם ואמרו לחוצפית התורגמן עמוד ועמד,אמרי עד כמה נצעריה וניזיל בר"ה אשתקד צעריה בבכורות במעשה דר' צדוק צעריה הכא נמי צעריה תא ונעבריה,מאן נוקים ליה נוקמיה לרבי יהושע בעל מעשה הוא נוקמיה לר' עקיבא דילמא עניש ליה דלית ליה זכות אבות,אלא נוקמיה לר' אלעזר בן עזריה דהוא חכם והוא עשיר והוא עשירי לעזרא הוא חכם דאי מקשי ליה מפרק ליה והוא עשיר דאי אית ליה לפלוחי לבי קיסר אף הוא אזל ופלח והוא עשירי לעזרא דאית ליה זכות אבות ולא מצי עניש ליה אתו ואמרו ליה ניחא ליה למר דליהוי ריש מתיבתא אמר להו איזיל ואימליך באינשי ביתי אזל ואמליך בדביתהו אמרה ליה 27b. directly bnext to his rabbi,presumptuously indicating that he is his rabbi’s equal, band behind his rabbias it creates the impression that he is bowing to him ( iTosafot /i)?, bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraita /i, in a more extreme manner, as bRabbi Eliezer says: One who prays behind his rabbi and one who greets his rabbiwithout waiting for his rabbi to greet him first, bone who returns his rabbi’s greetingwithout saying: Greetings to you, rabbi, bone who rivals his rabbi’s yeshiva,i.e., establishes a yeshiva of his own and teaches during his rabbi’s lifetime without his consent (Rambam), band one who says somethingin the name of his rabbi bwhich he did not hear directly from his rabbi, causes the Divine Presence to withdraw from Israel. /b,With regard to Rabbi Yirmeya’s conduct, the Gemara explains that bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba is different,as he was not a mere student of Rav. Rather, he bwas a disciple-colleagueand was, therefore, permitted to act that way. bAnd that is whyon one occasion, when Rav prayed the Shabbat prayer early, bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba asked him: Did you distance yourselffrom labor and accept the sanctity of Shabbat? bRav said to him: Yes, I distanced myself. AndRabbi Yirmeya bdid not say to him: Did the Master distance himself,as would have been appropriate had he merely been Rav’s student.,Although Rav replied that he distanced himself from labor, bdid heindeed need to bdistance himselffrom labor? bDidn’t Rabbi Avin say: Once RabbiYehuda HaNasi bprayedthe bShabbatprayer bon the eve of Shabbatbefore nightfall. bHethen bentered the bathhouse and emerged and taught us our chaptersthat we had learned, band it was not yet dark. Rava said: Thatis a case where he had benteredthe bathhouse bto perspire, and it was before theSages issued a bdecreeprohibiting perspiring in a bathhouse on Shabbat.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so,that he was required to refrain from labor? bDidn’t Abaye permit Rav Dimi bar Liva’ei to fumigate baskets with sulfureven though he had already recited the Shabbat prayer, indicating that it is permitted to perform labor even after the Shabbat prayer?,The Gemara responds: bThat was an error,as Rav Dimi did not intend to begin Shabbat early. It was a cloudy day and he mistakenly thought that the sun had set and that was why he prayed. Consequently, even though he prayed, the Shabbat prayer did not obligate him to conduct himself in accordance with the sanctity of Shabbat and he was allowed to perform labor even after his prayer.,The Gemara goes on to ask: bCan a mistake be reversed,enabling one to conduct himself as if he had not prayed? bDidn’t Avidan,a student of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, bsay: Once the sky became overcast,leading bthe people to think that it wasthe bdarkof night; bthey entered the synagogue and recited theevening bprayer of the conclusion of Shabbat on Shabbat. Andlater, bthe clouds cleared and the sun shone,indicating that it was still day., bAnd they came and asked RabbiYehuda HaNasi what they should do, band he said: Since they have prayed, they have prayed,and they need not pray again. Although they prayed erroneously, their mistake is not reversible and what was done remains. The Gemara responds: bA community is differentin bthat we do not burden themto pray again.,The Gemara continues to discuss the possibility of reciting the evening prayer early, even on Shabbat. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin said: Rav prayedthe bShabbatprayer bon the eve of Shabbatbefore nightfall. bRabbi Yoshiya would pray theevening bprayer of the conclusion of Shabbat on Shabbat.With regard to the fact that bRav prayedthe bShabbatprayer bon the eve of Shabbatbefore nightfall, the dilemma is raised: In those cases, did bhe recite ikiddushover the cupof wine, bor did he not recite ikiddushover the cupof wine before the stars emerged? bCome and heara resolution to this, as bRav Naḥman saidthat bShmuel said: One praysthe bShabbatprayer bon the eve of Shabbatbefore nightfall band recites ikiddushover the cupof wine. bAnd the ihalakhais in accordance with hisruling.,A similar dilemma was raised concerning the fact that bRabbi Yoshiya would pray theevening bprayer of the conclusion of Shabbat on Shabbat:After praying, while it is still Shabbat, bdoes he recite ihavdalaover the cupof wine bor does one not recite ihavdalaover the cupof wine? bCome and heara resolution to this, as bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: One prays theevening bprayer of the conclusion of Shabbat on Shabbat and recites ihavdalaover the cupof wine., bRabbi Zeira saidthat bRabbi Asi saidthat bRabbi Elazar saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina saidthat bRav said: Alongside thisspecific bpillarbefore me, bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, prayedthe bShabbatprayer bon the eve of Shabbatbefore nightfall., bBut when Ulla camefrom the Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he related a different version of this story. bHe saidthat he had heard: This transpired bbeside a palm tree, not beside a pillar, and it was not Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, butit was bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and it was notthe bShabbatprayer bon Shabbat evebefore nightfall, bratherit was the bprayer of the conclusion of Shabbat on Shabbat. /b,We learned in the mishna: bThe evening prayermay be recited throughout the night and bis not fixedto a specific hour. The Gemara asks: bWhat is the meaning of is not fixed? If you say that ifone bwishes, he may pray throughout the night,then bletthe mishna bteach: The evening prayermay be recited bthroughout the night. Rather, what isthe meaning of bnot fixed? /b,It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe one who said: The evening prayer is optional.As bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel saidwith regard to bthe evening prayer. Rabban Gamliel says:It is bobligatory. Rabbi Yehoshua says:It is boptional. Abaye said: The ihalakhais in accordance with the statement of the one who said:The evening prayer is bobligatory. Rava said: The ihalakhais in accordance with the statement of the one who said:The evening prayer is boptional. /b, bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving a student, who came before Rabbi Yehoshua.The student bsaid to him: Is the evening prayer optional or obligatory?Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: Optional. /b,The same student bcame before Rabban Gamliel and said to him: Is the evening prayer optional or obligatory?Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: Obligatory.The student bsaid toRabban Gamliel: bBut didn’t Rabbi Yehoshua tell methat the evening prayer is boptional?Rabban Gamliel bsaid tothe student: bWait until the “masters of the shields,”a reference to the Torah scholars who battle in the war of Torah, benter the study hall,at which point we will discuss this issue., bWhen the masters of the shields entered, the questioner stoodbefore everyone present band asked: Is the evening prayer optional or obligatory? Rabban Gamliel said to him: Obligatory.In order to ascertain whether or not Rabbi Yehoshua still maintained his opinion, bRabban Gamliel said tothe Sages: bIs there any person who disputes this matter? Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: No,no one disagrees. In deference to the iNasi /i, he did not wish to argue with him publicly ( iTziyyun LeNefesh Ḥayya /i). Rabban Gamliel bsaid toRabbi Yehoshua: bBut was it not in your name that they told methat the evening prayer is boptional? /b,Rabban Gamliel bsaid toRabbi Yehoshua: bYehoshua, stand on your feet and they will testify against you. Rabbi Yehoshua stood on his feet and said: If I were alive andthe student bwere dead, the living can contradict the dead,and I could deny issuing that ruling. bNow that I am alive and he is alive, how can the living contradict the living?I have no choice but to admit that I said it.,In the meantime, bRabban Gamliel,as the iNasi /i, bwas sitting and lecturing, and Rabbi Yehoshuaall the while bwas standing on his feet,because Rabban Gamliel did not instruct him to sit. He remained standing in deference to the iNasi /i. This continued for some time, buntilit aroused great resentment against Rabban Gamliel, and ball of the peopleassembled began bmurmuring and said to Ḥutzpit the disseminator: Stopconveying Rabban Gamliel’s lecture. bAnd he stopped. /b,The Gemara relates that in their murmuring bthey said: How long willRabban Gamliel bcontinue afflicting him? Last year on Rosh HaShana, he afflicted him;Rabban Gamliel ordered Rabbi Yehoshua to come to him carrying his staff and bag, on the day on which Yom Kippur occurred, according to Rabbi Yehoshua’s calculations. bRegarding the firstborn, in the incidentinvolving the question bof Rabbi Tzadok, he afflicted himjust as he did now, and forced him to remain standing as punishment for his failure to defend his differing opinion. bHere too, he is afflicting him. Let us remove himfrom his position as iNasi /i.,It was so agreed, but the question arose: bWho shall we establishin his place? Shall we bestablish Rabbi Yehoshuain his place? The Sages rejected that option because Rabbi Yehoshua bwas party to the incidentfor which Rabban Gamliel was deposed. Appointing him would be extremely upsetting for Rabban Gamliel. Shall we bestablish Rabbi Akivain his place? The Sages rejected that option because Rabbi Akiva, who descended from a family of converts, would be vulnerable. bPerhapsdue to Rabban Gamliel’s resentment he bwouldcause bhimto be divinely bpunished as he lacks the merit of his ancestorsto protect him., bRather,suggested the Sages, blet us establish Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryain his place, his outstanding characteristics set him apart from the other candidates. bHe is wise, rich, and a tenthgeneration descendant bof Ezra.The Gemara explains: bHe is wise, so ifRabban Gamliel raises a bchallengein matters of Torah, bhe will answer itand not be embarrassed. bAnd he is rich, so if the needarises bto pay homage to the Caesar’s courtand serve as a representative of Israel to lobby and negotiate, he has sufficient wealth to cover the costs of the long journeys, taxes, and gifts, so bhe too is able to go and pay homage. And he isa btenthgeneration descendant bof Ezra, so he has the merit of his ancestors, andRabban Gamliel bwill be unable tocause bhimto be bpunished. They came and said to him: Would the Master consent to being the Head of the Yeshiva? He said to them: I will go and consult with my household. He went and consulted with his wife. She said to him: /b
10. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. אמר ליה לא אמר ליה יהיבנא לך דמי פלגא דסעודתיך אמר ליה לא אמר ליה יהיבנא לך דמי כולה סעודתיך א"ל לא נקטיה בידיה ואוקמיה ואפקיה,אמר הואיל והוו יתבי רבנן ולא מחו ביה ש"מ קא ניחא להו איזיל איכול בהו קורצא בי מלכא אזל אמר ליה לקיסר מרדו בך יהודאי א"ל מי יימר א"ל שדר להו קורבנא חזית אי מקרבין ליה,אזל שדר בידיה עגלא תלתא בהדי דקאתי שדא ביה מומא בניב שפתים ואמרי לה בדוקין שבעין דוכתא דלדידן הוה מומא ולדידהו לאו מומא הוא,סבור רבנן לקרוביה משום שלום מלכות אמר להו רבי זכריה בן אבקולס יאמרו בעלי מומין קריבין לגבי מזבח סבור למיקטליה דלא ליזיל ולימא אמר להו רבי זכריה יאמרו מטיל מום בקדשים יהרג,אמר רבי יוחנן ענוותנותו של רבי זכריה בן אבקולס החריבה את ביתנו ושרפה את היכלנו והגליתנו מארצנו,שדר עלוייהו לנירון קיסר כי קאתי שדא גירא למזרח אתא נפל בירושלים למערב אתא נפל בירושלים לארבע רוחות השמים אתא נפל בירושלים,א"ל לינוקא פסוק לי פסוקיך אמר ליה (יחזקאל כה, יד) ונתתי את נקמתי באדום ביד עמי ישראל וגו' אמר קודשא בריך הוא בעי לחרובי ביתיה ובעי לכפורי ידיה בההוא גברא ערק ואזל ואיגייר ונפק מיניה ר"מ,שדריה עילוייהו לאספסיינוס קיסר אתא צר עלה תלת שני הוו בה הנהו תלתא עתירי נקדימון בן גוריון ובן כלבא שבוע ובן ציצית הכסת נקדימון בן גוריון שנקדה לו חמה בעבורו בן כלבא שבוע שכל הנכנס לביתו כשהוא רעב ככלב יוצא כשהוא שבע בן ציצית הכסת שהיתה ציצתו נגררת על גבי כסתות איכא דאמרי שהיתה כסתו מוטלת בין גדולי רומי,חד אמר להו אנא זיינא להו בחיטי ושערי וחד אמר להו בדחמרא ובדמלחא ומשחא וחד אמר להו בדציבי ושבחו רבנן לדציבי דרב חסדא כל אקלידי הוה מסר לשמעיה בר מדציבי דאמר רב חסדא אכלבא דחיטי בעי שיתין אכלבי דציבי הוה להו למיזן עשרים וחד שתא,הוו בהו הנהו בריוני אמרו להו רבנן ניפוק ונעביד שלמא בהדייהו לא שבקינהו אמרו להו ניפוק ונעביד קרבא בהדייהו אמרו להו רבנן לא מסתייעא מילתא קמו קלנהו להנהו אמברי דחיטי ושערי והוה כפנא,מרתא בת בייתוס עתירתא דירושלים הויא שדרתה לשלוחה ואמרה ליה זיל אייתי לי סמידא אדאזל איזדבן אתא אמר לה סמידא ליכא חיורתא איכא אמרה ליה זיל אייתי לי אדאזל איזדבן אתא ואמר לה חיורתא ליכא גושקרא איכא א"ל זיל אייתי לי אדאזל אזדבן אתא ואמר לה גושקרא ליכא קימחא דשערי איכא אמרה ליה זיל אייתי לי אדאזל איזדבן,הוה שליפא מסאנא אמרה איפוק ואחזי אי משכחנא מידי למיכל איתיב לה פרתא בכרעא ומתה,קרי עלה רבן יוחנן בן זכאי (דברים כח, נו) הרכה בך והענוגה אשר לא נסתה כף רגלה איכא דאמרי גרוגרות דר' צדוק אכלה ואיתניסא ומתה דר' צדוק יתיב ארבעין שנין בתעניתא דלא ליחרב ירושלים כי הוה אכיל מידי הוה מיתחזי מאבראי וכי הוה בריא מייתי ליה גרוגרות מייץ מייהו ושדי להו,כי הוה קא ניחא נפשה אפיקתה לכל דהבא וכספא שדיתיה בשוקא אמרה האי למאי מיבעי לי והיינו דכתיב (יחזקאל ז, יט) כספם בחוצות ישליכו,אבא סקרא ריש בריוני דירושלים בר אחתיה דרבן יוחנן בן זכאי הוה שלח ליה תא בצינעא לגבאי אתא א"ל עד אימת עבדיתו הכי וקטליתו ליה לעלמא בכפנא א"ל מאי איעביד דאי אמינא להו מידי קטלו לי א"ל חזי לי תקנתא לדידי דאיפוק אפשר דהוי הצלה פורתא,א"ל נקוט נפשך בקצירי וליתי כולי עלמא ולישיילו בך ואייתי מידי סריא ואגני גבך ולימרו דנח נפשך וליעיילו בך תלמידך ולא ליעול בך איניש אחרינא דלא לרגשן בך דקליל את דאינהו ידעי דחייא קליל ממיתא,עביד הכי נכנס בו רבי אליעזר מצד אחד ורבי יהושע מצד אחר כי מטו לפיתחא בעו למדקריה אמר להו יאמרו רבן דקרו בעו למדחפיה אמר להו יאמרו רבן דחפו פתחו ליה בבא נפק,כי מטא להתם אמר שלמא עלך מלכא שלמא עלך מלכא א"ל מיחייבת תרי קטלא חדא דלאו מלכא אנא וקא קרית לי מלכא ותו אי מלכא אנא עד האידנא אמאי לא אתית לגבאי א"ל דקאמרת לאו מלכא אנא 56a. The host bsaid to him: No,you must leave. Bar Kamtza bsaid to him: I will give you money for half of the feast;just do not send me away. The host bsaid to him: No,you must leave. Bar Kamtza then bsaid to him: I will give you money for the entire feast;just let me stay. The host bsaid to him: No,you must leave. Finally, the host btookbar Kamtza bby his hand, stood him up, and took him out. /b,After having been cast out from the feast, bar Kamtza bsaidto himself: bSince the Sages were sittingthere band did not protestthe actions of the host, although they saw how he humiliated me, blearn from it that they were contentwith what he did. bI willtherefore bgo and inform [ ieikhul kurtza /i] against them to the king. He wentand bsaid to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you.The emperor bsaid to him: Who saysthat this is the case? Bar Kamtza bsaid to him:Go and test them; bsend them an offeringto be brought in honor of the government, and bsee whether theywill bsacrifice it. /b,The emperor bwent and sent with hima choice bthree-year-old calf. Whilebar Kamtza bwas comingwith the calf to the Temple, bhe made a blemish onthe calf’s bupper lip. And some sayhe made the blemish bonits beyelids, a place where according to us,i.e., ihalakha /i, it bis a blemish, but according to them,gentile rules for their offerings, it bis not a blemish.Therefore, when bar Kamtza brought the animal to the Temple, the priests would not sacrifice it on the altar since it was blemished, but they also could not explain this satisfactorily to the gentile authorities, who did not consider it to be blemished.,The blemish notwithstanding, bthe Sages thought to sacrificethe animal as an offering bdue tothe imperative to maintain bpeacewith the bgovernment. Rabbi Zekharya ben Avkolas said to them:If the priests do that, people bwill saythat bblemishedanimals bmay be sacrificedas offerings bon the altar.The Sages said: If we do not sacrifice it, then we must prevent bar Kamtza from reporting this to the emperor. The Sages bthought to kill him so that he would not go and speakagainst them. bRabbi Zekharya said to them:If you kill him, people bwill saythat bone who makes a blemish on sacrificialanimals bis to be killed.As a result, they did nothing, bar Kamtza’s slander was accepted by the authorities, and consequently the war between the Jews and the Romans began., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Theexcessive bhumility of Rabbi Zekharya ben Avkolas destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land. /b,The Roman authorities then bsent Nero Caesar againstthe Jews. bWhen he cameto Jerusalem, he wished to test his fate. bHe shot an arrow to the eastand the arrow bcameand bfell in Jerusalem.He then shot another arrow bto the westand bitalso bfell in Jerusalem.He shot an arrow binall bfour directions of the heavens,and each time the arrow bfell in Jerusalem. /b,Nero then conducted another test: bHe said to a child: Tell me a versethat you learned today. bHe said to himas follows: b“And I will lay My vengeance upon Edom by the hand of My people Israel”(Ezekiel 25:14). Nero bsaid: The Holy One, Blessed be He, wishes to destroy His Temple, and He wishes to wipe his hands with that man,i.e., with me. The Romans are associated with Edom, the descendants of Esau. If I continue on this mission, I will eventually be punished for having served as God’s agent to bring about the destruction. So bhe fledand bbecame a convert, andultimately bRabbi Meir descended from him. /b,The Roman authorities then bsent Vespasian Caesar againstthe Jews. bHe cameand blaid siegeto Jerusalem for bthree years. There wereat that time binJerusalem bthese three wealthy people: Nakdimon ben Guryon, ben Kalba Savua, and ben Tzitzit HaKesat.The Gemara explains their names: bNakdimon ben Guryonwas called by that name bbecause the sun shined [ inakad /i] on his behalf,as it is related elsewhere (see iTa’anit19b) that the sun once continued to shine in order to prevent him from suffering a substantial loss. bBen Kalba Savuawas called this bbecause anyone who entered his house when he was hungry as a dog [ ikelev /i] would leave satiated [ isave’a /i]. Ben Tzitzit HaKesatwas referred to by that name because bhis ritual fringes [ itzitzit /i] draggedalong bon blankets [ ikeset /i],meaning that he would not walk in the street with his feet on the ground, but rather they would place blankets beneath him. bThere arethose bwho say that his seat [ ikiseh /i] was found among the nobles of Rome,meaning that he would sit among them.,These three wealthy people offered their assistance. bOneof them bsaid tothe leaders of the city: bI will feedthe residents bwith wheat and barley. And oneof them bsaid toleaders of the city: I will provide the residents bwith wine, salt, and oil. And oneof them bsaid tothe leaders of the city: I will supply the residents bwith wood.The Gemara comments: bAnd the Sages gavespecial bpraise to hewho gave the bwood,since this was an especially expensive gift. bAs Rav Ḥisda would give all of the keys [ iaklidei /i] to his servant, exceptfor the key btohis shed bforstoring bwood,which he deemed the most important of them all. bAs Rav Ḥisda said: One storehouse [ iakhleva /i] of wheat requires sixty storehouses of woodfor cooking and baking fuel. These three wealthy men bhadbetween them enough commodities bto sustainthe besieged bfor twenty-one years. /b, bThere were certain zealots amongthe people of Jerusalem. bThe Sages said to them: Let us go out and make peace withthe Romans. But the zealots bdid not allow themto do this. The zealots bsaid tothe Sages: bLet us go out and engage in battle againstthe Romans. But bthe Sages said to them: You will not be successful.It would be better for you to wait until the siege is broken. In order to force the residents of the city to engage in battle, the zealots barose and burneddown bthese storehouses [ iambarei /i] of wheat and barley, and there wasa general bfamine. /b,With regard to this famine it is related that bMarta bat Baitos wasone of the bwealthy women of Jerusalem. She sentout bher agent and said to him: Go bring me fine flour [ isemida /i]. By the time he went,the fine flour bwasalready bsold. He cameand bsaid to her: There is no fine flour,but bthere isordinary bflour. She said to him: Gothen and bbring meordinary flour. bBy the time he went,the ordinary flour bwasalso bsold. He came and said to her: There is noordinary bflour,but bthere is coarse flour [ igushkera /i]. She said to him: Gothen and bbring mecoarse flour. bBy the time he went,the coarse flour bwasalready bsold. He came and said to her: There is no coarse flour,but bthere is barley flour. She said to him: Gothen and bbring mebarley flour. But once again, bby the time he went,the barley flour bwasalso bsold. /b, bShe hadjust bremoved her shoes,but bshe said: I will go outmyself band see if I can find something to eat.She stepped on some bdung,which bstuck to her foot, and,overcome by disgust, bshe died. /b, bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai read concerning hera verse found in the section of the Torah listing the curses that will befall Israel: b“The tender and delicate woman among you who would not adventure to set the sole of her footupon the ground” (Deuteronomy 28:56). bThere arethose bwho saythat she did not step on dung, but rather bshe ate a fig of Rabbi Tzadok, and became disgusted and died.What are these figs? bRabbi Tzadok observed fastsfor bforty years,praying bthat Jerusalem would not be destroyed.He became so emaciated from fasting bthat when he would eat something it was visible from the outsideof his body. bAnd when he would eatafter a fast bthey would bring him figsand bhe would suck out their liquid and castthe rest baway.It was one such fig that Marta bat Baitos found and that caused her death.,It is further related that bas she was dying, she took out all ofher bgold and silverand bthrew it in the marketplace. She said: Why do I need this? And this is as it is written: “They shall cast their silver in the streetsand their gold shall be as an impure thing; their silver and their gold shall not be able to deliver them in the day of the wrath of the Lord; they shall not satisfy their souls, neither fill their bowels” (Ezekiel 7:19).,§ The Gemara relates: bAbba Sikkara was the leader of the zealots [ ibiryonei /i] of Jerusalemand bthe son of the sister of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai.Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsenta message bto him: Come to me in secret. He came,and Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Until when will you do this and kill everyone through starvation?Abba Sikkara bsaid to him: What can I do, for if I say something to them they will kill me.Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Show me a methodso bthat I willbe able to bleavethe city, and it is bpossible thatthrough this bthere will besome bsmall salvation. /b,Abba Sikkara bsaid to him:This is what you should do: bPretend to be sick, and have everyone come and askabout your welfare, so that word will spread about your ailing condition. Afterward bbring something putrid and place it near you, so thatpeople bwill say that you have diedand are decomposing. bAndthen, bhave your students enterto bring you to burial, band let no one else come in so thatthe zealots bnot notice that you arestill blight. Asthe zealots bknow that a livingperson bis lighter than a deadperson.,Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bdid this. Rabbi Eliezer entered from one side and Rabbi Yehoshua from the other sideto take him out. bWhen they arrived at the entranceof the city on the inside, the guards, who were of the faction of the zealots, bwanted to pierce himwith their swords in order to ascertain that he was actually dead, as was the common practice. Abba Sikkara bsaid to them:The Romans bwill saythat bthey pierceeven btheir teacher.The guards then bwantedat least bto push himto see whether he was still alive, in which case he would cry out on account of the pushing. Abba Sikkara bsaid to them: They will saythat bthey pusheven btheir teacher.The guards then bopened the gateand bhe was taken out. /b, bWhenRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai breached there,i.e., the Roman camp, bhe said: Greetings to you, the king; greetings to you, the king.Vespasian bsaid to him: You are liable for two death penalties, onebecause bI am not a king andyet byou call me king, and furthermore, if I am a king, why didn’t you come to me until now?Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him:As for bwhat you saidabout yourself: bI am not a king, /b
11. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15b. בפרוזבוטי אמר רב פפא וקרו ליה עבדא דמזדבן בטלמי,וכל זה איננו שוה לי מלמד שכל גנזיו של אותו רשע חקוקין על לבו ובשעה שרואה את מרדכי יושב בשער המלך אמר כל זה איננו שוה לי,ואמר ר' אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא עתיד הקב"ה להיות עטרה בראש כל צדיק וצדיק שנאמר (ישעיהו כח, ה) ביום ההוא יהיה ה' צבאות לעטרת צבי [וגו'] מאי לעטרת צבי ולצפירת תפארה לעושין צביונו ולמצפין תפארתו יכול לכל ת"ל לשאר עמו למי שמשים עצמו כשירים,ולרוח משפט זה הדן את יצרו וליושב על המשפט זה הדן דין אמת לאמתו ולגבורה זה המתגבר על יצרו משיבי מלחמה שנושאין ונותנין במלחמתה של תורה שערה [אלו ת"ח] שמשכימין ומעריבין בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות,אמרה מדת הדין לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם מה נשתנו אלו מאלו אמר לה הקדוש ברוך הוא ישראל עסקו בתורה אומות העולם לא עסקו בתורה,אמר ליה גם אלה ביין שגו ובשכר תעו פקו פליליה אין פקו אלא גיהנם שנאמר (שמואל א כה, לא) ולא תהיה זאת לך לפוקה ואין פליליה אלא דיינין שנאמר (שמות כא, כב) ונתן בפלילים,ותעמד בחצר בית המלך הפנימית א"ר לוי כיון שהגיעה לבית הצלמים נסתלקה הימנה שכינה אמרה (תהלים כב, ב) אלי אלי למה עזבתני שמא אתה דן על שוגג כמזיד ועל אונס כרצון,או שמא על שקראתיו כלב שנאמר (תהלים כב, כא) הצילה מחרב נפשי מיד כלב יחידתי חזרה וקראתו אריה שנאמר (תהלים כב, כב) הושיעני מפי אריה,ויהי כראות המלך את אסתר המלכה אמר רבי יוחנן ג' מלאכי השרת נזדמנו לה באותה שעה אחד שהגביה את צוארה ואחד שמשך חוט של חסד עליה ואחד שמתח את השרביט,וכמה אמר רבי ירמיה שתי אמות היה והעמידו על שתים עשרה ואמרי לה על שש עשרה ואמרי לה על עשרים וארבע במתניתא תנא על ששים וכן אתה מוצא באמתה של בת פרעה וכן אתה מוצא בשיני רשעים דכתיב (תהלים ג, ח) שיני רשעים שברת ואמר ריש לקיש אל תקרי שברת אלא שריבבת רבה בר עופרן אמר משום ר"א ששמע מרבו ורבו מרבו מאתים,ויאמר לה המלך לאסתר המלכה מה בקשתך עד חצי המלכות ותעש חצי המלכות ולא כל המלכות ולא דבר שחוצץ למלכות ומאי ניהו בנין בית המקדש,יבא המלך והמן אל המשתה ת"ר מה ראתה אסתר שזימנה את המן ר"א אומר פחים טמנה לו שנאמר (תהלים סט, כג) יהי שלחנם לפניהם לפח,ר' יהושע אומר מבית אביה למדה שנאמר (משלי כה, כא) אם רעב שונאך האכילהו לחם וגו' ר"מ אומר כדי שלא יטול עצה וימרוד,ר' יהודה אומר כדי שלא יכירו בה שהיא יהודית ר' נחמיה אומר כדי שלא יאמרו ישראל אחות יש לנו בבית המלך ויסיחו דעתן מן הרחמים ר' יוסי אומר כדי שיהא מצוי לה בכל עת ר"ש בן מנסיא אומר אולי ירגיש המקום ויעשה לנו נס,רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר אסביר לו פנים כדי שיהרג הוא והיא רבן גמליאל אומר מלך הפכפכן היה אמר רבי גמליאל עדיין צריכין אנו למודעי דתניא ר' אליעזר המודעי אומר קנאתו במלך קנאתו בשרים,רבה אמר (משלי טז, יח) לפני שבר גאון אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו (ירמיהו נא, לט) בחומם אשית את משתיהם וגו' אשכחיה רבה בר אבוה לאליהו א"ל כמאן חזיא אסתר ועבדא הכי א"ל ככולהו תנאי וככולהו אמוראי,ויספר להם המן את כבוד עשרו ורוב בניו וכמה רוב בניו אמר רב ל' עשרה מתו ועשרה נתלו ועשרה מחזרין על הפתחים,ורבנן אמרי אותן שמחזרין על הפתחים שבעים הויא דכתיב (שמואל א ב, ה) שבעים בלחם נשכרו אל תקרי שבעים אלא שבעים,ורמי בר אבא אמר כולן מאתים ושמונה הוו שנאמר ורוב בניו ורוב בגימטריא מאתן וארביסר הוו אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק ורב כתיב,בלילה ההוא נדדה שנת המלך אמר רבי תנחום נדדה שנת מלכו של עולם ורבנן אמרי נדדו עליונים נדדו תחתונים רבא אמר שנת המלך אחשורוש ממש,נפלה ליה מילתא בדעתיה אמר מאי דקמן דזמינתיה אסתר להמן דלמא עצה קא שקלי עילויה דההוא גברא למקטליה הדר אמר אי הכי לא הוה גברא דרחים לי דהוה מודע לי הדר אמר דלמא איכא איניש דעבד בי טיבותא ולא פרעתיה משום הכי מימנעי אינשי ולא מגלו לי מיד ויאמר להביא את ספר הזכרונות דברי הימים,ויהיו נקראים מלמד שנקראים מאיליהן וימצא כתוב כתב מבעי ליה מלמד 15b. basone with the heritage of ba poor man [ iperozeboti /i],as Mordecai had been Haman’s slave master and was aware of Haman’s lowly lineage. bRav Pappa said: And he was called: The slave who was sold fora loaf of bbread. /b,Haman’s previously quoted statement: b“Yet all this avails me nothing”(Esther 5:13), bteaches that all the treasures of that wicked one were engraved on his heart, and when he saw Mordecai sitting at the king’s gate, he said:As long as Mordecai is around, ball thisthat I wear on my heart bavails me nothing. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazarfurther bsaidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will be a crown on the head of each and every righteous man. As it is stated: “In that day shall the Lord of hosts be for a crown of glory,and for a diadem of beauty, to the residue of His people” (Isaiah 28:5). bWhat isthe meaning of b“for a crown of glory [ itzevi /i], and for a diadem [ ivelitzefirat /i] of beauty”?A crown bfor those that do His will [ itzivyono /i] anda diadem bfor those that await [ ivelamtzapin /i] His glory.One bmighthave thought that this extends bto allsuch individuals. Therefore, bthe verse states: “To the residue of his people,” to whoever regards himself as a remainder,i.e., small and unimportant like residue. But whoever holds himself in high esteem will not merit this.,Apropos the quotation from Isaiah, the Gemara explains the following verse, which states: “And for a spirit of justice to him that sits in judgment and for strength to them that turn back the battle to the gate” (Isaiah 28:6). b“And for a spirit of justice”; thisis referring to bone who brings hisevil binclination to trialand forces himself to repent. b“To him that sits in judgment”; thisis referring to bone who judges an absolutely true judgment. “And for strength”; thisis referring to bone who triumphs over hisevil binclination. “Them that turn back the battle”;this is referring to those bthat give and takein their discussion of ihalakha bin the battle ofunderstanding bthe Torah. “To the gate”;this is referring to bthe Torah scholars who arrive early and stay lateat the darkened gates bof the synagogues and study halls. /b,The Gemara continues with an episode associated with a verse in Isaiah. bThe Attribute of Justice said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, how are these,referring to the Jewish people, bdifferent from those,the other nations of the world, such that God performs miracles only on behalf of the Jewish people? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toit: bThe Jewish people occupied themselves with Torah,whereas btheother bnations of the world did not occupy themselves with Torah. /b,The Attribute of Justice bsaid to Him: “These also reel through wine, and stagger through strong drink;the priest and the prophet reel through strong drink, they are confused because of wine, they stagger because of strong drink; they reel in vision, bthey stumble [ ipaku /i] in judgment [ ipeliliyya /i]”(Isaiah 28:7). The word ipaku /iin this context is referring bonly to Gehenna, as it is stated: “That this shall not be a cause of stumbling [ ipuka /i] to you”(I Samuel 25:31), bandthe word ipeliliyya /ihere is referring bonly to judges, as it is stated: “And he shall pay as the judges determine [ ibifelilim /i]”(Exodus 21:22). The response of the Attribute of Justice was essentially that the Jewish people have also sinned and are consequently liable to receive punishment.,§ The Gemara returns to its explanation of the verses of the Megilla. The verse states with regard to Esther: b“And she stood in the inner court of the king’s house”(Esther 5:1). bRabbi Levi said: Once she reached the chamber of the idols,which was in the inner court, bthe Divine Presence left her. Sheimmediately bsaid: “My God, my God, why have You forsaken me?”(Psalms 22:2). bPerhapsit is because bYou judge an unintentional sin as oneperformed bintentionally, andan action bdone due tocircumstances bbeyond one’s control asone done bwillingly. /b, bOr perhapsYou have left me bbecausein my prayers bI calledHaman ba dog, as it is stated: “Deliver my soul from the sword; my only one from the hand of the dog”(Psalms 22:21). bSheat once bretracted and called himin her prayers ba lion, as it is statedin the following verse: b“Save me from the lion’s mouth”(Psalms 22:22).,The verse states: b“And so it was, that when the king saw Esther the queenstanding in the court, that she obtained favor in his sight; and the king held out to Esther the golden scepter that was in his hand” (Esther 5:2). bRabbi Yoḥa said: Three ministering angels happened to join her at that time: One that raised up her neck,so that she could stand erect, free of shame; bone that strung a cordof divine bgrace around her,endowing her with charm and beauty; band one that stretched theking’s bscepter. /b, bHow muchwas it stretched? bRabbi Yirmeya said:The scepter bwas two cubits, and he made it twelvecubits. bAnd some saythat he made it bsixteencubits, bandyet bothers say twenty-fourcubits. bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i:He made it bsixtycubits. bAnd similarly you find with the arm of Pharaoh’s daughter,which she stretched out to take Moshe. bAnd so too, you find with the teeth of the wicked, as it is written: “You have broken the teeth of the wicked”(Psalms 3:8), with regard to which bReish Lakish said: Do not readit as b“You have broken [ ishibbarta /i],” butas: bYou have enlarged [ isheribavta /i]. Rabba bar oferan said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, who heard it from his teacher, whoin turn heard it bfrom his teacher:The scepter was stretched btwo hundredcubits.,The verse states: b“Then the king said to her” (Esther 5:3), to Esther the queen, “What is your wish, even to half the kingdom, it shall be performed”(Esther 5:6). The Gemara comments that Ahasuerus intended only a limited offer: Only bhalf the kingdom, but not the whole kingdom, and not something that would serve as a barrier to the kingdom,as there is one thing to which the kingdom will never agree. bAnd what is that? The building of the Temple;if that shall be your wish, realize that it will not be fulfilled.,The verse states that Esther requested: “If it seem good unto the king, blet the king and Haman come this day to the banquetthat I have prepared for him” (Esther 5:4). bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhat did Esther see to invite Hamanto the banquet? bRabbi Elazar says: She hid a snare for him, as it is stated: “Let their table become a snare before them”(Psalms 69:23), as she assumed that she would be able to trip up Haman during the banquet., bRabbi Yehoshua says: She learnedto do bthis fromthe Jewish teachings of bher father’s house, as it is stated: “If your enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat”(Proverbs 25:21). bRabbi Meir says:She invited him bin orderthat he be near her at all times, bso that he would not take counsel and rebelagainst Ahasuerus when he discovered that the king was angry with him., bRabbi Yehuda says:She invited Haman bso that it not be found out that she was a Jew,as had she distanced him, he would have become suspicious. bRabbi Neḥemya says:She did this bso that the Jewish people would not say: We have a sister in the king’s house, andconsequently bneglect theirprayers for divine bmercy. Rabbi Yosei says:She acted in this manner, bso thatHaman would balways be on hand for her,as that would enable her to find an opportunity to cause him to stumble before the king. bRabbi Shimon ben Menasya saidthat Esther said to herself: bPerhaps the Omnipresent will take noticethat all are supporting Haman and nobody is supporting the Jewish people, band He will perform for us a miracle. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says:She said to herself: bI will act kindly toward himand thereby bring the king to suspect that we are having an affair; she did so bin order thatboth bhe and she would be killed.Essentially, Esther was willing to be killed with Haman in order that the decree would be annulled. bRabban Gamliel says:Ahasuerus bwas a fickle king,and Esther hoped that if he saw Haman on multiple occasions, eventually he would change his opinion of him. bRabban Gamliel said: We still needthe words of Rabbi Eliezer bHaModa’ito understand why Esther invited Haman to her banquet. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer HaModa’i says: She made the king jealous of him and she made theother bministers jealous of him,and in this way she brought about his downfall., bRabba says:Esther invited Haman to her banquet in order to fulfill that which is stated: b“Pride goes before destruction”(Proverbs 16:18), which indicates that in order to destroy the wicked, one must first bring them to pride. It can be understood according to bAbaye and Rava, who both saythat she invited Haman in order to fulfill the verse: b“When they are heated, I will make feasts for them,and I will make them drunk, that they may rejoice, and sleep a perpetual sleep” (Jeremiah 51:39). The Gemara relates that bRabba bar Avuhonce bhappened upon Elijahthe Prophet and bsaid to him: In accordance with whose understanding did Esther seefit to bact in this manner?What was the true reason behind her invitation? bHe,Elijah, bsaid to him:Esther was motivated by all the reasons previously mentioned and did so bfor allthe reasons previously stated by bthe itanna’imand allthe reasons stated by bthe iamora’im /i. /b,The verse states: b“And Haman recounted to them the glory of his riches, and the multitude of his sons”(Esther 5:11). The Gemara asks: bAnd how manysons did he in fact have that are referred to as b“the multitude of his sons”? Rav said:There were bthirtysons; btenof them bdiedin childhood, bten of them were hangedas recorded in the book of Esther, band tensurvived and were forced to bbeg atother people’s bdoors. /b, bAnd the Rabbis say: Those that begged atother people’s bdoorsnumbered bseventy, as it is written: “Those that were full, have hired themselves out for bread”(I Samuel 2:5). bDo not read it as: “Those that were full” [ iseve’im/b]; brather,read it as bseventy [ ishivim /i],indicating that there were seventy who “hired themselves out for bread.”, bAnd Rami bar Abba said: All ofHaman’s sons together numbered btwo hundred and eight, as it is stated: “And the multitude [ iverov /i] of his sons.”The numerical value of the word iverovequals two hundred and eight, alluding to the number of his sons. The Gemara comments: bButin fact, bthe numerical value [ igimatriyya /i] ofthe word iverovequals two hundred and fourteen,not two hundred and eight. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The word iverovis writtenin the Bible without the second ivav /i, and therefore its numerical value equals two hundred and eight.,The verse states: b“On that night the sleep of the king was disturbed”(Esther 6:1). bRabbi Tanḥum said:The verse alludes to another king who could not sleep; bthe sleep of the King of the universe,the Holy One, Blessed be He, bwas disturbed. And the Sages say:The sleep of bthe higher ones,the angels, bwas disturbed, andthe sleep of bthe lower ones,the Jewish people, bwas disturbed. Rava said:This should be understood bliterally: The sleep of King Ahasueruswas disturbed.,And this was the reason Ahasuerus could not sleep: bA thought occurred to himand bhe saidto himself: bWhat is this before us that Esther has invited Haman? Perhaps they are conspiring against that man,i.e., against me, bto kill him. Hethen bsaid againto himself: bIf this is so, is there no man who loves me and would inform meof this conspiracy? bHethen bsaid againto himself: bPerhaps there is some man who has done a favor for me and I have notproperly brewarded him, and due to thatreason bpeople refrain from revealing to meinformation regarding such plots, as they see no benefit for themselves. bImmediatelyafterward, the verse states: b“And he commanded the book of remembrances of the chronicles to be brought”(Esther 6:1).,The verse states: b“And they were readbefore the king” (Esther 6:1). The Gemara explains that bthispassive form: “And they were read,” bteaches that they were readmiraculously bby themselves.It further says: b“And it was found written [ ikatuv /i]”(Esther 6:2). The Gemara asks: Why does the Megilla use the word ikatuv /i, which indicates that it was newly written? bIt should have said: A writing [ iketav /i]was found, which would indicate that it had been written in the past. The Gemara explains: This bteaches /b
12. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

99b. btheapparent bdereliction ofthe study of bTorah is its foundation,e.g., if one breaks off his studies in order to participate in a funeral or a wedding procession. This is derived from a verse, bas it is written:“And the Lord said to Moses: Hew for yourself two tablets of stone like the first, and I will write upon the tablets the words that were on the first tablets, bwhich [ iasher /i] you broke”(Exodus 34:1). The word “ iasher /i” is an allusion to the fact that that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Your strength is true [ iyishar koḥakha /i]in bthat you brokethe tablets, as the breaking of the first tablets led to the foundation of the Torah through the giving of the second tablets., bAnd Reish Lakish says:With regard to ba Torah scholar who sinned, he is not disgraced in public, as it is stated: “Therefore, you shall stumble in the day, and the prophet also shall stumble with you in the night”(Hosea 4:5). One can derive from the verse that if a prophet or any other Torah scholar stumbles and sins, one bshould concealhis offense blike the nightand not punish him in public., bAnd Reish Lakish says: Anyone who causes himself to forgeteven bone matter from his studies violates a prohibition, as it is statedwith regard to the receiving of the Torah on Mount Sinai: “Only bobserve for yourself, and guard your soul diligently, lest you forget the mattersthat your eyes saw, and lest they depart from your heart all the days of your life, but you should make them known to your children and to your children’s children” (Deuteronomy 4:9). bAndthis is bin accordance withthe principle that bRabbi Avinsays that bRabbi Ile’a says, as Rabbi Avin saysthat bRabbi Ile’a says: Wherever it is stated: Observe,or: bLest, or: Do not, it is nothing other than a prohibition. /b, bRavina says:One who forgets his studies violates two prohibitions, as the verse uses both the term b“observe” andthe term b“lest,”and bthese are two prohibitions. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says:He violates bthree prohibitions, as it is stated:“Only bobserve for yourself, and guard your soul diligently, lest you forget the mattersthat your eyes saw.” The term “Guard your soul” is derived from the same root as “observe” and is considered an additional prohibition.,The Gemara qualifies this statement: One bmighthave thought this applies bevento one who forgot his Torah knowledge bdue tocircumstances bbeyond his control.Therefore, bthe verse states: “And lest they depart from your heart.”This indicates that bthe verse is speaking of one whowillingly bcauses them to depart from his heart. Rabbi Dostai, son of Rabbi Yannai, says:One bmighthave thought that this applies bevenif bhis studies weretoo bhard for himto remember. Therefore, bthe verse states: “Only,”which excludes one who is unable to recall his studies., bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say:The bTorah was given in fortydays, when Moses ascended to Mount Sinai to receive it, bandsimilarly the bsoulof man bis formed in fortydays, as the formation of the fetus in the womb takes forty days from the time of conception. This teaches that banyone who preserves his Torahstudies, bhis soul islikewise bpreserved, and anyone who does not preserve his Torahstudies, bhis soul is not preservedeither., bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:This can be illustrated by ba parable,as it is comparable bto a person who delivered a sparrow to his slavefor safekeeping, and bsaidto him: bAre you under the impression that if you lose it I will take from you an iissar /i,a small coin, bwhich is the valueof the bird? It is not so; bI will take your soul from youas punishment, meaning I will kill you. Similarly, one who fails to preserve the Torah entrusted to him will be severely punished., strongMISHNA: /strong bThere were two tables in the Entrance Hall, on the insideof the Entrance Hall, next bto the entrance to the Temple,i.e., next to the entrance to the Sanctuary. bOnewas bof marble and onewas bof gold. Onthe table bof marble,the priests bplace thenew bshewbreadthat has been baked, bbefore its entranceinto the Sanctuary, so that the loaves may cool a little from the heat of the oven and not spoil. bAndwhen the old shewbread is removed from the shewbread Table it is placed bonthe table bof gold upon its exitfrom the Sanctuary, where it remains until the frankincense is burned on the altar.,The reason the shewbread is placed on a gold table when it is removed, rather than on a marble or silver table, is bthat one elevatesto a higher level binmatters of bsanctity and one does not downgrade.Since it is set on the gold shewbread Table all week, it cannot be downgraded to a marble or silver table upon its removal. bAndthere was boneTable bof gold withinthe Sanctuary, bupon which the shewbreadis balwaysfound.,The mishna describes the manner in which it is ensured that the shewbread is constantly on the Table: bAnd four priests enter, twowith the btwo arrangementsof the new shewbread bin their hands and twowith the btwo bowlsof frankincense bin their hands. And fourpriests bprecedethem, entering the Sanctuary bbefore them, two to takethe btwo arrangementsof the old shewbread from the Table, band two to takethe btwo bowlsof frankincense., bThose bringingthe new shewbread bintothe Sanctuary bstand in the north and their faces are to the south, and those removingthe old shewbread bstand in the south and their faces are to the north. Thesepriests bdrawthe old shewbread from the Table band thosepriests bplacethe new shewbread on the Table, band foreach bhandbreadth of thisold shewbread that is removed from the Table a bhandbreadth of thatnew shewbread is placed upon the Table, so that the Table is never without loaves upon it, bas it is stated:“And you shall set upon the Table shewbread bbefore Me always”(Exodus 25:30)., bRabbi Yosei says: Evenif bthesepriests were to bremovethe shewbread from the Table entirely, bandonly afterward bthosepriests were to bplacethe new shewbread upon the Table, this btoo wouldfulfill the requirement that the shewbread balwaysbe on the Table. It is unnecessary to ensure the uninterrupted presence of the shewbread upon the Table, as long as it does not remain a single night without shewbread upon it.,The mishna describes the manner in which the shewbread is distributed: The priests who carried the old shewbread loaves bcame outof the Sanctuary band placed them on the table of gold that was in the Entrance Hall.The priests then bburnedon the altar bthefrankincense that was in the bbowls. And the loaves weresubsequently bdistributed to the priests.This occurred on Shabbat, the day that the priestly watch that served in the Temple during the preceding week was replaced by the priestly watch that would serve during the following week. The shewbread was distributed to the priests of both watches.,If bYom Kippur occurs on Shabbat, the loaves are distributed at night,at the conclusion of the fast, since they may not be eaten during the day. If Yom Kippur boccurs on Friday,i.e., when the holy day begins on Thursday evening, bthe goatsin offering bof Yom Kippur is eatenby the priests bat night,i.e., on Friday night, as it may be eaten only on the day that it is sacrificed or during the following night, until midnight. bAndsince there is no possibility of cooking the meat, as one may not cook on Yom Kippur or Shabbat, bthe Babylonians,i.e., priests who had emigrated from Babylonia, beat it when it is raw, due tothe fact bthat they are broad-mindedwith regard to their food, i.e., they are not particular and will eat meat even when it is not cooked., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that according to Rabbi Yosei, even if the priest first removes the old shewbread entirely, and only then places the new shewbread upon the Table, this fulfills the requirement that the shewbread always be on the Table. Moreover, bit is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says: Evenif the priest bremoved the oldshewbread on the bmorningof Shabbat, band arranged the newshewbread toward bevening,there is bnothingwrong bwith that. Rather, how do I realizethe meaning of the verse: “And you shall set upon the Table shewbread bbefore Me always”(Exodus 25:30)? This means bthatthe bTable should not be left overnight without breadupon it.,The ibaraitateaches that according to Rabbi Yosei, even if the old shewbread remained on the Table for a short while in the morning, and the new shewbread was placed on the Table toward evening, and even though it did not reside constantly on the Table, this fulfills the requirement that the shewbread should always be on the Table. bRabbi Ami says: From Rabbi Yosei’s statement we may learnthat bevenif ba person learned only one chapterof the Mishna in bthe morning and one chapterof the Mishna in bthe evening, he hasthereby bfulfilled the mitzva of: “This Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth,and you shall contemplate in it day and night, that you may take heed to do according to all that is written in it, for then you shall make your ways prosperous, and then you shall have good success” (Joshua 1:8)., bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Evenif ba person recited only the recitation of iShema /iin bthe morning andin bthe evening,he has bfulfilledthe mitzva of: “This Torah scroll bshall not departfrom your mouth.” bAnd it is prohibited to state this matter in the presence of ignoramuses [ iamei ha’aretz /i],as they are likely to get the impression that there is no need to study Torah beyond this. bAnd Rava says:On the contrary, it is ba mitzva to statethis matter bin the presence of ignoramuses,as they will realize that if merely reciting the iShemaleads to such a great reward, all the more so how great is the reward of those who study Torah all day and night., bBen Dama, son of Rabbi Yishmael’s sister, asked Rabbi Yishmael:In the case of one bsuch as I, who has learned the entire Torah, what isthe ihalakha bwith regard to studying Greek wisdom?Rabbi Yishmael brecited this verse about him: “This Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth, and you shall contemplate in it day and night.” Go and searchfor ban hour that is neitherpart bof the day norpart bof the night, and learn Greek wisdom in it. /b,The Gemara notes: bAndthis statement of Rabbi Yishmael’s bdisagreeswith the opinion bof Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: This verse is neither an obligation nor a mitzva, but a blessing.Rabbi Yonatan explains: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, saw Joshuaand observed bthatthe bwords of Torah were very precious to him, as it is stated:“And the Lord spoke to Moses face-to-face… band his servant Joshua, son of Nun, a young man, did not depart from the Tent”(Exodus 33:11). bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toJoshua: bJoshua, arethe bwords of Torah so precious to you?I bless you that b“this Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth.” /b, bThe itannaof the school of Rabbi Yishmaelteaches: The bwords of Torah should not beconsidered as ban obligation upon you,i.e., one should not treat Torah study as a burden, bbutat the same time byou are not permitted to exempt yourself from them. /b, bḤizkiyya said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“He delivers the afflicted due to His affliction, and opens their ear by tribulation; band also He has allured you out of a narrow opening to a broad place without confines below it,and that which is set on your table is full of fatness” (Job 36:15–16)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that ba person allures another fromthe bpaths of life tothe bpaths of death, but the Holy One, Blessed be He, allures the person fromthe bpaths of death tothe bpaths of life, as it is stated: “And also He has allured you out of a narrow opening,”i.e., bfrom Gehenna, the opening of which is narrowso bthat its smoke is collected /b
13. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

108b. א"כ לא נפנה דרך כרמים,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (איוב יב, ה) לפיד בוז לעשתות שאנן נכון למועדי רגל מלמד שהיה נח הצדיק מוכיח אותם ואמר להם דברים שהם קשים כלפידים והיו (בוזים) [מבזין] אותו אמרו לו זקן תיבה זו למה אמר להם הקב"ה מביא עליכם את המבול אמרו מבול של מה אם מבול של אש יש לנו דבר אחר ועליתה שמה ואם של מים הוא מביא אם מן הארץ הוא מביא יש לנו עששיות של ברזל שאנו מחפין בהם את הארץ ואם מן השמים הוא מביא יש לנו דבר ועקב שמו ואמרי לה עקש שמו,אמר להם הוא מביא מבין עקבי רגליכם שנאמר (איוב יב, ה) נכון למועדי רגל תניא מימי המבול קשים כשכבת זרע שנאמר נכון למועדי רגל אמר רב חסדא ברותחין קלקלו בעבירה וברותחין נידונו כתיב הכא (בראשית ח, א) וישכו המים וכתיב התם (אסתר ז, י) וחמת המלך שככה,(בראשית ז, י) ויהי לשבעת הימים ומי המבול היו על הארץ מה טיבם של שבעת הימים,אמר רב אלו ימי אבילות של מתושלח ללמדך שהספדן של צדיקים מעכבין את הפורענות לבא דבר אחר לשבעת ששינה עליהם הקב"ה סדר בראשית שהיתה חמה יוצאת ממערב ושוקעת במזרח דבר אחר שקבע להם הקב"ה זמן גדול ואח"כ זמן קטן ד"א לשבעת הימים שהטעימם מעין העולם הבא כדי שידעו מה טובה מנעו מהן,(בראשית ז, ב) מכל הבהמה הטהורה תקח לך שבעה שבעה איש ואשתו אישות לבהמה מי אית לה א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאותם שלא נעבדה בהם עבירה,מנא ידע אמר רב חסדא שהעבירן לפני התיבה כל שהתיבה קולטתו בידוע שלא נעבדה בהם עבירה וכל שאין התיבה קולטתו בידוע שנעבדה בה עבירה רבי אבהו אמר מאותן הבאין מאיליהן,(בראשית ו, יד) עשה לך תיבת עצי גופר מאי גופר אמר רב אדא אמרי דבי ר' שילא זו מבליגה ואמרי לה גולמיש,צוהר תעשה לתיבה א"ר יוחנן אמר לו הקב"ה לנח קבע בה אבנים טובות ומרגליות כדי שיהיו מאירות לכם כצהרים,(בראשית ו, טז) ואל אמה תכלנה מלמעלה דבהכי [הוא] דקיימא,(בראשית ו, טז) תחתיים שנים ושלישים תעשה תנא תחתיים לזבל אמצעיים לבהמה עליונים לאדם,(בראשית ח, ז) וישלח את העורב אמר ר"ל תשובה ניצחת השיבו עורב לנח אמר לו רבך שונאני ואתה שנאתני רבך שונאני מן הטהורין שבעה מן הטמאים שנים ואתה שנאתני שאתה מניח ממין שבעה ושולח ממין שנים אם פוגע בי שר חמה או שר צנה לא נמצא עולם חסר בריה אחת או שמא לאשתי אתה צריך,אמר לו רשע במותר לי נאסר לי בנאסר לי לא כ"ש,ומנלן דנאסרו דכתיב (בראשית ו, יח) ובאת אל התיבה אתה ובניך ואשתך ונשי בניך אתך וכתיב (בראשית ח, טז) צא מן התיבה אתה ואשתך ובניך ונשי בניך אתך וא"ר יוחנן מיכן אמרו שנאסרו בתשמיש המטה,ת"ר שלשה שמשו בתיבה וכולם לקו כלב ועורב וחם כלב נקשר עורב רק חם לקה בעורו,(בראשית ח, ח) וישלח את היונה מאתו לראות הקלו המים א"ר ירמיה מכאן שדירתן של עופות טהורים עם הצדיקים,(בראשית ח, יא) והנה עלה זית טרף בפיה א"ר אלעזר אמרה יונה לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע יהיו מזונותי מרורים כזית ומסורים בידך ואל יהיו מתוקים כדבש ומסורים ביד בשר ודם מאי משמע דהאי טרף לישנא דמזוני הוא דכתיב (משלי ל, ח) הטריפני לחם חוקי,(בראשית ח, יט) למשפחותיהם יצאו מן התיבה א"ר יוחנן למשפחותם ולא הם,אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר ליה אליעזר לשם רבא כתיב למשפחותיהם יצאו מן התיבה אתון היכן הויתון א"ל צער גדול היה לנו בתיבה בריה שדרכה להאכילה ביום האכלנוה ביום שדרכה להאכילה בלילה האכלנוה בלילה האי זקיתא לא הוה ידע אבא מה אכלה יומא חד הוה יתיב וקא פאלי רמונא נפל תולעתא מינה אכלה מיכן ואילך הוה גביל לה חיזרא כי מתלע אכלה,אריא אישתא זינתיה דאמר רב לא בציר משיתא ולא טפי מתריסר זינא אישתא אורשינה אשכחיניה אבא דגני בספנא דתיבותא א"ל לא בעית מזוני א"ל חזיתיך דהות טרידא אמינא לא אצערך א"ל יהא רעוא דלא תמות שנאמר (איוב כט, יח) ואומר עם קני אגוע וכחול ארבה ימים,אמר רב חנה בר לואי אמר שם רבא לאליעזר כי אתו עלייכו מלכי מזרח ומערב אתון היכי עבידיתו אמר ליה אייתי הקב"ה לאברהם ואותביה מימיניה והוה שדינן עפרא והוו חרבי גילי והוי גירי שנאמר (תהלים קי, א) מזמור לדוד נאם ה' לאדוני שב לימיני עד אשית אויביך הדום לרגליך וכתיב (ישעיהו מא, ב) מי העיר ממזרח צדק יקראהו לרגלו יתן לפניו גוים ומלכים ירד יתן כעפר חרבו כקש נדף קשתו,נחום איש גם זו הוה רגיל דכל דהוה סלקא ליה אמר גם זו לטובה יומא חד בעו [ישראל] לשדורי דורון לקיסר אמרי בהדי 108b. They said to him: bIf so we will not clear a path through vineyards,i.e., we will continue to sin., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “A contemptible torch [ ilapid /i] in the thought of him that is at ease, a thing ready for them whose foot slips”(Job 12:5)? This bteaches that Noah the righteous would rebukethe people of his generation, band he said to them statements that are harsh as torches [ ikelapidim /i], and they would treat him with contempt. They said to him: Old man, whyare you building bthis ark?Noah bsaid to them: The Holy One, Blessed be He, is bringing a flood upon you. They said to him: A flood of what? If it is a flood of fire, we have another item and it is called ialita /i,and it is fireproof. bAnd ifit is a flood bof waterthat bHe brings, if He bringsthe water bfrom the earth, we have iron plates with which wecan bplate the earthto prevent the water from rising. bAnd if He bringsthe water bfrom the heavens, we have an item and it is called iekev /i, and some say it is called iikkesh /i,which will absorb the water.,Noah bsaid to them:If He wishes bHe will bringthe water bfrom between your feetand you can do nothing to prevent it, bas it is stated: “For them whose foot slips.” It is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe waters of the flood wereas bhardand thick bas semen, as it is stated: “For them whose foot slips”;foot is a euphemism. bRav Ḥisda says: With hotsemen bthey sinned, and with hotwater bthey were punished.As bit is written here,at the conclusion of the flood: b“And the waters assuaged”(Genesis 8:1), band it is written there: “Then the king’s wrath was assuaged”(Esther 7:10). Just as the term “assuaged” there is referring to the heat of Ahasuerus’s wrath, so too, “assuaged” with regard to the flood is referring to the heat of the waters.,With regard to the verse: b“And it came to pass that after seven days the waters of the flood were upon the earth”(Genesis 7:10), the Gemara asks: bWhat is the nature ofthese bsevenadditional bdays? /b, bRav says: These were the days of mourningfor the death bof Methuselah;and this is bto teach you that eulogies for the righteous prevent calamities from ensuing. Alternatively, “after sevendays” means bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, altered the order of Creation forthat generation, i.e., in seven days He reversed the process of Creation, so bthat the sun would emerge in the west and set in the east. Alternatively,it means bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, designated a substantial period for them,one hundred and twenty years, to repent, band thereafterdesignated ba brief periodfor them, an additional seven days, as a final opportunity for them to repent. bAlternatively, “after seven days”means bthatduring those seven days, God bgave them a foretasteof the delights bof the World-to-Come,which will be actualized during the seventh millennium, bso that they would know what munificencetheir sins bprevented them fromreceiving.,§ With regard to the verse: b“of every kosher animal you shall take to you by sevens, husband and wife”(Genesis 7:2), the Gemara asks: bIs there marriage for animals? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:The reference is to bthoseanimals bwith whichthe btransgressionof relations with another species bwas not performed.Therefore, the Torah underscores that the animals that entered the ark were husband and wife.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where didNoah bknowwhich animals were not involved in that transgression? bRav Ḥisda says: He passed them before the ark. Allanimals bthat the ark accepted, it was known that a transgression had not been performed with them. And anyanimal bthat the ark did not accept, it was known that a transgression had been performed with it. Rabbi Abbahu says:Noah took onto the ark only bfrom thoseanimals bthat came on their own,as it appeared that they were sent from Heaven, and they were certainly fit for this purpose.,With regard to the verse: b“Make you an ark of gopher wood”(Genesis 6:14), the Gemara asks: bWhatis bgopherwood? bRav Adda saysthat bthey say in the school of Rabbi Sheila: Thisis wood from the imavliga /itree; band some saythat it is wood from the bwillow [ igulamish /i]tree.,With regard to the verse: b“A itzoharyou shall make for the ark”(Genesis 6:16), bRabbi Yoḥa saysthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Noah: Set precious stones and jewels inthe ark bso that they will shine for you as the afternoon [ itzohorayim /i]sun.,With regard to the verse: b“And to a cubit you shall finish it above”(Genesis 6:16), the Gemara explains bthat in that manner,having been built wide at its base and narrow at its top, the ark would bstandupright and would not capsize.,With regard to the verse: b“With lower, second and third stories shall you make it”(Genesis 6:16), it was btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe bottomstory was bfor manure, the middlestory was bfor animals, and the topstory was bfor people. /b,With regard to the verse: b“And he sent forth the raven,which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from the earth” (Genesis 8:7), bReish Lakish says: The ravenprovided ba convincing response to Noah;when it did not wish to leave the ark the raven bsaid to him: Your Master,God, bhates me, and you hate me. Your Master hates me,as He commanded to take bfrom the kosherspecies bsevenand bfrom the non-kosherspecies btwo. And you hate me, as you disregardthose bfrom the species of seven,i.e., the kosher birds, bandinstead bdispatchone bfrom the species of two,i.e., the non-kosher birds. bIf the angel of heat or the angel of cold harms meand kills me, bwill the world not be lacking onespecies of bcreature,as there was only one pair of ravens? bOr perhapsyou are sending me because it is bmy wifethat byou need,in order to engage in intercourse with her.,Noah bsaid tothe raven: bWicked one!If bwiththe woman bwho isgenerally bpermitted to me,my wife, intercourse bis forbidden to me,then bwithregard to domesticated and undomesticated animals, bwhich aregenerally bforbidden to me,is it bnot all the more sothe case that they are forbidden to me?,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive bthat it was prohibitedfor them to engage in intercourse while in the ark? The Gemara answers: It is derived from that bwhich is written: “And you shall come into the ark, you, and your sons, and your wife, and your sons’ wives with you”(Genesis 6:18); band it is written: “Emerge from the ark, you and your wife, and your sons and your sons’ wives with you”(Genesis 8:16). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: From here,the Sages derived and bsaid that it was prohibitedto engage bin intercoursewhile in the ark, as when Noah and his family entered, the husbands and wives were listed separately, and when they emerged, the husbands were listed with their wives., bThe Sages taught: Threeviolated that directive and bengaged in intercoursewhile bin the ark, and all of them were punishedfor doing so. They are: The bdog, andthe braven, and Ham,son of Noah. The bdogwas punished in that it bis bound;the bravenwas punished in that it bspits,and bHam was afflicted inthat bhis skinturned black.,With regard to the verse: b“And he sent forth the dove from him, to see if the waters abated”(Genesis 8:8), bRabbi Yirmeya says: From hereit is derived bthat the dwelling place of kosher birdsin the ark was bwith the righteouspeople, as the verse emphasizes that Noah dispatched the dove from his place.,With regard to the verse: b“And in her mouth was an olive branch plucked off [ itaraf]”(Genesis 8:11), bRabbi Elazar says:The bdove said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, may my sustece be bitter as the olive and dependent on Your hands, and not sweet as honey and dependent on the hands of flesh and blood.The Gemara asks: bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that itarafis a termthat indicates bsustece?The Gemara answers: It is inferred from that bwhich is written: “Feed me [ ihatrifeni /i] with my allotted portion”(Proverbs 30:8).,With regard to the verse: b“After their kinds [ ilemishpeḥoteihem /i], they emerged from the ark”(Genesis 8:19), bRabbi Yoḥa says: After their kinds [ ilemishpeḥotam /i]the animals emerged, bbut not them [ ihem /i]themselves, as some of the animals that entered the ark died during that year and it was their descendants who emerged., bRav Ḥana bar Bizna says: Eliezer,servant of Abraham, bsaid to Shem the Great,son of Noah: bIt is written: “After their kinds, they emerged from the ark,”indicating that the different types of animals were not intermingled while in the ark. bWhere were youand what did you do to care for them while they were in the ark? Shem bsaid to him: Weexperienced bgreat suffering in the arkcaring for the animals. Where there was ba creature that one typically feeds during the day, we fed it during the day,and where there was a creature bthat one typically feeds at night, we fed it at night.With regard to bthat chameleon, my father did not know what it eats. One day,my father bwas sitting and peeling a pomegranate. A worm fell from itand the chameleon bate it. From that point forwardmy father bwould knead branwith water, and bwhen it became overrun with worms,the chameleon would beatit.,With regard to bthe lion, a fever sustained it,since when it suffered from a fever, it did not need to eat; bas Rav said:For bno fewer than sixdays band no more than twelvedays, bfever sustainsa person; he need not eat and is sustained from his own fats. Shem continued: With regard to the bphoenix [ iavarshina /i], my father found it lying inits compartment on bthe side of the ark. He said tothe bird: bDo you not want food?The bird bsaid to him: I saw that you were busy,and bI said I would not trouble youby requesting food. Noah bsaid tothe bird: bMay it beGod’s bwill that you shall not die,and through that bird the verse was fulfilled, bas it is stated: “And I said, I shall die in my nest, and I shall multiply my days as the phoenix”(Job 29:18).,§ bRav Ḥana bar Leva’ei saysthat bShem the Great said to Eliezer,servant of Abraham: bWhenthe four great bkings of the east and the west came upon youto wage war with Abraham, bwhat did you do?Eliezer bsaid to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, brought Abraham and placed him to His right, and we would throw dust and it became swords,and we threw bstraw and it became arrows, as it is stated: “A Psalm of David. The Lord says to my master: Sit to My right, until I make your enemies your footstool”(Psalms 110:1), band it is written: “Who has raised up one from the east at whose steps victory attends? He gives nations before him, and makes him rule over kings; his sword makes them as the dust, his bow as driven straw”(Isaiah 41:2).,Apropos Abraham’s miraculous weapons, the Gemara relates: bNaḥum of Gam Zo was accustomed thatin response to banycircumstance bthat arose in hisregard, he bwould say: This too [ igam zo /i] is for the best. One day the Jewish people sought to send a gift [ idoron /i] to the emperor. They said: With /b
14. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

104a. עלויי קא מעלי ליה דאמר רב חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין אלא סתום ועשאו פתוח גרועי קא מגרע ליה דאמר ר' ירמיה ואיתימא ר' חייא בר אבא מנצפך צופים אמרום,ותיסברא והכתיב (ויקרא כז, לד) אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא מיהוה הואי מידע לא הוה ידעין הי באמצע תיבה הי בסוף תיבה ואתו צופים תקנינהו ואכתי אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,גופא א"ר חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין ואמר רב חסדא כתב שבלוחות נקרא מבפנים ונקרא מבחוץ כגון נבוב בובן (רהב בהר) סרו ורס:,אמרי ליה רבנן לריב"ל אתו דרדקי האידנא לבי מדרשא ואמרו מילי דאפילו בימי יהושע בן נו"ן לא איתמר כוותייהו אל"ף בי"ת אלף בינה גימ"ל דל"ת גמול דלים מ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דגימ"ל לגבי דל"ת שכן דרכו של גומל חסדים לרוץ אחר דלים ומ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דדל"ת לגבי גימ"ל דלימציה ליה נפשיה ומ"ט מהדר אפיה דדל"ת מגימ"ל דליתן ליה בצינעה כי היכי דלא ליכסיף מיניה,ה"ו זה שמו של הקב"ה ז"ח ט"י כ"ל ואם אתה עושה כן הקב"ה זן אותך וחן אותך ומטיב לך ונותן לך ירושה וקושר לך כתר לעוה"ב מ"ם פתוחה מ"ם סתומה מאמר פתוח מאמר סתום נו"ן כפופה נו"ן פשוטה נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט,ס"ע סמוך עניים ל"א סימנין עשה בתורה וקנה אותה פ' כפופה פ' פשוטה פה פתוח פה סתום צד"י כפופה וצד"י פשוטה צדיק כפוף צדיק פשוט היינו נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט הוסיף לך הכתוב כפיפה על כפיפתו מכאן שנתנה התורה במנוד ראש,קו"ף קדוש רי"ש רשע מאי טעמא מהדר אפיה דקו"ף מרי"ש אמר הקב"ה אין אני יכול להסתכל ברשע ומאי טעמא מהדרה תגיה דקו"ף לגבי רי"ש אמר הקב"ה אם חוזר בו אני קושר לו כתר כמותי ומ"ט כרעיה דקו"ף תלויה דאי הדר ביה ליעייל,וליעול בהך מסייע ליה לריש לקיש) דאמר ר"ל מ"ד (משלי ג, לד) אם ללצים הוא יליץ ולענוים יתן חן בא ליטמא פותחין לו בא ליטהר מסייעים אותו,שי"ן שקר תי"ו אמת מאי טעמא שקר מקרבן מיליה אמת מרחקא מיליה שיקרא שכיח קושטא לא שכיח ומ"ט שיקרא אחדא כרעיה קאי ואמת מלבן לבוניה קושטא קאי שיקרא לא קאי,א"ת ב"ש אותי תעב אתאוה לו ב"ש בי לא חשק שמי יחול עליו ג"ר גופו טימא ארחם עליו ד"ק דלתותי נעל קרניו לא אגדע עד כאן מדת רשעים,אבל מדת צדיקים א"ת ב"ש אם אתה בוש ג"ר ד"ק אם אתה עושה כן גור בדוק ה"ץ ו"ף חציצה הוי בינך לאף ז"ע ח"ס ט"ן ואין אתה מזדעזע מן השטן י"ם כ"ל אמר [שר של] גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם לים כל,אמר הקב"ה אח"ס בט"ע גי"ף אני חס עליהם מפני שבעטו בגי"ף דכ"ץ דכים הם כנים הם צדיקים הם הל"ק אין לך חלק בהן ומרז"ן ש"ת אמר גיהנם לפניו רבונו של עולם מרי זניני מזרעו של שת,א"ל א"ל ב"ם ג"ן ד"ס להיכן אוליכן לגן הדס ה"ע ו"ף אמר גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם עיף אנכי ז"ץ ח"ק הללו זרעו של יצחק ט"ר י"ש כ"ת טר יש לי כיתות כיתות של עובדי כוכבים שאני נותן לך: 104a. bhe elevates itsstatus, as bRav Ḥisda said:The letters imemand isamekhthat were in the tablets were standing miraculously.Each letter was chiseled all the way through the tablets. In that case, the segment of the tablets at the center of the isamekhand final imem /i, letters that are completely closed, should have fallen. Miraculously, they remained in place. Consequently, rendering an open imemclosed elevates its status. bHowever,if bone rendered a closedletter bopen, he diminishes itsstatus, as bRabbi Yirmeya said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbawho said: bThe prophets institutedthe difference between the open and closed forms of the letters imem /i, inun /i, itzadi /i, ipeh /i, ikaf /i.Since the closed letters date back to the Ten Commandments, apparently the prophets introduced the open versions of the letters, which are therefore less significant.,The Gemara rejects this: bAnd is that reasonable? Isn’t it written: “These are the commandmentsthat the Lord commanded Moses to tell the children of Israel at Mount Sinai” (Leviticus 27:34). The word “these” underscores bthat a prophet is not permitted to introduce anynew belementrelated to the Torah and its mitzvot bfrom here on. Rather,the prophets did not innovate these forms. Both the open and closed versions bexistedbefore then. However, people bdid not know whichform appeared bin the middle of a wordand bwhichform bat the end of a word. And the prophets cameand binstituted theirset positions. The Gemara asks: bAnd stillthe question remains: Didn’t the Sages derive from the verse: b“These are the commandments,” that a prophet is not permitted to introduce anynew belement from here on?How could they institute the position of the letters? bRather,over the course of time, the people bforgot theirpositions in the words bandthe prophets bthen reestablished theirpositions. Apparently, closed letters are no more significant than the open ones.,The Gemara returns to discuss bthe matter itself. Rav Ḥisda said:The letters imemand isamekhthat were in the tablets were standing miraculously. Andfurthermore, bRav Ḥisda said:The bwriting on the tablets was read from the inside,from one side of the tablets, band read from the outside,the other side of the tablets, in reverse order. The Gemara cites words that appear elsewhere in the Bible: iNevuv /iwas read as ibet /i, ivav /i, ibet /i, inun /i; irahav /ias ibeit /i, iheh /i, ireish /i;and isaru /ias ivav /i, ireish /i, isamekh /i. /b, bThe Sages said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Young students cametoday bto the study hall and said thingsthe likes of bwhich were not saideven bin the days of Joshua bin Nun.These children who only knew the Hebrew alphabet interpreted the letters homiletically. briAlef beit /imeans blearn[ielaf/b] the bwisdom[ibina/b] of the Torah. briGimmel dalet /imeans bgive to the poor[igemol dalim/b]. bWhy is the leg of the igimmelextended towardthe idalet /i? Because it is the manner of one who bestows loving-kindness to pursue the poor. And whyis the bleg ofthe idaletextended towardthe igimmel /i?It is so bthata poor person bwill make himself available to himwho wants to give him charity. bAnd why does the idaletface away fromthe igimmel /i?It is to teach bthat one should givecharity bdiscreetly so thatthe poor person bwill not be embarrassed by him. /b,The children continued to interpret the letters. briHeh vav /i: That isthe principal bname of the Holy One, Blessed be He.briZayin ḥet /i, itet yod /i, ikaf lamed /i: And if you do so, the Holy One, Blessed be He, feeds [ izan /i] you, and shows you favor [ iḥan /i], and bestows goodness [ imeitiv /i] upon you, and gives you an inheritance [ iyerusha /i], and ties a crown [ iketer /i] for you in the World to Come [ ila’olam haba /i].brThe bopen imemand closed imem /iindicate that the Torah contains ban open statement,understood by all, and ban esoteric statement.brThe bbent inun /iand the bstraight inun /iat the end of a word refer to ba faithful person who is bent [ ine’eman kafuf /i]and is modest now, who will ultimately become a bwell-known faithful person [ ine’eman pashut /i]. /b,iSamekh ayin /i: Support the poor [ isemokh aniyyim /i]to prevent them from falling further. bAnother version: Make mnemonicsigns b[ isimanim aseh /i]to remember bthe Torah and acquire it.brThe bbent ipeh /iand the bstraight ipeh /i:Sometimes one needs to have ban open mouth [ ipeh patuaḥ /i]and speak, and sometimes one needs to have ba closed mouth [ ipeh satum /i].brThe bbent itzadi /iand the bstraight itzadi /iindicate that ba righteousperson who is bbentand humble b[ itzaddik kafuf /i]now will ultimately become ba well-known righteousperson b[ itzaddik pashut /i]whose righteousness is apparent to all. The Gemara asks: bThat is identicalto the interpretation of the bent and straight inun /i: iNe’eman kafuf /i, ine’eman pashut /i.The Gemara explains: bThe verse addedthe bbendingof the righteous person bto the bending ofthe faithful person. bFrom hereit is derived bthat the Torah was given inan atmosphere of bgravity.One must receive the Torah with a sense of awe and extreme humility.,The children continued: briKuf /i: Holy [ ikadosh /i],referring to God. briReish /i: A wicked person [ irasha /i]. Why is the ikuffacing away fromthe ireish /i?This question was phrased euphemistically, as it is the ireishthat is facing away from the ikuf /i. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I am unable look at a wicked person,i.e., the wicked person does not want to look toward God. bAnd why is the crown ofthe letter ikufturned towardthe ireish /i? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Ifthe wicked person brepentshis evil ways bI will tie a crown for him like My own. And why is the leg ofthe ikufsuspendedand not connected to the roof of the letter? bBecause ifthe wicked person brepents he can enterthrough this opening if he so desires.,The Gemara asks: bLet him enter through thatopening, as the ikufis open on both sides at the bottom. The Gemara answers: This bsupportsthe statement of bReish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “If it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, and unto the humble He gives grace”(Proverbs 3:34)? One who bcomesin order bto become impure,i.e., to sin, bthey,in Heaven, bprovide him with an openingto do so, and he is not prevented from sinning. However, if he bcomesin order bto become purified,not only is he allowed to do so, but bthey,in Heaven, bassist him. /b,They further taught: briShin /i: Falsehood [ isheker /i]. iTav /i: Truth [ iemet /i].br bWhy are the letters ofthe word ishekeradjacentto one another in the alphabet, while bthe letters of iemetare distantfrom one another? That is because while bfalsehood iseasily bfound, truth is foundonly with great difficulty. bAnd why dothe letters that comprise the word isheker /iall bstand on one foot, andthe letters that comprise the word iemet /istand on bases that are wide like bbricks?Because the btruth standseternal and bfalsehood does not standeternal.,The Gemara cites another midrash that also deals with the letters of the alphabet. This one uses a code in which the first letter is paired with the last letter, the second letter with the penultimate one, and so on b[ ialef tav /i, ibeit shin /i]. iAlef tav /i, God said: If bhe despised Me [ ioti ti’ev /i]would bI desire [ ietaveh /i] him? iBeit shin /i:If bhe does not desireto worship bMe [ ibi /i],shall bMy name [ ishemi /i] rest upon him? iGimmel reish /i:He bdefiled his body [ igufo /i];shall bI have mercy [ iaraḥem /i] on him?The word comprised of the letters igimmeland ireishin Aramaic means licentiousness. iDalet kuf /i:He blocked My doors [ idaltotai /i],shall bI not cut off his horns [ ikarnav /i]? To this point,the Gemara interpreted the letters as referring to bthe attribute of the wicked. /b, bHowever,with regard to bthe attribute of the righteousit is taught differently. iAlef tav /i, ibeit shin /i: If you have shame [ iata bosh /i], igimmel reish /i, idalet kuf /i: If you do so,you will breside [ igur /i] inthe bheavens [ ibedok /i],as the verse says: “Who stretches out the Heavens like a curtain [ idok /i]” (Isaiah 40:22). iHeh tzadi /i, ivav peh /i: There is a partition [ iḥatzitza havei /i] between you and anger [ iaf /i]. iZayin ayin /i, iḥet samekh /i, itet nun /i: And you will not be shaken [ imizdaze’a /i] by the Satan. iYod mem /i, ikaf lamed /i: The minister of Gehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe,send the righteous as well into the bseato which ballgo b[ iyam kol /i],Gehenna.,The interpretation of the alphabet continues with other combinations of letters. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: iAlef ḥet samekh /i, ibet tet ayin /i, igimmel yod peh /i: I have mercy on them [ iAni ḥas aleihem /i] because they spurned [ iba’atu /i] adultery [ igif /i].The Gemara continues with this combination of the letters: iDalet kaf tzadi /i: They are pure [ idakkim /i], they are honest [ ikenim /i], they are righteous [ itzaddikim /i]. iHeh lamed kuf /i: You have no portion [ iḥelek /i] with them,based on the interchange of the letters iḥetand iheh /i. iVav mem reish zayin nun /i, ishin tav /i:The minister of bGehenna said [ iamar /i],based on ivav mem reish /i, bbefore Him: Master of the Universe, my Master [ iMari /i], sustain me [ izaneini /i] with the seed of Seth [ iShet /i],which refers to all humankind, including the Jewish people.,The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to himusing another configuration of the alphabet: iAlef lamed /i, ibeit mem /i: Not with them [ ial bam /i],i.e., you will have no portion of them. iGimmel nun /i, idalet samekh /i: To where will I lead them?I will lead them bto the garden of myrtle [ igan hadas /i],i.e., the Garden of Eden. iHeh ayin /i, ivav peh /i:The minister of bGehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I am tired [ iayef anokhi /i]and thirsty and need people to care for me. The Holy One, Blessed be He, responded: iZayin tzadi /i, iḥet kuf /i: These are the descendants [ izaro /i] of Isaac [ iYitzḥak /i]. iTet reish /i, iyod shin /i, ikaf tav /i: Wait [ itar /i], I have groupsupon bgroups [ iyesh li kittot kittot /i] ofother bnations that I will give youinstead.
15. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

44a. אמרי לדידהו נמי לא דחי ואלא קשיא הני תרתי דתנא חדא כל העם מוליכין את לולביהן להר הבית ותני' אידך לבית הכנסת ומתרצינן כאן בזמן שבית המקדש קיים כאן בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים,לא אידי ואידי בזמן שבית המקדש קיים ולא קשיא כאן במקדש כאן בגבולין,א"ל אביי לרבא מאי שנא לולב דעבדינן ליה שבעה זכר למקדש ומאי שנא ערבה דלא עבדינן לה שבעה זכר למקדש א"ל הואיל ואדם יוצא ידי חובתו בערבה שבלולב א"ל ההוא משום לולב הוא דקא עביד ליה וכי תימא דקא מגבה ליה והדר מגבה ליה והא מעשים בכל יום דלא קא עבדינן הכי,אמר רב זביד משמיה דרבא לולב דאורייתא עבדינן שבעה זכר למקדש ערבה דרבנן לא עבדינן לה שבעה זכר למקדש,למאן אילימא לאבא שאול האמר (ויקרא כג, מ) ערבי נחל כתיב שתים אחת ללולב ואחת למקדש אי לרבנן הלכתא גמירי לה דא"ר אסי א"ר יוחנן משום ר' נחוניא איש בקעת בית חורתן עשר נטיעות ערבה וניסוך המים הלכה למשה מסיני,אלא אמר רב זביד משמיה דרבא לולב דאית ליה עיקר מה"ת בגבולין עבדינן ליה שבעה זכר למקדש ערבה דלית לה עיקר מן התורה בגבולין לא עבדינן שבעה זכר למקדש,אמר ר"ל כהנים בעלי מומין נכנסין בין האולם ולמזבח כדי לצאת בערבה א"ל ר' יוחנן מי אמרה מי אמרה הא איהו אמר דא"ר אסי א"ר יוחנן משום ר' נחוניא איש בקעת בית חורתן עשר נטיעות ערבה וניסוך המים הלכה למשה מסיני,אלא מי אמרה בנטילה דלמא בזקיפה מי אמרה בבעלי מומין דלמא בתמימים,אתמר ר' יוחנן ור' יהושע בן לוי חד אמר ערבה יסוד נביאים וחד אמר (ערבה) מנהג נביאים תסתיים דר' יוחנן הוא דאמר יסוד נביאים דא"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן ערבה יסוד נביאים הוא תסתיים,א"ל ר' זירא לר' אבהו מי א"ר יוחנן הכי והא"ר יוחנן משום ר' נחוניא איש בקעת בית חורתן עשר נטיעות ערבה וניסוך המים הלכה למשה מסיני (דניאל ד, טז) אשתומם כשעה חדא ואמר שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,ומי א"ר יוחנן הכי והא"ר יוחנן דלכון אמרי דלהון היא ל"ק 44a. The Sages bsay: For themin Eretz Yisrael bit also does not overrideShabbat. The Gemara asks: bButif that is the case, the contradiction between bthese twosources is bdifficult, as it was taught in onemishna: bAll the people bring their ilulavimto the Temple Mounton Friday, band it was taught in anothermishna that they bring their ilulavim bto the synagogue. And we resolvedthis contradiction as follows: bHere,where the mishna says that they bring their ilulavimto the Temple Mount, it is referring to bwhen the Temple is standing,and bthere,where the mishna says that they bring their ilulavimto the synagogue, it is referring to bwhen the Temple is not standing.Based on the above, when the Temple is not in existence the mitzva of ilulavdoes not override Shabbat.,The Gemara resolves the contradiction: bNo,both bthismishna band thatmishna are referring to Eretz Yisrael bwhen the Temple is in existence; andnevertheless, it is bnot difficult. Here,where the mishna says that they bring their ilulavimto the Temple Mount, it is referring to the procedure bin the Temple.And bthere,where the mishna says that they bring their ilulavimto the synagogue, it is referring to the procedure bin the outlying areasin the rest of Eretz Yisrael, where they knew when the new month was established. However, today, neither in the Diaspora nor in Eretz Yisrael does the mitzva of ilulavoverride Shabbat., bAbaye said to Rava: What is differentabout ilulav /isuch bthat we performthe mitzva bsevendays bin commemoration of the Temple, and what is differentabout the bwillow branch that we do not performthe mitzva bsevendays bin commemoration of the Temple?Rava bsaid to him: Since a person fulfills his obligation with the willow branch in the ilulav /i,no additional commemoration is necessary. Abaye bsaid to him:That is not a satisfactory answer, as bhe is performing thataction bdue to themitzva of taking the ilulav /iand the other species. bAnd if you say that he liftsthe willow branch bound with the ilulavto fulfill the mitzva of the four species band then lifts it againin commemoration of the willow branch in the Temple, baren’t actionsperformed bdailyproof bthat we do not do so,as no one lifts the ilulavtwice?, bRav Zevid said in the name of Rava:Since the mitzva of ilulav /iis a mitzva bby Torahlaw, bwe perform it sevendays bin commemoration of the Templeeven today. Since the mitzva of the bwillow branchis a mitzva bby rabbiniclaw, bwe do not perform it sevendays bin commemoration of the Temple. /b,The Gemara asks: In accordance bwith whoseopinion did Rava say this? bIf we saythat Rava said this in accordance with the opinion of bAbba Shaul, didn’t he say that it is written: Willows of the river,i.e., in the plural, indicating btwowillow branches, bone for the ilulavand one for the Temple?In his opinion, the mitzva of the willow branch in the Temple is also a mitzva by Torah law. bIfRava said this in accordance bwiththe opinion of bthe Rabbis, they learned thisas ba ihalakha /itransmitted to Moses from Sinai, bas Rabbi Asi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Neḥunya of the valley of Beit Ḥortan:The ihalakhaof the bten saplings,the mitzva of the bwillow branchin the Temple, bandthe mitzva of bthe water libationon the altar during the festival of iSukkotare each ba ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai. /b, bRather, Rav Zevid said in the name of Rava:With regard to the mitzva of ilulav /i, which hasits bbasiswritten explicitly bin the Torah, in the outlying areas we perform it sevendays bin commemoration of the Temple.With regard to the mitzva of the bwillow branch, which does not haveits bbasiswritten explicitly bin the Torah, in the outlying areas we do not perform it sevendays bin commemoration of the Temple. /b,Apropos the willow branch in the Temple, bReish Lakish said: Priests withphysical bdefects enter between the Entrance Hall and the altar in order to fulfillthe obligation of the mitzva of bthe willow branch.Although due to their blemishes it is prohibited for them to pass there, as they circle the altar with the willow branches they inevitably pass between the Entrance Hall and the altar. bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: Who statedthis ihalakha /i? The Gemara wonders about Rabbi Yoḥa’s question: bWho stated it? Didn’tRabbi Yoḥa bhimself stateit? bAs Rabbi Asi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Neḥunya of the valley of Beit Ḥortan:The ihalakhaof the bten saplings,the mitzva of the bwillow branchin the Temple, bandthe mitzva of bthe water libationon the altar during the festival of iSukkotare each ba ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai. /b, bRather,Rabbi Yoḥa’s question was: bWho saidthat the mitzva is fulfilled bby takingthe willow branch and circling the altar? bPerhapsthe mitzva is only fulfilled bby standingthe willow branches buprightsurrounding the altar. bWho saidthat the mitzva may be fulfilled even bbythose bwithphysical bdefects? Perhapsit may be fulfilled only bby unblemishedpriests., bIt was statedthat there is a dispute between bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. One saidthat the mitzva of the bwillow branchis ban ordice ofthe bprophets,as Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi instituted it in the Temple as obligatory. bAnd one saidthat the mitzva of the bwillow branchis an ancient bcustompracticed by the bprophetsand adopted by others as well. It was not instituted as a binding ordice. The Gemara suggests: bConclude that it was Rabbi Yoḥa who saidthat it is ban ordice ofthe bprophets, as Rabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The mitzva of the bwillow branch is an ordice ofthe bprophets.The Gemara concurs: Indeed, bconcludethat it is so., bRabbi Zeira said to Rabbi Abbahu: Did Rabbi Yoḥaactually bsay that? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say in the name of Rabbi Neḥunya of the valley of Beit Ḥortan:The ihalakhaof the bten saplings,the mitzva of the bwillow branchin the Temple, bandthe mitzva of bthe water libationon the altar during the festival of iSukkotare each ba ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai?How then could he attribute the origin of the mitzva of the willow branch to the prophets? b“He was astonished for a while”(Daniel 4:16), bandafter considering the apparent contradiction bhe saidthat indeed Rabbi Yoḥa maintains that the mitzva of the willow branch is a ihalakhatransmitted to Moses from Sinai. However, over the course of time during the Babylonian exile bthey forgotsome ihalakhot /i, including the mitzva of the willow branch, band thenthe prophets breinstituted them. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd did Rabbi Yoḥaactually bsaythat it is a ihalakhatransmitted to Moses from Sinai? bAnd didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: Yours,i.e., the Babylonian Sages, bsay thatthis ordice bis theirs,instituted by the Sages, and it is neither a ihalakhatransmitted to Moses from Sinai nor an ordice instituted by the prophets. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult; /b
16. Babylonian Talmud, Temurah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. ולא תיסמי מנחת נסכים ממתני' ולא קשיא כאן בנסכים הבאין עם הזבח כאן בנסכים הבאין בפני עצמן,ואי הוה ליה איגרתא מי אפשר למישלחא והא אמר רבי אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כותבי הלכות כשורף התורה והלמד מהן אינו נוטל שכר,דרש ר' יהודה בר נחמני מתורגמניה דר"ל כתוב אחד אומר (שמות לד, כז) כתוב לך את הדברים האלה וכתוב אחד אומר (שמות לד, כז) כי על פי הדברים האלה לומר לך דברים שעל פה אי אתה רשאי לאומרן בכתב ושבכתב אי אתה רשאי לאומרן על פה,ותנא דבי רבי ישמעאל כתוב לך את הדברים האלה אלה אתה כותב אבל אין אתה כותב הלכות,אמרי דלמא מילתא חדתא שאני דהא רבי יוחנן ור"ל מעייני בסיפרא דאגדתא בשבתא ודרשי הכי (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך אמרי מוטב תיעקר תורה ואל תשתכח תורה מישראל,אמר רב פפא השתא דאמרת נסכים הבאין בפני עצמן קריבין אפי' בלילה נזדמנו נסכים בלילה מקדישין בלילה ומקריבין,אמר ליה רב יוסף בריה דרב שמעיה לרב פפא תניא דמסייע לך זה הכלל כל הקרב ביום אינו קדוש אלא ביום וכל הקרב בלילה קדוש (בין ביום בין) בלילה,אמר רב אדא בר אהבה ועלות השחר פוסלת בהן כאברין,כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יהוצדק (במדבר כט, לט) אלה תעשו לה' במועדיכם אלו חובות הבאות חובה ברגל,לבד מנדריכם ונדבותיכם לימד על נדרים ונדבות שקרבין בחולו של מועד,ולעולותיכם במה הכתוב מדבר אי בעולת נדר הרי כבר אמור נדריכם ואי בעולת נדבה הרי כבר אמור ונדבותיכם הא אינו מדבר אלא בעולת יולדת ועולת מצורע,ולמנחותיכם במה הכתוב מדבר אי במנחת נדר הרי כבר אמור אי במנחת נדבה הרי כבר אמור הא אינו מדבר אלא במנחת סוטה ובמנחת קנאות,ולנסכיכם ולשלמיכם מקיש נסכים לשלמים מה שלמים ביום אף נסכים ביום ולשלמיכם לרבות שלמי נזיר,א"ל אביי ולימא מר שלמי פסח דאי שלמי נזיר נידר ונידב הוא,דהתניא זה הכלל כל שהוא נידב ונידר קרב בבמת יחיד ושאינו נידב ונידר אינו קרב בבמת יחיד,ותנן המנחות והנזירות קריבין בבמת יחיד דברי ר"מ סמי מכאן נזירות,מי איכא למ"ד דנזיר לאו נידר ונידב הוא והכתיב (שמואל ב טו, ז) מקץ ארבעים שנה ויאמר אבשלום אל המלך אלכה נא ואשלם את נדרי אשר נדרתי לה' בחברון כי נדר נדר עבדך וגו' מאי לאו אקרבן,לא אעיקר נדרו אמר עיקר נדרו בחברון הוה והלא בגשור הוה,אמר רב אחא ואיתימא רבה בר רב חנן לא הלך אבשלום אלא להביא כבשים מחברון ה"נ מסתברא דאי תימא לאקרובי הוא דאזיל שביק ירושלים ואזיל ומקריב בחברון,ואלא מאי להביא כבשים מחברון האי אשר נדרתי לה' בחברון מחברון מיבעי ליה,אלא לעולם לאקרובי ודקא קשיא לך אמאי שבק ירושלים ומקריב בחברון תיקשי לך גבעון דמקום קדוש הוא אלא כיון שהותרו הבמות כל היכא דבעי מקריב,ארבעים שנה למאן תניא רבי נהוראי אומר משום רבי יהושע מקץ ארבעים שנה ששאלו להם מלך דתניא אותה שנה ששאלו להם מלך אותה שנה עשירית של שמואל היתה 14b. bandin light of this ruling bhe will not deletethe phrase: bThe meal offeringthat accompanies bthe libations, from the ibaraita /i. Andinstead, the apparent contradiction between the ibaraitotcan be explained as follows: It is bnot difficult; here,the ibaraitathat states that meal offerings accompanying libations are sacrificed only in the day is referring bto libations that come withan animal boffering,whereas bthere,the ibaraitathat permits sacrificing a meal offering that accompanies the libations at night is referring bto libations that cometo be sacrificed bby themselves,i.e., which do not accompany the sacrifice of an offering.,The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to Rav Dimi’s suggestion to write this opinion in a letter. bAndeven bif he hadsomeone to write ba letterfor him, bwouldit have been bpossible to send it? But didn’t Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, saythat bRabbi Yoḥa said:Those bwho write ihalakhotareconsidered blikethose who bburn the Torah, and one who learns fromwritten ihalakhot bdoes not receivethe brewardof studying Torah. Evidently, it is prohibited to send ihalakhotin letters.,Before resolving the difficulty, the Gemara further discusses the prohibition of writing down the Torah: bRabbi Yehuda bar Naḥmani, the disseminator for Reish Lakish, expoundedas follows: bOne verse says: “Write you these words,” and one verse says,i.e., it states later in that same verse: b“For by the mouth of these words”(Exodus 34:27). These phrases serve bto say to you: Words that weretaught borally you may not recite in writing, andwords bthat are written you may not recite orally,i.e., by heart., bAndfurthermore, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:The word “these” in the command b“write you these words”serves to emphasize that bthesewords, i.e., those recorded in the Written Law, byou may write, but you may not write ihalakhot /i,i.e., the imishnayotand the rest of the Oral Law., bThey saidin response to the question of how Rav Dimi could propose writing down the ihalakhain a letter: bPerhapswith regard to ba new matterit bis different,i.e., it might be permitted to write down new material so that it not be forgotten. One proof for this suggestion is bthat Rabbi Yoḥa and Reish Lakishwould bread from a scroll of iaggada /i,containing the words of the Sages, bon Shabbat. Andthey did so because bthey taught as follows:Since one cannot remember the Oral Law without writing it down, it is permitted to violate the ihalakha /i, as derived from the verse: b“It is time to work for the Lord; they have made void your Torah”(Psalms 119:126). bThey said it is better to uproota single ihalakhaof the bTorah,i.e., the prohibition of writing down the Oral Torah, bandthereby ensure bthat the Torah is not forgotten from the Jewish peopleentirely.,§ With regard to Rav Dimi’s differentiation between libations that come with an animal offering and libations that are sacrificed by themselves, bRav Pappa said: Now that you have saidthat blibations that come by themselves are sacrificed even at night,if one bhappenedto have blibationsof this kind bat night,they may be bconsecratedby placing them in a service vessel bat night andthey may be bsacrificedat night., bRav Yosef, son of Rav Shemaya, said to Rav Pappa:A ibaraita bis taught that supports youropinion. bThis is the principle: Anyoffering bthat is sacrificed in the day is consecratedby being placed in a service vessel bonly in the day; but anyoffering bthat is sacrificed at night is consecrated both in the day and at night. /b,With regard to the topic of libations sacrificed by themselves, bRav Adda bar Ahava says: And dawn disqualifies them, likethe ihalakhaof blimbsof offerings that have had their blood sprinkled during the day. Such limbs are left to burn on the altar all night long, but at dawn they are disqualified and may no longer be placed on the altar.,§ The Gemara returns to discuss the verse: “These you shall offer to the Lord in your appointed seasons, beside your vows, and your voluntary offerings, and your burnt offerings, and your meal offerings, and your libations, and your peace offerings” (Numbers 29:39). bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: “These you shall offer to the Lord in your appointed seasons,”i.e., btheseare the bobligatoryofferings bthat cometo be sacrificed as bobligatoryofferings bon the pilgrimage Festival,e.g., the burnt offerings of appearance, the Festival offerings, and the additional offerings.,The verse continues: b“Beside your vows and your voluntary offerings.”This bteaches with regard to vows and voluntary offerings that they are sacrificed on the intermediate days of a Festival. /b,The verse further states: b“And your burnt offerings.”The Gemara inquires: bWith regard to whatcase bis the verse speaking? Ifit is referring bto a vow burnt offering,the verse balready said: “Your vows.” And ifit is referring bto a voluntary burnt offering,the verse balready said: “Your voluntary offerings.” Consequently, it is speaking of nothing other than a burnt offering of a woman who gave birth,i.e., the lamb that she sacrifices on the forty-first day after giving birth to a son or the eighty-first day after giving birth to a daughter, band a burnt offering of a leper,which is the lamb that is sacrificed after a leper is purified. The verse teaches that these obligatory offerings may be sacrificed on the intermediate days of a Festival.,The verse continues: b“And your meal offerings.”The Gemara again asks: bWith regard to whatcase bis the verse speaking? Ifit is referring bto a meal offeringbrought in fulfillment of ba vow,the verse balready said:“Your vows.” bIfit is referring bto a voluntary meal offering,the verse balready said:“Your voluntary offerings.” bConsequently, it is speaking of nothing other thanthe bmeal offering of a isota /i, and thatis the bmeal offering of jealousy. /b,The verse further states: b“And your libations and your peace offerings.”The Torah here bjuxtaposes libations to peace offerings: Just as peace offeringsare sacrificed only bduring the day,not at night, bso too, libationsare sacrificed only bduring the day,not at night. Finally, the verse states: b“And your peace offerings.”This serves bto include the peace offering of a nazirite,which he brings at the completion of his term of naziriteship. This offering may also be sacrificed on the intermediate days of a Festival.,With regard to the last ihalakha /i, bAbaye said toRav Dimi, when he cited this statement in the name of Rabbi Yoḥa: bBut let the Master saythat the phrase “and your peace offerings” serves to include the bpeace offeringthat is brought together with ba Paschal offering.This offering is sacrificed on the fourteenth of Nisan by a large group of people when they will not receive enough meat from their Paschal offering to feed them all. The suggested derivation from the verse is that if a peace offering separated for this purpose was not sacrificed on the fourteenth of Nisan, it may be brought during the intermediate days of the Festival. Abaye further adds: It is more reasonable to include this peace offering, bas, ifthe verse is referring to bthe peace offering of a nazirite, it isalready included by the verse in the categories of offerings that are bvowed or contributedvoluntarily.,Abaye elaborates: bAs isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThis is the principle: Anyoffering bthat is vowed or contributedvoluntarily, e.g., a burnt offering or a peace offering, bis sacrificed on a private altar. Andany offering bthat is not vowed or contributedvoluntarily bmay not be sacrificed on a private altar. /b, bAnd we learnedin another ibaraita /i: bThe meal offerings and theofferings of ba nazirite are sacrificed on a private altar; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir.It is clear from these ibaraitotthat the peace offering of a nazirite belongs in the category of offerings that are vowed or contributed voluntarily. If so, there is no need for it to be included separately by the verse. Rav Dimi replied to Abaye: bDeletethe phrase: offering of ba nazirite from here,i.e., from the ibaraitathat considers it an offering that is vowed or contributed voluntarily. Only the nazirite vow itself is classified as voluntary; once the vow has been uttered, the ensuing offerings are obligatory.,The Gemara asks: bIs there one who said thatthe offering of ba nazirite is not vowed or contributedvoluntarily? bBut isn’t it written: “And it came to pass at the end of forty years, that Absalom said to the king: Please let me go and pay my vow, which I have vowed to the Lord, in Hebron. For your servant vowed a vowwhile I dwelled at Geshur in Aram, saying: If the Lord shall indeed bring me back to Jerusalem, then I will serve the Lord” (II Samuel 15:7–8). The Gemara explains the difficulty: bWhat, is it notthe case that Absalom asked his father for permission for him to go to Hebron btosacrifice ban offeringon a private altar?,The Gemara answers: bNo,Absalom did not go to Hebron to sacrifice his nazirite offerings. Rather, Absalom actually bsaid thathe undertook bthe principal vowto be a nazirite when he was in Hebron. The Gemara asks: bWas his principal vowto be a nazirite in fact uttered bin Hebron? But wasn’tthe vow made when Absalom was bin Geshur?After all, the verse states explicitly: “For your servant vowed a vow while I dwelled at Geshur.”, bRav Aḥa said, and some saythat it was bRabba bar Rav Ḥawho said: The verse means that bAbsalom went to Hebron onlyin order bto bring sheepspecifically from there. The Gemara adds that bthis also stands to reason, as, if you say thatAbsalom bwentto Hebron bto sacrificehis offering, would he have babandoned Jerusalem and gone to sacrifice in Hebron? /b,The Gemara rejects Rabba bar Rav Ḥa’s answer: bBut rather, whatis our explanation of the verse? That Absalom went bto bring sheep from Hebron?If so, bthisverse that states: “Please let me go and pay my vow, bwhich I have vowed to the Lord, in Hebron”(II Samuel 15:7), bshouldinstead bhavestated: Which I have vowed to the Lord bfrom Hebron. /b, bRather,the Gemara explains that bactuallyAbsalom did go to Hebron bto sacrificehis peace offering as a nazirite. bAnd thatwhich is bdifficult for you,i.e., bwhyAbsalom babandoned Jerusalem and sacrificedhis offering bin Hebron,should not pose a difficulty for you; rather, it is the question of why Absalom did not sacrifice his offering in bGibeonthat bshould pose a difficulty for you, asat that time the Tabernacle and the communal altar were in Gibeon, and bit was a sanctified place.Why, then, did Absalom go to Hebron rather than Gibeon? bRather, since theprivate baltars were permitted,he was permitted to bsacrifice wherever he wished,and he chose to go to Hebron. There was no reason for him to choose to go to Gibeon rather than any private altar.,The verse states that Absalom submitted his request to his father “at the end of forty years.” The Gemara asks: bForty years, according to whosecounting, i.e., forty years from when? It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Nehorai says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua:The verse is referring bto the end of forty yearsfrom bwhenthe Jewish people brequested for themselves a king,in the days of Samuel (see I Samuel, chapter 8). bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bthat year when they requested for themselves a king, that year was the tenthyear of the leadership bof Samuel. /b
17. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
academies, rabbinic, palestinian Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
academies, rabbinic, vs. study-houses Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
academies, rabbinic Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
babylonian sources, on academic setting Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
babylonian sources, story settings in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
babylonian sources, study-house in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
bavli (babylonian talmud), on academic setting Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
bavli (babylonian talmud), palestinian sages in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
bavli (babylonian talmud), parallels to Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
beth shammai Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 13
christianity, summary of classical rhetoric and Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 13
dosa b. harkinas Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
food laws Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 220, 222
gentiles Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 220, 222
greek language Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 13
hasmoneans Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 13
hellenism, summary of rabbinic interaction with Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 13
hillel, house of, vs. house of shammai Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
hillel, house of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
hisda, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
honi the circle drawer Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
huna, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
idolatry Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 220, 222
intermarriage Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 222
josephus Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 13
kitos war Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 13
lieberman, saul Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 13
marriage, levirate Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
mishna Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
moses Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 223
oil Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 220
palestine, academies in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
palestine, sages of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
palestinian sources, on academic setting Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
palestinian sources, parallels to bavli in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
palestinian sources, story settings in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
palestinian sources, vs. babylonian Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
patriarch (under romans) Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 13
pharisees Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 39
philostratus Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
polemo Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
purity/impurity Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 220
quintilian Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
rashi Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 13
recital, recitation Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 223
resh laqish Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
sacrifice Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 222
sages, palestinian Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
sanhedrin Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 39
shammai, house of, vs. house of hillel Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
shammai, house of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
shimon ben gamaliel, rabban Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 13
sinai Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 223
stories, settings of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
study-house (bet midrash), in babylonian vs. palestinian sources Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
study-house (bet midrash), vs. private home Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
syriac culture and language Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 13
temple sacrifice, torah study and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 39
torah, oral Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 223
torah, study Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 39
torah study, settings of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
vidas, moulie' Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 13
violence, settings of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
wine Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 220
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud), on academic setting Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud), parallels to bavli in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
yeshiva Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 39
yohanan, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 179
yonatan b. harkinas Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 27