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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8639
Palestinian Talmud, Nedarim, 9.1
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1. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. אַשְׁרֵי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא הָלַךְ בַּעֲצַת רְשָׁעִים וּבְדֶרֶךְ חַטָּאִים לֹא עָמָד וּבְמוֹשַׁב לֵצִים לֹא יָשָׁב׃ 1.1. HAPPY IS the man that hath not walked in the counsel of the wicked, Nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful."
2. Mishnah, Avot, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. Ben Zoma said:Who is wise? He who learns from every man, as it is said: “From all who taught me have I gained understanding” (Psalms 119:99). Who is mighty? He who subdues his [evil] inclination, as it is said: “He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that rules his spirit than he that takes a city” (Proverbs 16:3). Who is rich? He who rejoices in his lot, as it is said: “You shall enjoy the fruit of your labors, you shall be happy and you shall prosper” (Psalms 128:2) “You shall be happy” in this world, “and you shall prosper” in the world to come. Who is he that is honored? He who honors his fellow human beings as it is said: “For I honor those that honor Me, but those who spurn Me shall be dishonored” (I Samuel 2:30)."
3. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 14.4, 34.10 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14.4. וַיִּיצֶר, שְׁנֵי יְצָרִים, יֵצֶר טוֹב וְיֵצֶר הָרָע. שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיָה לִבְהֵמָה ב' יְצָרִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה רוֹאָה סַכִּין בְּיַד אָדָם לְשָׁחֲטָהּ הָיְתָה מְפַחֶדֶת וּמֵתָה, וַהֲרֵי אָדָם יֵשׁ לוֹ ב' יְצָרִים, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר אִידָא (זכריה יב, א): וְיֹצֵר רוּחַ אָדָם בְּקִרְבּוֹ, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם צְרוּרָה בְּקִרְבּוֹ, אִלְּמָלֵא כֵּן כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה הַצָּרָה בָּאָה עָלָיו הָיָה שׁוֹמְטָהּ וּמַשְׁלִיכָהּ. 14.4. Wayyiyzer: two formations, the good and the evil. For if an animal possessed two [such] formations, it would die of fright on seeing a man holding a knife to kill it. But surely a man does possess these two faculties! Said R. Hanina (rjinena) b. Idi: He bound up the spirit of man within him (Zechariah 12:1); for if that were not so, whenever a trouble came upon him he would remove and cast it from him." 34.10. And Ad-nai said to his heart (Gen. 8:21) - The wicked are under control of their heart: 'The fool has said in his heart' (Ps. 14:1); 'And Esav said in his heart' (Gen.27:41); 'And Yerovoam said in his heart' (I Kings 12:25); 'Now Haman said in his heart' (Est. 6:6). But the righteous have their hearts under their control since it is written 'Now Hannah, she spoke at her heart' (I Sam. 1:13); 'And David said to his heart' (I Sam. 27:1); 'But Daniel put to his heart' (Dan. 1:8); [so too] 'And the Lord said to his heart: I will not again/add curse to the ground' (Gen. 8:21): He did not add to it, and let that indeed suffice. The Rabbis interpreted: I will not add [curse] to the children of Noah; I will not add [curse] to future generations. 'Because the devisings of man's heart [yetzer lev] is evil'. Rabbi Hiyya the Elder said: How terrible must be the dough when the baker himself testifies it to be bad! 'Because the inclination of man's heart [yetzer lev] is evil from his youth' Abba Jose the potter said: How terrible must be the leaven when he who created it testifies that it is bad, as it is written 'For He knows our inclinations, it is remembered that we are dust' (Ps. 103:14). The Rabbis said: How terrible must be the plant when the planter himself testifies that it is bad as it is written 'For the Lord of hosts, that planted you, has spoken evil of you (Jer. 1:17). Antoninus asked our teacher: ‘When is the evil inclination placed in a person, from the moment one comes out of the womb of one's mother or before one comes out of the womb of one's mother?’ ‘Before one comes out of the womb of one's mother’ he replied. [Antoninus] replied ‘It can't be, if [the yetzer] is put before one comes out from the womb, one would dig through the womb and emerge! Rabbi agreed with him, because his view corresponds with that of Scripture: 'Because the inclination of man's heart [yetzer lev] is evil from his youth [mine'urav]'. Rabbi Yudan said: This is written mine'urav (from his awakening), which means, from when he awakes [nin'ar] to the world. Antoninus asked our Teacher further: “When is the soul [neshama] put in a person, from the moment one comes out of the womb of one's mother or before one comes out of the womb of one's mother?’ He answered: ‘When one comes out of the womb of one's mother.’ [Antoninus] replied ‘It can't be! This is comparable to meat left without salt for three days - will it not putrefy?' Our Teacher agreed with him, for Scripture supports him: 'You bestowed on me life and care; Your providence watched over my spirit[ruach].' (Job 10:12) - hence, when did You place the spirit in me? When You gave me Your providence."
4. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 45 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

5. Hermas, Mandates, 6.2.7, 12.2.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

7. Palestinian Talmud, Kiddushin, 3.12 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8. Palestinian Talmud, Qiddushin, 3.12 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5a. אם תלמיד חכם הוא אין צריך אמר אביי אף תלמיד חכם מיבעי ליה למימר חד פסוקא דרחמי כגון (תהלים לא, ו) בידך אפקיד רוחי פדיתה אותי ה' אל אמת:,א"ר לוי בר חמא אמר ר"ש בן לקיש לעולם ירגיז אדם יצר טוב על יצר הרע שנא' (תהלים ד, ה) רגזו ואל תחטאו. אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר אמרו בלבבכם אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יקרא קריאת שמע שנאמר על משכבכם אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יזכור לו יום המיתה שנאמר ודומו סלה.,וא"ר לוי בר חמא אמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (שמות כד, יב) ואתנה לך את לוחות האבן והתורה והמצוה אשר כתבתי להורותם לוחות אלו עשרת הדברות תורה זה מקרא והמצוה זו משנה אשר כתבתי אלו נביאים וכתובים להורותם זה גמרא מלמד שכולם נתנו למשה מסיני:,א"ר יצחק כל הקורא ק"ש על מטתו כאלו אוחז חרב של שתי פיות בידו שנאמר (תהלים קמט, ו) רוממות אל בגרונם וחרב פיפיות בידם מאי משמע אמר מר זוטרא ואיתימא רב אשי מרישא דענינא דכתיב (תהלים קמט, ה) יעלזו חסידים בכבוד ירננו על משכבותם וכתיב בתריה רוממות אל בגרונם וחרב פיפיות בידם.,ואמר רבי יצחק כל הקורא קריאת שמע על מטתו מזיקין בדילין הימנו שנאמר (איוב ה, ז) ובני רשף יגביהו עוף ואין עוף אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי כג, ה) התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו ואין רשף אלא מזיקין שנאמר (דברים לב, כד) מזי רעב ולחומי רשף וקטב מרירי.,אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש כל העוסק בתורה יסורין בדילין הימנו שנאמר ובני רשף יגביהו עוף ואין עוף אלא תורה שנאמר התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו ואין רשף אלא יסורין שנאמר מזי רעב ולחומי רשף,אמר ליה רבי יוחנן הא אפילו תינוקות של בית רבן יודעין אותו שנאמר (שמות טו, כו) ויאמר אם שמוע תשמע לקול ה' אלהיך והישר בעיניו תעשה והאזנת למצותיו ושמרת כל חקיו כל המחלה אשר שמתי במצרים לא אשים עליך כי אני ה' רופאך אלא כל שאפשר לו לעסוק בתורה ואינו עוסק הקב"ה מביא עליו יסורין מכוערין ועוכרין אותו שנא' (תהלים לט, ג) נאלמתי דומיה החשיתי מטוב וכאבי נעכר ואין טוב אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי ד, ב) כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו.,אמר רבי זירא ואיתימא רבי חנינא בר פפא בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם מוכר חפץ לחבירו מוכר עצב ולוקח שמח אבל הקב"ה אינו כן נתן להם תורה לישראל ושמח שנא' כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו.,אמר רבא ואיתימא רב חסדא אם רואה אדם שיסורין באין עליו יפשפש במעשיו שנא' (איכה ג, מ) נחפשה דרכינו ונחקורה ונשובה עד ה' פשפש ולא מצא יתלה בבטול תורה שנאמר (תהלים צד, יב) אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,ואם תלה ולא מצא בידוע שיסורין של אהבה הם שנאמר (משלי ג, יב) כי את אשר יאהב ה' יוכיח.,אמר רבא אמר רב סחורה אמר רב הונא כל שהקב"ה חפץ בו מדכאו ביסורין שנאמר (ישעיהו נג, י) וה' חפץ דכאו החלי,יכול אפילו לא קבלם מאהבה תלמוד לומר (ישעיהו נג, י) אם תשים אשם נפשו מה אשם לדעת אף יסורין לדעת,ואם קבלם מה שכרו (ישעיהו נג, י) יראה זרע יאריך ימים ולא עוד אלא שתלמודו מתקיים בידו שנא' (ישעיהו נג, י) וחפץ ה' בידו יצלח,פליגי בה רבי יעקב בר אידי ורבי אחא בר חנינא חד אמר אלו הם יסורין של אהבה כל שאין בהן בטול תורה שנאמר (תהלים צד, יב) אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,וחד אמר אלו הם יסורין של אהבה כל שאין בהן בטול תפלה שנאמר (תהלים סו, כ) ברוך אלהים אשר לא הסיר תפלתי וחסדו מאתי,אמר להו רבי אבא בריה דר' חייא בר אבא הכי אמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן אלו ואלו יסורין של אהבה הן שנאמר כי את אשר יאהב ה' יוכיח,אלא מה ת"ל (תהלים צד, יב) ומתורתך תלמדנו אל תקרי תלמדנו אלא תלמדנו דבר זה מתורתך תלמדנו,ק"ו משן ועין מה שן ועין שהן אחד מאבריו של אדם עבד יוצא בהן לחרות יסורין שממרקין כל גופו של אדם על אחת כמה וכמה,והיינו דרבי שמעון בן לקיש דאמר רשב"ל נאמר ברית במלח ונאמר ברית ביסורין נאמר ברית במלח דכתיב (ויקרא ב, יג) ולא תשבית מלח ברית ונאמר ברית ביסורין דכתיב (דברים כח, סט) אלה דברי הברית מה ברית האמור במלח מלח ממתקת את הבשר אף ברית האמור ביסורין יסורין ממרקין כל עונותיו של אדם:,תניא רבי שמעון בן יוחאי אומר שלש מתנות טובות נתן הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל וכולן לא נתנן אלא ע"י יסורין אלו הן תורה וארץ ישראל והעולם הבא,תורה מנין שנאמר אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,ארץ ישראל דכתיב (דברים ח, ה) כי כאשר ייסר איש את בנו ה' אלהיך מיסרך וכתיב בתריה כי ה' אלהיך מביאך אל ארץ טובה,העולם הבא דכתיב (משלי ו, כג) כי נר מצוה ותורה אור ודרך חיים תוכחות מוסר.,תני תנא קמיה דר' יוחנן כל העוסק בתורה ובגמילות חסדים 5a. bIf one is a Torah scholar, he need notrecite iShemaon his bed since he is always engaged in the study of Torah and will likely fall asleep engrossed in matters of Torah. bAbaye said: Even a Torah scholar must recite at least one verse of prayer, such as: “Into Your hand I trust my spirit; You have redeemed me, Lord, God of truth”(Psalms 31:6).,Incidental to the verse, “Tremble, and do not sin,” the Gemara mentions that bRabbi Levi bar Ḥama saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: One should always incite his good inclination against his evil inclination,i.e., that one must constantly struggle so that his evil inclination does not lead him to transgression, bas it is stated: "Tremble, and do not sin."br bIfone succeeds and bsubdueshis evil inclination, bexcellent,but bifhe does bnotsucceed in subduing it, he should bstudy Torah,as alluded to in bthe verse: “Say to your heart.” br bIfhe bsubdueshis evil inclination, bexcellent; if not, he should recite iShema /i,which contains the acceptance of the yoke of God, and the concept of reward and punishment, bas it is statedin the verse: b“Upon your bed,”which alludes to iShema /i, where it says: “When you lie down.” br bIfhe bsubdueshis evil inclination, bexcellent; if not, he should remind himself of the day of death,whose silence is alluded to in the continuation of bthe verse: “And be still, Selah.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Levi bar Ḥama saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:God said to Moses, “Ascend to me on the mountain and be there, band I will give you the stone tablets and the Torah and the mitzva that I have written that you may teach them”(Exodus 24:12), meaning that God revealed to Moses not only the Written Torah, but all of Torah, as it would be transmitted through the generations. br bThe “tablets” are the ten commandmentsthat were written on the tablets of the Covet, br bthe “Torah” is the five books of Moses. br bThe “mitzva” is the Mishna,which includes explanations for the mitzvot and how they are to be performed. br b“That I have written” refers to the Prophets and Writings,written with divine inspiration. br b“That you may teach them” refers to the Talmud,which explains the Mishna. brThese explanations are the foundation for the rulings of practical ihalakha /i. This verse bteachesthat ballaspects of Torah bwere given toMoses bfrom Sinai. /b,The Gemara continues its treatment of the recitation of iShemaupon one’s bed. bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who recites iShemaon his bed, it is as if he holds a double-edged sword,guarding him from all evil, bas it is stated: “High praises of God in their mouths, and a double-edged sword in their hands”(Psalms 149:6). The Gemara asks: bFrom where is it inferredthat this verse from Psalms refers to the recitation of iShema /i? bMar Zutra, and some say Rav Ashi, said:We derive it bfrom the precedingverse, bas it is written: “Let the pious exult in glory; let them joyously sing upon their beds.”The praise of God from one’s bed is the recitation of iShema /i. bAnd it is written thereafter: “High praises of God in their mouths, and a double-edged sword in their hands.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who recites iShemaupon his bed, demons stay away from him.This is alluded to, bas it is stated:“But man is born into trouble, band the sparks [ ireshef] fly [ iuf] upward”(Job 5:7). The verse is explained: The word bfly [ iuf]means bnothing other than Torah,as Torah is difficult to grasp and easy to lose, like something that floats away, bas it is stated: “Will you set your eyes upon it? It is gone;for riches certainly make themselves wings, like an eagle that flies into the heavens” (Proverbs 23:5). The word b“sparks”means bnothing other than demons, as it is stated: “Wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the sparks [ ireshef /i] and bitter destruction [ iketev meriri /i],and the teeth of beasts I will send upon them, with the venom of crawling things of the dust” (Deuteronomy 32:24). Here we see iresheflisted along with iketev meriri /i, both of which are understood by the Sages to be names of demons.,Regarding this unclear verse, bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: If one engages in Torahstudy, bsuffering stays away from him, as it is stated: “And the sparks fly upward.”And bflymeans bnothing other than Torah, bas it is stated: “Will you set your eyes upon it? It is gone;and sparksmeans bnothing other than suffering, as it is stated: “Wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the sparks,”equating devouring sparks with wasting hunger, as both are types of suffering. From here, we derive that through Torah, fly, one is able to distance himself, upward, from suffering, sparks., bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: Even schoolchildren,who learn only the Written Torah, bknow thisconcept bas it is stated: “And He said you shall surely hear the voice of the Lord your God, and what is upright in His eyes you shall do and you shall listen to His mitzvot and guard His statutes; any disease that I have placed upon Egypt I will not place upon you for I am the Lord your healer”(Exodus 15:26). bRather,one must interpret the verse: bAnyone who is able to engage in Torahstudy byet does not engagein that study, not only does bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,fail to protect him, but He bbrings upon him hideous afflictions,that embarrass him band trouble him, as it is stated: “I was mute with silence; I was silent from good, and my pain was strong”(Psalms 39:3). The word bgoodmeans bnothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “For I have given you a good portion, My Torah, do not abandon it”(Proverbs 4:2). The verse should be understood: “I have been silent from the study of Torah, and my pain was strong.”,With regard to the verse: “For I have given you a good portion,” bRabbi Zeira, and some say Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa, said: Come and see how the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, are unlike the characteristics of flesh and blood. It is characteristic of flesh and blood that when one sells an object to anotherperson, bthe seller grievesthe loss of his possession band the buyer rejoices. With regard to the Holy One, Blessed be He,however, bthis is not so. He gave the Torah to Israel and rejoiced, as it is stated: “For I have given you a good portion, My Torah, do not abandon it.”A good portion is understood as a good purchase; although God sold Torah to Israel, He rejoices in the sale and praises the object before its new owner (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto).,Previously, the Gemara discussed suffering that results from one’s transgressions. The Gemara shifts the focus and discusses suffering that does not result from one’s transgressions and the suffering of the righteous. bRava, and some say Rav Ḥisda, said: If a person sees that suffering has befallen him, he should examine his actions.Generally, suffering comes about as punishment for one’s transgressions, bas it is stated: “We will search and examine our ways, and return to God”(Lamentations 3:40). bIf he examinedhis ways and bfound notransgression for which that suffering is appropriate, bhe may attributehis suffering bto derelictionin the study bof Torah.God punishes an individual for dereliction in the study of Torah in order to emphasize the gravity of the issue, bas it is stated: “Happy is the man whom You punish, Lord, and teach out of Your law”(Psalms 94:12). This verse teaches us that his suffering will cause him to return to Your law., bAnd if he did attributehis suffering to dereliction in the study of Torah, band did not findthis to be so, bhe may be confident that these are afflictions of love, as it is stated: “For whom the Lord loves, He rebukes,as does a father the son in whom he delights” (Proverbs 3:12).,So too, bRava saidthat bRav Seḥora saidthat bRav Huna said: Anyone in whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, delights, He oppresses him with suffering, as it is stated: “Yet in whom the Lord delights, He oppresses him with disease;to see if his soul would offer itself in guilt, that he might see his children, lengthen his days, and that the desire of the Lord might prosper by his hand” (Isaiah 53:10). This verse illustrates that in whomever God delights, he afflicts with illness.,I bmighthave thought that God delights in him even bif he does not accepthis suffering bwith love. Therefore the verse teaches: “If his soul would offer itself in guilt.” Just as a guilt-offering is brought knowingly,as it is one of the sacrifices offered willingly, without coercion, bso toohis bsufferingmust be accepted bknowingly. /b, bAnd if one acceptsthat suffering with love, bwhat is his reward?As the second part of the verse states: b“That he might see his children, lengthen his days.” Moreover,in addition to these earthly rewards, bhisTorah bstudy will endureand his Torah study will be successful, bas it is stated: “The purpose of the Lord,”the Torah, the revelation of God’s will, b“might prosper by his hand.” /b,With regard to the acceptance of affliction with love and what exactly this entails, bRabbi Ya’akov bar Idi and Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina disagree. Oneof them bsaid: Afflictions of love are any that do not cause derelictionin the study bof Torah,i.e., any which do not afflict his body to the extent that he is unable to study Torah, bas it is stated: “Happy is the man whom You afflict, Lord, and teach from Your Torah.”Afflictions of love are when You “teach from Your Torah.”, bAnd one said: Afflictions of love are any that do not cause derelictionin the recitation bof prayer, as it is stated: “Blessed is God Who did not turn away my prayer”(Psalms 66:20). Despite his suffering, the afflicted is still capable of praying to God., bRabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said:My father, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: Both,even afflictions that cause dereliction in the study of Torah and those that cause dereliction in the recitation of prayer, bare afflictions of love,as with regard to one who suffers without transgression bit is stated: “For whom He loves, He rebukes,”and inability to study Torah and to pray are among his afflictions., bWhat then,is the meaning when bthe verse states: “And teach him from Your Torah”? Do not read and teachto mean and bteach him /b, brather, and teach us /b. bYou teach usthe value of bthisaffliction bfrom Your Torah. /b,This is taught through ban ia fortioriinference fromthe law concerning bthe tooth and eyeof a slave: bThe tooth and eye areeach ba single limb of a personand if his master damages either, bthe slave thereby obtains his freedom; suffering that cleanses a person’s entire body all the more sothat one attains freedom, atonement, from his sins., bAnd that isthe statement of bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish, as Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:The word bcovet is used with regard to salt, andthe word bcovet is used with regard to afflictions.The word bcovet is used with regard to salt, as it is written: “The salt of the covetwith your God bshould not be excludedfrom your meal-offering; with all your sacrifices you must offer salt” (Leviticus 2:13). bAndthe word bcovet is used with regard to afflictions, as it is written: “These are the words of the covet”(Deuteronomy 28:69). bJust as,in bthe covet mentioned with regard to salt, the salt sweetensthe taste of bthe meatand renders it edible, bso tooin bthe covet mentioned with regard to suffering, the suffering cleanses a person’s transgressions,purifying him for a more sublime existence.,Additionally, bit was taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to affliction: bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, gave Israel three precious gifts, all of which were given only by means of suffering,which purified Israel so that they may merit to receive them. These gifts are: bTorah, Eretz Yisrael, and the World-to-Come. /b, bFrom whereis it derived that bTorahis only acquired by means of suffering? bAs it is said: “Happy is the man whom You afflict, Lord,”after which it is said: b“And teach from Your Torah.” /b, bEretz Yisrael, as it is written: “As a man rebukes his son, so the Lord your God rebukes you”(Deuteronomy 8:5), band it is written thereafter: “For the Lord your God will bring you to a good land.” /b, bThe World-to-Come, as it is written: “For the mitzva is a lamp, the Torah is light, and the reproofs of instruction are the way of life”(Proverbs 6:23). One may arrive at the lamp of mitzva and the light of Torah that exists in the World-to-Come only by means of the reproofs of instruction in this world., bA itannataughtthe following ibaraita bbefore Rabbi Yoḥa: If one engages in Torah and acts of charity /b
10. Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. b“Say to wisdom: You are my sister,and call understanding your kinswoman” (Proverbs 7:4), which indicates that one should be as knowledgeable in the Torah as in the identity of his sister. bAnd it states: “Bind them upon your fingers, you shall write them upon the tablet of your heart”(Proverbs 7:3). bAnd it states: “As arrows in the hand of a mighty man, so are the children of one’s youth”(Psalms 127:4). bAnd it states: “Sharp arrows of the mighty”(Psalms 120:4). bAnd it states: “Your arrows are sharp, the peoples fall under you”(Psalms 45:6). bAnd it states: “Happy is the man who has his quiver full of them; they shall not be put to shame when they speak with their enemies in the gate”(Psalms 127:5).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“enemies in the gate”with regard to Torah study? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says: Even a father and his son,or ba rabbi and his student, who are engaged in Torahtogether bin one gate become enemies with each otherdue to the intensity of their studies. bBut they do not leave there until they love each other, as it is statedin the verse discussing the places the Jewish people engaged in battle in the wilderness: “Therefore it is said in the book of the wars of the Lord, bVahev in Suphah [ ibeSufa /i],and the valleys of Arnon” (Numbers 21:14). The word “ ivahev /i” is interpreted as related to the word for love, iahava /i. Additionally, bdo not readthis as b“in Suphah [ ibeSufa /i]”; rather,read it as b“at its end [ ibesofa /i],”i.e., at the conclusion of their dispute they are beloved to each other., bThe Sages taught: “And you shall place [ ivesamtem /i]these words of Mine in your hearts” (Deuteronomy 11:18). Read this as though it stated isam tam /i, a perfect elixir. The Torah is compared to an elixir of life.There is ba parable thatillustrates this: bA person hit his son with a strong blow and placed a bandage on his wound. And he said to him: My son, as long as this bandage is on your woundand is healing you, beat what you enjoy and drink what you enjoy, and bathe in either hot water or cold water, and you do not need to be afraid,as it will heal your wound. bBut if you take it off,the wound bwill become gangrenous. /b, bSotoo bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Israel: My children, I created an evil inclination,which is the wound, band I created Torah as its antidote. If you are engaged in Torahstudy byou will not be given over into the handof the evil inclination, bas it is stated: “If you do well, shall it not be lifted up?”(Genesis 4:7). One who engages in Torah study lifts himself above the evil inclination., bAnd if you do not engage in Torahstudy, byou are given over to its power, as it is stated: “Sin crouches at the door”(Genesis 4:7). bMoreover, allof the evil inclination’s bdeliberationswill be bconcerning you, as it is statedin the same verse: b“And to you is its desire.” And if you wish you shall rule over it, as it is statedin the conclusion of the verse: b“But you may rule over it”(Genesis 4:7)., bThe Sages taught:So bdifficult is the evil inclination that even its Creator calls it evil, as it is stated: “For the inclination of a man’s heart is evil from his youth”(Genesis 8:21). bRav Yitzḥak says: A person’sevil binclination renews itself to him every day, as it is stated:“And that every inclination of the thoughts in his heart was bonly evil all day [ ikol hayyom /i]”(Genesis 6:5). “ iKol hayyom /i” can also be understood as: Every day., bAnd Rabbi Shimon ben Levi says: A person’s inclination overpowers him every day, and seeks to kill him, as it is stated: “The wicked watches the righteous and seeks to slay him”(Psalms 37:32). bAnd if notfor the fact that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, assistseach person in battling his evil inclination, bhe could notovercome bit, as it is stated: “The Lord will not leave him in his hand”(Psalms 37:33).,A Sage from bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: My son, if this wretched one,the evil inclination, bencounters you, pull it into the study hall,i.e., go and study Torah. bIf it is a stoneit will bmelt, and if it is ironit will bbreak, as it is statedwith regard to the Torah: b“Is not My word like fire, says the Lord, and like a hammer that breaks the rock in pieces?”(Jeremiah 23:29). Just as a stone shatters a hammer, so too one can overcome his evil inclination, which is as strong as iron, through Torah study. With regard to the second part of the statement: bIf it is a stoneit will bmelt,this is bas it is statedwith regard to the Torah: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1), band it states: “The water wears the stones”(Job 14:19), indicating that water is stronger than stone.,§ The ibaraita(29a) teaches that a father is commanded bto marryhis son to ba woman.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this matter? bAs it is written: “Take wives and bear sons and daughters, and take wives for your sons and give your daughters to men”(Jeremiah 29:6).,The Gemara analyzes this verse: bGrantedwith regard to bhis son,this is bin his power,i.e., he can instruct him to marry a woman, as a man is the active agent in a marriage. bButwith regard to bhis daughter, isthis bin his power?She must wait for a man to marry her. The Gemara answers: bThis is whatJeremiah was bsaying to themin the aforementioned verse: Her father should bgive her somethingfor her dowry, band he should dress and cover herwith suitable clothing bso that men will leap tomarry bher. /b,§ The ibaraitafurther states that a father is commanded bto teachhis son ba trade.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bḤizkiyya said: As the verse states: “Enjoy life with the wife whom you love”(Ecclesiastes 9:9). bIfthis verse is interpreted literally, and bitis referring to ban actual woman,then one can derive as follows: bJust asa father bis obligated to marryhis son bto a woman, so too, he is obligated to teach him a trade,as indicated by the term: Life. bAnd ifthe wife mentioned in this verse is allegorical, and bit is the Torah,then one should explain the verse in the following manner: bJust as he is obligated to teach him Torah, so too, he is obligated to teach him a trade. /b,§ The ibaraitaadds: bAnd some saythat a father is balsoobligated bto teachhis son bto swim in a river.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bIt isnecessary for bhis life,i.e., this is potentially a lifesaving skill.,§ The ibaraitafurther teaches that bRabbi Yehuda says: Anyfather bwho does not teachhis son ba trade teaches him banditry.The Gemara asks: Can it benter your mindthat he actually teaches him bbanditry? Rather,the ibaraitameans that it is bas though he taught him banditry. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthe opinion of the first itannaand that of Rabbi Yehuda? Both state that a father must teach his son a trade. The Gemara answers: bThere isa difference bbetween themin a case bwherethe father bteaches himto engage in bbusiness.According to the first itannathis is sufficient, whereas Rabbi Yehuda maintains that he must teach him an actual trade.,§ The mishna teaches: With regard to ball mitzvot of a father with regard to his son,both men and women are obligated to perform them. The Gemara inquires: bWhatis the meaning of the expression: bAll mitzvot of a father with regard to his son? If we saythat this is referring to ball of the mitzvot that a father is required to perform for his son,are bwomen obligatedin these? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA father is obligated with regard to his son to circumcise him, and to redeem him?This indicates that bhis father, yes,he is obligated to do these, but bhis mother, no,she is not obligated to perform these mitzvot for her son., bRav Yehuda saidthat bthis is whatthe mishna bis saying:With regard to beach mitzvafor bthe father that is incumbent upon the son to perform for his father, both men and women are obligatedin them. The Gemara comments: bWealready blearned this, as the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i, with regard to the verse: b“A manshall fear [ itira’u /i] his mother and his father” (Leviticus 19:3). bI havederived bonlythat ba manis obligated in this mitzva; bfrom wheredo I derive that ba womanis also obligated? bWhen it saysin the same verse: b“A man shall fear [ itira’u /i] his mother and his father”(Leviticus 19:3), employing the plural form of the verb, this indicates that bthere are twothat are obligated bhere,both a man and a woman., bIf so,that both of them are obligated, bwhatis the meaning when bthe verse states: “Man”?In the case of ba man,it is bin his power to performthis mitzva; whereas with regard to ba woman,it is bnotalways bin her power to performthis mitzva, bbecause she is under the authority of anotherperson, i.e., her husband. As she is obligated to her husband to maintain her household, she is not always able to find time for her parents. bRav Idi bar Avin saysthat bRav says:Consequently, if a woman bis divorced,then bboth of them,a daughter and a son, are bequalwith regard to honoring and fearing their father and mother., bThe Sages taughtthat bit is stated: “Honor your father and your mother”(Exodus 20:11), band it is stated: “Honor the Lord with your wealth”(Proverbs 3:9). In this manner, bthe verse equates the honor of one’s father and mother to the honor of the Omnipresent,as the term “honor” is used in both cases.,Similarly, bit is stated: “A man shall fear his mother and his father”(Leviticus 19:3), band it is stated: “You shall fear the Lord your God and Him you shall serve”(Deuteronomy 6:13). bThe verse equates the fear of one’s father and mother to the fear of the Omnipresent. /b,Likewise, bit is stated: “He who curses his father or his mother shall be put to death”(Exodus 21:17), band it is stated: “Whoever curses his God shall bear his sin”(Leviticus 24:15). bThe verse equates the blessing,a euphemism for cursing, bofone’s bfather and mother to the blessing of the Omnipresent. But with regard to striking,i.e., with regard to the ihalakhathat one who strikes his father or mother is liable to receive court-imposed capital punishment, bit is certainly not possibleto say the same concerning the Holy One, Blessed be He., bAnd sotoo, the equating of one’s attitude toward his parents to his attitude toward God is ba logical derivation, as the three of them are partners in hiscreation. As bthe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe forming of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He,who provides the soul, band his father and his mother. When a person honors his father and mother, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: I ascribecredit bto them as if I dwelt between them and they honor Meas well., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: It is revealed and known before the One Who spoke and the world came into being that a son honors his mother more thanhe honors bhis father, because /b
11. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. (משלי ז, ד) אמור לחכמה אחותי את וגו' ואומר (משלי ז, ג) קשרם על אצבעותיך כתבם על לוח לבך ואומר (תהלים קכז, ד) כחצים ביד גבור כן בני הנעורים ואומר (תהלים קכ, ד) חצי גבור שנונים ואומר (תהלים מה, ו) חציך שנונים עמים תחתיך יפלו ואומר (תהלים קכז, ה) אשרי הגבר אשר מלא את אשפתו מהם לא יבושו כי ידברו את אויבים בשער,מאי את אויבים בשער אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אפי' האב ובנו הרב ותלמידו שעוסקין בתורה בשער אחד נעשים אויבים זה את זה ואינם זזים משם עד שנעשים אוהבים זה את זה שנאמר (במדבר כא, יד) את והב בסופה אל תקרי בסופה אלא בסופה,ת"ר (דברים יא, יח) ושמתם סם תם נמשלה תורה כסם חיים משל לאדם שהכה את בנו מכה גדולה והניח לו רטיה על מכתו ואמר לו בני כל זמן שהרטיה זו על מכתך אכול מה שהנאתך ושתה מה שהנאתך ורחוץ בין בחמין בין בצונן ואין אתה מתיירא ואם אתה מעבירה הרי היא מעלה נומי,כך הקב"ה אמר להם לישראל בני בראתי יצר הרע ובראתי לו תורה תבלין ואם אתם עוסקים בתורה אין אתם נמסרים בידו שנאמר (בראשית ד, ז) הלא אם תטיב שאת,ואם אין אתם עוסקין בתורה אתם נמסרים בידו שנא' לפתח חטאת רובץ ולא עוד אלא שכל משאו ומתנו בך שנאמר ואליך תשוקתו ואם אתה רוצה אתה מושל בו שנאמר ואתה תמשל בו,ת"ר קשה יצר הרע שאפילו יוצרו קראו רע שנאמר (בראשית ח, כא) כי יצר לב האדם רע מנעוריו אמר רב יצחק יצרו של אדם מתחדש עליו בכל יום שנאמר (בראשית ו, ה) רק רע כל היום,ואמר ר"ש בן לוי יצרו של אדם מתגבר עליו בכל יום ומבקש המיתו שנאמר (תהלים לז, לב) צופה רשע לצדיק ומבקש להמיתו ואלמלא הקב"ה עוזרו אין יכול לו שנאמר אלהים לא יעזבנו בידו,תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל בני אם פגע בך מנוול זה משכהו לבית המדרש אם אבן הוא נימוח ואם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע אם אבן הוא נימוח שנאמר (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים ואומר (איוב יד, יט) אבנים שחקו מים,להשיאו אשה מנלן דכתיב (ירמיהו כט, ו) קחו נשים והולידו בנים ובנות וקחו לבניכם נשים ואת בנותיכם תנו לאנשים,בשלמא בנו בידו אלא בתו בידו היא הכי קאמר להו ניתן לה מידי ולבשייה ונכסייה כי היכי דקפצו עלה אינשי,ללמדו אומנות מנלן אמר חזקיה דאמר קרא (קהלת ט, ט) ראה חיים עם אשה אשר אהבת אם אשה ממש היא כשם שחייב להשיאו אשה כך חייב ללמדו אומנות אם תורה היא כשם שחייב ללמדו תורה כך חייב ללמדו אומנות,ויש אומרים אף להשיטו בנהר מאי טעמא חיותיה הוא,רבי יהודה אומר כל שאינו מלמדו אומנות מלמדו ליסטות ליסטות ס"ד אלא כאילו מלמדו ליסטות,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דאגמריה עיסקא,כל מצות האב על הבן וכו' מאי כל מצות האב על הבן אילימא כל מצותא דמיחייב אבא למיעבד לבריה נשים חייבות והתניא האב חייב בבנו למולו ולפדותו אביו אין אמו לא,אמר רב יהודה הכי קאמר כל מצות האב המוטלת על הבן לעשות לאביו אחד אנשים ואחד נשים חייבין תנינא להא דת"ר איש אין לי אלא איש אשה מנין כשהוא אומר תיראו הרי כאן שנים,א"כ מה ת"ל איש איש סיפק בידו לעשות אשה אין סיפק בידה לעשות מפני שרשות אחרים עליה אמר רב אידי בר אבין אמר רב נתגרשה שניהם שוים,ת"ר נאמר (שמות כ, יב) כבד את אביך ואת אמך ונאמר (משלי ג, ט) כבד את ה' מהונך השוה הכתוב כבוד אב ואם לכבוד המקום,נאמר (ויקרא יט, ג) איש אמו ואביו תיראו ונאמר (דברים ו, יג) את ה' אלהיך תירא ואותו תעבוד השוה הכתוב מוראת אב ואם למוראת המקום,נאמר (שמות כא, יז) מקלל אביו ואמו מות יומת ונאמר (ויקרא כד, טו) איש איש כי יקלל אלהיו ונשא חטאו השוה הכתוב ברכת אב ואם לברכת המקום אבל בהכאה ודאי אי אפשר,וכן בדין ששלשתן שותפין בו ת"ר שלשה שותפין הן באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו בזמן שאדם מכבד את אביו ואת אמו אמר הקב"ה מעלה אני עליהם כאילו דרתי ביניהם וכבדוני,תניא רבי אומר גלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שבן מכבד את אמו יותר מאביו מפני 30b. b“Say to wisdom: You are my sister,and call understanding your kinswoman” (Proverbs 7:4), which indicates that one should be as knowledgeable in the Torah as in the identity of his sister. bAnd it states: “Bind them upon your fingers, you shall write them upon the tablet of your heart”(Proverbs 7:3). bAnd it states: “As arrows in the hand of a mighty man, so are the children of one’s youth”(Psalms 127:4). bAnd it states: “Sharp arrows of the mighty”(Psalms 120:4). bAnd it states: “Your arrows are sharp, the peoples fall under you”(Psalms 45:6). bAnd it states: “Happy is the man who has his quiver full of them; they shall not be put to shame when they speak with their enemies in the gate”(Psalms 127:5).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“enemies in the gate”with regard to Torah study? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says: Even a father and his son,or ba rabbi and his student, who are engaged in Torahtogether bin one gate become enemies with each otherdue to the intensity of their studies. bBut they do not leave there until they love each other, as it is statedin the verse discussing the places the Jewish people engaged in battle in the wilderness: “Therefore it is said in the book of the wars of the Lord, bVahev in Suphah [ ibeSufa /i],and the valleys of Arnon” (Numbers 21:14). The word “ ivahev /i” is interpreted as related to the word for love, iahava /i. Additionally, bdo not readthis as b“in Suphah [ ibeSufa /i]”; rather,read it as b“at its end [ ibesofa /i],”i.e., at the conclusion of their dispute they are beloved to each other., bThe Sages taught: “And you shall place [ ivesamtem /i]these words of Mine in your hearts” (Deuteronomy 11:18). Read this as though it stated isam tam /i, a perfect elixir. The Torah is compared to an elixir of life.There is ba parable thatillustrates this: bA person hit his son with a strong blow and placed a bandage on his wound. And he said to him: My son, as long as this bandage is on your woundand is healing you, beat what you enjoy and drink what you enjoy, and bathe in either hot water or cold water, and you do not need to be afraid,as it will heal your wound. bBut if you take it off,the wound bwill become gangrenous. /b, bSotoo bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Israel: My children, I created an evil inclination,which is the wound, band I created Torah as its antidote. If you are engaged in Torahstudy byou will not be given over into the handof the evil inclination, bas it is stated: “If you do well, shall it not be lifted up?”(Genesis 4:7). One who engages in Torah study lifts himself above the evil inclination., bAnd if you do not engage in Torahstudy, byou are given over to its power, as it is stated: “Sin crouches at the door”(Genesis 4:7). bMoreover, allof the evil inclination’s bdeliberationswill be bconcerning you, as it is statedin the same verse: b“And to you is its desire.” And if you wish you shall rule over it, as it is statedin the conclusion of the verse: b“But you may rule over it”(Genesis 4:7)., bThe Sages taught:So bdifficult is the evil inclination that even its Creator calls it evil, as it is stated: “For the inclination of a man’s heart is evil from his youth”(Genesis 8:21). bRav Yitzḥak says: A person’sevil binclination renews itself to him every day, as it is stated:“And that every inclination of the thoughts in his heart was bonly evil all day [ ikol hayyom /i]”(Genesis 6:5). “ iKol hayyom /i” can also be understood as: Every day., bAnd Rabbi Shimon ben Levi says: A person’s inclination overpowers him every day, and seeks to kill him, as it is stated: “The wicked watches the righteous and seeks to slay him”(Psalms 37:32). bAnd if notfor the fact that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, assistseach person in battling his evil inclination, bhe could notovercome bit, as it is stated: “The Lord will not leave him in his hand”(Psalms 37:33).,A Sage from bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: My son, if this wretched one,the evil inclination, bencounters you, pull it into the study hall,i.e., go and study Torah. bIf it is a stoneit will bmelt, and if it is ironit will bbreak, as it is statedwith regard to the Torah: b“Is not My word like fire, says the Lord, and like a hammer that breaks the rock in pieces?”(Jeremiah 23:29). Just as a stone shatters a hammer, so too one can overcome his evil inclination, which is as strong as iron, through Torah study. With regard to the second part of the statement: bIf it is a stoneit will bmelt,this is bas it is statedwith regard to the Torah: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1), band it states: “The water wears the stones”(Job 14:19), indicating that water is stronger than stone.,§ The ibaraita(29a) teaches that a father is commanded bto marryhis son to ba woman.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this matter? bAs it is written: “Take wives and bear sons and daughters, and take wives for your sons and give your daughters to men”(Jeremiah 29:6).,The Gemara analyzes this verse: bGrantedwith regard to bhis son,this is bin his power,i.e., he can instruct him to marry a woman, as a man is the active agent in a marriage. bButwith regard to bhis daughter, isthis bin his power?She must wait for a man to marry her. The Gemara answers: bThis is whatJeremiah was bsaying to themin the aforementioned verse: Her father should bgive her somethingfor her dowry, band he should dress and cover herwith suitable clothing bso that men will leap tomarry bher. /b,§ The ibaraitafurther states that a father is commanded bto teachhis son ba trade.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bḤizkiyya said: As the verse states: “Enjoy life with the wife whom you love”(Ecclesiastes 9:9). bIfthis verse is interpreted literally, and bitis referring to ban actual woman,then one can derive as follows: bJust asa father bis obligated to marryhis son bto a woman, so too, he is obligated to teach him a trade,as indicated by the term: Life. bAnd ifthe wife mentioned in this verse is allegorical, and bit is the Torah,then one should explain the verse in the following manner: bJust as he is obligated to teach him Torah, so too, he is obligated to teach him a trade. /b,§ The ibaraitaadds: bAnd some saythat a father is balsoobligated bto teachhis son bto swim in a river.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bIt isnecessary for bhis life,i.e., this is potentially a lifesaving skill.,§ The ibaraitafurther teaches that bRabbi Yehuda says: Anyfather bwho does not teachhis son ba trade teaches him banditry.The Gemara asks: Can it benter your mindthat he actually teaches him bbanditry? Rather,the ibaraitameans that it is bas though he taught him banditry. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthe opinion of the first itannaand that of Rabbi Yehuda? Both state that a father must teach his son a trade. The Gemara answers: bThere isa difference bbetween themin a case bwherethe father bteaches himto engage in bbusiness.According to the first itannathis is sufficient, whereas Rabbi Yehuda maintains that he must teach him an actual trade.,§ The mishna teaches: With regard to ball mitzvot of a father with regard to his son,both men and women are obligated to perform them. The Gemara inquires: bWhatis the meaning of the expression: bAll mitzvot of a father with regard to his son? If we saythat this is referring to ball of the mitzvot that a father is required to perform for his son,are bwomen obligatedin these? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA father is obligated with regard to his son to circumcise him, and to redeem him?This indicates that bhis father, yes,he is obligated to do these, but bhis mother, no,she is not obligated to perform these mitzvot for her son., bRav Yehuda saidthat bthis is whatthe mishna bis saying:With regard to beach mitzvafor bthe father that is incumbent upon the son to perform for his father, both men and women are obligatedin them. The Gemara comments: bWealready blearned this, as the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i, with regard to the verse: b“A manshall fear [ itira’u /i] his mother and his father” (Leviticus 19:3). bI havederived bonlythat ba manis obligated in this mitzva; bfrom wheredo I derive that ba womanis also obligated? bWhen it saysin the same verse: b“A man shall fear [ itira’u /i] his mother and his father”(Leviticus 19:3), employing the plural form of the verb, this indicates that bthere are twothat are obligated bhere,both a man and a woman., bIf so,that both of them are obligated, bwhatis the meaning when bthe verse states: “Man”?In the case of ba man,it is bin his power to performthis mitzva; whereas with regard to ba woman,it is bnotalways bin her power to performthis mitzva, bbecause she is under the authority of anotherperson, i.e., her husband. As she is obligated to her husband to maintain her household, she is not always able to find time for her parents. bRav Idi bar Avin saysthat bRav says:Consequently, if a woman bis divorced,then bboth of them,a daughter and a son, are bequalwith regard to honoring and fearing their father and mother., bThe Sages taughtthat bit is stated: “Honor your father and your mother”(Exodus 20:11), band it is stated: “Honor the Lord with your wealth”(Proverbs 3:9). In this manner, bthe verse equates the honor of one’s father and mother to the honor of the Omnipresent,as the term “honor” is used in both cases.,Similarly, bit is stated: “A man shall fear his mother and his father”(Leviticus 19:3), band it is stated: “You shall fear the Lord your God and Him you shall serve”(Deuteronomy 6:13). bThe verse equates the fear of one’s father and mother to the fear of the Omnipresent. /b,Likewise, bit is stated: “He who curses his father or his mother shall be put to death”(Exodus 21:17), band it is stated: “Whoever curses his God shall bear his sin”(Leviticus 24:15). bThe verse equates the blessing,a euphemism for cursing, bofone’s bfather and mother to the blessing of the Omnipresent. But with regard to striking,i.e., with regard to the ihalakhathat one who strikes his father or mother is liable to receive court-imposed capital punishment, bit is certainly not possibleto say the same concerning the Holy One, Blessed be He., bAnd sotoo, the equating of one’s attitude toward his parents to his attitude toward God is ba logical derivation, as the three of them are partners in hiscreation. As bthe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe forming of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He,who provides the soul, band his father and his mother. When a person honors his father and mother, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: I ascribecredit bto them as if I dwelt between them and they honor Meas well., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: It is revealed and known before the One Who spoke and the world came into being that a son honors his mother more thanhe honors bhis father, because /b
12. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11a. במזומנין לה מעשה ברבן גמליאל שאמר השכימו לי שבעה לעלייה השכים ומצא שמונה אמר מי הוא שעלה שלא ברשות ירד,עמד שמואל הקטן ואמר אני הוא שעליתי שלא ברשות ולא לעבר השנה עליתי אלא ללמוד הלכה למעשה הוצרכתי אמר לו שב בני שב ראויות כל השנים כולן להתעבר על ידך אלא אמרו חכמים אין מעברין את השנה אלא במזומנין לה ולא שמואל הקטן הוה אלא איניש אחרינא ומחמת כיסופא הוא דעבד,כי הא דיתיב רבי וקא דריש והריח ריח שום אמר מי שאכל שום יצא עמד רבי חייא ויצא עמדו כולן ויצאו בשחר מצאו רבי שמעון בר' לרבי חייא אמר ליה אתה הוא שציערת לאבא אמר לו לא תהא כזאת בישראל,ורבי חייא מהיכא גמיר לה מרבי מאיר דתניא מעשה באשה אחת שבאתה לבית מדרשו של ר"מ אמרה לו רבי אחד מכם קדשני בביאה עמד רבי מאיר וכתב לה גט כריתות ונתן לה עמדו כתבו כולם ונתנו לה,ור"מ מהיכא גמיר לה משמואל הקטן ושמואל הקטן מהיכא גמיר לה משכניה בן יחיאל דכתיב (עזרא י, ב) ויען שכניה בן יחיאל מבני עילם ויאמר לעזרא אנחנו מעלנו באלהינו ונושב נשים נכריות מעמי הארץ ועתה יש מקוה לישראל על זאת,ושכניה בן יחיאל מהיכא גמר לה מיהושע דכתיב (יהושע ז, י) ויאמר ה' אל יהושע קום לך למה זה אתה נופל על פניך חטא ישראל אמר לפניו רבש"ע מי חטא אמר לו וכי דילטור אני לך הטל גורלות ואיבעית אימא ממשה דכתיב (שמות טז, כח) עד אנה מאנתם,ת"ר משמתו נביאים האחרונים חגי זכריה ומלאכי נסתלקה רוח הקודש מישראל ואף על פי כן היו משתמשין בבת קול פעם אחת היו מסובין בעליית בית גוריה ביריחו ונתנה עליהם בת קול מן השמים יש כאן אחד שראוי שתשרה עליו שכינה (כמשה רבינו) אלא שאין דורו זכאי לכך נתנו חכמים את עיניהם בהלל הזקן וכשמת אמרו עליו הי חסיד הי עניו תלמידו של עזרא,שוב פעם אחת היו מסובין בעליה ביבנה ונתנה עליהם בת קול מן השמים יש כאן אחד שראוי שתשרה עליו שכינה אלא שאין דורו זכאי לכך נתנו חכמים את עיניהם בשמואל הקטן וכשמת אמרו עליו הי חסיד הי עניו תלמידו של הלל אף הוא אמר בשעת מיתתו שמעון וישמעאל לחרבא וחברוהי לקטלא ושאר עמא לביזא ועקן סגיאן עתידן למיתי על עלמא,ועל יהודה בן בבא בקשו לומר כן אלא שנטרפה שעה שאין מספידין על הרוגי מלכות,ת"ר אין מעברין את השנה אלא אם כן ירצה נשיא ומעשה ברבן גמליאל שהלך ליטול רשות אצל שלטון אחד שבסוריא ושהה לבא ועיברו את השנה על מנת שירצה רבן גמליאל וכשבא ר"ג ואמר רוצה אני נמצאת שנה מעוברת,תנו רבנן אין מעברין את השנה אלא אם כן היתה צריכה מפני הדרכים ומפני הגשרים ומפני תנורי פסחים ומפני גליות ישראל שנעקרו ממקומן ועדיין לא הגיעו אבל לא מפני השלג ולא מפני הצינה ולא מפני גליות ישראל שלא עקרו ממקומן,ת"ר אין מעברין את השנה לא מפני הגדיים ולא מפני הטלאים ולא מפני הגוזלות שלא פירחו אבל עושין אותן סעד לשנה כיצד רבי ינאי אומר משום רבן שמעון בן גמליאל מהודעין אנחנא לכון דגוזליא רכיכין ואימריא דערקין וזימנא דאביבא לא מטא ושפרת מילתא באנפאי ואוסיפית על שתא דא תלתין יומין,מיתיבי כמה עיבור השנה שלשים יום רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר חדש אמר רב פפא רצו חדש רצו שלשים יום,תא חזי מאי איכא בין 11a. bbythose bwho were invitedby the iNasi /i, the president of the Great Sanhedrin, bfor thatpurpose. There was ban incident involving Rabban Gamliel, who saidto the Sages: bBring me sevenof the Sages bearlytomorrow morning bto the loftdesignated for convening a court to intercalate the year. He bwentto the loft bearlythe next morning band found eightSages there. Rabban Gamliel bsaid: Who is it who ascendedto the loft bwithout permission? He must descendimmediately., bShmuel HaKatan stoodup band said: I am he who ascended without permission; and I did not ascend toparticipate and be one of those to bintercalate the year, butrather bI neededto observe in order bto learn the practical ihalakha /i.Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: Sit, my son, sit. It would be fitting for all of the years to be intercalated by you,as you are truly worthy. bBut the Sages said: The yearmay be bintercalated only bythose bwho were invited for thatpurpose. The Gemara notes: bAnd it was notactually bShmuel HaKatanwho had come uninvited, bbut another person. And due to the embarrassmentof the other, Shmuel HaKatan bdidthis, so that no one would know who had come uninvited.,The Gemara relates that the story about Shmuel HaKatan is bsimilarto an incident that occurred bwhen RabbiYehuda HaNasi was bsitting and teaching, andhe bsmelled the odor of garlic.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was very sensitive and could not tolerate this odor. He bsaid: Whoever ate garlicshould bleave. Rabbi Ḥiyya stood up and left.Out of respect for Rabbi Ḥiyya, ball of thosein attendance bstood up and left.The next day, bin the morning, Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bfound Rabbi Ḥiyya,and he bsaid to him:Are byou the one who disturbed my fatherby coming to the lecture with the foul smell of garlic? Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: There should not be suchbehavior bamong the Jewish people.I would not do such a thing, but I assumed the blame and left so that the one who did so would not be embarrassed., bAnd from where did Rabbi Ḥiyya learn thatcharacteristic of being willing to implicate himself in order to save someone else from being embarrassed? He learned it bfrom Rabbi Meir, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: There was ban incident involvinga certain bwoman who came to the study hall of Rabbi Meir. She said to him: My teacher, one of you,i.e., one of the men studying in this study hall, bbetrothed me through intercourse.The woman came to Rabbi Meir to appeal for help in identifying the man, so that he would either marry her or grant her a divorce. As he himself was also among those who studied in the study hall, bRabbi Meir arose and wrote her a bill of divorce, andhe bgave it to her.Following his example, ball thosein the study hall baroseand bwrotebills of divorce band gavethem bto her.In this manner, the right man also gave her a divorce, freeing her to marry someone else., bAnd from where did Rabbi Meir learn thatcharacteristic? bFrom Shmuel HaKatan,in the incident outlined above. bAnd from where did Shmuel HaKatan learn it? From Shecaniah ben Jehiel, as it is written: “And Shecaniah, the son of Jehiel, one of the sons of Elam, answered and said to Ezra: We have broken faith with our God, and have married foreign women of the peoples of the land; yet now there is hope for Israel concerning this”(Ezra 10:2). And although he confessed, Shecaniah is not listed among those who took foreign wives (Ezra 10:18–44). Evidently, he confessed only to spare the others from public embarrassment.,The Gemara continues: bAnd from where did Shecaniah ben Jehiel learn it? Froman incident involving bJoshua, as it is written: “And the Lord said to Joshua: Get yourself up; why do you fall upon your face? Israel has sinned”(Joshua 7:10–11). Joshua bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, who sinned?God bsaid to him: And am I your informer?Rather, bcast lotsto determine who is guilty. In this way, God did not directly disclose the identity of the sinner to Joshua. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that Shecaniah ben Jehiel learned this bfroman incident involving bMoses, as it is written:“And the Lord said to Moses: bHow long do you refuseto keep My mitzvot and My laws?” (Exodus 16:28). Although only a small number of people attempted to collect the manna on Shabbat, God spoke as though the entire nation were guilty, so as not to directly expose the guilty.,§ Since Shmuel HaKatan and his great piety were mentioned, the Gemara now relates several incidents that shed additional light on his personality. bThe Sages taught: After the last of the prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, died, the Divine Spiritof prophetic revelation bdeparted from the Jewish people. But nevertheless, they werestill butilizing a Divine Voice,which they heard as a kind of echo of prophecy. bOne time,a group of Sages bwere reclining in the loft of the house of Gurya in Jericho, and a Divine Voice was bestowed upon them from Heaven,saying: bThere is one here who is fit for the Divine Presence to rest upon him asit rested upon bMoses our teacher, but his generation is not deserving of thisdistinction. bThe Sages set their eyes upon Hillel the Elder,trusting that he was the one indicated by the Divine Voice. bAnd when he died,the Sages bsaid about him: Alas,the bpiousman, balas,the bhumbleman, ba disciple of Ezra. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnother time,a group of Sages bwere reclining in the loft in Yavne, and a Divine Voice was bestowed upon them from Heaven,saying: bThere is one here who is fit for the Divine Presence to rest upon himin prophecy, bbut his generation is not deserving of thisdistinction. bThe Sages set their eyes upon Shmuel HaKatan. And whenhe bdied,the Sages bsaid about him: Alas,the bpiousman, balas,the bhumbleman, ba disciple of Hillel. Additionally, he said at the time of his death,under the influence of the Divine Spirit: Rabban bShimonben Gamliel, the iNasiof the Great Sanhedrin, bandRabbi bYishmael,the High Priest, will die bby the sword, and their friendswill die bbyother bexecutions, and the rest of the nationwill be bdespoiled, and great troubles will ultimately come upon the world. /b, bAndthey also bwished to say thus:Alas, the pious man, alas, the humble man, babout Yehuda ben Bava,in their eulogy for him, bbut the hour was torn,i.e., the opportunity was lost, basone bdoes not eulogize those executed by the government.As will be explained (14a), Yehuda ben Bava was executed by the government.,§ The Gemara returns to the discussion about intercalation of the year. bThe Sages taught: The yearmay be bintercalated only if the iNasi /iof the Sanhedrin bwantsto intercalate it. bAndthere was once ban incident involving Rabban Gamliel, who went to ask permissionfor some communal matter bfrom an officer [ ihegmon /i] in Syria, andhe btarried in returninguntil after it was too late to intercalate the year. bAndbecause they did not know what his opinion on the matter was, they bintercalated the year on the condition that Rabban Gamliel would wantto do so. bAnd when Rabban Gamliel cameback band said: I wantto intercalate the year, bthe year was foundto be retroactively bintercalated. /b, bThe Sages taught: The yearmay be bintercalated only if it is necessary due todamage to bthe roads,if the rain has damaged them in such a way that they are inaccessible for those ascending to Jerusalem for Passover; bor due to the bridgesthat are likewise in disrepair; bor due to the ovensfor the bPaschal offeringsthat are damaged and unfit for roasting the offerings; bor due to the Diaspora Jews who have left their homes and still have not arriveddue to delays in travel. bButthe year may bnotbe intercalated bdue to the snow, and not due to the cold, and not due to the Diaspora Jews who have notyet bleft from their homes,even if they no longer have enough time to reach Jerusalem for the Festival., bThe Sages taught: The year may notbe bintercalated due to the young goats and not due to the lambs,to allow them to grow larger before they are to be sacrificed as Paschal offerings; band not due to the fledglingdoves bwho have notyet developed sufficiently to bfly,so that there won’t be enough of them to supply all those who wish to bring bird offerings at the Festival. bButall btheseconsiderations may be bmade supportingfactors in the decision btointercalate bthe year.The Gemara asks: bHowso? bRabbi Yannai says in the name of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel,i.e., this is the language Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel used in his declaration of the intercalation: bWe are notifying you that the fledglings are tender, and that the lambs are thin [ ide’arkin /i], and time for the spring has notyet barrived. Andconsequently, bthe matter is good in my eyes, and I havetherefore badded thirty days onto this year. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionto the report that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel holds the intercalated month is thirty days long. It is taught in a ibaraita /i: bHow long isthe additional month in ban intercalatedleap byear?The Rabbis say: bThirty days. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:A standard bmonth,which is twenty-nine days long. What, then, does Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel hold? bRav Pappa said:Rabban Gamliel holds that if the court bwants,it may add a standard bmonth,and if it bwants,it may add a month of bthirty days. /b,Concerning the declaration of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, the Gemara observes: bComeand bsee whatdifference bthere is between /b
13. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

104a. עלויי קא מעלי ליה דאמר רב חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין אלא סתום ועשאו פתוח גרועי קא מגרע ליה דאמר ר' ירמיה ואיתימא ר' חייא בר אבא מנצפך צופים אמרום,ותיסברא והכתיב (ויקרא כז, לד) אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא מיהוה הואי מידע לא הוה ידעין הי באמצע תיבה הי בסוף תיבה ואתו צופים תקנינהו ואכתי אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,גופא א"ר חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין ואמר רב חסדא כתב שבלוחות נקרא מבפנים ונקרא מבחוץ כגון נבוב בובן (רהב בהר) סרו ורס:,אמרי ליה רבנן לריב"ל אתו דרדקי האידנא לבי מדרשא ואמרו מילי דאפילו בימי יהושע בן נו"ן לא איתמר כוותייהו אל"ף בי"ת אלף בינה גימ"ל דל"ת גמול דלים מ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דגימ"ל לגבי דל"ת שכן דרכו של גומל חסדים לרוץ אחר דלים ומ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דדל"ת לגבי גימ"ל דלימציה ליה נפשיה ומ"ט מהדר אפיה דדל"ת מגימ"ל דליתן ליה בצינעה כי היכי דלא ליכסיף מיניה,ה"ו זה שמו של הקב"ה ז"ח ט"י כ"ל ואם אתה עושה כן הקב"ה זן אותך וחן אותך ומטיב לך ונותן לך ירושה וקושר לך כתר לעוה"ב מ"ם פתוחה מ"ם סתומה מאמר פתוח מאמר סתום נו"ן כפופה נו"ן פשוטה נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט,ס"ע סמוך עניים ל"א סימנין עשה בתורה וקנה אותה פ' כפופה פ' פשוטה פה פתוח פה סתום צד"י כפופה וצד"י פשוטה צדיק כפוף צדיק פשוט היינו נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט הוסיף לך הכתוב כפיפה על כפיפתו מכאן שנתנה התורה במנוד ראש,קו"ף קדוש רי"ש רשע מאי טעמא מהדר אפיה דקו"ף מרי"ש אמר הקב"ה אין אני יכול להסתכל ברשע ומאי טעמא מהדרה תגיה דקו"ף לגבי רי"ש אמר הקב"ה אם חוזר בו אני קושר לו כתר כמותי ומ"ט כרעיה דקו"ף תלויה דאי הדר ביה ליעייל,וליעול בהך מסייע ליה לריש לקיש) דאמר ר"ל מ"ד (משלי ג, לד) אם ללצים הוא יליץ ולענוים יתן חן בא ליטמא פותחין לו בא ליטהר מסייעים אותו,שי"ן שקר תי"ו אמת מאי טעמא שקר מקרבן מיליה אמת מרחקא מיליה שיקרא שכיח קושטא לא שכיח ומ"ט שיקרא אחדא כרעיה קאי ואמת מלבן לבוניה קושטא קאי שיקרא לא קאי,א"ת ב"ש אותי תעב אתאוה לו ב"ש בי לא חשק שמי יחול עליו ג"ר גופו טימא ארחם עליו ד"ק דלתותי נעל קרניו לא אגדע עד כאן מדת רשעים,אבל מדת צדיקים א"ת ב"ש אם אתה בוש ג"ר ד"ק אם אתה עושה כן גור בדוק ה"ץ ו"ף חציצה הוי בינך לאף ז"ע ח"ס ט"ן ואין אתה מזדעזע מן השטן י"ם כ"ל אמר [שר של] גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם לים כל,אמר הקב"ה אח"ס בט"ע גי"ף אני חס עליהם מפני שבעטו בגי"ף דכ"ץ דכים הם כנים הם צדיקים הם הל"ק אין לך חלק בהן ומרז"ן ש"ת אמר גיהנם לפניו רבונו של עולם מרי זניני מזרעו של שת,א"ל א"ל ב"ם ג"ן ד"ס להיכן אוליכן לגן הדס ה"ע ו"ף אמר גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם עיף אנכי ז"ץ ח"ק הללו זרעו של יצחק ט"ר י"ש כ"ת טר יש לי כיתות כיתות של עובדי כוכבים שאני נותן לך: 104a. bhe elevates itsstatus, as bRav Ḥisda said:The letters imemand isamekhthat were in the tablets were standing miraculously.Each letter was chiseled all the way through the tablets. In that case, the segment of the tablets at the center of the isamekhand final imem /i, letters that are completely closed, should have fallen. Miraculously, they remained in place. Consequently, rendering an open imemclosed elevates its status. bHowever,if bone rendered a closedletter bopen, he diminishes itsstatus, as bRabbi Yirmeya said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbawho said: bThe prophets institutedthe difference between the open and closed forms of the letters imem /i, inun /i, itzadi /i, ipeh /i, ikaf /i.Since the closed letters date back to the Ten Commandments, apparently the prophets introduced the open versions of the letters, which are therefore less significant.,The Gemara rejects this: bAnd is that reasonable? Isn’t it written: “These are the commandmentsthat the Lord commanded Moses to tell the children of Israel at Mount Sinai” (Leviticus 27:34). The word “these” underscores bthat a prophet is not permitted to introduce anynew belementrelated to the Torah and its mitzvot bfrom here on. Rather,the prophets did not innovate these forms. Both the open and closed versions bexistedbefore then. However, people bdid not know whichform appeared bin the middle of a wordand bwhichform bat the end of a word. And the prophets cameand binstituted theirset positions. The Gemara asks: bAnd stillthe question remains: Didn’t the Sages derive from the verse: b“These are the commandments,” that a prophet is not permitted to introduce anynew belement from here on?How could they institute the position of the letters? bRather,over the course of time, the people bforgot theirpositions in the words bandthe prophets bthen reestablished theirpositions. Apparently, closed letters are no more significant than the open ones.,The Gemara returns to discuss bthe matter itself. Rav Ḥisda said:The letters imemand isamekhthat were in the tablets were standing miraculously. Andfurthermore, bRav Ḥisda said:The bwriting on the tablets was read from the inside,from one side of the tablets, band read from the outside,the other side of the tablets, in reverse order. The Gemara cites words that appear elsewhere in the Bible: iNevuv /iwas read as ibet /i, ivav /i, ibet /i, inun /i; irahav /ias ibeit /i, iheh /i, ireish /i;and isaru /ias ivav /i, ireish /i, isamekh /i. /b, bThe Sages said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Young students cametoday bto the study hall and said thingsthe likes of bwhich were not saideven bin the days of Joshua bin Nun.These children who only knew the Hebrew alphabet interpreted the letters homiletically. briAlef beit /imeans blearn[ielaf/b] the bwisdom[ibina/b] of the Torah. briGimmel dalet /imeans bgive to the poor[igemol dalim/b]. bWhy is the leg of the igimmelextended towardthe idalet /i? Because it is the manner of one who bestows loving-kindness to pursue the poor. And whyis the bleg ofthe idaletextended towardthe igimmel /i?It is so bthata poor person bwill make himself available to himwho wants to give him charity. bAnd why does the idaletface away fromthe igimmel /i?It is to teach bthat one should givecharity bdiscreetly so thatthe poor person bwill not be embarrassed by him. /b,The children continued to interpret the letters. briHeh vav /i: That isthe principal bname of the Holy One, Blessed be He.briZayin ḥet /i, itet yod /i, ikaf lamed /i: And if you do so, the Holy One, Blessed be He, feeds [ izan /i] you, and shows you favor [ iḥan /i], and bestows goodness [ imeitiv /i] upon you, and gives you an inheritance [ iyerusha /i], and ties a crown [ iketer /i] for you in the World to Come [ ila’olam haba /i].brThe bopen imemand closed imem /iindicate that the Torah contains ban open statement,understood by all, and ban esoteric statement.brThe bbent inun /iand the bstraight inun /iat the end of a word refer to ba faithful person who is bent [ ine’eman kafuf /i]and is modest now, who will ultimately become a bwell-known faithful person [ ine’eman pashut /i]. /b,iSamekh ayin /i: Support the poor [ isemokh aniyyim /i]to prevent them from falling further. bAnother version: Make mnemonicsigns b[ isimanim aseh /i]to remember bthe Torah and acquire it.brThe bbent ipeh /iand the bstraight ipeh /i:Sometimes one needs to have ban open mouth [ ipeh patuaḥ /i]and speak, and sometimes one needs to have ba closed mouth [ ipeh satum /i].brThe bbent itzadi /iand the bstraight itzadi /iindicate that ba righteousperson who is bbentand humble b[ itzaddik kafuf /i]now will ultimately become ba well-known righteousperson b[ itzaddik pashut /i]whose righteousness is apparent to all. The Gemara asks: bThat is identicalto the interpretation of the bent and straight inun /i: iNe’eman kafuf /i, ine’eman pashut /i.The Gemara explains: bThe verse addedthe bbendingof the righteous person bto the bending ofthe faithful person. bFrom hereit is derived bthat the Torah was given inan atmosphere of bgravity.One must receive the Torah with a sense of awe and extreme humility.,The children continued: briKuf /i: Holy [ ikadosh /i],referring to God. briReish /i: A wicked person [ irasha /i]. Why is the ikuffacing away fromthe ireish /i?This question was phrased euphemistically, as it is the ireishthat is facing away from the ikuf /i. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I am unable look at a wicked person,i.e., the wicked person does not want to look toward God. bAnd why is the crown ofthe letter ikufturned towardthe ireish /i? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Ifthe wicked person brepentshis evil ways bI will tie a crown for him like My own. And why is the leg ofthe ikufsuspendedand not connected to the roof of the letter? bBecause ifthe wicked person brepents he can enterthrough this opening if he so desires.,The Gemara asks: bLet him enter through thatopening, as the ikufis open on both sides at the bottom. The Gemara answers: This bsupportsthe statement of bReish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “If it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, and unto the humble He gives grace”(Proverbs 3:34)? One who bcomesin order bto become impure,i.e., to sin, bthey,in Heaven, bprovide him with an openingto do so, and he is not prevented from sinning. However, if he bcomesin order bto become purified,not only is he allowed to do so, but bthey,in Heaven, bassist him. /b,They further taught: briShin /i: Falsehood [ isheker /i]. iTav /i: Truth [ iemet /i].br bWhy are the letters ofthe word ishekeradjacentto one another in the alphabet, while bthe letters of iemetare distantfrom one another? That is because while bfalsehood iseasily bfound, truth is foundonly with great difficulty. bAnd why dothe letters that comprise the word isheker /iall bstand on one foot, andthe letters that comprise the word iemet /istand on bases that are wide like bbricks?Because the btruth standseternal and bfalsehood does not standeternal.,The Gemara cites another midrash that also deals with the letters of the alphabet. This one uses a code in which the first letter is paired with the last letter, the second letter with the penultimate one, and so on b[ ialef tav /i, ibeit shin /i]. iAlef tav /i, God said: If bhe despised Me [ ioti ti’ev /i]would bI desire [ ietaveh /i] him? iBeit shin /i:If bhe does not desireto worship bMe [ ibi /i],shall bMy name [ ishemi /i] rest upon him? iGimmel reish /i:He bdefiled his body [ igufo /i];shall bI have mercy [ iaraḥem /i] on him?The word comprised of the letters igimmeland ireishin Aramaic means licentiousness. iDalet kuf /i:He blocked My doors [ idaltotai /i],shall bI not cut off his horns [ ikarnav /i]? To this point,the Gemara interpreted the letters as referring to bthe attribute of the wicked. /b, bHowever,with regard to bthe attribute of the righteousit is taught differently. iAlef tav /i, ibeit shin /i: If you have shame [ iata bosh /i], igimmel reish /i, idalet kuf /i: If you do so,you will breside [ igur /i] inthe bheavens [ ibedok /i],as the verse says: “Who stretches out the Heavens like a curtain [ idok /i]” (Isaiah 40:22). iHeh tzadi /i, ivav peh /i: There is a partition [ iḥatzitza havei /i] between you and anger [ iaf /i]. iZayin ayin /i, iḥet samekh /i, itet nun /i: And you will not be shaken [ imizdaze’a /i] by the Satan. iYod mem /i, ikaf lamed /i: The minister of Gehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe,send the righteous as well into the bseato which ballgo b[ iyam kol /i],Gehenna.,The interpretation of the alphabet continues with other combinations of letters. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: iAlef ḥet samekh /i, ibet tet ayin /i, igimmel yod peh /i: I have mercy on them [ iAni ḥas aleihem /i] because they spurned [ iba’atu /i] adultery [ igif /i].The Gemara continues with this combination of the letters: iDalet kaf tzadi /i: They are pure [ idakkim /i], they are honest [ ikenim /i], they are righteous [ itzaddikim /i]. iHeh lamed kuf /i: You have no portion [ iḥelek /i] with them,based on the interchange of the letters iḥetand iheh /i. iVav mem reish zayin nun /i, ishin tav /i:The minister of bGehenna said [ iamar /i],based on ivav mem reish /i, bbefore Him: Master of the Universe, my Master [ iMari /i], sustain me [ izaneini /i] with the seed of Seth [ iShet /i],which refers to all humankind, including the Jewish people.,The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to himusing another configuration of the alphabet: iAlef lamed /i, ibeit mem /i: Not with them [ ial bam /i],i.e., you will have no portion of them. iGimmel nun /i, idalet samekh /i: To where will I lead them?I will lead them bto the garden of myrtle [ igan hadas /i],i.e., the Garden of Eden. iHeh ayin /i, ivav peh /i:The minister of bGehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I am tired [ iayef anokhi /i]and thirsty and need people to care for me. The Holy One, Blessed be He, responded: iZayin tzadi /i, iḥet kuf /i: These are the descendants [ izaro /i] of Isaac [ iYitzḥak /i]. iTet reish /i, iyod shin /i, ikaf tav /i: Wait [ itar /i], I have groupsupon bgroups [ iyesh li kittot kittot /i] ofother bnations that I will give youinstead.
14. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52a. (זכריה יב, יב) וספדה הארץ משפחות משפחות לבד משפחת בית דוד לבד ונשיהם לבד אמרו והלא דברים ק"ו ומה לעתיד לבא שעוסקין בהספד ואין יצר הרע שולט בהם אמרה תורה אנשים לבד ונשים לבד עכשיו שעסוקין בשמחה ויצה"ר שולט בהם על אחת כמה וכמה,הא הספידא מאי עבידתיה פליגי בה רבי דוסא ורבנן חד אמר על משיח בן יוסף שנהרג וחד אמר על יצה"ר שנהרג,בשלמא למאן דאמר על משיח בן יוסף שנהרג היינו דכתיב (זכריה יב, י) והביטו אלי את אשר דקרו וספדו עליו כמספד על היחיד אלא למאן דאמר על יצר הרע שנהרג האי הספידא בעי למעבד שמחה בעי למעבד אמאי בכו,כדדרש רבי יהודה לעתיד לבא מביאו הקב"ה ליצר הרע ושוחטו בפני הצדיקים ובפני הרשעים צדיקים נדמה להם כהר גבוה ורשעים נדמה להם כחוט השערה הללו בוכין והללו בוכין צדיקים בוכין ואומרים היאך יכולנו לכבוש הר גבוה כזה ורשעים בוכין ואומרים היאך לא יכולנו לכבוש את חוט השערה הזה ואף הקב"ה תמה עמהם שנאמר (זכריה ח, ו) כה אמר ה' צבאות כי יפלא בעיני שארית העם הזה בימים ההם גם בעיני יפלא,א"ר אסי יצה"ר בתחילה דומה לחוט של בוכיא ולבסוף דומה כעבותות העגלה שנאמר (ישעיהו ה, יח) הוי מושכי העון בחבלי השוא וכעבות העגלה חטאה,תנו רבנן משיח בן דוד שעתיד להגלות במהרה בימינו אומר לו הקב"ה שאל ממני דבר ואתן לך שנאמר (תהלים ב, ז) אספרה אל חוק וגו' אני היום ילדתיך (תהלים ב, ח) שאל ממני ואתנה גוים נחלתך וכיון שראה משיח בן יוסף שנהרג אומר לפניו רבש"ע איני מבקש ממך אלא חיים אומר לו חיים עד שלא אמרת כבר התנבא עליך דוד אביך שנאמר (תהלים כא, ה) חיים שאל ממך נתתה לו וגו',דרש ר' עוירא ואיתימא ר' יהושע בן לוי שבעה שמות יש לו ליצה"ר הקב"ה קראו רע שנאמר (בראשית ח, כא) כי יצר לב האדם רע מנעוריו משה קראו ערל שנאמר (דברים י, טז) ומלתם את ערלת לבבכם דוד קראו טמא שנאמר (תהלים נא, יב) לב טהור ברא לי אלהים מכלל דאיכא טמא,שלמה קראו שונא שנאמר (משלי כה, כא) אם רעב שנאך האכילהו לחם ואם צמא השקהו מים כי גחלים אתה חותה על ראשו וה' ישלם לך אל תקרי ישלם לך אלא ישלימנו לך,ישעיה קראו מכשול שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, יד) סולו סולו פנו דרך הרימו מכשול מדרך עמי יחזקאל קראו אבן שנאמר (יחזקאל לו, כו) והסרתי את לב האבן מבשרכם ונתתי לכם לב בשר יואל קראו צפוני שנאמר (יואל ב, כ) ואת הצפוני ארחיק מעליכם ת"ר ואת הצפוני ארחיק מעליכם זה יצה"ר שצפון ועומד בלבו של אדם,והדחתיו אל ארץ ציה ושממה למקום שאין בני אדם מצויין להתגרות בהן את פניו אל הים הקדמוני שנתן עיניו במקדש ראשון והחריבו והרג תלמידי חכמים שבו וסופו אל הים האחרון שנתן עיניו במקדש שני והחריבו והרג תלמידי חכמים שבו ועלה באשו ותעל צחנתו שמניח אומות העולם ומתגרה בשונאיהם של ישראל כי הגדיל לעשות אמר אביי ובתלמידי חכמים יותר מכולם,כי הא דאביי שמעיה לההוא גברא דקאמר לההיא אתתא נקדים וניזיל באורחא אמר איזיל אפרשינהו מאיסורא אזל בתרייהו תלתא פרסי באגמא כי הוו פרשי מהדדי שמעינהו דקא אמרי אורחין רחיקא וצוותין בסימא,אמר אביי אי מאן דסני לי הוה לא הוה מצי לאוקומיה נפשיה אזל תלא נפשיה בעיבורא דדשא ומצטער אתא ההוא סבא תנא ליה כל הגדול מחבירו יצרו גדול הימנו,אמר רבי יצחק יצרו של אדם מתגבר עליו בכל יום שנאמר (בראשית ו, ה) רק 52a. It is stated: b“The land will eulogize, each family separately; the family of the house of David separately, and their women separately,the family of the house of Nathan separately, and their women separately” (Zechariah 12:12). This indicates that at the end of days a great eulogy will be organized during which men and women will be separate. bThey said: And arethese bmatters notinferred ia fortiori /i? If in the future,at the end of days referred to in this prophecy, bwhenpeople bare involved ina great beulogy andconsequently bthe evil inclination does not dominate them,as typically during mourning inappropriate thoughts and conduct are less likely, and nevertheless bthe Torah says: Men separately and women separately;then bnow that they are involved inthe bCelebrationof the Drawing of the Water, bandas such bthe evil inclination dominates them,since celebration lends itself to levity, ball the more soshould men and women be separate.,Apropos the eulogy at the end of days, the Gemara asks: For bwhat is the nature of this eulogy?The Gemara answers: bRabbi Dosa and the Rabbis disagree concerning thismatter. bOne saidthat this eulogy is bfor Messiah ben Yosef who was killedin the war of Gog from the land of Magog prior to the ultimate redemption with the coming of Messiah ben David. bAnd one saidthat this eulogy is bfor the evil inclination that was killed. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat the lament is for bMessiah ben Yosef who was killed, thiswould be the meaning of that bwhich is writtenin that context: b“And they shall look unto Me because they have thrust him through; and they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for his only son”(Zechariah 12:10). bHowever, according to the one who saidthat the eulogy is bfor the evil inclination that was killed,does one bneed to conduct a eulogyfor bthis?On the contrary, bone should conduct a celebration. Why,then, bdid they cry? /b,The Gemara answers: This can be understood bas Rabbi Yehuda taught: In the future,at the end of days, bGod will bring the evil inclination and slaughter it in the presence of the righteous and in the presence of the wicked.For bthe righteousthe evil inclination bappears to them as a high mountain, andfor bthe wickedit bappearsto bthem asa mere bstrand of hair. These weep and those weep. The righteous weep and say: How were we able to overcome so high a mountain? And the wicked weep and say: How were we unable to overcome this strand of hair? And even the Holy One, Blessed be He, will wonder with them, as it is statedwith regard to the eulogy: b“So says the Lord of hosts: If it be wondrous in the eyes of the remt of this people in those days, it should also be wondrous in My eyes”(Zechariah 8:6).,Apropos the evil inclination and the battle against it, the Gemara cites that which bRav Asi said: Initially,when it begins to entice someone, bthe evil inclination is like a strand of a spider’s web [ ibukhya /i]; and ultimately it is likethe thick bropes of a wagon, as it is stated: “Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as if it were with a wagon rope”(Isaiah 5:18). Initially, the enticement is almost imperceptible, like a thin strand; however, after one sins, it is like wagon ropes tied tightly around him., bThe Sages taught: To Messiah ben David, who is destined to be revealed swiftly in our time, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Ask of Me anything and I will give youwhatever you wish, bas it is stated: “I will tell of the decree;the Lord said unto me: You are My son, bthis day have I begotten you, ask of Me, and I will give the nations for your inheritance,and the ends of the earth for your possession” (Psalms 2:7–8). bOncethe Messiah ben David bsaw Messiah ben Yosef, who was killed, he saysto the Holy One, Blessed be He: bMaster of the Universe, I ask of you only life;that I will not suffer the same fate. The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsays to him: Life?Even bbefore you statedthis request, byour father, David, already prophesied about youwith regard to this matter precisely, bas it is stated: “He asked life of You, You gave it to him;even length of days for ever and ever” (Psalms 21:5).,§ bRabbi Avira, and some say Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, taught: The evil inclination has seven names. The Holy One, Blessed be He, called it evil, as it is stated: “For the inclination of a man’s heart is evil from his youth”(Genesis 8:21). bMoses called it uncircumcised, as it is stated: “And circumcise the foreskin of your hearts”(Deuteronomy 10:16). bDavid called it impure, as it is stated: “Create for me a pure heart, O God”(Psalms 51:12); bby inference, there is an impureheart that is the evil inclination., bSolomon called it enemy, as it is stated: “If your enemy is hungry, give him bread to eat, and if he is thirsty, give him water to drink; for you will heap coals of fire upon his head, and the Lord will reward you”(Proverbs 25:21–22). bDo not readit as: bAnd the Lord will reward you [ iyeshalem lakh /i]; ratherread it as: And the Lord bwill reconcile it to you [ iyashlimenu lakh /i].God will cause the evil inclination to love you and no longer seek to entice you to sin., bIsaiah called it a stumbling block, as it is stated: “And He will say: Cast you up, cast you up, clear the way, take up the stumbling block out of the way of My people”(Isaiah 57:14). bEzekiel called it stone, as it is stated: “And I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh”(Ezekiel 36:26). bJoel called it hidden one, as it says: “But I will remove the northern one [ ihatzefoni /i] far off from you”(Joel 2:20). bThe Sages taughtconcerning the verse: b“But I will remove the northern one [ ihatzefoni /i] far off from you,”that bthis isreferring to bthe evil inclination.And why is the evil inclination referred to as itzefoni /i? It is due to the fact bthat it is always hidden [ itzafun /i] in the heart of man. /b,The ibaraitacontinues interpreting the verse in the book of Joel. b“And will drive it to a land barren and desolate”(Joel 2:20), bwhere there are no people forthe evil inclination bto incite.And what damage does the evil inclination cause? b“With its face toward the eastern [ ihakadmoni /i] sea”(Joel 2:20), bas it set its eyes on the First[imukdam/b] bTemple and destroyed it, and killed the Torah scholars thatwere bin it; “and its end toward the western [ iha’aḥaron /i] sea”(Joel 2:20), bas it set its eyes on the Second[iaḥaron/b] bTemple and destroyed it, and killed the Torah scholars thatwere bin it; “its foulness may come up, and its ill odor may come up”(Joel 2:20), bas it forsakes the nations of the world and incites the enemies ofthe bJewish people:In this context, the term the nations is a euphemism for the Jewish people. The evil inclination seeks to corrupt the Jews more than it does the members of any other nation. b“Because it has done greatly”(Joel 2:20): bAbaye said: Andit provokes bTorah scholars more thanit provokes beveryoneelse.,The Gemara illustrates that point. It is blike thisincident, bas Abaye once heard a certain man say to a certain woman: Let us rise early and go on the road.Upon hearing this, Abaye bsaidto himself: bI will goand accompany them and bprevent them fromviolating bthe prohibitionthat they certainly intend to violate. bHe went after themfor a distance of bthree parasangs in a marshamong the reeds, while they walked on the road, and they did not engage in any wrongful activity. bWhen they were taking leave of each other, he heard that they were saying:We traveled ba long distancetogether, band the company was pleasant company. /b, bAbaye said:In that situation, bifinstead of that man bit had been one whom I hate,a euphemism for himself, bhe would not have been able to restrain himselffrom sinning. After becoming aware of so great a shortcoming bhe went and leaned against the doorpost,thinking band feeling regret. A certain Elder cameand btaught him: Anyone who is greater than another, hisevil binclination is greater than his.Therefore, Abaye should not feel regret, as his realization is a consequence of his greatness., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: A person’s inclination overcomes him each day, as it is stated: “Only /b
15. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 9.11-9.12, 9.15-9.16 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

16. Evagrius Ponticus, Praktikos, 28 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
anger Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 31
bible Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 160
body and soul Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 160
carnality Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 54
change, in conception Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 160
demons, acedia (boredom or listlesness) Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 208
demons, and monotheism Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 37
demons, physiology of Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 37
demons, supression of Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 54
evagrius ponticus Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 160
gentiles, seclusion with Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 199
gentiles Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 208
hezekiah Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 160
homilies, on double letters Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 146
idolatry Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 31, 37
leontius Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 146
passions Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 54
philo Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 54
physiology Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 208
repentance Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 208
savior Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 37
self, mutilation Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 31
sin, pauline Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 54
soul Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 208
symbols , body Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 160
thoughts, sex as sin in Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 160
torah Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 37
women, seclusion with Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 199
world to come Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 37
yehudah ha-nassi (the patriarch) Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 160
yetzer, adjuration of Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 146
yetzer, and pauline sin Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 54
yetzer, and philonic falsehood Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 54
yetzer, antinomian Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 31
yetzer, dual Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 146
yetzer, erroneous uses of Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 199
yetzer, invader Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 31, 37
yetzer, not identical to body Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 31, 37
yetzer, terminology Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 146
yitshak' Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 160