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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8627
Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, 2.1
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.4. מָשְׁכֵנִי אַחֲרֶיךָ נָּרוּצָה הֱבִיאַנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ חֲדָרָיו נָגִילָה וְנִשְׂמְחָה בָּךְ נַזְכִּירָה דֹדֶיךָ מִיַּיִן מֵישָׁרִים אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 1.4. Draw me, we will run after thee; The king hath brought me into his chambers; We will be glad and rejoice in thee, We will find thy love more fragrant than wine! Sincerely do they love thee.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.9, 4.11-4.12, 22.7, 32.47 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.9. רַק הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ וּשְׁמֹר נַפְשְׁךָ מְאֹד פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וּפֶן־יָסוּרוּ מִלְּבָבְךָ כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ וְהוֹדַעְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֵי בָנֶיךָ׃ 4.11. וַתִּקְרְבוּן וַתַּעַמְדוּן תַּחַת הָהָר וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ עַד־לֵב הַשָּׁמַיִם חֹשֶׁךְ עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל׃ 4.12. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ קוֹל דְּבָרִים אַתֶּם שֹׁמְעִים וּתְמוּנָה אֵינְכֶם רֹאִים זוּלָתִי קוֹל׃ 22.7. שַׁלֵּחַ תְּשַׁלַּח אֶת־הָאֵם וְאֶת־הַבָּנִים תִּקַּח־לָךְ לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ וְהַאֲרַכְתָּ יָמִים׃ 32.47. כִּי לֹא־דָבָר רֵק הוּא מִכֶּם כִּי־הוּא חַיֵּיכֶם וּבַדָּבָר הַזֶּה תַּאֲרִיכוּ יָמִים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 4.9. Only take heed to thyself, and keep thy soul diligently, lest thou forget the things which thine eyes saw, and lest they depart from thy heart all the days of thy life; but make them known unto thy children and thy children’s children;" 4.11. And ye came near and stood under the mountain; and the mountain burned with fire unto the heart of heaven, with darkness, cloud, and thick darkness." 4.12. And the LORD spoke unto you out of the midst of the fire; ye heard the voice of words, but ye saw no form; only a voice." 22.7. thou shalt in any wise let the dam go, but the young thou mayest take unto thyself; that it may be well with thee, and that thou mayest prolong thy days." 32.47. For it is no vain thing for you; because it is your life, and through this thing ye shall prolong your days upon the land, whither ye go over the Jordan to possess it.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.8, 20.18, 20.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.8. וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם יַחְדָּו וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וַיָּשֶׁב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָעָם אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 20.18. וַיַּעֲמֹד הָעָם מֵרָחֹק וּמֹשֶׁה נִגַּשׁ אֶל־הָעֲרָפֶל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 20.22. וְאִם־מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים תַּעֲשֶׂה־לִּי לֹא־תִבְנֶה אֶתְהֶן גָּזִית כִּי חַרְבְּךָ הֵנַפְתָּ עָלֶיהָ וַתְּחַלְלֶהָ׃ 19.8. And all the people answered together, and said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken we will do.’ And Moses reported the words of the people unto the LORD." 20.18. And the people stood afar off; but Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was." 20.22. And if thou make Me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stones; for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast profaned it."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 32.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יַעֲקֹב יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שִׁמְךָ כִּי אִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי־שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים וְעִם־אֲנָשִׁים וַתּוּכָל׃ 32.29. And he said: ‘Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel; for thou hast striven with God and with men, and hast prevailed.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 28.17, 42.10, 42.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.17. לֹא־יַעַרְכֶנָּה זָהָב וּזְכוֹכִית וּתְמוּרָתָהּ כְּלִי־פָז׃ 42.12. וַיהוָה בֵּרַךְ אֶת־אַחֲרִית אִיּוֹב מֵרֵאשִׁתוֹ וַיְהִי־לוֹ אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר אֶלֶף צֹאן וְשֵׁשֶׁת אֲלָפִים גְּמַלִּים וְאֶלֶף־צֶמֶד בָּקָר וְאֶלֶף אֲתוֹנוֹת׃ 28.17. Gold and glass cannot equal it; Neither shall the exchange thereof be vessels of fine gold." 42.10. And the LORD changed the fortune of Job, when he prayed for his friends; and the LORD gave Job twice as much as he had before." 42.12. So the LORD blessed the latter end of Job more than his beginning; and he had fourteen thousand sheep, and six thousand camels, and a thousand yoke of oxen, and a thousand she-asses. ."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 90.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

90.3. תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד־דַּכָּא וַתֹּאמֶר שׁוּבוּ בְנֵי־אָדָם׃ 90.3. Thou turnest man to contrition; And sayest: 'Return, ye children of men.'"
7. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 3.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.13. לִינִי הַלַּיְלָה וְהָיָה בַבֹּקֶר אִם־יִגְאָלֵךְ טוֹב יִגְאָל וְאִם־לֹא יַחְפֹּץ לְגָאֳלֵךְ וּגְאַלְתִּיךְ אָנֹכִי חַי־יְהוָה שִׁכְבִי עַד־הַבֹּקֶר׃ 3.13. Tarry this night, and it shall be in the morning, that if he will perform unto thee the part of a kinsman, well; let him do the kinsman’s part; but if he be not willing to do the part of a kinsman to thee, then will I do the part of a kinsman to thee, as the LORD liveth; lie down until the morning.’"
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 3.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.22. שׁוּבוּ בָּנִים שׁוֹבָבִים אֶרְפָּה מְשׁוּבֹתֵיכֶם הִנְנוּ אָתָנוּ לָךְ כִּי אַתָּה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃ 3.22. Return, ye backsliding children, I will heal your backslidings.— ‘Here we are, we are come unto Thee; For Thou art the LORD our God."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 28.12-28.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

28.12. בֶּן־אָדָם שָׂא קִינָה עַל־מֶלֶךְ צוֹר וְאָמַרְתָּ לּוֹ כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה חוֹתֵם תָּכְנִית מָלֵא חָכְמָה וּכְלִיל יֹפִי׃ 28.13. בְּעֵדֶן גַּן־אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ כָּל־אֶבֶן יְקָרָה מְסֻכָתֶךָ אֹדֶם פִּטְדָה וְיָהֲלֹם תַּרְשִׁישׁ שֹׁהַם וְיָשְׁפֵה סַפִּיר נֹפֶךְ וּבָרְקַת וְזָהָב מְלֶאכֶת תֻּפֶּיךָ וּנְקָבֶיךָ בָּךְ בְּיוֹם הִבָּרַאֲךָ כּוֹנָנוּ׃ 28.14. אַתְּ־כְּרוּב מִמְשַׁח הַסּוֹכֵךְ וּנְתַתִּיךָ בְּהַר קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ בְּתוֹךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ הִתְהַלָּכְתָּ׃ 28.12. ’Son of man, take up a lamentation for the king of Tyre, and say unto him: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Thou seal most accurate, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty," 28.13. thou wast in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of thy settings and of thy sockets was in thee, in the day that thou wast created they were prepared." 28.14. Thou wast the far-covering cherub; and I set thee, so that thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of stones of fire."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 5.5, 7.8 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.5. אַל־תִּתֵּן אֶת־פִּיךָ לַחֲטִיא אֶת־בְּשָׂרֶךָ וְאַל־תֹּאמַר לִפְנֵי הַמַּלְאָךְ כִּי שְׁגָגָה הִיא לָמָּה יִקְצֹף הָאֱלֹהִים עַל־קוֹלֶךָ וְחִבֵּל אֶת־מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ׃ 7.8. טוֹב אַחֲרִית דָּבָר מֵרֵאשִׁיתוֹ טוֹב אֶרֶךְ־רוּחַ מִגְּבַהּ־רוּחַ׃ 5.5. Suffer not thy mouth to bring thy flesh into guilt, neither say thou before the messenger, that it was an error; wherefore should God be angry at thy voice, and destroy the work of thy hands?" 7.8. Better is the end of a thing than the beginning thereof; And the patient in spirit is better than the proud in spirit."
11. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 3.36, 8.36, 9.13, 10.25, 11.2, 11.4, 11.6, 14.29, 14.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.36. And he bore testimony to all men of the deeds of the supreme God, which he had seen with his own eyes.' 8.36. Thus he who had undertaken to secure tribute for the Romans by the capture of the people of Jerusalem proclaimed that the Jews had a Defender, and that therefore the Jews were invulnerable, because they followed the laws ordained by him.' 9.13. Then the abominable fellow made a vow to the Lord, who would no longer have mercy on him, stating' 10.25. As he drew near, Maccabeus and his men sprinkled dust upon their heads and girded their loins with sackcloth, in supplication to God.' 11.2. gathered about eighty thousand men and all his cavalry and came against the Jews. He intended to make the city a home for Greeks,' 11.4. He took no account whatever of the power of God, but was elated with his ten thousands of infantry, and his thousands of cavalry, and his eighty elephants.' 11.6. When Maccabeus and his men got word that Lysias was besieging the strongholds, they and all the people, with lamentations and tears, besought the Lord to send a good angel to save Israel.' 14.29. Since it was not possible to oppose the king, he watched for an opportunity to accomplish this by a stratagem.' 14.31. When the latter became aware that he had been cleverly outwitted by the man, he went to the great and holy temple while the priests were offering the customary sacrifices, and commanded them to hand the man over.'
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 48-49, 47 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

47. For what life can be better than that which is devoted to speculation, or what can be more closely connected with rational existence; for which reason it is that though the voices of mortal beings are judged of by the faculty of hearing, nevertheless the scriptures present to us the words of God, to be actually visible to us like light; for in them it is said that, "All people saw the voice of God; they do not say, "heard it," since what took place was not a beating of the air by means of the organs of the mouth and tongue, but a most exceedingly brilliant ray of virtue, not different in any respect from the source of reason, which also in another passage is spoken of in the following manner, "Ye have seen that I spake unto you from out of Heaven," not "Ye have heard," for the same reason.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 228 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

228. and when Petronius appeared at a distance all the ranks, as they had been appointed, fell to the ground, uttering a most doleful; howling and lamentation, mingled with supplications. But when he commanded them to rise up, and to come nearer to him, they would for a long time hardly consent to rise, and scattering abundance of dust upon their heads, and shedding abundance of tears, they put both their hands behind them like captives who are fettered in this way, and thus they approached him.
14. Mishnah, Avot, 2.10, 5.18 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.10. They [each] said three things:Rabbi Eliezer said: Let the honor of your friend be as dear to you as your own; And be not easily provoked to anger; And repent one day before your death. And [he also said:] warm yourself before the fire of the wise, but beware of being singed by their glowing coals, for their bite is the bite of a fox, and their sting is the sting of a scorpion, and their hiss is the hiss of a serpent, and all their words are like coals of fire." 5.18. Whoever causes the multitudes to be righteous, sin will not occur on his account; And whoever causes the multitudes to sin, they do not give him the ability to repent. Moses was righteous and caused the multitudes to be righteous, [therefore] the righteousness of the multitudes is hung on him, as it is said, “He executed the Lord’s righteousness and His decisions with Israel” (Deut. 33:21). Jeroboam, sinned and caused the multitudes to sin, [therefore] the sin of the multitudes is hung on him, as it is said, “For the sins of Jeroboam which he sinned, and which he caused Israel to sin thereby” (I Kings 15:30)."
15. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
16. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.3. The generation of the flood has no portion in the world to come, nor will they stand at the [last] judgment, as it says, “[And the Lord said,] my spirit will not always enter into judgment with man” (Genesis 6:3), [meaning] there will be neither judgment nor [my] spirit for them. The generation of the dispersion have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “So the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:8): “So the lord scattered them”, refers to this world, “And from there the Lord scattered them” (Genesis 11:9), refers to the world to come. The men of Sodom have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “And the men of Sodom were wicked and great sinners before the Lord” (Genesis 13:1: “wicked” in this world, and “sinners” in the world to come; Yet will they stand at judgment. R. Nehemiah says: “Neither [the generation of the flood nor the men of Sodom] will stand at judgment, as it says, “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous” (Psalms 1:5) “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment”, refers to the generation of the flood; “nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous”, refers to the men of Sodom. They [the Sages] said to him: “They will not stand in the congregation of the righteous, but they will stand in the congregation of the wicked.” The spies have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “And those men that spread such calumnies about the land, died by the plague before the lord” (Numbers 14:37): “[they] died” in this world, “by the plague” in the world to come. The generation of the wilderness have no share in the world to come and will not stand at the [last] judgment, as it says, “In this wilderness they shall be consumed, and there they shall die” (Numbers 14:3, according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Concerning them it is said, ‘Bring in My devotees, who made a covet with Me over sacrifice” (Psalms 50:5). The congregation of Korah is not destined to ascend [from the earth], as it says, “And the earth closed upon them” in this world, “and they perished from among the congregation” (Numbers 16:33) in the world to come, according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Concerning them it is said, ‘The Lord kills and makes alive: He brings down to Sheol, and brings up” (I Samuel 2:6). The ten tribes will not return [to the Land of Israel], for it is said, “And He cast them into another land, as is this day” (Deuteronomy 29:2: just as the day goes and does not return, so they too went and will not return: according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “‘As is this day’ just as the day darkens and then becomes light again, so the ten tribes even as it went dark for them, so will it in the future become light for them."
17. Mishnah, Shabbat, 16.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16.1. All sacred writings may be saved from a fire, whether we read from them or not [on Shabbat]. And even if they are written in any language, they must be stored. And why do we not read them? Because of the neglect of the study house. One may save the container of a scroll together with the scroll, and the container of tefillin together with the tefillin, even if it [also] contains money. And to where may one rescue them? Into a closed alley. Ben Batera says: even into an open one."
18. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1, 2.3, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 30.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

30.2. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים טז, יא): תּוֹדִיעֵנִי אֹרַח חַיִּים שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, אָמַר דָּוִד לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא תּוֹדִיעֵנִי בְּאֵיזֶה פִּילוֹן מְפֻלָּשׁ לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְדָוִד אִם חַיִּים אַתָּה צָרִיךְ, יִסּוּרִין אַתָּה צָרִיךְ, כְּדִכְתִיב (משלי ו, כג): וְדֶרֶךְ חַיִּים תּוֹכְחוֹת מוּסָר. שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, שִׂבְּעָנוּ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה שְׂמָחוֹת, מִקְרָא, מִשְׁנָה, תַּלְמוּד, תּוֹסֶפְתָּא וְאַגָּדוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת אֶת פָּנֶיךָ, אֵלּוּ שֶׁבַע כִּתּוֹת שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים שֶׁעֲתִידִים לְהַקְבִּיל פְּנֵי שְׁכִינָה וּפְנֵיהֶם דּוֹמוֹת לַחַמָּה וּלְבָנָה, לָרָקִיעַ, לַכּוֹכָבִים, לַבְּרָקִים וּלְשׁוֹשַׁנִּים וְלַמְּנוֹרָה הַטְּהוֹרָה שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. לַחַמָּה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ו, י): בָּרָה כַּחַמָּה. לַלְּבָנָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ו, י): יָפָה כַלְּבָנָה. לָרָקִיעַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל יב, ג): וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ. לַכּוֹכָבִים מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל יב, ג): וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד. לַבְּרָקִים מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (נחום ב, ה): מַרְאֵיהֶן כַּלַּפִּידִים כַּבְּרָקִים יְרוֹצֵצוּ. לְשׁוֹשַׁנִּים מִנַּיַן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים מה, א): לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל שׁשַׁנִּים. לַמְּנוֹרָה הַטְּהוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה ד, ב): וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי מָה אַתָּה רֹאֶה וָאֹמַר רָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה מְנוֹרַת זָהָב כֻּלָּהּ. (תהלים טז, יא): נְעִמוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶצַח, וְכִי מִי מוֹדִיעֵנוּ אֵיזוֹ כַּת הַחֲבִיבָה וְהַנְּעִימָה שֶׁבָּהֶן, תְּרֵין אָמוֹרָאִין, חַד אָמַר זוֹ שֶׁבָּאָה מִכֹּחָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה וּמִכֹּחָן שֶׁל מִצְווֹת, וְאָחֳרָנָא אָמַר אֵלּוּ סוֹפְרִין וּמַשְׁנִין שֶׁמְּלַמְּדִין תִּינוֹקוֹת בַּאֲמִתָּן, שֶׁהֵן עֲתִידִין לַעֲמֹד בִּימִינוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: נְעִמוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶצַח. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, אַל תְּהִי קוֹרֵא כֵּן אֶלָּא שֶׁבַע שְׂמָחוֹת, אֵלּוּ שֶׁבַע מִצְווֹת שֶׁבֶּחָג, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, אַרְבָּעָה מִינִין שֶׁבַּלּוּלָב, וְסֻכָּה, חֲגִיגָה וְשִׂמְחָה. אִם שִׂמְחָה לָמָּה חֲגִיגָה וְאִם חֲגִיגָה לָמָּה שִׂמְחָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִין מָשָׁל לִשְׁנַיִם שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ אֵצֶל הַדַּיָּן וְלֵית אֲנַן יָדְעִין מַאן הוּא נוֹצֵחַ, אֶלָּא מַאן דְּנָסַב בָּאיָין בִּידֵיהּ, אֲנַן יָדְעִין דְּהוּא נָצוֹחַיָיא, כָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם בָּאִין וּמְקַטְרְגִים לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְלֵית אֲנַן יָדְעִין מַאן נָצַח, אֶלָּא בַּמֶּה שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל יוֹצְאִין מִלִּפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְלוּלָבֵיהֶן וְאֶתְרוֹגֵיהֶן בְּיָדָן, אָנוּ יוֹדְעִין דְיִשְׂרָאֵל אִינוּן נָצוֹחַיָּא, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם: וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן.
20. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 343, 43, 48, 31 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

21. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 115 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

22. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

23. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17a. והנאך ועליו נתפסת אמר לו עקיבא הזכרתני פעם אחת הייתי מהלך בשוק העליון של ציפורי ומצאתי אחד ומתלמידי ישו הנוצרי ויעקב איש כפר סכניא שמו אמר לי כתוב בתורתכם (דברים כג, יט) לא תביא אתנן זונה [וגו'] מהו לעשות הימנו בהכ"ס לכ"ג ולא אמרתי לו כלום,אמר לי כך לימדני ישו הנוצרי (מיכה א, ז) כי מאתנן זונה קבצה ועד אתנן זונה ישובו ממקום הטנופת באו למקום הטנופת ילכו,והנאני הדבר על ידי זה נתפסתי למינות ועברתי על מה שכתוב בתורה (משלי ה, ח) הרחק מעליה דרכך זו מינות ואל תקרב אל פתח ביתה זו הרשות ואיכא דאמרי הרחק מעליה דרכך זו מינות והרשות ואל תקרב אל פתח ביתה זו זונה וכמה אמר רב חסדא ארבע אמות,ורבנן [האי] מאתנן זונה מאי דרשי ביה כדרב חסדא דאמר רב חסדא כל זונה שנשכרת לבסוף היא שוכרת שנאמר (יחזקאל טז, לד) ובתתך אתנן ואתנן לא נתן לך [ותהי להפך],ופליגא דרבי פדת דא"ר פדת לא אסרה תורה אלא קריבה של גלוי עריות בלבד שנא' (ויקרא יח, ו) איש איש אל כל שאר בשרו לא תקרבו לגלות ערוה,עולא כי הוה אתי מבי רב הוה מנשק להו לאחתיה אבי ידייהו ואמרי לה אבי חדייהו ופליגא דידיה אדידיה דאמר עולא קריבה בעלמא אסור משום לך לך אמרין נזירא סחור סחור לכרמא לא תקרב,(משלי ל, טו) לעלוקה שתי בנות הב הב מאי הב הב אמר מר עוקבא [קול] שתי בנות שצועקות מגיהנם ואומרות בעוה"ז הבא הבא ומאן נינהו מינות והרשות איכא דאמרי אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא קול גיהנם צועקת ואומרת הביאו לי שתי בנות שצועקות ואומרות בעולם הזה הבא הבא,(משלי ב, יט) כל באיה לא ישובון ולא ישיגו אורחות חיים וכי מאחר שלא שבו היכן ישיגו ה"ק ואם ישובו לא ישיגו אורחות חיים,למימרא דכל הפורש ממינות מיית והא ההיא דאתאי לקמיה דרב חסדא ואמרה ליה קלה שבקלות עשתה בנה הקטן מבנה הגדול ואמר לה רב חסדא טרחו לה בזוודתא ולא מתה,מדקאמרה קלה שבקלות עשתה מכלל דמינות [נמי] הויא בה ההוא דלא הדרא בה שפיר ומש"ה לא מתה,איכא דאמרי ממינות אין מעבירה לא והא ההיא דאתאי קמיה דרב חסדא וא"ל [ר"ח זוידו לה זוודתא] ומתה מדקאמרה קלה שבקלות מכלל דמינות נמי הויא בה,ומעבירה לא והתניא אמרו עליו על ר"א בן דורדיא שלא הניח זונה אחת בעולם שלא בא עליה פעם אחת שמע שיש זונה אחת בכרכי הים והיתה נוטלת כיס דינרין בשכרה נטל כיס דינרין והלך ועבר עליה שבעה נהרות בשעת הרגל דבר הפיחה אמרה כשם שהפיחה זו אינה חוזרת למקומה כך אלעזר בן דורדיא אין מקבלין אותו בתשובה,הלך וישב בין שני הרים וגבעות אמר הרים וגבעות בקשו עלי רחמים אמרו לו עד שאנו מבקשים עליך נבקש על עצמנו שנאמר (ישעיהו נד, י) כי ההרים ימושו והגבעות תמוטינה אמר שמים וארץ בקשו עלי רחמים אמרו עד שאנו מבקשים עליך נבקש על עצמנו שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, ו) כי שמים כעשן נמלחו והארץ כבגד תבלה,אמר חמה ולבנה בקשו עלי רחמים אמרו לו עד שאנו מבקשים עליך נבקש על עצמנו שנאמר (ישעיהו כד, כג) וחפרה הלבנה ובושה החמה אמר כוכבים ומזלות בקשו עלי רחמים אמרו לו עד שאנו מבקשים עליך נבקש על עצמנו שנאמר (ישעיהו לד, ד) ונמקו כל צבא השמים,אמר אין הדבר תלוי אלא בי הניח ראשו בין ברכיו וגעה בבכיה עד שיצתה נשמתו יצתה בת קול ואמרה ר"א בן דורדיא מזומן לחיי העולם הבא [והא הכא בעבירה הוה ומית] התם נמי כיון דאביק בה טובא כמינות דמיא,בכה רבי ואמר יש קונה עולמו בכמה שנים ויש קונה עולמו בשעה אחת ואמר רבי לא דיין לבעלי תשובה שמקבלין אותן אלא שקורין אותן רבי,ר' חנינא ור' יונתן הוו קאזלי באורחא מטו להנהו תרי שבילי חד פצי אפיתחא דעבודת כוכבים וחד פצי אפיתחא דבי זונות אמר ליה חד לחבריה ניזיל אפיתחא דעבודת כוכבים 17a. band you derived pleasure from it, and because ofthis byou were held responsibleby Heaven. Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: Akiva,you are right, as byou have reminded methat bonce I was walking in the upper marketplace of Tzippori, and I found a manwho was one bof the students of Jesus the Nazarene, and his name was Ya’akov of Kefar Sekhanya. He said to me: It is written in your Torah: “You shall not bring the payment to a prostitute,or the price of a dog, into the house of the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 23:19). bWhat isthe ihalakha /i: Is it permitted bto make fromthe payment to a prostitute for services rendered ba bathroom for a High Priestin the Temple? bAnd I said nothing to himin response., bHe said to me: Jesus the Nazarene taught me the following:It is permitted, as derived from the verse: b“For of the payment to a prostitute she has gathered them, and to the payment to a prostitute they shall return”(Micah 1:7). Since the coins bcame from a place of filth, let them go to a place of filthand be used to build a bathroom., bAnd I derived pleasure from the statement,and bdue to this, I was arrested for heresyby the authorities, because bI transgressed that which is written in the Torah:“Remove your way far from her, and do not come near the entrance of her house” (Proverbs 5:8). b“Remove your way far from her,” thisis a reference to bheresy; “and do not come near the entrance of her house,” thisis a reference to bthe ruling authority.The Gemara notes: bAnd there arethose bwho saya different interpretation: b“Remove your way far from her,” thisis a reference to bheresy and the ruling authority; “and do not come near the entrance of her house,” thisis a reference to ba prostitute. And how muchdistance must one maintain from a prostitute? bRav Ḥisda said: Four cubits. /b,With regard to the derivation of the verse by Jesus the Nazarene, the Gemara asks: bAnd what do the Sages derive from thisphrase: b“Payment to a prostitute”?The Gemara answers: They explain it bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rav Ḥisda, as Rav Ḥisda says: Any prostitute who hires herselfout to others for money will become so attached to this practice that bultimately,when others no longer wish to hire her, bshewill bhireothers to engage in intercourse with her. bAs it is stated: “And in that you gave payment, and no payment is given to you, therefore you are contrary”(Ezekiel 16:34).,The Gemara comments: bAndRav Ḥisda, who stated above that the Torah requires one to maintain a distance of four cubits from a prostitute, bdisagrees withthe opinion bof Rabbi Pedat. As Rabbi Pedat says: The Torah prohibited only intimacy that involves engaging in prohibited sexual relations, as it is stated: “None of you shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness”(Leviticus 18:6). The prohibition against intimacy in the Torah applies exclusively to sexual intercourse, and all other kinds of intimacy that do not include actual intercourse are not included in the prohibition.,The Gemara relates: bWhen Ulla would come from the study hall, he would kiss his sisters on their hands. And some say: On their chests. Andthe Gemara points out that this action of bhis disagrees withanother ruling that Ulla bhimselfissued, bas Ulla says: Mere intimacywith a woman with whom one is prohibited from engaging in sexual intercourse is bprohibited, due tothe maxim: bGo, go, we say to a nazirite, go around, go aroundbut bdo not come near to the vineyard.Just as a nazirite is warned not even to come into close proximity of a vineyard lest he consume a product of the vine, so too one is obligated to distance himself from anyone with whom intercourse is forbidden.,§ In connection to the earlier mention of heresy and the ruling authorities, the Gemara cites a verse: b“The horseleech has two daughters: Give, give”(Proverbs 30:15). bWhatis meant by b“give, give”? Mar Ukva says:This is the bvoiceof bthe two daughters who cryout bfrom Gehennadue to their suffering; bandthey are the ones who bsay in this world: Give, give,demanding dues and complete allegiance. bAnd who are they?They are bheresy and the ruling authority. There arethose bwho saythat bRav Ḥisda saysthat bMar Ukva says: The voice of Gehenna criesout band says: Bring me two daughters who cry and say in this world: Give, give. /b,The following verse in Proverbs makes reference to a foreign woman, which according to the Sages is a euphemism for heresy: b“None that go to her return, neither do they attain the paths of life”(Proverbs 2:19). The Gemara asks: bSincethose that are drawn to heresy bdo not return,from bwhere would they attainthe path of life? Why is it necessary for the verse to add that they do not attain the paths of life? The Gemara explains that bthisis what the verse bis saying:In general, those who go to her do not return, bandeven bif they return, they do not attain the paths of life,i.e., the pain of their regret will shorten their lives.,The Gemara asks: Is this bto say that anyone who separateshimself bfrom heresyand returns from his mistaken ways must bdie? Butwhat about bthatwoman bwho came before Rav Ḥisdato confess to him, band she said to him: The lightest of the light,i.e., the least of the sins that she committed, is that bshe conceived her younger son fromengaging in intercourse with bher older son. And Rav Ḥisda said to her: Prepare funeral shrouds for her,i.e., yourself, as you will certainly die soon, bbut she did not die. /b,The above incident refutes the claim that anyone who repents for the sin of heresy must die, as bfromthe fact bthat she saidthat bthe lightest of the lightof her sins was that bshe conceivedone son from engaging in intercourse with another son, bby inferenceone can learn bthat she was also involved in heresy,and yet she did not die. The Gemara answers: bThatis a case bwherethe woman bdid not repent properly, and due to thatreason bshe did not die. /b, bThere arethose bwho saythere is a different version of the objection to the Gemara’s statement that those who repent for the sin of heresy must die: Is that to say that if one repents bforthe sin of bheresy, yes,the result is death, whereas if one repents bforthe bsinof forbidden sexual intercourse he does bnotdie? bButwhat about bthatwoman bwho came before Rav Ḥisdato confess to him band Rav Ḥisda said tothose present: bPrepare funeral shrouds for her, and she died?The Gemara answers: bFromthe fact bthat she said: The lightest of the light, by inferenceone can learn bthat she was also involved in heresy. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndis it correct that one who repents bof the sinof forbidden sexual intercourse does bnotdie? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey said about Rabbi Elazar ben Durdayya thathe was so promiscuous that bhe did not leave one prostitute in the world with whom he did not engage in sexual intercourse. Once, he heard that there was one prostitute inone of the bcities overseas who would take a pursefull of bdinars as her payment. He took a pursefull of bdinars and went and crossed seven riversto reach bher. Whenthey were engaged in the bmattersto which they were baccustomed,a euphemism for intercourse, bshe passed windand bsaid: Just as this passed windwill bnot return to its place, so too Elazar ben Durdayya will not be accepted in repentance,even if he were to try to repent.,This statement deeply shocked Elazar ben Durdayya, and bhe went and sat between two mountains and hillsand bsaid: Mountains and hills, pray for mercy on mybehalf, so that my repentance will be accepted. bThey said to him: Before we pray for mercy on yourbehalf, bwe must pray for mercy on our ownbehalf, bas it is stated: “For the mountains may depart, and the hills be removed”(Isaiah 54:10). bHe said: Heaven and earth, pray for mercy on mybehalf. bThey saidto him: bBefore we pray for mercy on yourbehalf, bwe must pray for mercy on our ownbehalf, bas it is stated: “For the heavens shall vanish away like smoke, and the earth shall wax old like a garment”(Isaiah 51:6)., bHe said: Sun and moon, pray for mercy on mybehalf. bThey said to him: Before we pray for mercy on yourbehalf, bwe must pray for mercy on our ownbehalf, bas it is stated: “Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed”(Isaiah 24:23). bHe said: Stars and constellations, pray for mercy on mybehalf. bThey said to him: Before we pray for mercy on yourbehalf, bwe must pray for mercy on our ownbehalf, bas it is stated: “And all the hosts of heaven shall molder away”(Isaiah 34:4).,Elazar ben Durdayya bsaid:Clearly bthe matter depends on nothing other than myself. He placed his head between his knees and cried loudly until his soul lefthis body. bA Divine Voice emerged and said: Rabbi Elazar ben Durdayya is destined for life in the World-to-Come.The Gemara explains the difficulty presented by this story: bAnd hereElazar ben Durdayya bwasguilty of bthe sinof forbidden sexual intercourse, bandyet bhe diedonce he repented. The Gemara answers: bThere too, since he was attached so stronglyto the sin, to an extent that transcended the physical temptation he felt, bit is similar to heresy,as it had become like a form of idol worship for him.,When bRabbiYehuda HaNasi heard this story of Elazar ben Durdayya, bhe wept and said: There isone who bacquires hisshare in the World-to-Come only bafter many yearsof toil, band there isone who bacquires hisshare in the World-to-Come bin one moment. And RabbiYehuda HaNasi further bsays: Not only are penitents accepted, but they are even called: Rabbi,as the Divine Voice referred to Elazar ben Durdayya as Rabbi Elazar ben Durdayya.,§ In relation to the issue of distancing oneself from idol worship and prostitution, the Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥanina and Rabbi Yonatan wereonce bwalking along the roadwhen bthey came to a certain two paths, oneof which bbranched off toward the entrance ofa place of bidol worship, andthe other bone branched off toward the entrance of a brothel. One said to the other: Let us go bythe path that leads to bthe entranceof the place bof idol worship, /b
24. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

84a. כי האי מעשה לידיה פגע ביה אליהו,אמר ליה עד מתי אתה מוסר עמו של אלהינו להריגה אמר ליה מאי אעביד הרמנא דמלכא הוא אמר ליה אבוך ערק לאסיא את ערוק ללודקיא,כי הוו מקלעי ר' ישמעאל ברבי יוסי ור' אלעזר בר' שמעון בהדי הדדי הוה עייל בקרא דתורי בינייהו ולא הוה נגעה בהו,אמרה להו ההיא מטרוניתא בניכם אינם שלכם אמרו לה שלהן גדול משלנו כל שכן איכא דאמרי הכי אמרו לה (שופטים ח, כא) כי כאיש גבורתו איכא דאמרי הכי אמרו לה אהבה דוחקת את הבשר,ולמה להו לאהדורי לה והא כתיב (משלי כו, ד) אל תען כסיל כאולתו שלא להוציא לעז על בניהם,א"ר יוחנן איבריה דר' ישמעאל [בר' יוסי] כחמת בת תשע קבין אמר רב פפא איבריה דרבי יוחנן כחמת בת חמשת קבין ואמרי לה בת שלשת קבין דרב פפא גופיה כי דקורי דהרפנאי,אמר רבי יוחנן אנא אישתיירי משפירי ירושלים האי מאן דבעי מחזי שופריה דרבי יוחנן נייתי כסא דכספא מבי סלקי ונמלייה פרצידיא דרומנא סומקא ונהדר ליה כלילא דוורדא סומקא לפומיה ונותביה בין שמשא לטולא ההוא זהרורי מעין שופריה דר' יוחנן,איני והאמר מר שופריה דרב כהנא מעין שופריה דרבי אבהו שופריה דר' אבהו מעין שופריה דיעקב אבינו שופריה דיעקב אבינו מעין שופריה דאדם הראשון ואילו ר' יוחנן לא קא חשיב ליה שאני ר' יוחנן דהדרת פנים לא הויא ליה,ר' יוחנן הוה אזיל ויתיב אשערי טבילה אמר כי סלקן בנות ישראל מטבילת מצוה לפגעו בי כי היכי דלהוו להו בני שפירי כוותי גמירי אורייתא כוותי,אמרו ליה רבנן לא מסתפי מר מעינא בישא אמר להו אנא מזרעא דיוסף קאתינא דלא שלטא ביה עינא בישא דכתיב (בראשית מט, כב) בן פורת יוסף בן פורת עלי עין ואמר ר' אבהו אל תקרי עלי עין אלא עולי עין,ר' יוסי בר חנינא אמר מהכא (בראשית מח, טז) וידגו לרוב בקרב הארץ מה דגים שבים מים מכסים אותם ואין העין שולטת בהן אף זרעו של יוסף אין העין שולטת בהן,יומא חד הוה קא סחי ר' יוחנן בירדנא חזייה ריש לקיש ושוור לירדנא אבתריה אמר ליה חילך לאורייתא אמר ליה שופרך לנשי א"ל אי הדרת בך יהיבנא לך אחותי דשפירא מינאי קביל עליה בעי למיהדר לאתויי מאניה ולא מצי הדר,אקרייה ואתנייה ושוייה גברא רבא יומא חד הוו מפלגי בי מדרשא הסייף והסכין והפגיון והרומח ומגל יד ומגל קציר מאימתי מקבלין טומאה משעת גמר מלאכתן,ומאימתי גמר מלאכתן רבי יוחנן אמר משיצרפם בכבשן ריש לקיש אמר משיצחצחן במים א"ל לסטאה בלסטיותיה ידע אמר ליה ומאי אהנת לי התם רבי קרו לי הכא רבי קרו לי אמר ליה אהנאי לך דאקרבינך תחת כנפי השכינה,חלש דעתיה דרבי יוחנן חלש ריש לקיש אתאי אחתיה קא בכיא אמרה ליה עשה בשביל בני אמר לה (ירמיהו מט, יא) עזבה יתומיך אני אחיה עשה בשביל אלמנותי אמר לה (ירמיהו מט, יא) ואלמנותיך עלי תבטחו,נח נפשיה דר' שמעון בן לקיש והוה קא מצטער ר' יוחנן בתריה טובא אמרו רבנן מאן ליזיל ליתביה לדעתיה ניזיל רבי אלעזר בן פדת דמחדדין שמעתתיה,אזל יתיב קמיה כל מילתא דהוה אמר רבי יוחנן אמר ליה תניא דמסייעא לך אמר את כבר לקישא בר לקישא כי הוה אמינא מילתא הוה מקשי לי עשרין וארבע קושייתא ומפריקנא ליה עשרין וארבעה פרוקי וממילא רווחא שמעתא ואת אמרת תניא דמסייע לך אטו לא ידענא דשפיר קאמינא,הוה קא אזיל וקרע מאניה וקא בכי ואמר היכא את בר לקישא היכא את בר לקישא והוה קא צוח עד דשף דעתיה [מיניה] בעו רבנן רחמי עליה ונח נפשיה 84a. bElijahthe prophet bencountered him /b,and bsaid to him: Until whenwill byou inform on the nation of our Godto be sentenced bto execution?Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsaid toElijah: bWhat should I do? It is the king’s edictthat I must obey. Elijah bsaid to him:Faced with this choice, byour father fled to Asia. Youshould bflee to Laodicearather than accept this appointment.,§ With regard to these Sages, the Gemara adds: bWhen Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would meet each other,it was possible for ba pair of oxen to enterand fit bbetween them,under their bellies, bwithout touching them,due to their excessive obesity., bA certainRoman bnoblewoman [ imatronita /i]once bsaid to them: Your children are notreally byour own,as due to your obesity it is impossible that you engaged in intercourse with your wives. bThey said to her: Theirs,i.e., our wives’ bellies, bare larger than ours.She said to them: bAll the more soyou could not have had intercourse. bThere arethose bwho saythat bthis is what they said to her: “For as the man is, so is his strength”(Judges 8:21), i.e., our sexual organs are proportionate to our bellies. bThere arethose bwho saythat bthis is what they said to her: Love compresses the flesh. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd why did they respond to heraudacious and foolish question? After all, bit is written: “Answer not a fool according to his folly,lest you also be like him” (Proverbs 26:4). The Gemara answers: They answered her bin order not to cast aspersions onthe lineage of btheir children. /b,The Gemara continues discussing the bodies of these Sages: bRabbi Yoḥa said:The borgan of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei,was the size bof a jug of nine ikav /i. Rav Pappa said:The borgan of Rabbi Yoḥawas the size bof a jug of five ikav /i, and some sayit was the size of a jug bof three ikav /i. Rav Pappa himselfhad a belly blike the baskets [ idikurei /i]made bin Harpanya. /b,With regard to Rabbi Yoḥa’s physical features, the Gemara adds that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Ialone bremain of the beautifulpeople bof Jerusalem.The Gemara continues: bOne who wishes to seesomething resembling bthe beauty of Rabbi Yoḥa should bringa new, shiny bsilver goblet from the smithy and fill itwith bred pomegranate seeds [ ipartzidaya /i] and place a diadem of red roses uponthe blipof the goblet, band position it between the sunlight and shade. That lusteris ba semblance of Rabbi Yoḥa’s beauty. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Was Rabbi Yoḥa so beautiful? bBut doesn’t the Master say: The beauty of Rav Kahanais ba semblance of the beauty of Rabbi Abbahu; the beauty of Rabbi Abbahuis ba semblance of the beauty of Jacob, our forefather;and bthe beauty of Jacob, our forefather,is ba semblance of the beauty of Adam the firstman, who was created in the image of God. bAnd yet Rabbi Yoḥa is not includedin this list. The Gemara answers: bRabbi Yoḥais bdifferentfrom these other men, bas he did not have a beauty of countece,i.e., he did not have a beard.,The Gemara continues to discuss Rabbi Yoḥa’s beauty. bRabbi Yoḥa would go and sit by the entrance to the ritual bath. He saidto himself: bWhen Jewish women come up fromtheir bimmersionfor the sake bof a mitzva,after their menstruation, bthey should encounter mefirst, bso that they have beautiful children like me,and sons blearned in Torah like me.This is based on the idea that the image upon which a woman meditates during intercourse affects the child she conceives., bThe Rabbis said toRabbi Yoḥa: bIsn’t the Master worried aboutbeing harmed by bthe evil eyeby displaying yourself in this manner? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to them: I come from the offspring of Joseph, over whom the evil eye does not have dominion, as it is written: “Joseph is a fruitful vine, a fruitful vine by a fountain [ ialei ayin /i]”(Genesis 49:22); band Rabbi Abbahu says: Do not readthe verse as saying: b“By a fountain [ ialei ayin /i]”; rather,read it as: bThose who rise abovethe evil beye [ iolei ayin /i].Joseph’s descendants are not susceptible to the influence of the evil eye., bRabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina saidthat this idea is derived bfrom here: “And let them grow [ iveyidgu /i] into a multitude in the midst of the earth”(Genesis 48:16). bJust aswith regard to bfish [ idagim /i] in the sea, the water covers them and theevil beyetherefore bhas no dominion over them,as they are not seen, bso too,with regard to bthe offspring of Joseph, theevil beye has no dominion over them. /b,The Gemara relates: bOne day, Rabbi Yoḥa was bathing in the JordanRiver. bReish Lakish saw him and jumped into the Jordan, pursuing him.At that time, Reish Lakish was the leader of a band of marauders. Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid toReish Lakish: bYour strengthis fit bfor Torahstudy. Reish Lakish bsaid to him: Your beautyis fit bfor women.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: If you returnto the pursuit of Torah, bI will give you my sisterin marriage, bwho is more beautiful than I am.Reish Lakish baccepted upon himselfto study Torah. Subsequently, Reish Lakish bwanted to jump backout of the river bto bringback bhis clothes, but he was unable to return,as he had lost his physical strength as soon as he accepted the responsibility to study Torah upon himself.,Rabbi Yoḥa btaughtReish Lakish bBible, and taught him Mishna, and turned him into a great man.Eventually, Reish Lakish became one of the outstanding Torah scholars of his generation. bOne daythe Sages bof the study hall were engaging in a disputeconcerning the following ibaraita /i: With regard to bthe sword, the knife, the dagger [ ivehapigyon /i], the spear, a hand sickle, and a harvest sickle, from when are they susceptible to ritual impurity?The ibaraitaanswers: It is bfrom the time of the completion of their manufacture,which is the ihalakhawith regard to metal vessels in general.,These Sages inquired: bAnd when is the completion of their manufacture? Rabbi Yoḥa says:It is bfrom when one firesthese items bin the furnace. Reish Lakish said:It is bfrom when one scours them in water,after they have been fired in the furnace. Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid toReish Lakish: bA bandit knows about his banditry,i.e., you are an expert in weaponry because you were a bandit in your youth. Reish Lakish bsaid toRabbi Yoḥa: bWhat benefit did you provide meby bringing me close to Torah? bThere,among the bandits, bthey called me: Leaderof the bandits, and bhere,too, bthey call me: Leaderof the bandits. Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: I provided benefit to you, as I brought you closeto God, bunder the wings of the Divine Presence. /b,As a result of the quarrel, bRabbi Yoḥa was offended,which in turn affected bReish Lakish,who bfell ill.Rabbi Yoḥa’s bsister,who was Reish Lakish’s wife, bcame cryingto Rabbi Yoḥa, begging that he pray for Reish Lakish’s recovery. bShe said to him: Dothis bfor the sake of my children,so that they should have a father. Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to herthe verse: b“Leave your fatherless children, I will rear them”(Jeremiah 49:11), i.e., I will take care of them. She said to him: bDoso bfor the sake of my widowhood. He said to herthe rest of the verse: b“And let your widows trust in Me.” /b,Ultimately, bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish,Reish Lakish, bdied. Rabbi Yoḥa was sorely pained overlosing bhim. The Rabbis said: Who will go to calmRabbi Yoḥa’s bmindand comfort him over his loss? They said: bLet Rabbi Elazar ben Pedat go, as his statements are sharp,i.e., he is clever and will be able to serve as a substitute for Reish Lakish.,Rabbi Elazar ben Pedat bwent and sat beforeRabbi Yoḥa. With regard to bevery matter that Rabbi Yoḥa would say,Rabbi Elazar ben Pedat would bsay to him:There is a ruling which bis taughtin a ibaraita bthat supports youropinion. Rabbi Yoḥa bsaidto him: bAre youcomparable bto the son of Lakish?In my discussions with bthe son of Lakish, when I would state a matter, he would raise twenty-four difficulties against mein an attempt to disprove my claim, band I would answer him with twenty-four answers, and the ihalakhaby itself would become broadenedand clarified. bAndyet byou sayto me: There is a ruling which bis taughtin a ibaraita bthat supports youropinion. bDo I not know that what I say is good?Being rebutted by Reish Lakish served a purpose; your bringing proof to my statements does not.,Rabbi Yoḥa bwent around, rending his clothing, weeping and saying: Where are you, son of Lakish? Where are you, son of Lakish?Rabbi Yoḥa bscreamed until his mind was taken from him,i.e., he went insane. bThe Rabbisprayed and brequestedfor God to have bmercy on himand take his soul, bandRabbi Yoḥa bdied. /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12b. רב ששת כי כרע כרע כחיזרא כי קא זקיף זקיף כחיויא:,ואמר רבה בר חיננא סבא משמיה דרב כל השנה כולה אדם מתפלל האל הקדוש מלך אוהב צדקה ומשפט חוץ מעשרה ימים שבין ראש השנה ויום הכפורים שמתפלל המלך הקדוש והמלך המשפט,ורבי אלעזר אמר אפילו אמר האל הקדוש יצא שנאמר (ישעיהו ה, טז) ויגבה ה' צבאות במשפט והאל הקדוש נקדש בצדקה אימתי ויגבה ה' צבאות במשפט אלו עשרה ימים שמר"ה ועד יוה"כ וקאמר האל הקדוש,מאי הוה עלה,אמר רב יוסף האל הקדוש ומלך אוהב צדקה ומשפט רבה אמר המלך הקדוש והמלך המשפט והלכתא כרבה:,ואמר רבה בר חיננא סבא משמיה דרב כל שאפשר לו לבקש רחמים על חבירו ואינו מבקש נקרא חוטא שנאמר (שמואל א יב, כג) גם אנכי חלילה לי מחטא לה' מחדול להתפלל בעדכם,אמר רבא אם ת"ח הוא צריך שיחלה עצמו עליו,מ"ט אילימא משום דכתיב (שמואל א כב, ח) ואין חולה מכם עלי (ואין) [ו] גולה את אזני דילמא מלך שאני אלא מהכא (תהלים לה, יג) ואני בחלותם לבושי וגו':,ואמר רבה בר חיננא סבא משמיה דרב כל העושה דבר עבירה ומתבייש בו מוחלין לו על כל עונותיו שנאמר (יחזקאל טז, סג) למען תזכרי ובשת ולא יהיה לך עוד פתחון פה מפני כלמתך בכפרי לך לכל אשר עשית נאם ה' אלהים,דילמא צבור שאני אלא מהכא (שמואל א כח, טו) ויאמר שמואל אל שאול למה הרגזתני להעלות אותי ויאמר שאול צר לי מאד ופלשתים נלחמים בי וה' סר מעלי ולא ענני עוד גם ביד הנביאים גם בחלומות ואקראה לך להודיעני מה אעשה ואילו אורים ותומים לא קאמר,משום דקטליה לנוב עיר הכהנים,ומנין דאחילו ליה מן שמיא שנא' (שמואל א כח, יט) (ויאמר שמואל אל שאול) [ו] מחר אתה ובניך עמי וא"ר יוחנן עמי במחיצתי,ורבנן אמרי מהכא (שמואל ב כא, ו) והוקענום לה' בגבעת שאול בחיר ה' יצתה בת קול ואמרה בחיר ה',אמר ר' אבהו בן זוטרתי אמר רב יהודה בר זבידא בקשו לקבוע פרשת בלק בקריאת שמע ומפני מה לא קבעוה משום טורח צבור,מ"ט אילימא משום דכתיב בה (במדבר כג, כב) אל מוציאם ממצרים לימא פרשת רבית ופרשת משקלות דכתיב בהן יציאת מצרים,אלא אמר ר' יוסי בר אבין משום דכתיב בה האי קרא (במדבר כד, ט) כרע שכב כארי וכלביא מי יקימנו,ולימא האי פסוקא ותו לא,גמירי כל פרשה דפסקה משה רבינו פסקינן דלא פסקה משה רבינו לא פסקינן,פרשת ציצית מפני מה קבעוה,א"ר יהודה בר חביבא מפני שיש בה חמשה דברים מצות ציצית יציאת מצרים עול מצות ודעת מינים הרהור עבירה והרהור ע"ז,בשלמא הני תלת מפרשן עול מצות דכתיב (במדבר טו, לט) וראיתם אותו וזכרתם את כל מצות ה' ציצית דכתיב ועשו להם ציצית וגו' יציאת מצרים דכתיב אשר הוצאתי וגו' אלא דעת מינים הרהור עבירה והרהור ע"ז מנלן,דתניא אחרי לבבכם זו מינות וכן הוא אומר (תהלים יד, א) אמר נבל בלבו אין אלהים אחרי עיניכם זה הרהור עבירה שנאמר (שופטים יד, ג) ויאמר שמשון אל אביו אותה קח לי כי היא ישרה בעיני אתם זונים זה הרהור ע"ז וכן הוא אומר (שופטים ח, לג) ויזנו אחרי הבעלים:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מזכירין יציאת מצרים בלילות א"ר אלעזר בן עזריה הרי אני כבן שבעים שנה ולא זכיתי שתאמר יציאת מצרים בלילות עד שדרשה בן זומא,שנא' (דברים טז, ג) למען תזכור את יום צאתך מארץ מצרים כל ימי חייך ימי חייך הימים כל ימי חייך הלילות, וחכ"א ימי חייך העוה"ז כל להביא לימות המשיח:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא אמר להם בן זומא לחכמים וכי מזכירין יציאת מצרים לימות המשיח והלא כבר נאמר (ירמיהו כג, ז) הנה ימים באים נאם ה' ולא יאמרו עוד חי ה' אשר העלה את בני ישראל מארץ מצרים כי אם חי ה' אשר העלה ואשר הביא את זרע בית ישראל מארץ צפונה ומכל הארצות אשר הדחתים שם,אמרו לו לא שתעקר יציאת מצרים ממקומה אלא שתהא שעבוד מלכיות עיקר ויציאת מצרים טפל לו,כיוצא בו אתה אומר (בראשית לה, י) לא יקרא שמך עוד יעקב כי אם ישראל יהיה שמך 12b. With regard to bowing, the Gemara relates: bWhen Rav Sheshet bowed he bowedall at once, blike a cane,without delay. bWhen he stood upright he stood upright like a snake,lifting himself slowly, demonstrating that the awe of God was upon him in the manner that he bowed and stood upright ( iHaBoneh /i)., bAnd,with regard to the formulation of the blessings, bRabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: Throughout the year a person praysand concludes the third blessing of the iAmidaprayer with: bThe holy God,and concludes the blessing regarding the restoration of justice to Israel with: bKing who loves righteousness and justice, with the exception of the ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur,the Ten Days of Atonement. These days are comprised of Rosh HaShana, Yom Kippur, and the seven days in between, when one emphasizes God’s sovereignty, and so bwhen he prayshe concludes these blessings with: bThe holy King and: The King of justice,i.e., the King who reveals Himself through justice.,In contrast, bRabbi Elazar saidthat one need not be exacting, and bevenif bhe said: The holy Godduring those ten days, he fulfilled his obligation, bas it is stated: “And the Lord of Hosts is exalted through justice, and the holy God is sanctified through righteousness”(Isaiah 5:16). The Gemara explains: bWhenis it appropriate to describe God with terms like: bAnd the Lord of Hosts is exalted through justice?It is appropriate when God reveals Himself through justice, bduring the ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur,yet the verse bsays: The holy God.This appellation sufficiently underscores God’s transcendence, and there is no need to change the standard formula.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe conclusion that was reached babout this ihalakha /i?,Here, too, opinions differ: bRav Yosef saidin accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar: There is no need to change the standard formula: bThe holy God and: King Who loves righteousness and justice. Rabba saidin accordance with the opinion of Rav: bThe holy King and: The King of justice.The Gemara concludes: bThe ihalakhaisin accordance bwiththe opinion of bRabba. /b, bAnd Rabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: Anyone who can ask for mercy on behalf of another, and does not ask is called a sinner, as it is statedfollowing Samuel’s rebuke of the people: b“As for me, far be it from me that I should transgress against the Lord in ceasing to pray for you,but I will teach you the good and the right way” (I Samuel 12:23). Had Samuel refrained from prayer, he would have committed a sin., bRava said: Ifthe one in need of mercy bis a Torah scholar,it is insufficient to merely pray on his behalf. Rather, bone must make himself illworrying babout him. /b,The Gemara seeks to clarify the source of this ihalakha /i. bWhat is the reasonthat one must make oneself ill over a Torah scholar in need of mercy? bIf you saythat it is bbecauseof what Saul said to his men, bas it is written: “And there is none of you that is ill over me or tells unto me”(I Samuel 22:8), meaning that because Saul was a Torah scholar, it would have been appropriate for people to make themselves ill worrying about him; this is not an absolute proof. bPerhaps a king is different,and excessive worry is appropriate in that case. Rather, proof that one must make oneself ill over a Torah scholar in need for mercy is bfrom here:When David speaks of his enemies, Doeg and Ahitophel, who were Torah scholars, he says: b“But for me, when they were sick, my clothing was sackcloth,I afflicted my soul with fasting” (Psalms 35:13). One must be concerned to the extent that he dresses in sackcloth and fasts for the recovery of a Torah scholar., bAnd Rabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who commits an act of transgression and is ashamed of it, all of his transgressions are forgiven.Shame is a sign that one truly despises his transgressions and that shame has the power to atone for his actions (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto), bas it is stated: “In order that you remember, and be embarrassed, and never open your mouth anymore, because of your shame, when I have forgiven you for all that you have done, said the Lord, God”(Ezekiel 16:63).,However this proof is rejected: bPerhaps a community is different,as a community is forgiven more easily than an individual. bRather,proof that an individual ashamed of his actions is forgiven for his transgressions is cited bfrom here,when King Saul consulted Samuel by means of a necromancer before his final war with the Philistines: b“And Samuel said to Saul, why have you angered me to bring me up? And Saul said, I am very pained, and the Philistines are waging war against me, and God has removed Himself from me and answers me no more, neither by the hands of the prophets nor by dreams. And I call to you to tell me what to do”(I Samuel 28:15). Saul says that he consulted prophets and dreams, but bhe did not saythat he consulted bthe iUrim VeTummim /i. /b,The reason for this is bbecause he killedall the residents of bNov, the city of priests,and because of this transgression Saul was ashamed to consult the iUrim VeTummim /i, which was accomplished by means of a priest.,The Gemara concludes: bAnd from whereis it derived bthat Saul was pardoned byGod in bthe heavensfor his transgressions? bAs it is stated: “And Samuel said to Saul: Tomorrow you and your sons will be with me”(I Samuel 28:19). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: With medoes not only mean that they will die, but also means, in a statement that contains an aspect of consolation, that they will be bin my companyamong the righteous in heaven, as Saul was pardoned for his transgressions., bAnd the Rabbis saythat proof that Saul was pardoned is derived bfrom here,from what the Gibeonites said to David: “Let seven men of his sons be given to us band we will hang them up unto the Lord in the Giva of Saul, the chosen of the Lord”(II Samuel 21:6). Certainly the Gibeonites, who were furious at Saul, would not refer to him as the chosen of the Lord. Therefore, this phrase must be understood as having been spoken by ba Divine Voice that emerged and said the chosen of the Lord,because Saul had been pardoned for his transgressions and included among the completely righteous. brThe Gemara returns to the primary focus of the chapter, the recitation of iShema /i., bRabbi Abbahu ben Zutarti saidthat bRabbi Yehuda bar Zevida said:The Sages bsought to establishthe blessings of Balaam that appear in btheTorah bportion of Balak,as part of bthetwice-daily brecitation of iShema /i. bAnd why did they not establish itthere? bBecauseextending iShemawould place an bencumbrance on the congregation,from which the Sages sought to refrain.,The Gemara seeks: bWhydid the Sages seek to add the blessings of Balaam in the first place? bIf you saythat they did so bbecausethe exodus from Egypt is mentioned, bas it is written therein: “God, who brought them forth out of Egypt,is like the horns of the wild ram” (Numbers 23:22), certainly mention of the Exodus is not unique to this Torah portion. Many other portions mention the exodus as well. bLet us say the portion of usury(Leviticus 25:35–38) or the bportion of weights(Leviticus 19:35–37), bas the exodus from Egypt is written thereinas well. In addition, they are brief and would not constitute an encumbrance on the congregation., bRather, Rabbi Yosei bar Avin said:The reason the Sages sought to establish the portion of Balak as part of the recitation of iShemais bbecause it is written therein: “He couched, He lay down like a lion and a lioness; who shall rouse Him?Those who bless You are blessed and those who curse You are cursed” (Numbers 24:9). This is reminiscent of what is said in iShema /i: When you lie down, and when you rise.,On this, the Gemara asks: bAndif it is important to include this as part of iShemabecause of this single verse, then blet us say this verse and nothing more. /b,The Gemara rejects this: It is impossible to do this, as bthey learnedthrough tradition that bany portion that Moses, our teacher, divided, wetoo bdivideand read separately. However, a portion bthat Moses, our teacher, did not divide, we do not divideand read separately. And, as stated above, the Sages did not wish to institute the recitation of the entire portion of Balak to avoid placing an encumbrance on the congregation.,The Gemara continues: bWhy was the portion of ritual fringes establishedas part of the recitation of iShemawhen its content is unrelated to that of the preceding portions?, bRabbi Yehuda bar Ḥaviva said:The portion of ritual fringes was added bbecause it includes five elementsincluding the primary reason for its inclusion, the exodus from Egypt ( iMelo HaRo’im /i): bThe mitzva of ritual fringes,mention of bthe exodus from Egypt,the acceptance of bthe yoke of mitzvot,admonition against bthe opinions of the heretics,admonition against bthoughts ofthe btransgressionsof licentiousness, bandadmonition against bthoughts of idolatry. /b,The Gemara clarifies: bGranted, these three are mentioned explicitly: The yoke of mitzvotis mentioned in the portion of ritual fringes, bas it is written: “And you shall look upon them and remember all the mitzvot of the Lordand you shall do them” (Numbers 15:39). bRitual fringesare mentioned explicitly, bas it is written: “And they will make for themselves ritual fringes”(Numbers 15:38). bThe exodus from Egyptis also mentioned explicitly, bas it is written:“I am the Lord, your God, bwho took you outfrom the Land of Egypt” (Numbers 15:41). bBut where do wederive the other elements mentioned above: Admonition against bthe opinions of the heretics,admonition against bthoughts of transgressionsof licentiousness, bandadmonition against bthoughts of idolatry? /b,In response, the Gemara cites a ibaraitawhere these elements were derived from allusions in the verse, “You shall stray neither after your hearts nor after your eyes, after which you would lust” (Numbers 15:39). bAs it was taught: “After your hearts” refers tofollowing opinions bof heresythat may arise in one’s heart. The Gemara offers a proof, bas it is stated: “The fool said in his heart: ‘There is no God’;they have been corrupt, they have acted abominably; there is none who does good” (Psalms 14:1). The phrase: b“After your eyes,”in bthisverse refers to following bthoughts of transgressionsof licentiousness, that a person might see and desire, bas it is stated: “And Samson said to his father, ‘That one take for me, for she is upright in my eyes’”(Judges 14:3). The passage: b“You shall stray after”refers to promiscuity, which in the parlance of the prophets is a metaphor for bidol worship, as it is stated:“The children of Israel again bwent astray after the Be’alim”(Judges 8:33)., strongMISHNA: /strong It is a mitzva by Torah law to mention the exodus from Egypt at night, but some held that this mitzva was, like phylacteries or ritual fringes, fulfilled only during the day and not at night. For this reason it was decided: bThe exodus from Egypt is mentioned at night,adjacent to the recitation of iShema /i. bRabbi Elazar ben Azarya said: I am approximately seventy years old, andalthough I have long held this opinion, bI was never privilegedto prevail ( iMe’iri /i) and prove that there is a biblical obligation to fulfill the accepted custom (Ra’avad) and have bthe exodus from Egypt mentioned at night, until Ben Zoma interpreted it homileticallyand proved it obligatory.,Ben Zoma derived it bas it is stated: “That you may remember the day you went out of the land of Egypt all the days of your life”(Deuteronomy 16:3). bThe days of your life,refers to daytime alone; however, the addition of the word all, as it is stated: bAll the days of your life,comes to add nights as well., bAnd the Rabbis,who posit that there is no biblical obligation to mention the exodus from Egypt at night, explain the word, all, differently and bsay: The days of your life,refers to the days in bthis world, allis added bto include the days of the Messiah. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The fundamental dispute between Ben Zoma and the Sages appears in the mishna, and the ibaraitacites its continuation. Disputing the position of the Sages that: All the days of your life, refers to both this world and the days of the Messiah, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bBen Zoma said to the Sages: And is the exodus from Egypt mentioned in the days of the Messiah? Was it not already saidthat Jeremiah prophesied that in the days of the Messiah: b“Behold, days are coming, says the Lord, that they will no longer say: The Lord lives Who brought up the children of Israel out of the Land of Egypt. Rather: As the Lord lives, that brought up and led the seed of the house of Israel up out of the north country and from all the countries where I had driven them”(Jeremiah 23:7–8).,The Sages rejected this claim band they said to himthat these verses do bnotmean bthatin the future bthe exodus from Egypt will be uprooted from its placeand will be mentioned no more. bRather,redemption from bthe subjugation of the kingdoms will be primary and the exodus from Egypt will be secondary. /b, bOn a similarnote, byou say:The meaning of the expressions: It will not say, and they will no longer mention, are not absolute, as in the verse: b“Your name shall no longer be called Jacob; rather, Israel will be your name”(Genesis 35:10). There, too, the meaning i
26. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15a. בשלמא אינהו מיפרשי אלא אבהתייהו מנלן,כדעולא דאמר עולא כל מקום ששמו ושם אביו בנביאות בידוע שהוא נביא בן נביא שמו ולא שם אביו בידוע שהוא נביא ולא בן נביא שמו ושם עירו מפורש בידוע שהוא מאותה העיר שמו ולא שם עירו בידוע שהוא מירושלים,במתניתא תנא כל שמעשיו ומעשה אבותיו סתומין ופרט לך הכתוב באחד מהן לשבח כגון (צפניה א, א) דבר ה' אשר היה אל צפניה בן כושי בן גדליה בידוע שהוא צדיק בן צדיק וכל שפרט לך הכתוב באחד מהן לגנאי כגון (ירמיהו מא, א) ויהי בחדש השביעי בא ישמעאל בן נתניה בן אלישמע בידוע שהוא רשע בן רשע,אמר רב נחמן מלאכי זה מרדכי ולמה נקרא שמו מלאכי שהיה משנה למלך מיתיבי ברוך בן נריה ושריה בן מעשיה ודניאל ומרדכי בלשן וחגי זכריה ומלאכי כולן נתנבאו בשנת שתים לדריוש תיובתא,תניא אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה מלאכי זה עזרא וחכ"א מלאכי שמו אמר רב נחמן מסתברא כמאן דאמר מלאכי זה עזרא דכתיב בנביאות מלאכי (מלאכי ב, יא) בגדה יהודה ותועבה נעשתה בישראל ובירושלם כי חלל יהודה קדש ה' אשר אהב ובעל בת אל נכר,ומאן אפריש נשים נכריות עזרא דכתיב (עזרא י, ב) ויען שכניה בן יחיאל מבני עילם ויאמר לעזרא אנחנו מעלנו באלהינו ונושב נשים נכריות,תנו רבנן ארבע נשים יפיפיות היו בעולם שרה (ואביגיל רחב) ואסתר ולמאן דאמר אסתר ירקרוקת היתה מפיק אסתר ומעייל ושתי,תנו רבנן רחב בשמה זינתה יעל בקולה אביגיל בזכירתה מיכל בת שאול בראייתה אמר רבי יצחק כל האומר רחב רחב מיד ניקרי א"ל רב נחמן אנא אמינא רחב רחב ולא איכפת לי אמר ליה כי קאמינא ביודעה ובמכירה,ומרדכי ידע את כל אשר נעשה מאי אמר רב אמר גבה המן מאחשורוש ושמואל אמר גבר מלכא עילאה ממלכא תתאה,ותתחלחל המלכה מאי ותתחלחל אמר רב שפירסה נדה ור' ירמיה אמר שהוצרכה לנקביה,ותקרא אסתר להתך אמר רב התך זה דניאל ולמה נקרא שמו התך שחתכוהו מגדולתו ושמואל אמר שכל דברי מלכות נחתכין על פיו,לדעת מה זה ועל מה זה אמר רבי יצחק שלחה לו שמא עברו ישראל על חמשה חומשי תורה דכתיב בהן (שמות לב, טו) מזה ומזה הם כתובים,ויגידו למרדכי את דברי אסתר ואילו איהו לא אזל לגביה מכאן שאין משיבין על הקלקלה,לך כנוס את כל היהודים וגו' עד אשר לא כדת אמר רבי אבא שלא כדת היה שבכל יום ויום עד עכשיו באונס ועכשיו ברצון וכאשר אבדתי אבדתי כשם שאבדתי מבית אבא כך אובד ממך,ויעבור מרדכי אמר רב שהעביר יום ראשון של פסח בתענית ושמואל אמר דעבר ערקומא דמיא,ויהי ביום השלישי ותלבש אסתר מלכות בגדי מלכות מיבעי ליה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא מלמד שלבשתה רוח הקדש כתיב הכא ותלבש וכתיב התם (דברי הימים א יב, יט) ורוח לבשה את עמשי,ואמר רבי אלעזר אמר ר' חנינא לעולם אל תהי ברכת הדיוט קלה בעיניך שהרי שני גדולי הדור ברכום שני הדיוטות ונתקיימה בהן ואלו הן דוד ודניאל דוד דברכיה ארונה דכתיב (שמואל ב כד, כג) ויאמר ארונה אל המלך וגו' דניאל דברכיה דריוש דכתיב (דניאל ו, יז) אלהך די אנת פלח ליה בתדירא הוא ישיזבינך,ואמר רבי אלעזר אמר ר' חנינא אל תהי קללת הדיוט קלה בעיניך שהרי אבימלך קלל את שרה (בראשית כ, טז) הנה הוא לך כסות עינים ונתקיים בזרעה (בראשית כז, א) ויהי כי זקן יצחק ותכהין עיניו,ואמר רבי אלעזר אמר ר' חנינא בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם שופת קדרה ואח"כ נותן לתוכה מים אבל הקב"ה נותן מים ואחר כך שופת הקדרה לקיים מה שנאמר (ירמיהו י, יג) לקול תתו המון מים בשמים,ואמר ר"א אמר רבי חנינא כל האומר דבר בשם אומרו מביא גאולה לעולם שנאמר ותאמר אסתר למלך בשם מרדכי,ואמר ר"א אמר רבי חנינא צדיק אבד לדורו אבד משל לאדם שאבדה לו מרגלית כל מקום שהיא מרגלית שמה לא אבדה אלא לבעלה,וכל זה איננו שוה לי אמר רבי אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא בשעה שראה המן את מרדכי יושב בשער המלך אמר כל זה אינו שוה לי כדרב חסדא דאמר רב חסדא זה בא בפרוזבולי וזה בא 15a. The Gemara asks in reference to the eight prophets descended from Rahab: bGranted,with regard to bthem, it is explicit,i.e., the four sons recorded in the list were certainly prophets, as the Bible states this explicitly: Jeremiah was a prophet, his student Baruch was one of the sons of the prophets, his cousin Hanamel came to him at the word of God (see Jeremiah, chapter 32), and Seraiah was his student. bBut as for their fathers,Hilkiah, Neriah, Shallum, and Mahseiah, bfrom where do we derivethat they were prophets?,The Gemara answers: bAstaught by bUlla, as Ulla said: Wherever one’s name and his father’s nameare mentioned bwith regard to prophecy, it is known that he was a prophet the son of a prophet,and therefore his father’s name is also mentioned. And wherever bhis nameis mentioned bbut not his father’s name, it is known that he was a prophet but not the son of a prophet.Similarly, wherever bhis name and the name of his city are specified, it is known that he was from thatparticular bcity,and wherever bhis nameis mentioned bbut not the name of his city, it is known that he was from Jerusalem. /b, bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i:With regard to banyone whose actions and the actions of his ancestors are obscuredand not explained, band the verse mentioned one of them favorably, for example,the way in which Zephaniah the prophet is introduced: b“The word of the Lord which came to Zephaniah the son of Cushi, the son of Gedaliah”(Zephaniah 1:1), bit is known thatnot only bwas he a righteous man,he was also bthe son of a righteous man. Andconversely, bwhenever the verse mentioned one of them unfavorably, for example,in the verse that introduces Ishmael as the one who killed Gedaliah, which states: b“And it came to pass in the seventh month that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama”(Jeremiah 41:1), bit is known thatnot only bwas he a wicked man,he was also bthe son of a wicked man. /b, bRav Naḥman said: Malachithe prophet bisin fact bMordecai, and why was he called Malachi?To indicate bthat he was second to the king [ imelekh /i],as Mordecai was appointed such, as is recorded at the end of the Megilla. The Gemara braises an objectionfrom the following ibaraita /i: bBaruch, the son of Neriah; Seraiah, the son of Mahseiah; Daniel; Mordecai; Bilshan; Haggai; Zechariah; and Malachi; all prophesied in the second year ofthe reign of bDarius.The fact that the ibaraitamentions Mordecai and Malachi separately indicates that they were two different people. The Gemara concludes: This is indeed ba conclusive refutation. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: Malachi isin fact bEzra. And the Rabbis sayotherwise: bMalachi was hisreal bname,and it was not merely another name for Ezra or another prophet. bRav Naḥman said:It bstands to reasonthat indeed, they are one and the same person, blikethe opinion of bthe one who said that Malachi is Ezra,since there is a similarity between them, bas it is stated in Malachi’s prophecy: “Judah has dealt treacherously, and a disgusting thing has been done in Israel and in Jerusalem; for Judah has profaned the sanctity of the Lord which he loved, and has married the daughter of a strange god”(Malachi 2:11)., bAnd whowas the one that bremoved the foreign womenwho were married to Jews? It was bEzra, as it is written: “And Shecaniah the son of Jehiel, one of the sons of Elam, answered and said unto Ezra: We have broken faith with our God, and have married foreign womenof the peoples of the land” (Ezra 10:2). It therefore appears that Malachi was one of Ezra’s names, as the Bible describes them both as confronting an intermarriage epidemic.,To complete the discussion about the prophetesses, the Gemara cites a ibaraitain which bthe Sages taught: There were four women of extraordinary beauty in the world: Sarah, and Abigail, Rahab, and Esther. And according to the one who saidthat bEsther was greenishin color, lacking natural beauty, only that a cord of divine grace was strung around her, bremove Estherfrom the list band insert Vashtiin her place, for she was indeed beautiful., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRahab aroused impure thoughts by her name,i.e., the mere mention of her name would inspire lust for her; bYael, by her voice; Abigail, by remembering her; Michal, the daughter of Saul, by her appearance.Similarly, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who says Rahab, Rahab, immediately experiences a seminal emissiondue to the arousal of desire caused by Rahab’s great beauty. bRav Naḥman said to him: I say: Rahab, Rahab, and it does not affect me.Rabbi Yitzchak bsaid toRav Naḥman: bWhen I said this,I was specifically referring bto one who knows herpersonally band recognizes herbeauty. Only for one who has met Rahab in person is the mere mention of her name capable of arousing lust.,§ The Gemara returns to its explanation of the verses of the book of Esther. The verse states: b“When Mordecai perceived all that was done,Mordecai rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth with ashes, and went out into the midst of the city, and cried with a loud and bitter cry” (Esther 4:1). The Gemara asks: bWhat didMordecai bsaywhen he cried out? bRav said:He said that bHaman has risen above Ahasuerus,for he saw that Haman had become even stronger than Ahasuerus himself, and that he controlled all affairs of the empire. bAnd Shmuel said: The upper King has prevailed over the lower king,saying this euphemistically and insinuating just the opposite. In other words, it would appear that Ahasuerus, the lower king, has prevailed over the higher King, God in Heaven, Who desires good for the Jewish people.,The verse states: b“Then the queen was exceedingly distressed” [ ivatitḥalḥal /i](Esther 4:4). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of ivatitḥalḥal /i? Rav said:This means bthat she began to menstruateout of fear, as the cavities, iḥalalim /i, of her body opened. bAnd Rabbi Yirmeya said: Her bowels were loosened,also understanding the verse as referring to her bodily cavities.,The verse states: b“Then Esther called for Hathach,one of the king’s chamberlains, whom he had appointed to attend upon her” (Esther 4:5). bRav said: Hathach isin fact the prophet bDaniel. And why was he called Hathach? Because he was cut down [ iḥatakh /i] from his greatnessduring Ahasuerus’s reign, as he was demoted from his high position. Previously he had served as a senior minister, and now he had become Esther’s steward. bAnd Shmuelexpounded the name Hathach as derived from iḥatakhin the opposite sense, as he bsaid:Daniel was called Hathach bbecause all the affairs of the kingdom were decided [ ineḥtakhin /i] by his word. /b,The verse continues to relate that Esther sent Hathach to Mordecai after hearing about the decree: b“To know what this [ izeh /i] was, and why it [ izeh /i] was”(Esther 4:5). bRabbi Yitzḥak saidthat Esther bsenta message btoMordecai, saying: bPerhaps the Jews have transgressed the five books of the Torah, as it is writtenwith regard to the two tablets: b“On this [ izeh /i] side and on the other [ izeh /i] side were they written”(Exodus 32:15).,The verse states: b“And they told Esther’s words to Mordecai”(Esther 4:12), bbut he,Hathach himself, bdid not go totell bhimdirectly. The Gemara explains: bFrom herewe see that bone does not bring back a sad report.If one has nothing positive to say, it is best for him to remain silent. This explains why Hathach himself did not report the information to Mordecai, and Esther’s words had to be delivered by other messengers.,Esther sent a message to Mordecai: b“Go, gather together all the Jewswho are present in Shushan, and fast for me, and neither eat nor drink for three days, night and day; I also and my maidens will fast likewise, and so will I go in to the king, bnot according to the custom”(Esther 4:16). bRabbi Abba said: It will not be according tomy usual bcustom, for every day until nowwhen I submitted myself to Ahasuerus it was bunder compulsion, but nowI will be submitting myself to him bof myown free bwill.And Esther further said: b“And if I perish, I perish”(Esther 4:16). What she meant was: bJust as I was lost to my father’s houseever since I was brought here, bso too, shall I be lost to you,for after voluntarily having relations with Ahasuerus, I shall be forever forbidden to you.,There is a dispute with regard to the meaning of the verse: b“So Mordecai passed [ ivaya’avor /i]”(Esther 4:17). bRav said:This means bthat he passed the first day of Passover as a fast day,understanding the word ivaya’avorin the sense of sin [ iaveira /i], as by doing so he transgressed the obligation to rejoice on the Festival. bAnd Shmuel said:It means bthat he crossed over [ iavar /i] a streamin order to bring the message to all.,The verse states: b“And it came to pass on the third day, that Esther clothed herself in royalty”(Esther 5:1). The Gemara asks: bIt should have said:Esther clothed herself in broyal garments. Rabbi Elazar saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: This teaches that she clothed herself witha bdivinespirit of binspiration,as bit is written here: “And she clothed herself,” and it is written elsewhere: “And the spirit clothed Amasai”(I Chronicles 12:19). Just as there the reference is to the spirit of divine inspiration, so too here, the term royalty is referring to the spirit of divine inspiration.,Apropos a statement that Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Ḥanina said, the Gemara records other such statements: bAnd Rabbi Elazarfurther bsaidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: One should never regard the blessing of an ordinary person [ ihedyot /i] as light in your eyes, as twoof the bgreat men oftheir bgenerations received blessings from ordinary people andthose blessings bwere fulfilled in them. And they were David and Daniel. David, for Araunah blessed him, as it is written: “And Araunah said to the king,May the Lord your God accept you” (II Samuel 24:23), and it was fulfilled. bDaniel, for Darius blessed him, as it is written: “Your God Whom you serve continually, He will rescue you” ( /bDaniel 6:17), and this too was fulfilled when Daniel was saved from the lions’ den., bAnd Rabbi Elazarfurther bsaidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: One should not regard the curse of an ordinary person as light in your eyes, for Abimelech cursed Sarah,saying: b“Behold, it is to you a covering of the eyesto all that are with you” (Genesis 20:16), bandindeed bthis was fulfilled in her descendant,as it is stated: b“And it came to pass, that when Isaac was old, and his eyes were dim,so that he could not see” (Genesis 27:1). Abimelech’s curse of covered eyes was fulfilled through her son Isaac’s blindness., bAnd Rabbi Elazarfurther bsaidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: Come and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is unlike the attribute ofa man of bflesh and blood; forit is bthe attribute of flesh and bloodthat ba man places the pot on the fire and then puts in the water. However, the Holy One, Blessed be He,first bputs in the water and then places the pot on the fire, to fulfill that which is stated: “At the sound of His giving a multitude of waters in the heavens”(Jeremiah 10:13), which he explains as follows: First God set the multitudes of water in place, and afterward He created the heavens to hold the water., bAnd Rabbi Elazarfurther bsaidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: Whoever reports a saying in the name of he who said it brings redemption to the world. As it is statedwith respect to the incident of Bigthan and Teresh: b“And Esther reported it to the king in the name of Mordecai”(Esther 2:22), and this eventually brought redemption, as Mordecai was later rewarded for saving the king’s life, paving the way for the miraculous salvation., bAnd Rabbi Elazarfurther bsaidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said:When ba righteous manpasses from this earth and is blost,he bis lostonly bforthe rest of bhis generation,who is now deprived of him, not for the righteous individual himself. This is bsimilar to a man who has lost a pearl.The pearl does not care if it is lost, as bwherever it isfound, bit isstill ba pearl; it is lost only to its owner. /b,Haman said: b“Yet all this avails me nothing”(Esther 5:13). bRabbi Elazar saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: When Haman saw Mordecai sitting at the king’s gate he said: Yet all this avails me nothing.This may be understood baswas suggested bby Rav Ḥisda, for Rav Ḥisda said: This one,Mordecai, bcame asone with the heritage of ba rich man [ iperozebuli /i],whereas bthat one,Haman, bcame /b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

99b. btheapparent bdereliction ofthe study of bTorah is its foundation,e.g., if one breaks off his studies in order to participate in a funeral or a wedding procession. This is derived from a verse, bas it is written:“And the Lord said to Moses: Hew for yourself two tablets of stone like the first, and I will write upon the tablets the words that were on the first tablets, bwhich [ iasher /i] you broke”(Exodus 34:1). The word “ iasher /i” is an allusion to the fact that that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Your strength is true [ iyishar koḥakha /i]in bthat you brokethe tablets, as the breaking of the first tablets led to the foundation of the Torah through the giving of the second tablets., bAnd Reish Lakish says:With regard to ba Torah scholar who sinned, he is not disgraced in public, as it is stated: “Therefore, you shall stumble in the day, and the prophet also shall stumble with you in the night”(Hosea 4:5). One can derive from the verse that if a prophet or any other Torah scholar stumbles and sins, one bshould concealhis offense blike the nightand not punish him in public., bAnd Reish Lakish says: Anyone who causes himself to forgeteven bone matter from his studies violates a prohibition, as it is statedwith regard to the receiving of the Torah on Mount Sinai: “Only bobserve for yourself, and guard your soul diligently, lest you forget the mattersthat your eyes saw, and lest they depart from your heart all the days of your life, but you should make them known to your children and to your children’s children” (Deuteronomy 4:9). bAndthis is bin accordance withthe principle that bRabbi Avinsays that bRabbi Ile’a says, as Rabbi Avin saysthat bRabbi Ile’a says: Wherever it is stated: Observe,or: bLest, or: Do not, it is nothing other than a prohibition. /b, bRavina says:One who forgets his studies violates two prohibitions, as the verse uses both the term b“observe” andthe term b“lest,”and bthese are two prohibitions. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says:He violates bthree prohibitions, as it is stated:“Only bobserve for yourself, and guard your soul diligently, lest you forget the mattersthat your eyes saw.” The term “Guard your soul” is derived from the same root as “observe” and is considered an additional prohibition.,The Gemara qualifies this statement: One bmighthave thought this applies bevento one who forgot his Torah knowledge bdue tocircumstances bbeyond his control.Therefore, bthe verse states: “And lest they depart from your heart.”This indicates that bthe verse is speaking of one whowillingly bcauses them to depart from his heart. Rabbi Dostai, son of Rabbi Yannai, says:One bmighthave thought that this applies bevenif bhis studies weretoo bhard for himto remember. Therefore, bthe verse states: “Only,”which excludes one who is unable to recall his studies., bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say:The bTorah was given in fortydays, when Moses ascended to Mount Sinai to receive it, bandsimilarly the bsoulof man bis formed in fortydays, as the formation of the fetus in the womb takes forty days from the time of conception. This teaches that banyone who preserves his Torahstudies, bhis soul islikewise bpreserved, and anyone who does not preserve his Torahstudies, bhis soul is not preservedeither., bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:This can be illustrated by ba parable,as it is comparable bto a person who delivered a sparrow to his slavefor safekeeping, and bsaidto him: bAre you under the impression that if you lose it I will take from you an iissar /i,a small coin, bwhich is the valueof the bird? It is not so; bI will take your soul from youas punishment, meaning I will kill you. Similarly, one who fails to preserve the Torah entrusted to him will be severely punished., strongMISHNA: /strong bThere were two tables in the Entrance Hall, on the insideof the Entrance Hall, next bto the entrance to the Temple,i.e., next to the entrance to the Sanctuary. bOnewas bof marble and onewas bof gold. Onthe table bof marble,the priests bplace thenew bshewbreadthat has been baked, bbefore its entranceinto the Sanctuary, so that the loaves may cool a little from the heat of the oven and not spoil. bAndwhen the old shewbread is removed from the shewbread Table it is placed bonthe table bof gold upon its exitfrom the Sanctuary, where it remains until the frankincense is burned on the altar.,The reason the shewbread is placed on a gold table when it is removed, rather than on a marble or silver table, is bthat one elevatesto a higher level binmatters of bsanctity and one does not downgrade.Since it is set on the gold shewbread Table all week, it cannot be downgraded to a marble or silver table upon its removal. bAndthere was boneTable bof gold withinthe Sanctuary, bupon which the shewbreadis balwaysfound.,The mishna describes the manner in which it is ensured that the shewbread is constantly on the Table: bAnd four priests enter, twowith the btwo arrangementsof the new shewbread bin their hands and twowith the btwo bowlsof frankincense bin their hands. And fourpriests bprecedethem, entering the Sanctuary bbefore them, two to takethe btwo arrangementsof the old shewbread from the Table, band two to takethe btwo bowlsof frankincense., bThose bringingthe new shewbread bintothe Sanctuary bstand in the north and their faces are to the south, and those removingthe old shewbread bstand in the south and their faces are to the north. Thesepriests bdrawthe old shewbread from the Table band thosepriests bplacethe new shewbread on the Table, band foreach bhandbreadth of thisold shewbread that is removed from the Table a bhandbreadth of thatnew shewbread is placed upon the Table, so that the Table is never without loaves upon it, bas it is stated:“And you shall set upon the Table shewbread bbefore Me always”(Exodus 25:30)., bRabbi Yosei says: Evenif bthesepriests were to bremovethe shewbread from the Table entirely, bandonly afterward bthosepriests were to bplacethe new shewbread upon the Table, this btoo wouldfulfill the requirement that the shewbread balwaysbe on the Table. It is unnecessary to ensure the uninterrupted presence of the shewbread upon the Table, as long as it does not remain a single night without shewbread upon it.,The mishna describes the manner in which the shewbread is distributed: The priests who carried the old shewbread loaves bcame outof the Sanctuary band placed them on the table of gold that was in the Entrance Hall.The priests then bburnedon the altar bthefrankincense that was in the bbowls. And the loaves weresubsequently bdistributed to the priests.This occurred on Shabbat, the day that the priestly watch that served in the Temple during the preceding week was replaced by the priestly watch that would serve during the following week. The shewbread was distributed to the priests of both watches.,If bYom Kippur occurs on Shabbat, the loaves are distributed at night,at the conclusion of the fast, since they may not be eaten during the day. If Yom Kippur boccurs on Friday,i.e., when the holy day begins on Thursday evening, bthe goatsin offering bof Yom Kippur is eatenby the priests bat night,i.e., on Friday night, as it may be eaten only on the day that it is sacrificed or during the following night, until midnight. bAndsince there is no possibility of cooking the meat, as one may not cook on Yom Kippur or Shabbat, bthe Babylonians,i.e., priests who had emigrated from Babylonia, beat it when it is raw, due tothe fact bthat they are broad-mindedwith regard to their food, i.e., they are not particular and will eat meat even when it is not cooked., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that according to Rabbi Yosei, even if the priest first removes the old shewbread entirely, and only then places the new shewbread upon the Table, this fulfills the requirement that the shewbread always be on the Table. Moreover, bit is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says: Evenif the priest bremoved the oldshewbread on the bmorningof Shabbat, band arranged the newshewbread toward bevening,there is bnothingwrong bwith that. Rather, how do I realizethe meaning of the verse: “And you shall set upon the Table shewbread bbefore Me always”(Exodus 25:30)? This means bthatthe bTable should not be left overnight without breadupon it.,The ibaraitateaches that according to Rabbi Yosei, even if the old shewbread remained on the Table for a short while in the morning, and the new shewbread was placed on the Table toward evening, and even though it did not reside constantly on the Table, this fulfills the requirement that the shewbread should always be on the Table. bRabbi Ami says: From Rabbi Yosei’s statement we may learnthat bevenif ba person learned only one chapterof the Mishna in bthe morning and one chapterof the Mishna in bthe evening, he hasthereby bfulfilled the mitzva of: “This Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth,and you shall contemplate in it day and night, that you may take heed to do according to all that is written in it, for then you shall make your ways prosperous, and then you shall have good success” (Joshua 1:8)., bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Evenif ba person recited only the recitation of iShema /iin bthe morning andin bthe evening,he has bfulfilledthe mitzva of: “This Torah scroll bshall not departfrom your mouth.” bAnd it is prohibited to state this matter in the presence of ignoramuses [ iamei ha’aretz /i],as they are likely to get the impression that there is no need to study Torah beyond this. bAnd Rava says:On the contrary, it is ba mitzva to statethis matter bin the presence of ignoramuses,as they will realize that if merely reciting the iShemaleads to such a great reward, all the more so how great is the reward of those who study Torah all day and night., bBen Dama, son of Rabbi Yishmael’s sister, asked Rabbi Yishmael:In the case of one bsuch as I, who has learned the entire Torah, what isthe ihalakha bwith regard to studying Greek wisdom?Rabbi Yishmael brecited this verse about him: “This Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth, and you shall contemplate in it day and night.” Go and searchfor ban hour that is neitherpart bof the day norpart bof the night, and learn Greek wisdom in it. /b,The Gemara notes: bAndthis statement of Rabbi Yishmael’s bdisagreeswith the opinion bof Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: This verse is neither an obligation nor a mitzva, but a blessing.Rabbi Yonatan explains: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, saw Joshuaand observed bthatthe bwords of Torah were very precious to him, as it is stated:“And the Lord spoke to Moses face-to-face… band his servant Joshua, son of Nun, a young man, did not depart from the Tent”(Exodus 33:11). bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toJoshua: bJoshua, arethe bwords of Torah so precious to you?I bless you that b“this Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth.” /b, bThe itannaof the school of Rabbi Yishmaelteaches: The bwords of Torah should not beconsidered as ban obligation upon you,i.e., one should not treat Torah study as a burden, bbutat the same time byou are not permitted to exempt yourself from them. /b, bḤizkiyya said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“He delivers the afflicted due to His affliction, and opens their ear by tribulation; band also He has allured you out of a narrow opening to a broad place without confines below it,and that which is set on your table is full of fatness” (Job 36:15–16)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that ba person allures another fromthe bpaths of life tothe bpaths of death, but the Holy One, Blessed be He, allures the person fromthe bpaths of death tothe bpaths of life, as it is stated: “And also He has allured you out of a narrow opening,”i.e., bfrom Gehenna, the opening of which is narrowso bthat its smoke is collected /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ו) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מאי משמע דהאי גוזי לישנא דאשתבועי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו ז, כט) גזי נזרך והשליכי,ואמר רבי אלעזר למה ולד דומה במעי אמו לאגוז מונח בספל של מים אדם נותן אצבעו עליו שוקע לכאן ולכאן,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים ולד דר במדור התחתון אמצעיים ולד דר במדור האמצעי אחרונים ולד דר במדור העליון וכיון שהגיע זמנו לצאת מתהפך ויוצא וזהו חבלי אשה,והיינו דתנן חבלי של נקבה מרובין משל זכר,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי קרא (תהלים קלט, טו) אשר עשיתי בסתר רקמתי בתחתיות ארץ דרתי לא נאמר אלא רקמתי,מאי שנא חבלי נקבה מרובין משל זכר זה בא כדרך תשמישו וזה בא כדרך תשמישו זו הופכת פניה וזה אין הופך פניו,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים תשמיש קשה לאשה וגם קשה לולד אמצעיים קשה לאשה ויפה לולד אחרונים יפה לאשה ויפה לולד שמתוך כך נמצא הולד מלובן ומזורז,תנא המשמש מטתו ליום תשעים כאילו שופך דמים מנא ידע אלא אמר אביי משמש והולך (תהלים קטז, ו) ושומר פתאים ה',תנו רבנן שלשה שותפין יש באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו אביו מזריע הלובן שממנו עצמות וגידים וצפרנים ומוח שבראשו ולובן שבעין אמו מזרעת אודם שממנו עור ובשר ושערות ושחור שבעין והקב"ה נותן בו רוח ונשמה וקלסתר פנים וראיית העין ושמיעת האוזן ודבור פה והלוך רגלים ובינה והשכל,וכיון שהגיע זמנו להפטר מן העולם הקב"ה נוטל חלקו וחלק אביו ואמו מניח לפניהם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי פוץ מלחא ושדי בשרא לכלבא,דרש רב חיננא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם נותן חפץ בחמת צרורה ופיה למעלה ספק משתמר ספק אין משתמר ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה פתוחה ופיה למטה ומשתמר,דבר אחר אדם נותן חפציו לכף מאזנים כל זמן שמכביד יורד למטה ואילו הקב"ה כל זמן שמכביד הולד עולה למעלה,דרש רבי יוסי הגלילי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קל״ט:י״ד } אודך (ה') על כי נוראות נפליתי נפלאים מעשיך ונפשי יודעת מאד בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן זרעונים בערוגה כל אחת ואחת עולה במינו ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה וכולם עולין למין אחד,דבר אחר צבע נותן סמנין ליורה כולן עולין לצבע אחד ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה כל אחת ואחת עולה למינו,דרש רב יוסף מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו יב, א) אודך ה' כי אנפת בי ישוב אפך ותנחמני במה הכתוב מדבר,בשני בני אדם שיצאו לסחורה ישב לו קוץ לאחד מהן התחיל מחרף ומגדף לימים שמע שטבעה ספינתו של חבירו בים התחיל מודה ומשבח לכך נאמר ישוב אפך ותנחמני,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים עב, יח) עושה נפלאות (גדולות) לבדו וברוך שם כבודו לעולם אפילו בעל הנס אינו מכיר בנסו,דריש רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלט, ג) ארחי ורבעי זרית וכל דרכי הסכנת מלמד שלא נוצר אדם מן כל הטפה אלא מן הברור שבה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל משל לאדם שזורה בבית הגרנות נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,כדרבי אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב (שמואל ב כב, מ) ותזרני חיל וכתיב (תהלים יח, לג) האל המאזרני חיל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זיריתני וזרזתני,דרש רבי אבהו מאי דכתיב (במדבר כג, י) מי מנה עפר יעקב ומספר את רובע ישראל מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וסופר את רביעיותיהם של ישראל מתי תבא טיפה שהצדיק נוצר הימנה,ועל דבר זה נסמית עינו של בלעם הרשע אמר מי שהוא טהור וקדוש ומשרתיו טהורים וקדושים יציץ בדבר זה מיד נסמית עינו דכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) נאם הגבר שתום העין,והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (בראשית ל, טז) וישכב עמה בלילה הוא מלמד שהקב"ה סייע באותו מעשה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יד) יששכר חמור גרם חמור גרם לו ליששכר,אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה שנאמר (ויקרא יג, כט) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו אומרים אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחלה יולדת נקבה ולא פירשו חכמים את הדבר עד שבא רבי צדוק ופירשו (בראשית מו, טו) אלה בני לאה אשר ילדה ליעקב בפדן ארם ואת דינה בתו תלה הזכרים בנקבות ונקבות בזכרים,(דברי הימים א ח, מ) ויהיו בני אולם אנשים גבורי חיל דורכי קשת ומרבים בנים ובני בנים וכי בידו של אדם להרבות בנים ובני בנים אלא מתוך 31a. bWhat is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? “Upon You I have relied from birth; bYou are He Who took me out [ igozi /i] of my mother’s womb”(Psalms 71:6). bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that thisword: b“ iGozi /i,” is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: “Cut off [ igozi /i] your hair and cast it away”(Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother’s womb comparable?It is comparable bto a nut placed in a basinfull bof water,floating on top of the water. If ba person puts his finger on top ofthe nut, bit sinkseither bin this direction or in that direction. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, the bfetus resides in the lower compartmentof the womb; in the bmiddlethree months, the bfetus resides in the middle compartment;and during the blastthree months of pregcy the bfetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this iswhat causes blabor pains. /b,With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: bAnd this isthe explanation for bthat which we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bThe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female are greater thanthose bexperienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male.The Gemara will explain this below., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: What is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? b“When I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth”(Psalms 139:15). Since it bis not stated: I residedin the lowest parts of the earth, bbut rather: “I was woven togetherin the lowest parts of the earth,” this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus’s development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bthe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female,that they bare greater than those experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male?The Gemara answers: bThisone, a male fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse.Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. bAnd thatone, a female fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse,i.e., facing upward. Consequently, bthatone, a female fetus, bturns its face aroundbefore it is born, bbut thisone, a male fetus, bdoes not turn its face aroundbefore it is born.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, bsexual intercourse is difficultand harmful bfor the woman and is also difficult for the offspring.During the bmiddlethree months, intercourse is bdifficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring.During the blastthree months, sexual intercourse is bbeneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned. /b,The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who engages in intercoursewith his wife bon the ninetieth dayof her pregcy, bit is as though he spillsher bblood.The Gemara asks: bHow does one knowthat it is the ninetieth day of her pregcy? bRather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercoursewith his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, bandrely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: b“The Lord preserves the simple”(Psalms 116:6).,§ bThe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe creation of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from whichthe following body parts are formed: The bbones,the bsinews,the bnails,the bbrain that is in its head, andthe bwhite of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from whichare formed the bskin,the bflesh,the bhair, andthe bblack of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul,his bcountece [ iukelaster /i], eyesight, hearing of the ear,the capability of bspeechof bthe mouth,the capability of bwalkingwith bthe legs, understanding, and wisdom. /b, bAnd whena person’s btime to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part ofthe person’s bfather and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: Thisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: Remove the saltfrom a piece of meat, bandyou may then btoss the meat to a dog,as it has become worthless.,§ bRav Ḥina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number”(Job 9:10)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that if one bputs an article in a flask,even if the flask is btied and its openingfaces bupward, it is uncertain whetherthe item bis preservedfrom getting lost, band it is uncertain whether it is not preservedfrom being lost. bBut the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s open womb, and its openingfaces bdownward, andyet the fetus bis preserved. /b, bAnother matterthat demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when ba person places his articles on a scaleto be measured, bthe heavierthe item bis,the more bit descends. Butwhen bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,forms a fetus, bthe heavier the offspring gets,the more bit ascends upwardin the womb., bRabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well”(Psalms 139:14)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that when ba person plants seedsof different species binone bgarden bed, each and every oneof the seeds bemergesas a grown plant baccording to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and all ofthe seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, bemergewhen the offspring is formed bas onesex., bAlternatively,when ba dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [ ileyora /i], they all emerge as one colorof dye, bwhereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb,and beach and every oneof the seeds bemerges as its own type.In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above., bRav Yosef taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And on that day you shall say: bI will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me”(Isaiah 12:1)? bWith regard to whatmatter bis the verse speaking? /b,It is referring, for example, bto two people who lefttheir homes to go bon a businesstrip. bA thorn penetratedthe body bof one of them,and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. bHe started blaspheming and cursingin frustration. bAfter a period of time, he heard that the ship of the otherperson bhad sunk in the sea,and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then bstarted thankingGod band praisingHim for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. bTherefore, it is statedat the end of the verse: b“Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me.” /b, bAnd thisstatement bisidentical to bthat which Rabbi Elazar said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, bWho does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever”(Psalms 72:18–19)? What does it mean that God “does wondrous things alone”? It means that beven the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miraclethat was performed for bhim. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “You measure [ izerita /i] my going about [ iorḥi /i] and my lying down [ iriv’i /i], and are acquainted with all my ways”(Psalms 139:3)? This verse bteaches that a person is not created from the entire dropof semen, bbut from its clearpart. iZeritacan mean to winnow, while iorḥiand iriv’ican both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable:This matter is comparable bto a person who winnowsgrain bin the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste. /b,This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one of King David’s psalms: b“For You have girded me [ ivatazreni /i] with strength for battle”(II Samuel 22:40), without the letter ialefin ivatazreni /i; band it is writtenin another psalm: b“Who girds me [ ihame’azreni /i] with strength”(Psalms 18:33), with an ialefin ihame’azreini /i. What is the difference between these two expressions? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [ izeiritani /i],i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, band You have girded me [ izeraztani /i] with strength. /b, bRabbi Abbahu taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenin Balaam’s blessing: b“Who has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [ irova /i] of Israel”(Numbers 23:10)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [ irevi’iyyoteihem /i],anticipating the time bwhen the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive. /b, bAndit was bdue to this matterthat bthe eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: ShouldGod, bwho is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blindedas a divine punishment, bas it is written: “The saying of the man whose eye is shut”(Numbers 24:3)., bAnd thisstatement bisthe same as that bwhich Rabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written,with regard to Leah’s conceiving Issachar: b“And he lay with her that night”(Genesis 30:16)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act.The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, bas it is stated: “Issachar is a large-boned [ igarem /i] donkey”(Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob’s bdonkeytoward Leah’s tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby bcausing [ igaram /i]Leah’s conceiving bIssachar. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says:The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the bwoman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male”(Leviticus 12:2)., bThe Sages taught: At first,people bwould saythat if the bwoman emits seed first she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explainfrom which verse this bmatteris derived, buntil Rabbi Tzadok came and explainedthat bitis derived from the following verse: b“These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah”(Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse battributes the males to the females,as the males are called: The sons of Leah, bandit attributes bthe females to the males, /bin that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.,This statement is also derived from the following verse: b“And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons’ sons”(I Chronicles 8:40). bIs it in a person’s power to have many sons and sons’ sons? Rather, because /b
30. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. הוחל שבועתו של אבימלך דכתיב (בראשית כא, כג) אם תשקר לי ולניני ולנכדי,(שופטים יג, כד) ויגדל הנער ויברכהו ה' במה ברכו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שברכו באמתו אמתו כבני אדם וזרעו כנחל שוטף,(שופטים טז, כח) ויקרא שמשון אל ה' ויאמר ה' אלהים זכרני נא וחזקני נא אך הפעם הזה ואנקמה נקם אחת משתי עיני מפלשתים אמר רב אמר שמשון לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זכור לי עשרים (ושתים) שנה ששפטתי את ישראל ולא אמרתי לאחד מהם העבר לי מקל ממקום למקום,(שופטים טו, ד) וילך שמשון וילכד שלש מאות שועלים מאי שנא שועלים אמר רבי איבו בר נגדי א"ר חייא בר אבא אמר שמשון יבא מי שחוזר לאחוריו ויפרע מפלשתים שחזרו בשבועתן,תניא א"ר שמעון החסיד בין כתיפיו של שמשון ששים אמה היה שנאמר (שופטים טז, ג) וישכב שמשון עד חצי הלילה ויקם בחצי הלילה ויאחז בדלתות שער העיר ובשתי המזוזות ויסעם עם הבריח וישם על כתיפיו וגמירי דאין דלתות עזה פחותות מששים אמה,(שופטים טז, כא) ויהי טוחן בבית האסורים א"ר יוחנן אין טחינה אלא לשון עבירה וכן הוא אומר (איוב לא, י) תטחן לאחר אשתי מלמד שכל אחד ואחד הביא לו את אשתו לבית האסורים כדי שתתעבר הימנו אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי קמי דשתי חמרא חמרא קמי רפוקא גרידיא דובלא,וא"ר יוחנן כל המזנה אשתו מזננת עליו שנאמר (איוב לא, ט) אם נפתה לבי על אשה ועל פתח רעי ארבתי וכתיב תטחן לאחר אשתי ועליה יכרעון אחרין והיינו דאמרי אינשי איהו בי קארי ואיתתיה בי בוציני,וא"ר יוחנן שמשון דן את ישראל כאביהם שבשמים שנאמר (בראשית מט, טז) דן ידין עמו כאחד וגו' וא"ר יוחנן שמשון על שמו של הקב"ה נקרא שנאמר (תהלים פד, יב) כי שמש ומגן ה' אלהים וגו' אלא מעתה לא ימחה אלא מעין שמו של הקב"ה מה הקב"ה מגין על כל העולם כולו אף שמשון מגין בדורו על ישראל,וא"ר יוחנן בלעם חיגר ברגלו אחת היה שנאמר (במדבר כג, ג) וילך שפי שמשון חיגר בשתי רגליו היה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יז) שפיפן עלי ארח,ת"ר חמשה נבראו מעין דוגמא של מעלה וכולן לקו בהן שמשון בכחו שאול בצוארו אבשלום בשערו צדקיה בעיניו אסא ברגליו,שמשון בכחו דכתיב (שופטים טז, יט) ויסר כחו מעליו,שאול בצוארו דכתיב (שמואל א לא, ד) ויקח שאול את החרב ויפל עליה,אבשלום בשערו כדבעינן למימר קמן צדקיה בעיניו דכתיב (מלכים ב כה, ז) ואת עיני צדקיהו עור ,אסא ברגליו דכתיב (מלכים א טו, כג) רק לעת זקנתו חלה את רגליו ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב שאחזתו פדגרא א"ל מר זוטרא בריה דרב נחמן לרב נחמן היכי דמי פדגרא א"ל כמחט בבשר החי מנא ידע איכא דאמרי מיחש הוה חש ביה ואיכא דאמרי מרביה שמע ליה וא"ד (תהלים כה, יד) סוד ה' ליראיו ובריתו להודיעם,דרש רבא מפני מה נענש אסא מפני שעשה אנגריא בתלמידי חכמים שנאמר (מלכים א טו, כב) והמלך אסא השמיע את כל יהודה אין נקי מאי אין נקי אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אפילו חתן מחדרו וכלה מחופתה,כתיב (שופטים יד, א) וירד שמשון תמנתה וכתיב (בראשית לח, יג) הנה חמיך עולה תמנתה א"ר אלעזר שמשון שנתגנה בה כתיב ביה ירידה יהודה שנתעלה בה כתיב ביה עליה,ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר שתי תמנאות היו חדא בירידה וחדא בעליה,רב פפא אמר חדא תמנה הואי דאתי מהאי גיסא ירידה ודאתי מהאי גיסא עליה כגון ורדוניא ובי בארי ושוקא דנרש,(בראשית לח, יד) ותשב בפתח עינים א"ר אלכסנדרי מלמד שהלכה וישבה לה בפתחו של אברהם אבינו מקום שכל עינים צופות לראותו ר' חנין א"ר מקום הוא ששמו עינים וכן הוא אומר (יהושע טו, לד) תפוח והעינם,ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר שנתנה עינים לדבריה כשתבעה אמר לה שמא נכרית את אמרה ליה גיורת אני שמא אשת איש את אמרה ליה פנויה אני שמא קיבל בך אביך קידושין אמרה ליה יתומה אני שמא טמאה את אמרה ליה טהורה אני,(בראשית כא, לג) ויטע אשל בבאר שבע אמר ריש לקיש מלמד שעשה פרדס ונטע בו כל מיני מגדים,רבי יהודה ורבי נחמיה חד אמר פרדס וחד אמר פונדק בשלמא למ"ד פרדס היינו דכתיב ויטע אלא למ"ד פונדק מאי ויטע כדכתיב (דניאל יא, מה) ויטע אהלי אפדנו וגו',ויקרא שם בשם ה' אל עולם אמר ריש לקיש אל תיקרי ויקרא 10a. Samson’s parents were being told that bthe oath of Abimelech,king of the Philistines, bwas negated, as it is writtenthat Abimelech said to our forefather Abraham: “Now therefore swear unto me here by God bthat you will not deal falsely with me, nor with my son, nor with my son’s son;but according to the kindness that I have done unto you, you shall do to me, and to the land wherein you have sojourned” (Genesis 21:23). The oath of the descendants of Abraham was no longer binding since the Philistines broke their oath by subjugating the Jewish people.,The verse states: “And the woman bore a son, and called his name Samson; band the child grew, and the Lord blessed him”(Judges 13:24). The Gemara asks: bWith what did He bless him? Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:It means bthat He blessed him with regard to his penis,that despite his youth bhis penisshould function blikethat of physically mature bmen, andthat bhis seedshould be blike an overflowing river. /b,Prior to Samson’s death, the verse states: b“And Samson called unto the Lord, and said: Lord God, remember me, I pray to You, and strengthen me, I pray to You, only this once,O God, bthat I may be this once avenged of the Philistines for my two eyes”(Judges 16:28). bRav saidthat bSamson said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, rememberon bmybehalf the btwenty-two years that I judged the Jewish peoplewithout receiving any reward, band I did noteven bsay to any one of them: Move a stick for me fromone bplace toanother bplace. /b,The verse states earlier: b“And Samson went and caught three hundred foxes,and took torches, and turned tail to tail, and put a torch in the midst between every two tails” (Judges 15:4). The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bfoxesthan any other animal, that he chose them for this purpose? bRabbi Aivu bar Nagdi saysthat bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says: Samson said: Letthe animal bthat goes in reversewhen it tries to escape, i.e., the fox, bcome and exact punishment from the Philistines, who reneged on their oaththat Abimelech swore to Abraham., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon the Pious said:The width bbetween the shoulders of Samson was sixty cubits, as it is stated: “And Samson lay till midnight, and arose at midnight, and grabbed hold of the doors of the gate of the city, and the two posts, and plucked them up, bar and all, and put them upon his shoulders,and carried them up to the top of the mountain that is before Hebron” (Judges 16:3). The verse indicates that the width of the gate of the city of Gaza was equal to the width of Samson’s shoulders, band it is learnedas a tradition bthat doorsof the gate bof Gaza were no less than sixty cubitswide.,With regard to Samson’s capture, the verse states: “And the Philistines laid hold on him, and put out his eyes; and they brought him down to Gaza, and bound him with fetters of brass; band he did grind in the prison-house”(Judges 16:21). bRabbi Yoḥa says: Grinding is nothing otherthan ba language of a transgressionof sexual intercourse, band sothe verse bsays: “Then let my wife grind unto another man”(Job 31:10). This bteaches that each and everyPhilistine man bbrought his wife to the prison in order that she should be impregnated bySamson. bRav Pappa said: Thisis an example of the folk saying bthat people say: Before a wine drinker,bring bwine; before one who digs in the ground,bring bfigs.So too, Samson, who married Philistine women, was brought more Philistine women while in prison., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to banyone who commits adultery, his wife commits adultery against him, as it is stated: “If my heart has been enticed unto a woman, and I have lain in wait at my neighbor’s door”(Job 31:9), band it is written: “Then let my wife grind unto another man and may strangers kneel over her”(Job 31:10). bAnd thisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: He isfound bamong the pumpkins [ ikarei /i] and his wife among the zucchinis [ ibutzinei /i],which are similar types of vegetables. In other words, she acts the same way that he does., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Samson judged the Jewish people as their Father in Heavendoes, with complete justice, bas it is stated: “Dan shall judge his people, as oneof the tribes of Israel” (Genesis 49:16), which is interpreted to mean that Samson, from the tribe of Dan, judges his people just as God, Who is “One.” bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Samson [ iShimshon /i] is called by the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “For the Lord God is a sun [ ishemesh /i] and a shield”(Psalms 84:12). The Gemara comments: bIf that is so,then his name bshould not be erasedjust like other sanctified names are not erased. bRather,he is not called by the name of God but his name bis akin to the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He,for bjust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, protects the entire world, so too Samson, in his generation, protected all the Jewish people. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Balaam was lame in one of his legs, as it is statedwith regard to him: b“And he went, limping [ ishefi /i]”(Numbers 23:3). bSamson was lame inboth of bhis two legs, as it is statedthat when Jacob mentioned the tribe of Dan in the prophecy that pertained to Samson, he referred to him as: “Dan shall be a serpent in the way, ba horned snake [ ishefifon /i] in the path”(Genesis 49:17), which is double ishefi /i, i.e., doubly lame.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFiveindividuals bwere createdwith a characteristic that is bakin to a representation of theOne on bHigh, and they were all stricken by thatcharacteristic. bSamsonwas glorified bin his strength, Saul in his neck(see I Samuel 9:2), bAbsalom in his hair, Zedekiah in his eyes,and bAsa in his feet. /b,The Gemara clarifies: bSamsonwas stricken bby his strength,which led to his demise, bas it is written:“And she made him sleep upon her knees; and she called for a man and had the seven locks of his head shaved off; and she began to afflict him, band his strength went from him”(Judges 16:19)., bSaulwas smitten bin his neck, as it is written:“Then said Saul to his armor-bearer: Draw your sword, and thrust me through with it; lest these uncircumcised come and thrust me through, and make a mock of me. But his armor-bearer would not; for he was sore afraid. bTherefore, Saul took his sword and fell upon it”(I Samuel 31:4); he fell with his neck upon the sword., bAbsalomwas stricken bin his hair, as we will state later. Zedekiahwas stricken bin his eyes, as it is written:“And they slew the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, band put out the eyes of Zedekiah,and bound him in fetters, and carried him to Babylon” (II Kings 25:7)., bAsawas stricken bin his feet, as it is written:“Now the rest of all the acts of Asa, and all his might, and all that he did, and the cities that he built, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? bBut in the time of his old age he was diseased in his feet”(I Kings 15:23). bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:This indicates bthat gout [ ipadagra /i] grabbed hold of him. Mar Zutra, son of Rav Naḥman, said to Rav Naḥman: What are the circumstancesof bgout?What pain does it involve? bHe said to him:It feels blike a needleinserted binto living flesh.The Gemara asks: bFrom where did he know this?The Gemara answers: bSome saythat he himself bsuffered from thiscondition, band some saythat bhe heard it from his teacher, and some saythat he knew it through divine inspiration, as it stated: b“The secret of the Lord is with them that fear Him; and His covet, to make them know it”(Psalms 25:14)., bRava taught: For whatreason was bAsa punishedin his feet? bBecause he made Torah scholars perform forced labor [ iangarya /i], as it is stated: “Then King Asa made a proclamation unto all Judah; none was exempted;and they carried away the stones of Ramah and the timber thereof, with which Baasa had built, and King Asa built with them Geba of Benjamin and Mizpah” (I Kings 15:22). The superfluous expression “unto all” indicates that the proclamation was issued to beveryone, includingTorah scholars. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the next phrase in the verse: b“None was exempted [ iein naki /i]”? Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:This includes beven a bridegroom from his chamber and a bride from her canopy,as the verse states with regard to a bridegroom: “He shall be free [ inaki /i] for his house one year” (Deuteronomy 24:5).,§ bIt is writtenwith regard to Samson: b“And Samson went down to Timnah,and saw a woman in Timnah of the daughters of the Philistines” (Judges 14:1), band it is writtenin the Torah passage concerning the incident of Judah and Tamar: “And it was told to Tamar, saying: bBehold, your father-in-law is going up to Timnahto sheer his sheep” (Genesis 38:13). The verses contain an apparent contradiction as to whether Timnah was a place to which one must descend or a place to which one must ascend. bRabbi Elazar says:These terms do not refer to the manner of traveling to Timnah but are used figuratively. Concerning bSamson, who was disgraced therein Timnah, the term indicating bdescent is written with regard to hisjourney. Concerning bJudah, who was elevated there,the term indicating bascent is written with regard to hisjourney., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysdifferently: bThere were twocities named bTimnah, onewas reached bby descentinto a valley, band onewas reached bby ascent. /b, bRav Pappa saiddifferently: bThere was one Timnah,and it was located on the slope of a mountain. One bwho came from this sidereached it by bdescent, andone bwho came from that sidereached it by bascent.The Gemara presents examples of such cities: bFor example: Vardonia, and Bei Varei, and the market of Neresh. /b,The verse states with regard to Tamar: “And she put off from her the garments of her widowhood, and covered herself with her veil, and wrapped herself, band sat in the entrance of Enaim [ ibefetaḥ einayim /i],which is by the way to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given unto him to wife” (Genesis 38:14). The iamora’imdispute the meaning of the word ieinayim /i. bRabbi Alexandri says:This bteaches that she went and she sat at the entranceof the home bof Abraham our forefather, a place that all eyes hope to see it,as she was certain that Judah would pass there. bRabbi Ḥaninsays that bRav says:It is ba place called Enaim, and similarlythe verse bstatesin the list of cities in Eretz Yisrael in the portion of Judah: b“Tappuah and Enam”(Joshua 15:34)., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says: She provided eyes [ ieinayim /i] for her statements,i.e., with her words she provided an opening [ ipetaḥ /i] for Judah to solicit her. bWhenJudah bsolicited herto engage in sexual intercourse with him, bhefirst attempted to verify her status and bsaid to her:Are byou perhaps are a gentile? She said to him: I am a convert.He asked: bPerhaps you are a married woman? She said to him: I am an unmarried woman.He asked: bPerhaps your father accepted betrothal for youand you are unaware of it? bShe said to him: I am an orphan.He asked: bMaybe you are impure? She said to him: I am pure. /b,The Gemara discusses Abraham’s house: It is written: b“And he planted an ieshelin Beersheba,and called there on the name of the Lord, the Everlasting God” (Genesis 21:33). bReish Lakish says:This bteaches thatAbraham bmade an orchard and planted in it all kinds of sweet things. /b,The tanna’im bRabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Neḥemyadisagree as to the meaning of the word “ ieshel /i.” bOne saidthat it means ban orchard [ ipardes /i], and one saidthat it means ban inn [ ipundak /i].The Gemara continues: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat it means ban orchard, this is what is written: “And he planted,”and this is suitable language for an orchard. bBut according to the one who saidthat he opened ban inn, what isthe meaning of the phrase b“and he planted”?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “And he shall plant [ ivayitta /i] the tents of his palacebetween the seas and the beauteous holy mountain; and he shall come to his end, and none shall help him” (Daniel 11:45), indicating that the word vayitta, and he planted, is also used to indicate pitching tents.,The verse there states: “And he planted an ieshelin Beersheba, band called there [ ivayyikra /i] on the name of the Lord, the Everlasting God”(Genesis 21:33). bReish Lakish said: Do not readthis word literally as b“ ivayyikra /i,”and he called
31. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 28 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

32. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.92-7.98

7.92. The first order, because they have striven with great effort to overcome the evil thought which was formed with them, that it might not lead them astray from life into death. 7.93. The second order, because they see the perplexity in which the souls of the ungodly wander, and the punishment that awaits them. 7.94. The third order, they see the witness which he who formed them bears concerning them, that while they were alive they kept the law which was given them in trust. 7.95. The fourth order, they understand the rest which they now enjoy, being gathered into their chambers and guarded by angels in profound quiet, and the glory which awaits them in the last days. 7.96. The fifth order, they rejoice that they have now escaped what is corruptible, and shall inherit what is to come; and besides they see the straits and toil from which they have been delivered, and the spacious liberty which they are to receive and enjoy in immortality. 7.97. The sixth order, when it is shown to them how their face is to shine like the sun, and how they are to be made like the light of the stars, being incorruptible from then on. 7.98. The seventh order, which is greater than all that have been mentioned, because they shall rejoice with boldness, and shall be confident without confusion, and shall be glad without fear, for they hasten to behold the face of him whom they served in life and from whom they are to receive their reward when glorified.
33. Anon., Hekhalot Zutarti, 336-346, 348-350, 335

34. Epigraphy, Rc, 57



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abuyah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 129, 130
akiva, rabbi Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 347
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
aqiba Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 128, 129
bat qol Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 130
beer, moshe Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 172
behaviour Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 156
beliefs Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127
ben azzi Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127
ben zoma Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127
bird Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 167
body, hand Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 347
builder Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 128
carpenter Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 128
child Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 347
children (child) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 129, 130
circumcision Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 129
commandment Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 129
contact Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 179
contemplation Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 382
creation, creator Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
daughter Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 132
day of atonement Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 130
death Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127, 129, 130; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 347
desire Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 156
disciple Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 128, 130, 132
eleazar b. dordya Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 172
eliezer Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 129
elisha b. abuyah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127, 128, 130, 131, 132
elisha ben abuya Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 173
evolution, cultural Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127
exegesis Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 132
ezekiel Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
fate Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 347
father Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 129, 130, 132
fire Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 256
fledglings Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 130
garden of eden Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
genesaret, plain of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 130
genesis, book of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
god, visible Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 256
gods Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 347
gold Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 130
good deeds Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 129
grave Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 131
heaven Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 129, 131; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 179
hekhalot Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 179
heliodorus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 361
holy of holies Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 130
house, of meeting Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 128
house Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 129
humor Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 361
idolatry Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 131
image xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
incense Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 131
interpretation, hellenistic jewish Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 256
interpretation, rabbinic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 256
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 510
introspection/introspective Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 156
ishmael (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 167
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 510
israelites Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 167
jacob Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 382
jacob (rabbi) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 131
jerusalem Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 129; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 382
joshua (tanna) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 129
judah the baker Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 131
levitical religion Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127
maggid Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 382
meir Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 128, 130, 131
memorization Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 167
merit Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 132
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 510
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 256
moses Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 510; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 179
mother Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 131
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132
narratives Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 132
nicanor Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 361
norms Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 132
paradise, pardes, entered pardes Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
paradise Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 179
philo of alexandria Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 256
politai Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 361
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 510; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 347; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 382
pregnancy Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 131
priest, priesthood Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
priesthood Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127
private sphere Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 128
prophecy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
prophets Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 129
psychological, punishment (divine), withdrawal of Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 156
public sphere Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 128
rabbi Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 132
rabbi akiba Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 256
rabbi jonathan Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 173
rabbinic judaism, culture of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127
rabbinic judaism Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127
rabbinic literature Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 361
rabbinic literature xiii, xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
rabbis (sages) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 132
rav yossef Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 173
redemption Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 131, 132
religion, religious Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 156
remorse Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 156
repentance, and death Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 172
repentance, in rabbinic literature Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 172
repentance Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 131
resurrection of the dead Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 131
revelation Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127; Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 256
roman persecution Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 128
sabbath Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 128, 130
sabbath limits Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 130
sadducees Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 173
scripture Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127, 128, 132
serpent Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 130, 131
sexuality, of sages Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 203
shekhina, auditory Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 256
shekhina, visual Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 256
shoots Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127
sinai, mount Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 510
sinai Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127, 129; Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 256
soul Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 347
tailor Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 128
tannaitic literature Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 156
temple Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
temple (second), gates' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 361
teshuvah, concept Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 156
throne Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 179
tiberias Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 128
torah, scholars of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 128
torah, study of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 129
torah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 127, 129, 130, 131, 132; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 510
turning/change, back/returning Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 156
wisdom Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 130; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 328
world to come Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 131