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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15.259-15.452

Nil equidem durare diu sub imagine eademin the long lapse of time. As pliant wax

crediderim: sic ad ferrum venistis ab aurois moulded to new forms and does not stay

saecula, sic totiens versa est fortuna locorum.as it has been nor keep the self same form

Vidi ego, quod fuerat quondam solidissima tellusyet is the selfsame wax, be well assured

esse fretum, vidi factas ex aequore terras:the soul is always the same spirit, though

et procul a pelago conchae iacuere marinaeit passes into different forms. Therefore

et vetus inventa est in montibus ancora summis.that natural love may not be vanquished by

Quodque fuit campus, vallem decursus aquarumunnatural craving of the appetite

fecit, et eluvie mons est deductus in aequorI warn you, stop expelling kindred soul

eque paludosa siccis humus aret harenisby deeds abhorrent as cold murder.—Let

quaeque sitim tulerant, stagnata paludibus ument.not blood be nourished with its kindred blood!

clausit, et antiquis tam multa tremoribus orbisand I have given my full sails to the wind

flumina prosiliunt aut excaecata residunt.nothing in all the world remains unchanged.

Sic ubi terreno Lycus est epotus hiatuAll things are in a state of flux, all shape

exsistit procul hinc alioque renascitur ore:receive a changing nature. Time itself

Sic modo combibitur, tecto modo gurgite lapsusglides on with constant motion, ever a

redditur Argolicis ingens Erasinus in arvisa flowing river. Neither river nor

et Mysum, capitisque sui ripaeque prioristhe fleeting hour can stop its constant course.

paenituisse ferunt, alia nunc ire Caicum;But, as each wave drives on a wave, as each

nec non Sicanias volvens Amenanus harenasis pressed by that which follows, and must pre

nunc fluit, interdum suppressis fontibus aret.on that before it, so the moments fly

Ante bibebatur, nunc, quas contingere nolisand others follow, so they are renewed.

fundit Anigros aquas, postquam, nisi vatibus omnisThe moment which moved on before is past

eripienda fides, illic lavere bimembresand that which was not, now exists in Time

vulnera, clavigeri quae fecerat Herculis arcus.and every one comes, goes, and is replaced.

qui fuerat dulcis, salibus vitiatur amaris?on to the dawn, then brilliant light of day

Fluctibus ambitae fuerant Antissa Pharosqueucceeds the dark night. There is not the same

et Phoenissa Tyros, quarum nunc insula nulla est.appearance in the heavens,: when all thing

Leucada continuam veteres habuere coloni:for weariness are resting in vast night

nunc freta circueunt. Zancle quoque iuncta fuisseas when bright Lucifer rides his white steed.

dicitur Italiae, donec confinia pontusAnd only think of that most glorious change

abstulit et media tellurem reppulit unda.when loved Aurora, Pallas' daughter, come

Si quaeras Helicen et Burin, Achaidas urbesbefore the day and tints the world, almost

invenies sub aquis, et adhuc ostendere nautaedelivered to bright Phoebus. Even the disk

inclinata solent cum moenibus oppida mersis.of that god, rising from beneath the earth

Est prope Pittheam tumulus Troezena, sine ullisis of a ruddy color in the dawn

arduus arboribus, quondam planissima campiand ruddy when concealed beneath the world.

area, nunc tumulus; nam (res horrenda relatu!)When highest, it is a most brilliant white

vis fera ventorum, caecis inclusa cavernisfor there the ether is quite purified

exspirare aliqua cupiens luctataque frustraand far away avoids infection from

liberiore frui caelo, cum carcere rimaimpurities of earth. Diana's form

nulla foret toto nec pervia flatibus essetat night remains not equal nor the same!

extentam tumefecit humum, ceu spiritus oris'Tis less today than it will be tomorrow

tendere vesicam solet aut derepta bicorniif she is waxing; greater, if she wanes.

collis habet speciem longoque induruit aevo.four seasons, imitating human life:

Plurima cum subeant audita et cognita nobisin early Spring it has a nursling's way

pauca super referam. Quid? non et lympha figurasresembling infancy, for at that time

datque capitque novas? Medio tua, corniger Ammonthe blade is shooting and devoid of strength.

unda die gelida est, ortuque obituque calescit.Its flaccid substance swelling gives delight

Admotis Athamanas aquis accendere lignumto every watching husbandman, alive

narratur, minimos cum luna recessit in orbes.in expectation. Then all things are rich

Flumen habent Cicones, quod potum saxea redditin blossom, and the genial meadow smile

viscera, quod tactis inducit marmora rebus.with tints of blooming flowers; but not as yet

Crathis et huic Sybaris, nostris conterminus orisis there a sign of vigor in the leaves.

Quodque magis mirum est, sunt qui non corpora tantumit passes into Summer, and its youth

verum animos etiam valeant mutare liquores.becomes robust. Indeed of all the year

Cui non audita est obscenae Salmacis undaethe Summer is most vigorous and most

Aethiopesque lacus? Quos siquis faucibus hausitabounds with glowing and life-giving warmth.

Clitorio quicumque sitim de fonte levavitremoved, that ripe and mellow time succeed

vina fugit gaudetque meris abstemius undisbetween youth and old age, and a few white hair

seu vis est in aqua calido contraria vinoare sprinkled here and there upon his brow.

Proetidas attonitas postquam per carmen et herbasfollows, repulsive, strips of graceful lock

eripuit furiis, purgamina mentis in illasor white with those he has retained so long.

Huic fluit effectu dispar Lyncestius amnis;we are not now what we were yesterday

quem quicumque parum moderato gutture traxitor we shall be tomorrow. And there wa

haud aliter titubat, quam si mera vina bibisset.a time when we were only seeds of man

Est locus Arcadiae (Pheneum dixere priores)mere hopes that lived within a mother's womb.

ambiguis suspectus aquis, quas nocte timeto:But Nature changed us with her skilfull touch

nocte nocent potae, sine noxa luce bibuntur.determined that our bodies should not be

Sic alias aliasque lacus et flumina viresheld in such narrow room, below the entrail

concipiunt, tempusque fuit, quo navit in undisin our distended parent; and in time

nunc sedet Ortygie. Timuit concursibus Argohe brought us forth into the vacant air.

quae nunc inmotae perstant ventisque resistunt.Then on all fours he lifts his body up

Nec, quae sulphureis ardet fornacibus, Aetnefeeling his way, like any young wild beast

ignea semper erit, neque enim fuit ignea semper.and then by slow degrees he stands upright

Nam sive est animal tellus et vivit habetqueweak-kneed and trembling, steadied by support

spiramenta locis flammam exhalantia multisof some convenient prop. And soon more strong

spirandi mutare vias, quotiensque moveturand swift he passes through the hours of youth

has finire potest, illas aperire cavernas;and, when the years of middle age are past

sive leves imis venti cohibentur in antrislides down the steep path of declining age.

materiam iactant, ea concipit ictibus ignemof former years: and Milon, now grown old

antra relinquentur sedatis frigida ventis;weeps, when he sees his arms, which once were firm

sive bitumineae rapiunt incendia vireswith muscles big as those of Hercules

luteave exiguis ardescunt sulphura fumis:hang flabby at his side: and Helen weeps

nempe ubi terra cibos alimentaque pinguia flammaewhen in the glass she sees her wrinkled face

non dabit absumptis per longum viribus aevumand wonders why two heroes fell in love

naturaeque suum nutrimen deerit edaciand carried her away.—O Time

non feret illa famem desertaque deseret ignis.devourer of all things, and envious Age

Esse viros fama est in Hyperborea Pallenetogether you destroy all that exist

qui soleant levibus velari corpora plumisand, slowly gnawing, bring on lingering death.

Haud equidem credo: sparsae quoque membra venenisdo not endure. Now listen well to me

exercere artes Scythides memorantur easdem.and I will show the ways in which they change.

nonne vides, quaecumque mora fluidoque calorefour elemental parts. And two of these

corpora tabescunt, in parva animalia verti?are heavy—earth and water—and are borne

I quoque, delectos mactatos obrue taurosdownwards by weight. The other two devoid

(cognita res usu) de putri viscere passimof weight, are air and—even lighter—fire:

florilegae nascuntur apes, quae more parentumand, if these two are not constrained, they seek

rura colunt operique favent in spemque laborant;the higher regions. These four elements

pressus humo bellator equus crabronis origo est;though far apart in space, are all derived

concava litoreo si demas bracchia cancrofrom one another. Earth dissolve

cetera supponas terrae, de parte sepultaas flowing water! Water, thinned still more

scorpius exibit caudaque minabitur unca;departs as wind and air; and the light air

quaeque solent canis frondes intexere filistill losing weight, sparkles on high as fire.

agrestes tineae (res observata colonis)But they return, along their former way:

ferali mutant cum papilione figuram.the fire, assuming weight, is changed to air;

Semina limus habet virides generantia ranasand then, more dense, that air is changed again

et generat truncas pedibus, mox apta natandoto water; and that water, still more dense

cura dat, utque eadem sint longis saltibus aptacompacts itself again as primal earth.

Nec catulus, partu quem reddidit ursa recentiand Nature, the renewer of all things

sed male viva caro est: lambendo mater in artuscontinually changes every form

fingit et in formam, quantam capit ipsa, reducit.into some other shape. Believe my word

Nonne vides, quos cera tegit sexangula, fetusin all this universe of vast extent

melliferarum apium sine membris corpora nascinot one thing ever perished. All have changed

et serosque pedes serasque adsumere pennas?appearance. Men say a certain thing is born

Iunonis volucrem, quae cauda sidera portatif it takes a different form from what it had;

armigerumque Iovis Cythereiadasque columbasand yet they say, that certain thing has died

et genus omne avium mediis e partibus oviif it no longer keeps the self same shape.

ni sciret fieri, quis nasci posse putaret?Though distant things move near, and near things far

Sunt qui, cum clauso putrefacta est spina sepulcroalways the sum of all things is unchanged.

Haec tamen ex aliis generis primordia ducunt:remains long under the same form unchanged.

una est, quae reparet seque ipsa reseminet, ales.Look at the change of times from gold to iron,:

Assyrii phoenica vocant; non fruge neque herbislook at the change in places. I have seen

sed turis lacrimis et suco vivit amomi.what had been solid earth become salt waves

Haec ubi quinque suae complevit saecula vitaeand I have seen dry land made from the deep;

ilicis in ramis tremulaeque cacumine palmaeand, far away from ocean, sea-shells strewn

unguibus et puro nidum sibi construit ore.and on the mountain-tops old anchors found.

Quo simul ac casias et nardi lenis aristasWater has made that which was once a plain

quassaque cum fulva substravit cinnama murrainto a valley, and the mountain ha

se super imponit finitque in odoribus aevum.been levelled by the floods down to a plain.

Inde ferunt, totidem qui vivere debeat annosA former marshland is now parched dry sand

corpore de patrio parvum phoenica renasci.and places which endured severest drought

Cum dedit huic aetas vires, onerique ferendo estare wet with standing pools. Here Nature ha

ponderibus nidi ramos levat arboris altaeopened fresh springs, but there has shut them up;

fertque pius cunasque suas patriumque sepulcrumrivers aroused by ancient earthquakes have

perque leves auras Hyperionis urbe potitusrushed out or vanished, as they lost their depth.

Si tamen est aliquid mirae novitatis in istisa chasm in the earth, it rushes forth

alternare vices et quae modo femina tergoat a distance and is reborn a different stream.

passa marem est, nunc esse marem miremur hyaenam;The Erasinus now flows down into a cave

id quoque, quod ventis animal nutritur et auranow runs beneath the ground a darkened course

protinus adsimulat, tetigit quoscumque colores.then rises lordly in the Argolic fields.

Victa racemifero lyncas dedit India Baccho:They say the Mysus, wearied of his spring

e quibus, ut memorant, quidquid vesica remisitand of his former banks, appears elsewhere

vertitur in lapides et congelat aere tacto.and takes another name, the Caicus .

tempore, durescit: mollis fuit herba sub undis.now smoothly rolling, at another time

Desinet ante dies et in alto Phoebus anhelosis quenched, because its fountain springs are dry.

aequore tinget equos, quam consequar omnia verbisThe water of the Anigros formerly

in species translata novas: sic tempora vertiwas used for drinking, but it pours out now

cernimus atque illas adsumere robora gentesfoul water which you would decline to touch

concidere has. Sic magna fuit censuque virisquebecause (unless all credit is denied

perque decem potuit tantum dare sanguinis annosto poets) long ago the Centaurs, those

nunc humilis veteres tantummodo Troia ruinastrange mortals double-limbed, bathed in the stream

et pro divitiis tumulos ostendit avorum.wounds which club-bearing Hercules had made

Clara fuit Sparte, magnae viguere Mycenaewith his strong bow.—Yes, does not Hypani

nec non et Cecropis nec non Amphionis arces.descending fresh from mountains of Sarmatia

Vile solum Sparte est, altae cecidere Mycenaebecome embittered with the taste of salt?

Quid Pandioniae restant, nisi nomen, Athenae?were once surrounded by the wavy sea:

Nunc quoque Dardaniam fama est consurgere Romamthey are not islands now. Long years ago

Appenninigenae quae proxima Thybridis undisLeucas was mainland, if we can believe

mole sub ingenti rerum fundamina ponit:what the old timers there will tell, but now

haec igitur formam crescendo mutat et olimthe waves sweep round it. Zancle was a part

immensi caput orbis erit. Sic dicere vatesof Italy , until the sea cut off

faticinasque ferunt sortes quantumque recordorthe neighboring land with strong waves in between.

dixerat Aeneae, cum res Troiana labaretShould you seek Helice and Buris, those

Priamides Helenus flenti dubioque salutis:two cities of Achaea , you will find

“Nate dea, si nota satis praesagia nostraethem underneath the waves, where sailors point

mentis habes, non tota cadet te sospite Troia!to sloping roofs and streets in the clear deep.

Pergama rapta feres, donec Troiaeque tibiquequite bare of trees, was once a level plain

externum patrio contingat amicius arvum.but now is a hill, for (dreadful even to tell)

Urbem etiam cerno Phrygios debere nepotesthe raging power of winds, long pent in deep

quanta nec est nec erit nec visa prioribus annis.dark caverns, tried to find a proper vent

Hanc alii proceres per saecula longa potentemlong struggling to attain free sky.

sed dominam rerum de sanguine natus IuliFinding no opening from the prison-caves

efficiet; quo cum tellus erit usa, fruenturimperious to their force, they raised the earth

aetheriae sedes, caelumque erit exitus illi.”exactly as pent air breathed from the mouth

Haec Helenum cecinisse penatigero Aeneaeinflates a bladder, or the bottle-hide

mente memor refero, cognataque moenia laetortripped off the two-horned goats. The swollen earth

crescere et utiliter Phrygibus vicisse Pelasgos.remained on that spot and has ever since

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

21 results
1. Homer, Odyssey, 9.219 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2. Aristoxenus, Fragments, None (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 5.87 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.87. quare hoc hoc atque hoc Non. videndum est, possitne nobis hoc ratio philosophorum dare. pollicetur certe. nisi enim id faceret, cur Plato Aegyptum peragravit, ut a sacerdotibus barbaris numeros et caelestia acciperet? cur post Tarentum ad Archytam? cur ad reliquos Pythagoreos, Echecratem, Timaeum, Arionem, Locros, ut, cum Socratem expressisset, adiungeret Pythagoreorum disciplinam eaque, quae Socrates repudiabat, addisceret? cur ipse Pythagoras et Aegyptum lustravit et Persarum magos adiit? cur tantas regiones barbarorum pedibus obiit, tot maria transmisit? cur haec eadem Democritus? qui —vere falsone, quaerere mittimus quaerere mittimus Se. quereremus BER queremus V quae- rere nolumus C.F.W. Mue. —dicitur oculis se se oculis BE privasse; privavisse R certe, ut quam minime animus a cogitationibus abduceretur, patrimonium neglexit, agros deseruit incultos, quid quaerens aliud nisi vitam beatam? beatam vitam R quam si etiam in rerum cognitione ponebat, tamen ex illa investigatione naturae consequi volebat, bono ut esset animo. id enim ille id enim ille R ideo enim ille BE id ille V id est enim illi summum bonum; eu)qumi/an cet. coni. Mdv. summum bonum eu)qumi/an et saepe a)qambi/an appellat, id est animum terrore liberum. 5.87.  On this your cousin and I are agreed. Hence what we have to consider is this, can the systems of the philosophers give us happiness? They certainly profess to do so. Whether it not so, why did Plato travel through Egypt to learn arithmetic and astronomy from barbarian priests? Why did he later visit Archytas at Tarentum, or the other Pythagoreans, Echecrates, Timaeus and Arion, at Locri, intending to append to his picture of Socrates an account of the Pythagorean system and to extend his studies into those branches which Socrates repudiated? Why did Pythagoras himself scour Egypt and visit the Persian magi? why did he travel on foot through those vast barbarian lands and sail across those many seas? Why did Democritus do the same? It is related of Democritus (whether truly or falsely we are not concerned to inquire) that he deprived himself of eyesight; and it is certain that in order that his mind should be distracted as little as possible from reflection, he neglected his paternal estate and left his land uncultivated, engrossed in the search for what else but happiness? Even if he supposed happiness to consist in knowledge, still he designed that his study of natural philosophy should bring him cheerfulness of mind; since that is his conception of the Chief Good, which he entitles euthumia, or often athambia, that is freedom from alarm.
4. Cicero, Republic, 1.16, 2.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.16. Dein Tubero: Nescio, Africane, cur ita memoriae proditum sit, Socratem omnem istam disputationem reiecisse et tantum de vita et de moribus solitum esse quaerere. Quem enim auctorem de illo locupletiorem Platone laudare possumus? cuius in libris multis locis ita loquitur Socrates, ut etiam, cum de moribus, de virtutibus, denique de re publica disputet, numeros tamen et geometriam et harmoniam studeat Pythagorae more coniungere. Tum Scipio: Sunt ista, ut dicis; sed audisse te credo, Tubero, Platonem Socrate mortuo primum in Aegyptum discendi causa, post in Italiam et in Siciliam contendisse, ut Pythagorae inventa perdisceret, eumque et cum Archyta Tarentino et cum Timaeo Locro multum fuisse et Philoleo commentarios esse ctum, cumque eo tempore in iis locis Pythagorae nomen vigeret, illum se et hominibus Pythagoreis et studiis illis dedisse. Itaque cum Socratem unice dilexisset eique omnia tribuere voluisset, leporem Socraticum subtilitatemque sermonis cum obscuritate Pythagorae et cum illa plurimarum artium gravitate contexuit. 2.28. Quae cum Scipio dixisset, Verene, inquit Manilius, hoc memoriae proditum est, Africane, regem istum Numam Pythagorae ipsius discipulum aut certe Pythagoreum fuisse? saepe enim hoc de maioribus natu audivimus et ita intellegimus vulgo existimari; neque vero satis id annalium publicorum auctoritate declaratum videmus. Tum Scipio: Falsum est enim, Manili, inquit, id totum, neque solum fictum, sed etiam imperite absurdeque fictum; ea sunt enim demum non ferenda in mendacio, quae non solum ficta esse, sed ne fieri quidem potuisse cernimus. Nam quartum iam annum regte Lucio Tarquinio Superbo Sybarim et Crotonem et in eas Italiae partis Pythagoras venisse reperitur; Olympias enim secunda et sexagesima eadem Superbi regni initium et Pythagorae declarat adventum.
5. Cicero, Timaeus, 1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 3.36, 4.55 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.36. quid iaces aut quid maeres aut cur succumbis cedisque fortunae? quae quae om. G 1 pervellere te forsitan potuerit et pungere, non potuit certe vires frangere. magna vis est in virtutibus; eas excita, si forte dormiunt. iam tibi aderit princeps fortitudo, quae te animo tanto esse coget, ut omnia, quae possint homini evenire, contemnas et pro nihilo putes. aderit temperantia, quae est eadem moderatio, a me quidem paulo ante appellata frugalitas, quae te turpiter et nequiter facere nihil patietur. patiatur X ( cf. coget 21 dicet 28) quid est autem nequius aut turpius ecfeminato eff. G 1 e corr. R 2 V rec viro? ne iustitia quidem sinet te ista facere, cui minimum esse videtur in hac causa loci; loqui X corr. V c? quae tamen ita dicet dupliciter esse te iniustum, cum et alienum adpetas, appetas V 2 qui mortalis natus condicionem conditionem GKV postules inmortalium et graviter feras te, quod utendum acceperis, reddidisse. 4.55. Oratorem vero irasci minime decet, simulare non dedecet. simulare n. dedecet om. V decet X an tibi irasci tum videmur, cum quid in causis acrius et vehementius dicimus? quid? cum iam rebus transactis et praeteritis orationes scribimus, num irati scribimus? ecquis ecquis s etquis X hoc animadvertit? Accius Atr. 233 animadvortet de orat. 3, 217 M (animum advertit L), quod hic quoque fort. restituendum vincite! —num aut egisse umquam iratum Aesopum aut scripsisse existimas existimamus KR iratum Accium? aguntur ista praeclare, et ab oratore quidem melius, si modo est orator, est orator melius G 1 quam ab ullo histrione, istrione X ( str. G 1 ) sed aguntur leniter et mente tranquilla. Libidinem vero laudare cuius est libidinis? lubid. GRK c Themistoclem mihi et Demosthenen demostenen X proferri G 1 profertis, additis Pythagoran Democritum Platonem. quid? vos studia libidinem libidine GK vocatis? quae vel optimarum rerum, ut ea sunt quae profertis, sedata tamen et et add. G 2 tranquilla esse debent. Iam aegritudinem laudare, unam rem maxime detestabilem, quorum est tandem philosophorum? at ad KR commode dixit Afranius: dum modo doleat aliquid, fr. 409 cf. p. 383, 13 doleat doleat lateat G 1 quidlibet. quidlibet hic X dixit enim de adulescente perdito ac dissoluto, nos autem de constanti viro ac sapienti sapienti ex -e V 1 quaerimus. et quidem ipsam illam iram centurio habeat aut signifer vel ceteri, de quibus dici non necesse est, ne rhetorum aperiamus mysteria. utile est enim uti motu utinmotu K 1 animi, qui uti ratione non potest. nos autem, ut testificor saepe, de sapiente quaerimus. quoque ( item post Afranii versum )
7. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 8.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8.14. 1.  Pompilius, the Roman king, lived at peace for his entire life. And certain writers state that he was a pupil of Pythagoras, and that he received from him the ordices he laid down regarding the worship of the gods and was instructed in many other matters; and it was because of this that he became a man of renown and was summoned by the Romans to be their king.
8. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 2.59.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.59.1.  Up to this point, then, I have nothing to allege in contradiction to those who have published the history of this man; but in regard to what follows I am at a loss what to say. For many have written that Numa was a disciple of Pythagoras and that when he was chosen king by the Romans he was studying philosophy at Croton. But the date of Pythagoras contradicts this account
9. Livy, History, 1.18 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.62-1.74, 1.102-1.103, 1.922-1.935 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Ovid, Fasti, 1.101-1.144, 1.337-1.348, 6.249, 6.251-6.282, 6.307 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.102. Over the days, and remember my speech. 1.103. The ancients called me Chaos (since I am of the first world): 1.105. The clear air, and the three other elements 1.106. Fire, water, earth, were heaped together as one. 1.107. When, through the discord of its components 1.108. The mass dissolved, and scattered to new regions 1.109. Flame found the heights: air took a lower place 1.110. While earth and sea sank to the furthest depth. 1.111. Then I, who was a shapeless mass, a ball 1.112. Took on the appearance, and noble limbs of a god. 1.113. Even now, a small sign of my once confused state 1.114. My front and back appear just the same. 1.117. Whatever you see: sky, sea, clouds, earth 1.118. All things are begun and ended by my hand. 1.119. Care of the vast world is in my hands alone 1.120. And mine the goverce of the turning pole. 1.121. When I choose to send Peace, from tranquil houses 1.122. Freely she walks the roads, and ceaselessly: 1.123. The whole world would drown in bloodstained slaughter 1.124. If rigid barriers failed to hold war in check. 1.129. With salt: on his sacrificial lips I’m Patulcius 1.130. And then again I’m called Clusius. 1.135. Every doorway has two sides, this way and that 1.136. One facing the crowds, and the other the Lares: 1.141. You see Hecate’s faces turned in three directions 1.337. Cornmeal, and glittering grains of pure salt 1.338. Were once the means for men to placate the gods. 1.339. No foreign ship had yet brought liquid myrrh 1.340. Extracted from tree’s bark, over the ocean waves: 1.341. Euphrates had not sent incense, nor India balm 1.342. And the threads of yellow saffron were unknown. 1.343. The altar was happy to fume with Sabine juniper 1.344. And the laurel burned with a loud crackling. 1.345. He was rich, whoever could add violet 1.346. To garlands woven from meadow flowers. 1.347. The knife that bares the entrails of the stricken bull 1.348. Had no role to perform in the sacred rites. 6.249. Vesta, favour me! I’ll open my lips now in your service 6.251. I was rapt in prayer: I felt the heavenly deity 6.252. And the happy earth shone with radiant light. 6.253. Not that I saw you, goddess (away with poets’ lies!) 6.254. Nor were you to be looked on by any man: 6.255. But I knew what I’d not known, and the error 6.256. I’d held to were corrected without instruction. 6.257. They say Rome had celebrated the Parilia forty times 6.258. When the goddess, the Guardian of the Flame, was received 6.259. In her shrine, the work of Numa, that peace-loving king 6.260. (None more god-fearing was ever born in Sabine lands.) 6.261. The roofs you see of bronze were roofs of straw then 6.262. And its walls were made of wickerwork. 6.263. This meagre spot that supports the Hall of Vesta 6.264. Was then the mighty palace of unshorn Numa. 6.265. Yet the form of the temple, that remains, they say 6.266. Is as before, and is shaped so for good reason. 6.267. Vesta’s identified with Earth: in them both’s unsleeping fire: 6.268. Earth and the hearth are both symbols of home. 6.269. The Earth’s a ball not resting on any support 6.270. It’s great weight hangs in the ether around it. 6.271. Its own revolutions keep its orb balanced 6.272. It has no sharp angles to press on anything 6.273. And it’s placed in the midst of the heavens 6.274. And isn’t nearer or further from any side 6.275. For if it weren’t convex, it would be nearer somewhere 6.276. And the universe wouldn’t have Earth’s weight at its centre. 6.277. There’s a globe suspended, enclosed by Syracusan art 6.278. That’s a small replica of the vast heavens 6.279. And the Earth’s equidistant from top and bottom. 6.280. Which is achieved by its spherical shape. 6.281. The form of this temple’s the same: there’s no angle 6.282. Projecting from it: a rotunda saves it from the rain. 6.307. Even now in sacrificing to ancient Vacuna
12. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.5-1.75, 1.78-1.83, 1.87-1.112, 15.1-15.258, 15.260-15.478 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Ovid, Tristia, 5.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Lucan, Pharsalia, 8.70, 8.72-8.85, 8.575-8.636 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Plutarch, Numa Pompilius, 1.2-1.4, 8.4-8.10, 22.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.3. but that there was another Pythagoras, the Spartan, who was Olympic victor in the foot-race for the sixteenth Olympiad 657-654 B.C. (in the third year of which Numa was made king), and that in his wanderings about Italy he made the acquaintance of Numa, and helped him arrange the government of the city, whence it came about that many Spartan customs were mingled with the Roman, as Pythagoras taught them to Numa. And at all events, Numa was of Sabine descent, and the Sabines will have it that they were colonists from Lacedaemon. 1.4. Chronology, however, is hard to fix, and especially that which is based on the names of victors in the Olympic games, the list of which is said to have been published at a late period by Hippias of Elis, who had no fully authoritative basis for his work. I shall therefore begin at a convenient point, and relate the noteworthy facts which I have found in the life of Numa. 8.4. This was the chief reason why Numa’s wisdom and culture were said to have been due to his intimacy with Pythagoras; for in the philosophy of the one, and in the civil polity of the other, religious services and occupations have a large place. It is said also that the solemnity of his outward demeanour was adopted by him because he shared the feelings of Pythagoras about it. 8.5. That philosopher, indeed, is thought to have tamed an eagle, which he stopped by certain cries of his, and brought down from his lofty flight; also to have disclosed his golden thigh as he passed through the assembled throngs at Olympia. And we have reports of other devices and performances of his which savoured of the marvellous, regarding which Timon the Phliasian wrote:— Down to a juggler’s level he sinks with his cheating devices, Laying his nets for men, Pythagoras, lover of bombast. 8.6. In like manner Numa’s fiction was the love which a certain goddess or mountain nymph bore him, arid her secret meetings with him, as already mentioned, Chapter iv. 1-2. and his familiar converse with the Muses. For he ascribed the greater part of his oracular teachings to the Muses, and he taught the Romans to pay especial honours to one Muse in particular, whom he called Tacita, that is, the silent, or speechless one ; thereby perhaps handing on and honouring the Pythagorean precept of silence. 8.6. In like manner Numa’s fiction was the love which a certain goddess or mountain nymph bore him, arid her secret meetings with him, as already mentioned, Chapter iv. 1-2. and his familiar converse with the Muses. For he ascribed the greater part of his oracular teachings to the Muses, and he taught the Romans to pay especial honours to one Muse in particular, whom he called Tacita, that is, the silent, or speechless one ; thereby perhaps handing on and honouring the Pythagorean precept of silence. 8.7. Furthermore, his ordices concerning images are altogether in harmony with the doctrines of Pythagoras. For that philosopher maintained that the first principle of being was beyond sense or feeling, was invisible and uncreated, and discernible only by the mind. And in like manner Numa forbade the Romans to revere an image of God which had the form of man or beast. Nor was there among them in this earlier time any painted or graven likeness of Deity 8.8. but while for the first hundred and seventy years they were continually building temples and establishing sacred shrines, they made no statues in bodily form for them, convinced that it was impious to liken higher things to lower, and that it was impossible to apprehend Deity except by the intellect. Their sacrifices, too, were altogether appropriate to the Pythagorean worship; for most of them involved no bloodshed, but were made with flour, drink-offerings, and the least costly gifts. 8.9. And apart from these things, other external proofs are urged to show that the two men were acquainted with each other. One of these is that Pythagoras was enrolled as a citizen of Rome. This fact is recorded by Epicharmus the comic poet, in a certain treatise which he dedicated to Antenor; and Epicharmus was an ancient, and belonged to the school of Pythagoras. Another proof is that one of the four sons born to king Numa was named Mamercus, after the son of Pythagoras. 8.10. And from him they say that the patrician family of the Aemilii took its name, Aemilius being the endearing name which the king gave him for the grace and winsomeness of his speech. Moreover, I myself have heard many people at Rome recount how, when an oracle once commanded the Romans to erect in their city monuments to the wisest and the bravest of the Greeks, they set up in the forum two statues in bronze, one of Alcibiades, and one of Pythagoras. According to the elder Pliny ( N.H. xxxiv. 12 ), these statues stood in the comitium at Rome from the time of the Samnite wars (343-290 B.C.) down to that of Sulla (138-78 B.C.). However, since the matter of Numa’s acquaintance with Pythagoras is involved in much dispute, to discuss it at greater length, and to win belief for it, would savour of youthful contentiousness. 22.4. Therefore we may well be indulgent with those who are eager to prove, on the basis of so many resemblances between them, that Numa was acquainted with Pythagoras. Antias, however, writes that it was twelve pontifical books, and twelve others of Greek philosophy, which were placed in the coffin. And about four hundred years afterwards, when Publius Cornelius and Marcus Baebius were consuls, heavy rains fell, and the torrent of water tore away the earth and dislodged the coffins. 22.4. Therefore we may well be indulgent with those who are eager to prove, on the basis of so many resemblances between them, that Numa was acquainted with Pythagoras. Antias, however, writes that it was twelve pontifical books, and twelve others of Greek philosophy, which were placed in the coffin. And about four hundred years afterwards, when Publius Cornelius and Marcus Baebius were consuls, heavy rains fell, and the torrent of water tore away the earth and dislodged the coffins.
16. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 5.9.59 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

17. Heliodorus, Ethiopian Story, 3.14 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

18. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 8.24-8.35 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.24. to respect all divination, to sing to the lyre and by hymns to show due gratitude to gods and to good men. To abstain from beans because they are flatulent and partake most of the breath of life; and besides, it is better for the stomach if they are not taken, and this again will make our dreams in sleep smooth and untroubled.Alexander in his Successions of Philosophers says that he found in the Pythagorean memoirs the following tenets as well. 8.25. The principle of all things is the monad or unit; arising from this monad the undefined dyad or two serves as material substratum to the monad, which is cause; from the monad and the undefined dyad spring numbers; from numbers, points; from points, lines; from lines, plane figures; from plane figures, solid figures; from solid figures, sensible bodies, the elements of which are four, fire, water, earth and air; these elements interchange and turn into one another completely, and combine to produce a universe animate, intelligent, spherical, with the earth at its centre, the earth itself too being spherical and inhabited round about. There are also antipodes, and our down is their up. 8.26. Light and darkness have equal part in the universe, so have hot and cold, and dry and moist; and of these, if hot preponderates, we have summer; if cold, winter; if dry, spring; if moist, late autumn. If all are in equilibrium, we have the best periods of the year, of which the freshness of spring constitutes the healthy season, and the decay of late autumn the unhealthy. So too, in the day, freshness belongs to the morning, and decay to the evening, which is therefore more unhealthy. The air about the earth is stagt and unwholesome, and all within it is mortal; but the uppermost air is ever-moved and pure and healthy, and all within it is immortal and consequently divine. 8.27. The sun, the moon, and the other stars are gods; for, in them, there is a preponderance of heat, and heat is the cause of life. The moon is illumined by the sun. Gods and men are akin, inasmuch as man partakes of heat; therefore God takes thought for man. Fate is the cause of things being thus ordered both as a whole and separately. The sun's ray penetrates through the aether, whether cold or dense – the air they call cold aether, and the sea and moisture dense aether – and this ray descends even to the depths and for this reason quickens all things. 8.28. All things live which partake of heat – this is why plants are living things – but all have not soul, which is a detached part of aether, partly the hot and partly the cold, for it partakes of cold aether too. Soul is distinct from life; it is immortal, since that from which it is detached is immortal. Living creatures are reproduced from one another by germination; there is no such thing as spontaneous generation from earth. The germ is a clot of brain containing hot vapour within it; and this, when brought to the womb, throws out, from the brain, ichor, fluid and blood, whence are formed flesh, sinews, bones, hairs, and the whole of the body, while soul and sense come from the vapour within. 8.29. First congealing in about forty days, it receives form and, according to the ratios of harmony, in seven, nine, or at the most ten, months, the mature child is brought forth. It has in it all the relations constituting life, and these, forming a continuous series, keep it together according to the ratios of harmony, each appearing at regulated intervals. Sense generally, and sight in particular, is a certain unusually hot vapour. This is why it is said to see through air and water, because the hot aether is resisted by the cold; for, if the vapour in the eyes had been cold, it would have been dissipated on meeting the air, its like. As it is, in certain [lines] he calls the eyes the portals of the sun. His conclusion is the same with regard to hearing and the other senses. 8.30. The soul of man, he says, is divided into three parts, intelligence, reason, and passion. Intelligence and passion are possessed by other animals as well, but reason by man alone. The seat of the soul extends from the heart to the brain; the part of it which is in the heart is passion, while the parts located in the brain are reason and intelligence. The senses are distillations from these. Reason is immortal, all else mortal. The soul draws nourishment from the blood; the faculties of the soul are winds, for they as well as the soul are invisible, just as the aether is invisible. 8.31. The veins, arteries, and sinews are the bonds of the soul. But when it is strong and settled down into itself, reasonings and deeds become its bonds. When cast out upon the earth, it wanders in the air like the body. Hermes is the steward of souls, and for that reason is called Hermes the Escorter, Hermes the Keeper of the Gate, and Hermes of the Underworld, since it is he who brings in the souls from their bodies both by land and sea; and the pure are taken into the uppermost region, but the impure are not permitted to approach the pure or each other, but are bound by the Furies in bonds unbreakable. 8.32. The whole air is full of souls which are called genii or heroes; these are they who send men dreams and signs of future disease and health, and not to men alone, but to sheep also and cattle as well; and it is to them that purifications and lustrations, all divination, omens and the like, have reference. The most momentous thing in human life is the art of winning the soul to good or to evil. Blest are the men who acquire a good soul; they can never be at rest, nor ever keep the same course two days together. 8.33. Right has the force of an oath, and that is why Zeus is called the God of Oaths. Virtue is harmony, and so are health and all good and God himself; this is why they say that all things are constructed according to the laws of harmony. The love of friends is just concord and equality. We should not pay equal worship to gods and heroes, but to the gods always, with reverent silence, in white robes, and after purification, to the heroes only from midday onwards. Purification is by cleansing, baptism and lustration, and by keeping clean from all deaths and births and all pollution, and abstaining from meat and flesh of animals that have died, mullets, gurnards, eggs and egg-sprung animals, beans, and the other abstinences prescribed by those who perform rites in the sanctuaries. 8.34. According to Aristotle in his work On the Pythagoreans, Pythagoras counselled abstinence from beans either because they are like the genitals, or because they are like the gates of Hades . . . as being alone unjointed, or because they are injurious, or because they are like the form of the universe, or because they belong to oligarchy, since they are used in election by lot. He bade his disciples not to pick up fallen crumbs, either in order to accustom them not to eat immoderately, or because connected with a person's death; nay, even, according to Aristophanes, crumbs belong to the heroes, for in his Heroes he says:Nor taste ye of what falls beneath the board !Another of his precepts was not to eat white cocks, as being sacred to the Month and wearing suppliant garb – now supplication ranked with things good – sacred to the Month because they announce the time of day; and again white represents the nature of the good, black the nature of evil. Not to touch such fish as were sacred; for it is not right that gods and men should be allotted the same things, any more than free men and slaves. 8.35. Not to break bread; for once friends used to meet over one loaf, as the barbarians do even to this day; and you should not divide bread which brings them together; some give as the explanation of this that it has reference to the judgement of the dead in Hades, others that bread makes cowards in war, others again that it is from it that the whole world begins.He held that the most beautiful figure is the sphere among solids, and the circle among plane figures. Old age may be compared to everything that is decreasing, while youth is one with increase. Health means retention of the form, disease its destruction. of salt he said it should be brought to table to remind us of what is right; for salt preserves whatever it finds, and it arises from the purest sources, sun and sea.
19. Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, 82-86, 81 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

20. Porphyry, Life of Pythagoras, 42-45, 37 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

37. His utterances were of two kinds, plain or symbolical. His teaching was twofold: of his disciples some were called Students, and others Hearers. The Students learned the fuller and more exactly elaborate reasons of science, while the Hearers heard only the chief heads of learning, without more detailed explanations. SPAN
21. Aristoxenus, Fragments, None

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
alexander polyhistor Bryan, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
anger Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 234
aphrodite Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
archytas of tarentum Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
aristoxenus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
cicero Bryan, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
cosmogony Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 128
diogenes laertius Bryan, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
empedoclesas archetypal vates in lucretius Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 131
fate Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 234
fear, experienced by animals Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
homer Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 256
honey Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
iamblichus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
identity Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 256
janus Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 128
metamorphoses Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 256
myth of ages/golden age Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
nigidius figulus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
numa Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 128, 130, 131; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
ovid Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 256; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
philolaus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pompey , in lucan Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 234
porphyry Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pseudepigrapha Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pythagoras/pythagoreanism Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
pythagoras Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 128, 130, 131, 234; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pythagoreans, division of mathematici and acousmati Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pythagoreans, pythagoreanism, pythagorizing Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 130
pythagoreans, writings of Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
reincarnation/transmigration Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
sacrifice Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 130; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
soul Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 130, 131
spontaneity Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
vatesempedocles in lucretius' Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 131