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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8590
Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15.108-15.110


(idque satis fuerat), nostrumque petentia letumwhat is nature, what a god, whence came the snow


corpora missa neci salva pietate fatemur:the cause of lightning—was it Jupiter


sed quam danda neci, tam non epulanda fuerunt.or did the winds, that thundered when the cloud


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

19 results
1. Homer, Odyssey, 9.219 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2. Aristoxenus, Fragments, None (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 5.87 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.87. quare hoc hoc atque hoc Non. videndum est, possitne nobis hoc ratio philosophorum dare. pollicetur certe. nisi enim id faceret, cur Plato Aegyptum peragravit, ut a sacerdotibus barbaris numeros et caelestia acciperet? cur post Tarentum ad Archytam? cur ad reliquos Pythagoreos, Echecratem, Timaeum, Arionem, Locros, ut, cum Socratem expressisset, adiungeret Pythagoreorum disciplinam eaque, quae Socrates repudiabat, addisceret? cur ipse Pythagoras et Aegyptum lustravit et Persarum magos adiit? cur tantas regiones barbarorum pedibus obiit, tot maria transmisit? cur haec eadem Democritus? qui —vere falsone, quaerere mittimus quaerere mittimus Se. quereremus BER queremus V quae- rere nolumus C.F.W. Mue. —dicitur oculis se se oculis BE privasse; privavisse R certe, ut quam minime animus a cogitationibus abduceretur, patrimonium neglexit, agros deseruit incultos, quid quaerens aliud nisi vitam beatam? beatam vitam R quam si etiam in rerum cognitione ponebat, tamen ex illa investigatione naturae consequi volebat, bono ut esset animo. id enim ille id enim ille R ideo enim ille BE id ille V id est enim illi summum bonum; eu)qumi/an cet. coni. Mdv. summum bonum eu)qumi/an et saepe a)qambi/an appellat, id est animum terrore liberum. 5.87.  On this your cousin and I are agreed. Hence what we have to consider is this, can the systems of the philosophers give us happiness? They certainly profess to do so. Whether it not so, why did Plato travel through Egypt to learn arithmetic and astronomy from barbarian priests? Why did he later visit Archytas at Tarentum, or the other Pythagoreans, Echecrates, Timaeus and Arion, at Locri, intending to append to his picture of Socrates an account of the Pythagorean system and to extend his studies into those branches which Socrates repudiated? Why did Pythagoras himself scour Egypt and visit the Persian magi? why did he travel on foot through those vast barbarian lands and sail across those many seas? Why did Democritus do the same? It is related of Democritus (whether truly or falsely we are not concerned to inquire) that he deprived himself of eyesight; and it is certain that in order that his mind should be distracted as little as possible from reflection, he neglected his paternal estate and left his land uncultivated, engrossed in the search for what else but happiness? Even if he supposed happiness to consist in knowledge, still he designed that his study of natural philosophy should bring him cheerfulness of mind; since that is his conception of the Chief Good, which he entitles euthumia, or often athambia, that is freedom from alarm.
4. Cicero, Republic, 1.16, 2.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.16. Dein Tubero: Nescio, Africane, cur ita memoriae proditum sit, Socratem omnem istam disputationem reiecisse et tantum de vita et de moribus solitum esse quaerere. Quem enim auctorem de illo locupletiorem Platone laudare possumus? cuius in libris multis locis ita loquitur Socrates, ut etiam, cum de moribus, de virtutibus, denique de re publica disputet, numeros tamen et geometriam et harmoniam studeat Pythagorae more coniungere. Tum Scipio: Sunt ista, ut dicis; sed audisse te credo, Tubero, Platonem Socrate mortuo primum in Aegyptum discendi causa, post in Italiam et in Siciliam contendisse, ut Pythagorae inventa perdisceret, eumque et cum Archyta Tarentino et cum Timaeo Locro multum fuisse et Philoleo commentarios esse ctum, cumque eo tempore in iis locis Pythagorae nomen vigeret, illum se et hominibus Pythagoreis et studiis illis dedisse. Itaque cum Socratem unice dilexisset eique omnia tribuere voluisset, leporem Socraticum subtilitatemque sermonis cum obscuritate Pythagorae et cum illa plurimarum artium gravitate contexuit. 2.28. Quae cum Scipio dixisset, Verene, inquit Manilius, hoc memoriae proditum est, Africane, regem istum Numam Pythagorae ipsius discipulum aut certe Pythagoreum fuisse? saepe enim hoc de maioribus natu audivimus et ita intellegimus vulgo existimari; neque vero satis id annalium publicorum auctoritate declaratum videmus. Tum Scipio: Falsum est enim, Manili, inquit, id totum, neque solum fictum, sed etiam imperite absurdeque fictum; ea sunt enim demum non ferenda in mendacio, quae non solum ficta esse, sed ne fieri quidem potuisse cernimus. Nam quartum iam annum regte Lucio Tarquinio Superbo Sybarim et Crotonem et in eas Italiae partis Pythagoras venisse reperitur; Olympias enim secunda et sexagesima eadem Superbi regni initium et Pythagorae declarat adventum.
5. Cicero, Timaeus, 1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 3.36, 4.55 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.36. quid iaces aut quid maeres aut cur succumbis cedisque fortunae? quae quae om. G 1 pervellere te forsitan potuerit et pungere, non potuit certe vires frangere. magna vis est in virtutibus; eas excita, si forte dormiunt. iam tibi aderit princeps fortitudo, quae te animo tanto esse coget, ut omnia, quae possint homini evenire, contemnas et pro nihilo putes. aderit temperantia, quae est eadem moderatio, a me quidem paulo ante appellata frugalitas, quae te turpiter et nequiter facere nihil patietur. patiatur X ( cf. coget 21 dicet 28) quid est autem nequius aut turpius ecfeminato eff. G 1 e corr. R 2 V rec viro? ne iustitia quidem sinet te ista facere, cui minimum esse videtur in hac causa loci; loqui X corr. V c? quae tamen ita dicet dupliciter esse te iniustum, cum et alienum adpetas, appetas V 2 qui mortalis natus condicionem conditionem GKV postules inmortalium et graviter feras te, quod utendum acceperis, reddidisse. 4.55. Oratorem vero irasci minime decet, simulare non dedecet. simulare n. dedecet om. V decet X an tibi irasci tum videmur, cum quid in causis acrius et vehementius dicimus? quid? cum iam rebus transactis et praeteritis orationes scribimus, num irati scribimus? ecquis ecquis s etquis X hoc animadvertit? Accius Atr. 233 animadvortet de orat. 3, 217 M (animum advertit L), quod hic quoque fort. restituendum vincite! —num aut egisse umquam iratum Aesopum aut scripsisse existimas existimamus KR iratum Accium? aguntur ista praeclare, et ab oratore quidem melius, si modo est orator, est orator melius G 1 quam ab ullo histrione, istrione X ( str. G 1 ) sed aguntur leniter et mente tranquilla. Libidinem vero laudare cuius est libidinis? lubid. GRK c Themistoclem mihi et Demosthenen demostenen X proferri G 1 profertis, additis Pythagoran Democritum Platonem. quid? vos studia libidinem libidine GK vocatis? quae vel optimarum rerum, ut ea sunt quae profertis, sedata tamen et et add. G 2 tranquilla esse debent. Iam aegritudinem laudare, unam rem maxime detestabilem, quorum est tandem philosophorum? at ad KR commode dixit Afranius: dum modo doleat aliquid, fr. 409 cf. p. 383, 13 doleat doleat lateat G 1 quidlibet. quidlibet hic X dixit enim de adulescente perdito ac dissoluto, nos autem de constanti viro ac sapienti sapienti ex -e V 1 quaerimus. et quidem ipsam illam iram centurio habeat aut signifer vel ceteri, de quibus dici non necesse est, ne rhetorum aperiamus mysteria. utile est enim uti motu utinmotu K 1 animi, qui uti ratione non potest. nos autem, ut testificor saepe, de sapiente quaerimus. quoque ( item post Afranii versum )
7. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 8.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8.14. 1.  Pompilius, the Roman king, lived at peace for his entire life. And certain writers state that he was a pupil of Pythagoras, and that he received from him the ordices he laid down regarding the worship of the gods and was instructed in many other matters; and it was because of this that he became a man of renown and was summoned by the Romans to be their king.
8. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 2.59.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.59.1.  Up to this point, then, I have nothing to allege in contradiction to those who have published the history of this man; but in regard to what follows I am at a loss what to say. For many have written that Numa was a disciple of Pythagoras and that when he was chosen king by the Romans he was studying philosophy at Croton. But the date of Pythagoras contradicts this account
9. Livy, History, 1.18 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Ovid, Fasti, 1.101-1.144, 1.317-1.456, 3.339-3.342, 6.249, 6.251-6.282, 6.307 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.102. Over the days, and remember my speech. 1.103. The ancients called me Chaos (since I am of the first world): 1.105. The clear air, and the three other elements 1.106. Fire, water, earth, were heaped together as one. 1.107. When, through the discord of its components 1.108. The mass dissolved, and scattered to new regions 1.109. Flame found the heights: air took a lower place 1.110. While earth and sea sank to the furthest depth. 1.111. Then I, who was a shapeless mass, a ball 1.112. Took on the appearance, and noble limbs of a god. 1.113. Even now, a small sign of my once confused state 1.114. My front and back appear just the same. 1.117. Whatever you see: sky, sea, clouds, earth 1.118. All things are begun and ended by my hand. 1.119. Care of the vast world is in my hands alone 1.120. And mine the goverce of the turning pole. 1.121. When I choose to send Peace, from tranquil houses 1.122. Freely she walks the roads, and ceaselessly: 1.123. The whole world would drown in bloodstained slaughter 1.124. If rigid barriers failed to hold war in check. 1.129. With salt: on his sacrificial lips I’m Patulcius 1.130. And then again I’m called Clusius. 1.135. Every doorway has two sides, this way and that 1.136. One facing the crowds, and the other the Lares: 1.141. You see Hecate’s faces turned in three directions 1.317. Add four successive days to the Nones and Janu 1.318. Must be propitiated on the Agonal day. 1.319. The day may take its name from the girded priest 1.320. At whose blow the god’s sacrifice is felled: 1.321. Always, before he stains the naked blade with hot blood 1.322. He asks if he should (agatne), and won’t unless commanded. 1.323. Some believe that the day is called Agonal because 1.324. The sheep do not come to the altar but are driven (agantur). 1.325. Others think the ancients called this festival Agnalia 1.326. ‘of the lambs’, dropping a letter from its usual place. 1.327. Or because the victim fears the knife mirrored in the water 1.328. The day might be so called from the creature’s agony? 1.329. It may also be that the day has a Greek name 1.330. From the games (agones) that were held in former times. 1.331. And in ancient speech agonia meant a sheep 1.332. And this last reason in my judgement is the truth. 1.333. Though the meaning is uncertain, the king of the rites 1.334. Must appease the gods with the mate of a woolly ewe. 1.335. It’s called the victim because a victorious hand fells it: 1.336. And hostia, sacrifice, from hostile conquered foes. 1.337. Cornmeal, and glittering grains of pure salt 1.338. Were once the means for men to placate the gods. 1.339. No foreign ship had yet brought liquid myrrh 1.340. Extracted from tree’s bark, over the ocean waves: 1.341. Euphrates had not sent incense, nor India balm 1.342. And the threads of yellow saffron were unknown. 1.343. The altar was happy to fume with Sabine juniper 1.344. And the laurel burned with a loud crackling. 1.345. He was rich, whoever could add violet 1.346. To garlands woven from meadow flowers. 1.347. The knife that bares the entrails of the stricken bull 1.348. Had no role to perform in the sacred rites. 1.349. Ceres was first to delight in the blood of the greedy sow 1.350. Her crops avenged by the rightful death of the guilty creature 1.351. She learned that in spring the grain, milky with sweet juice 1.352. Had been uprooted by the snouts of bristling pigs. 1.353. The swine were punished: terrified by that example 1.354. You should have spared the vine-shoots, he-goat. 1.355. Watching a goat nibbling a vine someone once 1.356. Vented their indignation in these words: 1.357. ‘Gnaw the vine, goat! But when you stand at the altar 1.358. There’ll be something from it to sprinkle on your horns.’ 1.359. Truth followed: Bacchus, your enemy is given you 1.360. To punish, and sprinkled wine flows over its horns. 1.361. The sow suffered for her crime, and the goat for hers: 1.362. But what were you guilty of you sheep and oxen? 1.363. Aristaeus wept because he saw his bees destroyed 1.364. And the hives they had begun left abandoned. 1.365. His azure mother, Cyrene, could barely calm his grief 1.366. But added these final words to what she said: 1.367. ‘Son, cease your tears! Proteus will allay your loss 1.368. And show you how to recover what has perished. 1.369. But lest he still deceives you by changing shape 1.370. Entangle both his hands with strong fastenings.’ 1.371. The youth approached the seer, who was fast asleep 1.372. And bound the arms of that Old Man of the Sea. 1.373. He by his art altered his shape and transformed his face 1.374. But soon reverted to his true form, tamed by the ropes. 1.375. Then raising his dripping head, and sea-green beard 1.376. He said: ‘Do you ask how to recover your bees? 1.377. Kill a heifer and bury its carcase in the earth 1.378. Buried it will produce what you ask of me.’ 1.379. The shepherd obeyed: the beast’s putrid corpse 1.380. Swarmed: one life destroyed created thousands. 1.381. Death claims the sheep: wickedly, it grazed the vervain 1.382. That a pious old woman offered to the rural gods. 1.383. What creature’s safe if woolly sheep, and oxen 1.384. Broken to the plough, lay their lives on the altar? 1.385. Persia propitiates Hyperion, crowned with rays 1.386. With horses, no sluggish victims for the swift god. 1.387. Because a hind was once sacrificed to Diana the twin 1.388. Instead of Iphigeneia, a hind dies, though not for a virgin now. 1.389. I have seen a dog’s entrails offered to Trivia by Sapaeans 1.390. Whose homes border on your snows, Mount Haemus. 1.391. A young ass too is sacrificed to the erect rural guardian 1.392. Priapus, the reason’s shameful, but appropriate to the god. 1.393. Greece, you held a festival of ivy-berried Bacchus 1.394. That used to recur at the appointed time, every third winter. 1.395. There too came the divinities who worshipped him as Lyaeus 1.396. And whoever else was not averse to jesting 1.397. The Pans and the young Satyrs prone to lust 1.398. And the goddesses of rivers and lonely haunts. 1.399. And old Silenus came on a hollow-backed ass 1.400. And crimson Priapus scaring the timid birds with his rod. 1.401. Finding a grove suited to sweet entertainment 1.402. They lay down on beds of grass covered with cloths. 1.403. Liber offered wine, each had brought a garland 1.404. A stream supplied ample water for the mixing. 1.405. There were Naiads too, some with uncombed flowing hair 1.406. Others with their tresses artfully bound. 1.407. One attends with tunic tucked high above the knee 1.408. Another shows her breast through her loosened robe: 1.409. One bares her shoulder: another trails her hem in the grass 1.410. Their tender feet are not encumbered with shoes. 1.411. So some create amorous passion in the Satyrs 1.412. Some in you, Pan, brows wreathed in pine. 1.413. You too Silenus, are on fire, insatiable lecher: 1.414. Wickedness alone prevents you growing old. 1.415. But crimson Priapus, guardian and glory of gardens 1.416. of them all, was captivated by Lotis: 1.417. He desires, and prays, and sighs for her alone 1.418. He signals to her, by nodding, woos her with signs. 1.419. But the lovely are disdainful, pride waits on beauty: 1.420. She laughed at him, and scorned him with a look. 1.421. It was night, and drowsy from the wine 1.422. They lay here and there, overcome by sleep. 1.423. Tired from play, Lotis rested on the grassy earth 1.424. Furthest away, under the maple branches. 1.425. Her lover stood, and holding his breath, stole 1.426. Furtively and silently towards her on tiptoe. 1.427. Reaching the snow-white nymph’s secluded bed 1.428. He took care lest the sound of his breath escaped. 1.429. Now he balanced on his toes on the grass nearby: 1.430. But she was still completely full of sleep. 1.431. He rejoiced, and drawing the cover from her feet 1.432. He happily began to have his way with her. 1.433. Suddenly Silenus’ ass braying raucously 1.434. Gave an untimely bellow from its jaws. 1.435. Terrified the nymph rose, pushed Priapus away 1.436. And, fleeing, gave the alarm to the whole grove. 1.437. But the over-expectant god with his rigid member 1.438. Was laughed at by them all, in the moonlight. 1.439. The creator of that ruckus paid with his life 1.440. And he’s the sacrifice dear to the Hellespontine god. 1.441. You were chaste once, you birds, a rural solace 1.442. You harmless race that haunt the woodlands 1.443. Who build your nests, warm your eggs with your wings 1.444. And utter sweet measures from your ready beaks 1.445. But that is no help to you, because of your guilty tongues 1.446. And the gods’ belief that you reveal their thoughts. 1.447. Nor is that false: since the closer you are to the gods 1.448. The truer the omens you give by voice and flight. 1.449. Though long untouched, birds were killed at last 1.450. And the gods delighted in the informers’ entrails. 1.451. So the white dove, torn from her mate 1.452. Is often burned in the Idalian flames: 1.453. Nor did saving the Capitol benefit the goose 1.454. Who yielded his liver on a dish to you, Inachus’ daughter: 1.455. The cock is sacrificed at night to the Goddess, Night 1.456. Because he summons the day with his waking cries 3.339. We’ll sever an onion’s, dug from my garden.’ 3.340. The god added: ‘of a man’: ‘You’ll have the hair,’ 3.341. Said the king. He demanded a life, Numa replied: ‘A fish’s’. 3.342. The god laughed and said: ‘Expiate my lightning like this 6.249. Vesta, favour me! I’ll open my lips now in your service 6.251. I was rapt in prayer: I felt the heavenly deity 6.252. And the happy earth shone with radiant light. 6.253. Not that I saw you, goddess (away with poets’ lies!) 6.254. Nor were you to be looked on by any man: 6.255. But I knew what I’d not known, and the error 6.256. I’d held to were corrected without instruction. 6.257. They say Rome had celebrated the Parilia forty times 6.258. When the goddess, the Guardian of the Flame, was received 6.259. In her shrine, the work of Numa, that peace-loving king 6.260. (None more god-fearing was ever born in Sabine lands.) 6.261. The roofs you see of bronze were roofs of straw then 6.262. And its walls were made of wickerwork. 6.263. This meagre spot that supports the Hall of Vesta 6.264. Was then the mighty palace of unshorn Numa. 6.265. Yet the form of the temple, that remains, they say 6.266. Is as before, and is shaped so for good reason. 6.267. Vesta’s identified with Earth: in them both’s unsleeping fire: 6.268. Earth and the hearth are both symbols of home. 6.269. The Earth’s a ball not resting on any support 6.270. It’s great weight hangs in the ether around it. 6.271. Its own revolutions keep its orb balanced 6.272. It has no sharp angles to press on anything 6.273. And it’s placed in the midst of the heavens 6.274. And isn’t nearer or further from any side 6.275. For if it weren’t convex, it would be nearer somewhere 6.276. And the universe wouldn’t have Earth’s weight at its centre. 6.277. There’s a globe suspended, enclosed by Syracusan art 6.278. That’s a small replica of the vast heavens 6.279. And the Earth’s equidistant from top and bottom. 6.280. Which is achieved by its spherical shape. 6.281. The form of this temple’s the same: there’s no angle 6.282. Projecting from it: a rotunda saves it from the rain. 6.307. Even now in sacrificing to ancient Vacuna
11. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.5-1.75, 1.78-1.83, 1.87-1.112, 15.1-15.107, 15.109-15.478 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Vergil, Georgics, 4.1, 4.315-4.558 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.1. of air-born honey, gift of heaven, I now 4.315. Or cut the empty wax away? for oft 4.316. Into their comb the newt has gnawed unseen 4.317. And the light-loathing beetles crammed their bed 4.318. And he that sits at others' board to feast 4.319. The do-naught drone; or 'gainst the unequal foe 4.320. Swoops the fierce hornet, or the moth's fell tribe; 4.321. Or spider, victim of Minerva's spite 4.322. Athwart the doorway hangs her swaying net. 4.323. The more impoverished they, the keenlier all 4.324. To mend the fallen fortunes of their race 4.325. Will nerve them, fill the cells up, tier on tier 4.326. And weave their granaries from the rifled flowers. 4.327. Now, seeing that life doth even to bee-folk bring 4.328. Our human chances, if in dire disease 4.329. Their bodies' strength should languish—which anon 4.330. By no uncertain tokens may be told— 4.331. Forthwith the sick change hue; grim leanness mar 4.332. Their visage; then from out the cells they bear 4.333. Forms reft of light, and lead the mournful pomp; 4.334. Or foot to foot about the porch they hang 4.335. Or within closed doors loiter, listless all 4.336. From famine, and benumbed with shrivelling cold. 4.337. Then is a deep note heard, a long-drawn hum 4.338. As when the chill South through the forests sighs 4.339. As when the troubled ocean hoarsely boom 4.340. With back-swung billow, as ravening tide of fire 4.341. Surges, shut fast within the furnace-walls. 4.342. Then do I bid burn scented galbanum 4.343. And, honey-streams through reeden troughs instilled 4.344. Challenge and cheer their flagging appetite 4.345. To taste the well-known food; and it shall boot 4.346. To mix therewith the savour bruised from gall 4.347. And rose-leaves dried, or must to thickness boiled 4.348. By a fierce fire, or juice of raisin-grape 4.349. From Psithian vine, and with its bitter smell 4.350. Centaury, and the famed Cecropian thyme. 4.351. There is a meadow-flower by country folk 4.352. Hight star-wort; 'tis a plant not far to seek; 4.353. For from one sod an ample growth it rears 4.354. Itself all golden, but girt with plenteous leaves 4.355. Where glory of purple shines through violet gloom. 4.356. With chaplets woven hereof full oft are decked 4.357. Heaven's altars: harsh its taste upon the tongue; 4.358. Shepherds in vales smooth-shorn of nibbling flock 4.359. By placeName key= 4.360. The roots of this, well seethed in fragrant wine 4.361. Set in brimmed baskets at their doors for food. 4.362. But if one's whole stock fail him at a stroke 4.363. Nor hath he whence to breed the race anew 4.364. 'Tis time the wondrous secret to disclose 4.365. Taught by the swain of Arcady, even how 4.366. The blood of slaughtered bullocks oft has borne 4.367. Bees from corruption. I will trace me back 4.368. To its prime source the story's tangled thread 4.369. And thence unravel. For where thy happy folk 4.370. Canopus , city of Pellaean fame 4.371. Dwell by the placeName key= 4.372. And high o'er furrows they have called their own 4.373. Skim in their painted wherries; where, hard by 4.374. The quivered Persian presses, and that flood 4.375. Which from the swart-skinned Aethiop bears him down 4.376. Swift-parted into sevenfold branching mouth 4.377. With black mud fattens and makes Aegypt green 4.378. That whole domain its welfare's hope secure 4.379. Rests on this art alone. And first is chosen 4.380. A strait recess, cramped closer to this end 4.381. Which next with narrow roof of tiles atop 4.382. 'Twixt prisoning walls they pinch, and add hereto 4.383. From the four winds four slanting window-slits. 4.384. Then seek they from the herd a steer, whose horn 4.385. With two years' growth are curling, and stop fast 4.386. Plunge madly as he may, the panting mouth 4.387. And nostrils twain, and done with blows to death 4.388. Batter his flesh to pulp i' the hide yet whole 4.389. And shut the doors, and leave him there to lie. 4.390. But 'neath his ribs they scatter broken boughs 4.391. With thyme and fresh-pulled cassias: this is done 4.392. When first the west winds bid the waters flow 4.393. Ere flush the meadows with new tints, and ere 4.394. The twittering swallow buildeth from the beams. 4.395. Meanwhile the juice within his softened bone 4.396. Heats and ferments, and things of wondrous birth 4.397. Footless at first, anon with feet and wings 4.398. Swarm there and buzz, a marvel to behold; 4.399. And more and more the fleeting breeze they take 4.400. Till, like a shower that pours from summer-clouds 4.401. Forth burst they, or like shafts from quivering string 4.402. When 4.403. Say what was he, what God, that fashioned forth 4.404. This art for us, O Muses? of man's skill 4.405. Whence came the new adventure? From thy vale 4.406. Peneian Tempe, turning, bee-bereft 4.407. So runs the tale, by famine and disease 4.408. Mournful the shepherd Aristaeus stood 4.409. Fast by the haunted river-head, and thu 4.410. With many a plaint to her that bare him cried: 4.411. “Mother, Cyrene, mother, who hast thy home 4.412. Beneath this whirling flood, if he thou sayest 4.413. Apollo, lord of Thymbra, be my sire 4.414. Sprung from the Gods' high line, why barest thou me 4.415. With fortune's ban for birthright? Where is now 4.416. Thy love to me-ward banished from thy breast? 4.417. O! wherefore didst thou bid me hope for heaven? 4.418. Lo! even the crown of this poor mortal life 4.419. Which all my skilful care by field and fold 4.420. No art neglected, scarce had fashioned forth 4.421. Even this falls from me, yet thou call'st me son. 4.422. Nay, then, arise! With thine own hands pluck up 4.423. My fruit-plantations: on the homestead fling 4.424. Pitiless fire; make havoc of my crops; 4.425. Burn the young plants, and wield the stubborn axe 4.426. Against my vines, if there hath taken the 4.427. Such loathing of my greatness.” 4.428. But that cry 4.429. Even from her chamber in the river-deeps 4.430. His mother heard: around her spun the nymph 4.431. Milesian wool stained through with hyaline dye 4.432. Drymo, Xantho, Ligea, Phyllodoce 4.433. Their glossy locks o'er snowy shoulders shed 4.434. Cydippe and Lycorias yellow-haired 4.435. A maiden one, one newly learned even then 4.436. To bear Lucina's birth-pang. Clio, too 4.437. And Beroe, sisters, ocean-children both 4.438. Both zoned with gold and girt with dappled fell 4.439. Ephyre and Opis, and from Asian mead 4.440. Deiopea, and, bow at length laid by 4.441. Fleet-footed Arethusa. But in their midst 4.442. Fair Clymene was telling o'er the tale 4.443. of Vulcan's idle vigilance and the stealth 4.444. of Mars' sweet rapine, and from Chaos old 4.445. Counted the jostling love-joys of the Gods. 4.446. Charmed by whose lay, the while their woolly task 4.447. With spindles down they drew, yet once again 4.448. Smote on his mother's ears the mournful plaint 4.449. of Aristaeus; on their glassy throne 4.450. Amazement held them all; but Arethuse 4.451. Before the rest put forth her auburn head 4.452. Peering above the wave-top, and from far 4.453. Exclaimed, “Cyrene, sister, not for naught 4.454. Scared by a groan so deep, behold! 'tis he 4.455. Even Aristaeus, thy heart's fondest care 4.456. Here by the brink of the Peneian sire 4.457. Stands woebegone and weeping, and by name 4.458. Cries out upon thee for thy cruelty.” 4.459. To whom, strange terror knocking at her heart 4.460. “Bring, bring him to our sight,” the mother cried; 4.461. “His feet may tread the threshold even of Gods.” 4.462. So saying, she bids the flood yawn wide and yield 4.463. A pathway for his footsteps; but the wave 4.464. Arched mountain-wise closed round him, and within 4.465. Its mighty bosom welcomed, and let speed 4.466. To the deep river-bed. And now, with eye 4.467. of wonder gazing on his mother's hall 4.468. And watery kingdom and cave-prisoned pool 4.469. And echoing groves, he went, and, stunned by that 4.470. Stupendous whirl of waters, separate saw 4.471. All streams beneath the mighty earth that glide 4.472. Phasis and Lycus, and that fountain-head 4.473. Whence first the deep Enipeus leaps to light 4.474. Whence father placeName key= 4.475. And Hypanis that roars amid his rocks 4.476. And Mysian Caicus, and, bull-browed 4.477. 'Twixt either gilded horn, placeName key= 4.478. Than whom none other through the laughing plain 4.479. More furious pours into the purple sea. 4.480. Soon as the chamber's hanging roof of stone 4.481. Was gained, and now Cyrene from her son 4.482. Had heard his idle weeping, in due course 4.483. Clear water for his hands the sisters bring 4.484. With napkins of shorn pile, while others heap 4.485. The board with dainties, and set on afresh 4.486. The brimming goblets; with Panchaian fire 4.487. Upleap the altars; then the mother spake 4.488. “Take beakers of Maconian wine,” she said 4.489. “Pour we to Ocean.” Ocean, sire of all 4.490. She worships, and the sister-nymphs who guard 4.491. The hundred forests and the hundred streams; 4.492. Thrice Vesta's fire with nectar clear she dashed 4.493. Thrice to the roof-top shot the flame and shone: 4.494. Armed with which omen she essayed to speak: 4.495. “In Neptune's gulf Carpathian dwells a seer 4.496. Caerulean Proteus, he who metes the main 4.497. With fish-drawn chariot of two-footed steeds; 4.498. Now visits he his native home once more 4.499. Pallene and the Emathian ports; to him 4.500. We nymphs do reverence, ay, and Nereus old; 4.501. For all things knows the seer, both those which are 4.502. And have been, or which time hath yet to bring; 4.503. So willed it Neptune, whose portentous flocks 4.504. And loathly sea-calves 'neath the surge he feeds. 4.505. Him first, my son, behoves thee seize and bind 4.506. That he may all the cause of sickness show 4.507. And grant a prosperous end. For save by force 4.508. No rede will he vouchsafe, nor shalt thou bend 4.509. His soul by praying; whom once made captive, ply 4.510. With rigorous force and fetters; against these 4.511. His wiles will break and spend themselves in vain. 4.512. I, when the sun has lit his noontide fires 4.513. When the blades thirst, and cattle love the shade 4.514. Myself will guide thee to the old man's haunt 4.515. Whither he hies him weary from the waves 4.516. That thou mayst safelier steal upon his sleep. 4.517. But when thou hast gripped him fast with hand and gyve 4.518. Then divers forms and bestial semblance 4.519. Shall mock thy grasp; for sudden he will change 4.520. To bristly boar, fell tigress, dragon scaled 4.521. And tawny-tufted lioness, or send forth 4.522. A crackling sound of fire, and so shake of 4.523. The fetters, or in showery drops anon 4.524. Dissolve and vanish. But the more he shift 4.525. His endless transformations, thou, my son 4.526. More straitlier clench the clinging bands, until 4.527. His body's shape return to that thou sawest 4.528. When with closed eyelids first he sank to sleep.” 4.529. So saying, an odour of ambrosial dew 4.530. She sheds around, and all his frame therewith 4.531. Steeps throughly; forth from his trim-combed lock 4.532. Breathed effluence sweet, and a lithe vigour leapt 4.533. Into his limbs. There is a cavern vast 4.534. Scooped in the mountain-side, where wave on wave 4.535. By the wind's stress is driven, and breaks far up 4.536. Its inmost creeks—safe anchorage from of old 4.537. For tempest-taken mariners: therewithin 4.538. Behind a rock's huge barrier, Proteus hides. 4.539. Here in close covert out of the sun's eye 4.540. The youth she places, and herself the while 4.541. Swathed in a shadowy mist stands far aloof. 4.542. And now the ravening dog-star that burns up 4.543. The thirsty Indians blazed in heaven; his course 4.544. The fiery sun had half devoured: the blade 4.545. Were parched, and the void streams with droughty jaw 4.546. Baked to their mud-beds by the scorching ray 4.547. When Proteus seeking his accustomed cave 4.548. Strode from the billows: round him frolicking 4.549. The watery folk that people the waste sea 4.550. Sprinkled the bitter brine-dew far and wide. 4.551. Along the shore in scattered groups to feed 4.552. The sea-calves stretch them: while the seer himself 4.553. Like herdsman on the hills when evening bid 4.554. The steers from pasture to their stall repair 4.555. And the lambs' bleating whets the listening wolves 4.556. Sits midmost on the rock and tells his tale. 4.557. But Aristaeus, the foe within his clutch 4.558. Scarce suffering him compose his aged limbs
13. Plutarch, Numa Pompilius, 1.2-1.4, 8.4-8.10, 22.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.3. but that there was another Pythagoras, the Spartan, who was Olympic victor in the foot-race for the sixteenth Olympiad 657-654 B.C. (in the third year of which Numa was made king), and that in his wanderings about Italy he made the acquaintance of Numa, and helped him arrange the government of the city, whence it came about that many Spartan customs were mingled with the Roman, as Pythagoras taught them to Numa. And at all events, Numa was of Sabine descent, and the Sabines will have it that they were colonists from Lacedaemon. 1.4. Chronology, however, is hard to fix, and especially that which is based on the names of victors in the Olympic games, the list of which is said to have been published at a late period by Hippias of Elis, who had no fully authoritative basis for his work. I shall therefore begin at a convenient point, and relate the noteworthy facts which I have found in the life of Numa. 8.4. This was the chief reason why Numa’s wisdom and culture were said to have been due to his intimacy with Pythagoras; for in the philosophy of the one, and in the civil polity of the other, religious services and occupations have a large place. It is said also that the solemnity of his outward demeanour was adopted by him because he shared the feelings of Pythagoras about it. 8.5. That philosopher, indeed, is thought to have tamed an eagle, which he stopped by certain cries of his, and brought down from his lofty flight; also to have disclosed his golden thigh as he passed through the assembled throngs at Olympia. And we have reports of other devices and performances of his which savoured of the marvellous, regarding which Timon the Phliasian wrote:— Down to a juggler’s level he sinks with his cheating devices, Laying his nets for men, Pythagoras, lover of bombast. 8.6. In like manner Numa’s fiction was the love which a certain goddess or mountain nymph bore him, arid her secret meetings with him, as already mentioned, Chapter iv. 1-2. and his familiar converse with the Muses. For he ascribed the greater part of his oracular teachings to the Muses, and he taught the Romans to pay especial honours to one Muse in particular, whom he called Tacita, that is, the silent, or speechless one ; thereby perhaps handing on and honouring the Pythagorean precept of silence. 8.6. In like manner Numa’s fiction was the love which a certain goddess or mountain nymph bore him, arid her secret meetings with him, as already mentioned, Chapter iv. 1-2. and his familiar converse with the Muses. For he ascribed the greater part of his oracular teachings to the Muses, and he taught the Romans to pay especial honours to one Muse in particular, whom he called Tacita, that is, the silent, or speechless one ; thereby perhaps handing on and honouring the Pythagorean precept of silence. 8.7. Furthermore, his ordices concerning images are altogether in harmony with the doctrines of Pythagoras. For that philosopher maintained that the first principle of being was beyond sense or feeling, was invisible and uncreated, and discernible only by the mind. And in like manner Numa forbade the Romans to revere an image of God which had the form of man or beast. Nor was there among them in this earlier time any painted or graven likeness of Deity 8.8. but while for the first hundred and seventy years they were continually building temples and establishing sacred shrines, they made no statues in bodily form for them, convinced that it was impious to liken higher things to lower, and that it was impossible to apprehend Deity except by the intellect. Their sacrifices, too, were altogether appropriate to the Pythagorean worship; for most of them involved no bloodshed, but were made with flour, drink-offerings, and the least costly gifts. 8.9. And apart from these things, other external proofs are urged to show that the two men were acquainted with each other. One of these is that Pythagoras was enrolled as a citizen of Rome. This fact is recorded by Epicharmus the comic poet, in a certain treatise which he dedicated to Antenor; and Epicharmus was an ancient, and belonged to the school of Pythagoras. Another proof is that one of the four sons born to king Numa was named Mamercus, after the son of Pythagoras. 8.10. And from him they say that the patrician family of the Aemilii took its name, Aemilius being the endearing name which the king gave him for the grace and winsomeness of his speech. Moreover, I myself have heard many people at Rome recount how, when an oracle once commanded the Romans to erect in their city monuments to the wisest and the bravest of the Greeks, they set up in the forum two statues in bronze, one of Alcibiades, and one of Pythagoras. According to the elder Pliny ( N.H. xxxiv. 12 ), these statues stood in the comitium at Rome from the time of the Samnite wars (343-290 B.C.) down to that of Sulla (138-78 B.C.). However, since the matter of Numa’s acquaintance with Pythagoras is involved in much dispute, to discuss it at greater length, and to win belief for it, would savour of youthful contentiousness. 22.4. Therefore we may well be indulgent with those who are eager to prove, on the basis of so many resemblances between them, that Numa was acquainted with Pythagoras. Antias, however, writes that it was twelve pontifical books, and twelve others of Greek philosophy, which were placed in the coffin. And about four hundred years afterwards, when Publius Cornelius and Marcus Baebius were consuls, heavy rains fell, and the torrent of water tore away the earth and dislodged the coffins. 22.4. Therefore we may well be indulgent with those who are eager to prove, on the basis of so many resemblances between them, that Numa was acquainted with Pythagoras. Antias, however, writes that it was twelve pontifical books, and twelve others of Greek philosophy, which were placed in the coffin. And about four hundred years afterwards, when Publius Cornelius and Marcus Baebius were consuls, heavy rains fell, and the torrent of water tore away the earth and dislodged the coffins.
14. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 5.9.59 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

15. Heliodorus, Ethiopian Story, 3.14 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

16. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 8.20, 8.24-8.35 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.20. He was never known to over-eat, to behave loosely, or to be drunk. He would avoid laughter and all pandering to tastes such as insulting jests and vulgar tales. He would punish neither slave nor free man in anger. Admonition he used to call setting right. He used to practise divination by sounds or voices and by auguries, never by burnt-offerings, beyond frankincense. The offerings he made were always iimate; though some say that he would offer cocks, sucking goats and porkers, as they are called, but lambs never. However, Aristoxenus has it that he consented to the eating of all other animals, and only abstained from ploughing oxen and rams. 8.24. to respect all divination, to sing to the lyre and by hymns to show due gratitude to gods and to good men. To abstain from beans because they are flatulent and partake most of the breath of life; and besides, it is better for the stomach if they are not taken, and this again will make our dreams in sleep smooth and untroubled.Alexander in his Successions of Philosophers says that he found in the Pythagorean memoirs the following tenets as well. 8.25. The principle of all things is the monad or unit; arising from this monad the undefined dyad or two serves as material substratum to the monad, which is cause; from the monad and the undefined dyad spring numbers; from numbers, points; from points, lines; from lines, plane figures; from plane figures, solid figures; from solid figures, sensible bodies, the elements of which are four, fire, water, earth and air; these elements interchange and turn into one another completely, and combine to produce a universe animate, intelligent, spherical, with the earth at its centre, the earth itself too being spherical and inhabited round about. There are also antipodes, and our down is their up. 8.26. Light and darkness have equal part in the universe, so have hot and cold, and dry and moist; and of these, if hot preponderates, we have summer; if cold, winter; if dry, spring; if moist, late autumn. If all are in equilibrium, we have the best periods of the year, of which the freshness of spring constitutes the healthy season, and the decay of late autumn the unhealthy. So too, in the day, freshness belongs to the morning, and decay to the evening, which is therefore more unhealthy. The air about the earth is stagt and unwholesome, and all within it is mortal; but the uppermost air is ever-moved and pure and healthy, and all within it is immortal and consequently divine. 8.27. The sun, the moon, and the other stars are gods; for, in them, there is a preponderance of heat, and heat is the cause of life. The moon is illumined by the sun. Gods and men are akin, inasmuch as man partakes of heat; therefore God takes thought for man. Fate is the cause of things being thus ordered both as a whole and separately. The sun's ray penetrates through the aether, whether cold or dense – the air they call cold aether, and the sea and moisture dense aether – and this ray descends even to the depths and for this reason quickens all things. 8.28. All things live which partake of heat – this is why plants are living things – but all have not soul, which is a detached part of aether, partly the hot and partly the cold, for it partakes of cold aether too. Soul is distinct from life; it is immortal, since that from which it is detached is immortal. Living creatures are reproduced from one another by germination; there is no such thing as spontaneous generation from earth. The germ is a clot of brain containing hot vapour within it; and this, when brought to the womb, throws out, from the brain, ichor, fluid and blood, whence are formed flesh, sinews, bones, hairs, and the whole of the body, while soul and sense come from the vapour within. 8.29. First congealing in about forty days, it receives form and, according to the ratios of harmony, in seven, nine, or at the most ten, months, the mature child is brought forth. It has in it all the relations constituting life, and these, forming a continuous series, keep it together according to the ratios of harmony, each appearing at regulated intervals. Sense generally, and sight in particular, is a certain unusually hot vapour. This is why it is said to see through air and water, because the hot aether is resisted by the cold; for, if the vapour in the eyes had been cold, it would have been dissipated on meeting the air, its like. As it is, in certain [lines] he calls the eyes the portals of the sun. His conclusion is the same with regard to hearing and the other senses. 8.30. The soul of man, he says, is divided into three parts, intelligence, reason, and passion. Intelligence and passion are possessed by other animals as well, but reason by man alone. The seat of the soul extends from the heart to the brain; the part of it which is in the heart is passion, while the parts located in the brain are reason and intelligence. The senses are distillations from these. Reason is immortal, all else mortal. The soul draws nourishment from the blood; the faculties of the soul are winds, for they as well as the soul are invisible, just as the aether is invisible. 8.31. The veins, arteries, and sinews are the bonds of the soul. But when it is strong and settled down into itself, reasonings and deeds become its bonds. When cast out upon the earth, it wanders in the air like the body. Hermes is the steward of souls, and for that reason is called Hermes the Escorter, Hermes the Keeper of the Gate, and Hermes of the Underworld, since it is he who brings in the souls from their bodies both by land and sea; and the pure are taken into the uppermost region, but the impure are not permitted to approach the pure or each other, but are bound by the Furies in bonds unbreakable. 8.32. The whole air is full of souls which are called genii or heroes; these are they who send men dreams and signs of future disease and health, and not to men alone, but to sheep also and cattle as well; and it is to them that purifications and lustrations, all divination, omens and the like, have reference. The most momentous thing in human life is the art of winning the soul to good or to evil. Blest are the men who acquire a good soul; they can never be at rest, nor ever keep the same course two days together. 8.33. Right has the force of an oath, and that is why Zeus is called the God of Oaths. Virtue is harmony, and so are health and all good and God himself; this is why they say that all things are constructed according to the laws of harmony. The love of friends is just concord and equality. We should not pay equal worship to gods and heroes, but to the gods always, with reverent silence, in white robes, and after purification, to the heroes only from midday onwards. Purification is by cleansing, baptism and lustration, and by keeping clean from all deaths and births and all pollution, and abstaining from meat and flesh of animals that have died, mullets, gurnards, eggs and egg-sprung animals, beans, and the other abstinences prescribed by those who perform rites in the sanctuaries. 8.34. According to Aristotle in his work On the Pythagoreans, Pythagoras counselled abstinence from beans either because they are like the genitals, or because they are like the gates of Hades . . . as being alone unjointed, or because they are injurious, or because they are like the form of the universe, or because they belong to oligarchy, since they are used in election by lot. He bade his disciples not to pick up fallen crumbs, either in order to accustom them not to eat immoderately, or because connected with a person's death; nay, even, according to Aristophanes, crumbs belong to the heroes, for in his Heroes he says:Nor taste ye of what falls beneath the board !Another of his precepts was not to eat white cocks, as being sacred to the Month and wearing suppliant garb – now supplication ranked with things good – sacred to the Month because they announce the time of day; and again white represents the nature of the good, black the nature of evil. Not to touch such fish as were sacred; for it is not right that gods and men should be allotted the same things, any more than free men and slaves. 8.35. Not to break bread; for once friends used to meet over one loaf, as the barbarians do even to this day; and you should not divide bread which brings them together; some give as the explanation of this that it has reference to the judgement of the dead in Hades, others that bread makes cowards in war, others again that it is from it that the whole world begins.He held that the most beautiful figure is the sphere among solids, and the circle among plane figures. Old age may be compared to everything that is decreasing, while youth is one with increase. Health means retention of the form, disease its destruction. of salt he said it should be brought to table to remind us of what is right; for salt preserves whatever it finds, and it arises from the purest sources, sun and sea.
17. Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, 81-86, 97-98, 100 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

18. Porphyry, Life of Pythagoras, 42-45, 37 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

37. His utterances were of two kinds, plain or symbolical. His teaching was twofold: of his disciples some were called Students, and others Hearers. The Students learned the fuller and more exactly elaborate reasons of science, while the Hearers heard only the chief heads of learning, without more detailed explanations. SPAN
19. Aristoxenus, Fragments, None



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aetiology Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187
age, golden Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187
agonalia Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187; Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 143
alexander polyhistor Bryan, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
animals, asictims Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 240
aphrodite Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
archytas of tarentum Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
aristaeus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187
aristoxenus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
bougonia Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 240
boyancé, p. Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 568
bugonia Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187
cicero Bryan, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
cosmogony Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 128
cyrene Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 240
death, of animals Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 240
diogenes laertius Bryan, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
elegy, erotic Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187
epyllion Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187
eurydice Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 240
fear, experienced by animals Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
gallus, cornelius Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187
golden age Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 143
homer Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 256
honey Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
iamblichus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
identity Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 256
janus Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 128
jupiter, elicius Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 143
lament Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187
loss, erotic Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187
meat Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 568
metamorphoses Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 256
myth of ages/golden age Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
nigidius figulus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
numa Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 128, 130, 143; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
nymphs Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 240
octavian Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187
orpheus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187
ovid Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187; Pinheiro et al., Cultural Crossroads in the Ancient Novel (2018) 256; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
oxen (sacrifice of) Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 143
philolaus Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pigs' Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 568
porphyry Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
priapus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187
proteus Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 240
pseudepigrapha Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pythagoras/pythagoreanism Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
pythagoras Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 568; Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 128, 130, 143; Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pythagoreans, division of mathematici and acousmati Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
pythagoreans, pythagoreanism, pythagorizing Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 130, 143
pythagoreans, writings of Wardy and Warren, Authors and Authorities in Ancient Philosophy (2018) 164
rape Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187
reincarnation/transmigration Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
sacrifice Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 130, 143; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238, 240
servius Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 187
soul Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 130
spontaneity Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 238
virgil Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 240