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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8585
Ovid, Fasti, 4.180-4.390


ter iungat Titan terque resolvat equosLet the Sun three times yoke and loose his horses


protinus inflexo Berecyntia tibia cornuAnd the Berecyntian flute will begin sounding


flabit, et Idaeae festa parentis erunt.Its curved horn, it will be the Idaean Mother’s feast.


ibunt semimares et inania tympana tundentEunuchs will march, and sound the hollow drums


aeraque tinnitus aere repulsa dabunt:And cymbal will clash with cymbal, in ringing tones:


ipsa sedens molli comitum cervice fereturSeated on the soft necks of her servants, she’ll be carried


urbis per medias exululata vias.With howling, through the midst of the City streets.


scaena sonat, ludi que vocant, spectate, QuiritesThe stage is set: the games are calling. Watch, then


et fora Marte suo litigiosa vacentQuirites, and let those legal wars in the fora cease.


quaerere multa libet, sed me sonus aeris acutiI’d like to ask many things, but I’m made fearful


terret et horrendo lotos adunca sono.By shrill clash of bronze, and curved flute’s dreadful drone.


da, dea, quem sciter. doctas Cybeleia neptes‘Lend me someone to ask, goddess.’ Cybele spying her learned


vidit et has curae iussit adesse meae.Granddaughters, the Muses, ordered them to take care of me.


‘pandite, mandati memores, Heliconis alumnae‘Nurslings of Helicon, mindful of her orders, reveal


gaudeat assiduo cur dea Magna sono.’Why the Great Goddess delights in continual din.’


sic ego, sic Erato (mensis Cythereius illiSo I spoke. And Erato replied (it fell to her to speak about


cessit, quod teneri nomen amoris habet):Venus’ month, because her name derives from tender love):


‘reddita Saturno sors haec erat, optime regum‘Saturn was granted this prophecy: “Noblest of kings


a nato sceptris excutiere tuis.’You’ll be ousted by your own son’s sceptre.”


ille suam metuens, ut quaeque erat edita, prolemThe god, fearful, devoured his children as soon a


devorat, immersam visceribusque tenet.Born, and then retained them deep in his guts.


saepe Rhea questa est, totiens fecunda nec umquamOften Rhea (Cybele) complained, at being so often pregnant


mater, et indoluit fertilitate sua.Yet never a mother, and grieved at her own fruitfulness.


Iuppiter ortus erat (pro magno teste vetustasThen Jupiter was born (ancient testimony is credited


creditur; acceptam parce movere fidem):By most: so please don’t disturb the accepted belief):


veste latens saxum caelesti gutture sedit:A stone, concealed in clothing, went down Saturn’s throat


sic genitor fatis decipiendus erat.So the great progenitor was deceived by the fates.


ardua iamdudum resonat tinnitibus IdeNow steep Ida echoed to a jingling music


tutus ut infanti vagiat ore puer.So the child might cry from its infant mouth, in safety.


pars clipeos rudibus, galeas pars tundit inanes:Some beat shields with sticks, others empty helmets:


hoc Curetes habent, hoc Corybantes opus.That was the Curetes’ and the Corybantes’ task.


res latuit, priscique manent imitamina facti;The thing was hidden, and the ancient deed’s still acted out:


aera deae comites raucaque terga moventThe goddess’s servants strike the bronze and sounding skins.


cymbala pro galeis, pro scutis tympana pulsant;They beat cymbals for helmets, drums instead of shields:


tibia dat Phrygios, ut dedit ante, modos.”The flute plays, as long ago, in the Phrygian mode.’


desierat. coepi: ‘cur huic genus acre leonumThe goddess ceased. I began: ‘Why do fierce lion


praebent insolitas ad iuga curva iubas?’Yield untamed necks to the curving yoke for her?’


desieram. coepit: ‘feritas mollita per illamI ceased. The goddess began: ‘It’s thought their ferocity


creditur; id curru testificata suo est.’Was first tamed by her: the testament to it’s her chariot.’


‘at cur turrifera caput est onerata corona?‘But why is her head weighed down by a turreted crown?


an primis turres urbibus illa dedit?’Is it because she granted towers to the first cities?’


annuit. unde venit dixi ‘sua membra secandiShe nodded. I said ‘Where did this urge to cut off


impetus?’ ut tacui, Pieris orsa loqui:Their members come from?’ As I ended, the Muse spoke:


‘Phryx puer in silvis, facie spectabilis, Attis‘In the woods, a Phrygian boy, Attis, of handsome face


turrigeram casto vinxit amore deam.Won the tower-bearing goddess with his chaste passion.


hunc sibi servari voluit, sua templa tueriShe desired him to serve her, and protect her temple


et dixit semper fac puer esse velis.And said: “Wish, you might be a boy for ever.”


ille fidem iussis dedit et si mentiar, inquitHe promised to be true, and said: “If I’m lying


ultima, qua fallam, sit Venus illa mihi.May the love I fail in be my last love.”


fallit et in nympha Sagaritide desinit esseHe did fail, and in meeting the nymph Sagaritis


quod fuit: hinc poenas exigit ira deae.Abandoned what he was: the goddess, angered, avenged it.


Naida volneribus succidit in arbore factisShe destroyed the Naiad, by wounding a tree


illa perit: fatum Naidos arbor erat.Since the tree contained the Naiad’s fate.


hic furit et credens thalami procumbere tectumAttis was maddened, and thinking his chamber’s roof


effugit et cursu Dindyma summa petitWas falling, fled for the summit of Mount Dindymus.


et modo tolle faces! remove modo verbera! clamat;Now he cried: “Remove the torches”, now he cried:


saepe Palaestinas iurat adesse deas.“Take the whips away”: often swearing he saw the Furies.


ille etiam saxo corpus laniavit acutoHe tore at his body too with a sharp stone


longaque in immundo pulvere tracta coma estAnd dragged his long hair in the filthy dust


voxque fuit ‘merui! meritas do sanguine poenas.Shouting: “I deserved this! I pay the due penalty


a! pereant partes, quae nocuere mihi!In blood! Ah! Let the parts that harmed me, perish!


a! pereant’ dicebat adhuc, onus inguinis aufertLet them perish!” cutting away the burden of his groin


nullaque sunt subito signa relicta viri.And suddenly bereft of every mark of manhood.


venit in exemplum furor hic, mollesque ministriHis madness set a precedent, and his unmanly servant


caedunt iactatis vilia membra comis.’Toss their hair, and cut off their members as if worthless.’


talibus Aoniae facunda voce CamenaeSo the Aonian Muse, eloquently answering the question


reddita quaesiti causa furoris erat.I’d asked her, regarding the causes of their madness.


‘hoc quoque, dux operis, moneas, precor, unde petita‘Guide of my work, I beg you, teach me also, where She


venerit, an nostra semper in urbe fuit?’Was brought from. Was she always resident in our City?


‘Dindymon et Cybelen et amoenam fontibus Iden‘The Mother Goddess always loved Dindymus, Cybele


semper et Iliacas Mater amavit opes:And Ida, with its pleasant streams, and the Trojan realm:


cum Troiam Aeneas Italos portaret in agrosAnd when Aeneas brought Troy to Italian fields, the godde


est dea sacriferas paene secuta ratesAlmost followed those ships that carried the sacred relics.


sed nondum fatis Latio sua numina posciBut she felt that fate didn’t require her powers in Latium


senserat, adsuetis substiteratque locis.So she stayed behind in her long-accustomed place.


post, ut Roma potens opibus iam saecula quinqueLater, when Rome was more than five centuries old


vidit et edomito sustulit orbe caputAnd had lifted its head above the conquered world


carminis Euboici fatalia verba sacerdosThe priest consulted the fateful words of Euboean prophecy:


inspicit; inspectum tale fuisse ferunt:They say that what he found there was as follows:


‘mater abest: matrem iubeo, Romane, requiras.‘The Mother’s absent: Roman, I command you: seek the Mother.


cum veniet, casta est accipienda manu.When she arrives, she must be received in chaste hands.’


‘obscurae sortis patres ambagibus errantThe dark oracle’s ambiguity set the senators puzzling


quaeve parens absit, quove petenda loco.As to who that parent might be, and where to seek her.


consulitur Paean,’ divum que arcessite MatremApollo was consulted, and replied: ‘Fetch the Mother


inquit in Idaeo est invenienda iugo.Of all the Gods, who you’ll find there on Mount Ida.’


mittuntur proceres. Phrygiae tunc sceptra tenebatNoblemen were sent. Attalus at that time held


Attalus: Ausoniis rem negat ille virisThe Phrygian sceptre: he refused the Italian lords.


mira canam, longo tremuit cum murmure tellusMarvellous to tell, the earth shook with long murmurs


et sic est adytis diva locuta suis:And the goddess, from her shrine, spoke as follows:


ipsa peti volui, nec sit mora, mitte volentem.‘I myself wished them to seek me: don’t delay: send me


dignus Roma locus, quo deus omnis eat.’Willingly. Rome is a worthy place for all divinities.’


ille soni terrore pavens proficiscere, dixitQuaking with fear at her words, Attalus, said: ‘Go


nostra eris: in Phrygios Roma refertur avos.You’ll still be ours: Rome claims Phrygian ancestry.’


protinus innumerae caedunt pineta securesImmediately countless axes felled the pine-tree


illa, quibus fugiens Phryx pius usus erat:Those trees pious Aeneas employed for his flight:


mille manus coeunt, et picta coloribus ustisA thousand hands work, and the heavenly Mother


caelestum Matrem concava puppis habetSoon has a hollow ship, painted in fiery colours.


illa sui per aquas fertur tutissima natiShe’s carried in perfect safety over her son’s waves


longaque Phrixeae stagna sororis aditAnd reaches the long strait named for Phrixus’ sister


Rhoeteumque rapax Sigeaque litora transitPasses fierce Rhoetum and the Sigean shore


et Tenedum et veteres Eetionis opes.And Tenedos and Eetion’s ancient kingdom.


Cyclades excipiunt, Lesbo post terga relictaLeaving Lesbos behind she then steered for the Cyclades


quaeque Carysteis frangitur unda vadis.And the waves that break on Euboea’s Carystian shoals.


transit et Icarium, lapsas ubi perdidit alasShe passed the Icarian Sea, as well, where Icarus shed


Icarus et vastae nomina fecit aquae.His melting wings, giving his name to a vast tract of water.


tum laeva Creten, dextra Pelopeidas undasThen leaving Crete to larboard, and the Pelopian wave


deserit et Veneris sacra Cythera petitTo starboard, she headed for Cythera, sacred to Venus.


hinc mare Trinacrium, candens ubi tinguere ferrumFrom there to the Sicilian Sea, where Brontes, Sterope


Brontes et Steropes Acmonidesque solentAnd Aemonides forge their red-hot iron


aequoraque Afra legit Sardoaque regna sinistrisThen, skirting African waters, she saw the Sardinian


respicit a remis Ausoniamque tenet.Realm behind to larboard, and reached our Italy.


Ostia contigerat, qua se Tiberinus in altumShe’d arrived at the mouth (ostia) where the Tiber divide


dividit et campo liberiore natat:To meet the deep, and flows with a wider sweep:


omnis eques mixtaque gravis cum plebe senatusAll the Knights, grave Senators, and commoners


obvius ad Tusci fluminis ora venit.Came to meet her at the mouth of the Tuscan river.


procedunt pariter matres nataeque nurusqueWith them walked mothers, daughters, and brides


quaeque colunt sanctos virginitate focosAnd all those virgins who tend the sacred fires.


sedula fune viri contento brachia lassant:The men wearied their arms hauling hard on the ropes:


vix subit adversas hospita navis aquasThe foreign vessel barely made way against the stream.


sicca diu fuerat tellus, sitis usserat herbas:For a long time there’d been a drought: the grass was dry


sedit limoso pressa carina vado.And scorched: the boat stuck fast in the muddy shallows.


quisquis adest operi, plus quam pro parte laboratEvery man, hauling, laboured beyond his strength


adiuvat et fortis voce sonante manusAnd encouraged their toiling hands with his cries.


illa velut medio stabilis sedet insula ponto:Yet the ship lodged there, like an island fixed in mid-ocean:


attoniti monstro stantque paventque viri.And astonished at the portent, men stood and quaked.


Claudia Quinta genus Clauso referebat ab altoClaudia Quinta traced her descent from noble Clausus


nec facies impar nobilitate fuit:And her beauty was in no way unequal to her nobility:


casta quidem, sed non et credita: rumor iniquusShe was chaste, but not believed so: hostile rumour


laeserat, et falsi criminis acta rea est;Had wounded her, false charges were levelled at her:


cultus et ornatis varie prodisse capillisHer elegance, promenading around in various hairstyles


obfuit, ad rigidos promptaque lingua senesAnd her ready tongue, with stiff old men, counted against her.


conscia mens recti famae mendacia risitConscious of virtue, she laughed at the rumoured lies


sed nos in vitium credula turba sumusBut we’re always ready to credit others with faults.


haec ubi castarum processit ab agmine matrumNow, when she’d stepped from the line of chaste women


et manibus puram fluminis hausit aquamTaking pure river water in her hands, she wetted her head


ter caput inrorat, ter tollit in aethera palmas (Three times, three times lifted her palms to the sky


quicumque aspiciunt, mente carere putant)(Everyone watching her thought she’d lost her mind)


summissoque genu voltus in imagine divaeThen, kneeling, fixed her eyes on the goddess’s statue


figit et hos edit crine iacente sonos:And, with loosened hair, uttered these words:


‘supplicis, alma, tuae, genetrix fecunda deorum“ Kind and fruitful Mother of the Gods, accept


accipe sub certa condicione preces.A suppliant’s prayers, on this one condition:


casta negor. si tu damnas, meruisse fatebor;They deny I’m chaste: let me be guilty if you condemn me:


morte luam poenas iudice victa dea.Convicted by a goddess I’ll pay for it with my life.


sed si crimen abest, tu nostrae pignora vitaeBut if I’m free of guilt, grant a pledge of my innocence


re dabis et castas casta sequere manus.’By your action: and, chaste, give way to my chaste hands.”


dixit et exiguo funem conamine traxit (She spoke: then gave a slight pull at the rope


mira, sed et scaena testificata loquar):(A wonder, but the sacred drama attests what I say):


mota dea est sequiturque ducem laudatque sequendo:The goddess stirred, followed, and, following, approved her:


index laetitiae fertur ad astra sonusWitness the sound of jubilation carried to the stars.


fluminis ad flexum veniunt (Tiberina prioresThey came to a bend in the river (called of old


atria dixerunt), unde sinister abit.The Halls of Tiber): there the stream turns left, ascending.


nox aderat: querno religant in stipite funemNight fell: they tied the rope to an oak stump


dantque levi somno corpora functa cibo.And, having eaten, settled to a tranquil sleep.


lux aderat: querno solvunt a stipite funem;Dawn rose: they loosed the rope from the oak stump


ante tamen posito tura dedere focoAfter first laying a fire and offering incense


ante coronarunt puppem et sine labe iuvencamAnd crowned the stern, and sacrificed a heifer


mactarunt operum coniugiique rudemFree of blemish, that had never known yoke or bull.


est locus, in Tiberim qua lubricus influit AlmoThere’s a place where smooth-flowing Almo joins the Tiber


et nomen magno perdit in amne minor:And the lesser flow loses its name in the greater:


illic purpurea canus cum veste sacerdosThere, a white-headed priest in purple robe


Almonis dominam sacraque lavit aquisWashed the Lady, and sacred relics, in Almo’s water.


exululant comites, furiosaque tibia flaturThe attendants howled, and the mad flutes blew


et feriunt molles taurea terga manus.And soft hands beat at the bull’s-hide drums.


Claudia praecedit laeto celeberrima voltuClaudia walked in front with a joyful face


credita vix tandem teste pudica dea;Her chastity proven by the goddess’s testimony:


ipsa sedens plaustro porta est invecta Capena:The goddess herself, sitting in a cart, entered the Capene Gate:


sparguntur iunctae flore recente boves.Fresh flowers were scattered over the yoked oxen.


Nasica accepit, templi non perstitit auctor:Nasica received her. The name of her temple’s founder is lost:


Augustus nunc est, ante Metellus erat.’Augustus has re-dedicated it, and, before him, Metellus.’


substitit hic Erato, mora fit; sic cetera quaero:Here Erato ceased. There was a pause for me to ask more:


dic, inquam parva cur stipe quaerat opes.I said: ‘Why does the goddess collect money in small coins?’


‘contulit aes populus, de quo delubra MetellusShe said: ‘The people gave coppers, with which Metellu


fecit,’ ait dandae mos stipis inde manet.Built her shrine, so now there’s a tradition of giving them.’


cur vicibus factis ineant convivia, quaeroI asked why people entertain each other at feasts


tunc magis, indictas concelebrentque dapesAnd invite others to banquets, more than at other times.


quod bene mutant sedem Berecyntia, dixitShe said: ‘It’s because the Berecynthian goddess by good luck


captant mutatis sedibus omen idem.Changed her house, and they try for the same luck, by their visits.’


institeram, quare primi Megalesia ludiI was about to ask why the Megalesia are the first game


urbe forent nostra, cum dea (sensit enim)Of the City’s year, when the goddess (anticipating) said:


illa deos inquit ‘peperit, cessere parenti‘She gave birth to the gods. They yielded to their mother


principiumque dati Mater honoris habet.’And she was given the honour of precedence.’


‘cur igitur Gallos, qui se excidere, vocamusWhy then do we call those who castrate themselves, Galli


cum tanto a Phrygia Gallica distet humus?’When the Gallic country’s so far from Phrygia?’


inter ait ‘viridem Cybelen altasque Celaenas‘Between green Cybele and high Celaenae,’ she said


amnis it insana, nomine Gallus, aqua.‘Runs a river of maddening water, called the Gallus.


qui bibit inde, furit: procul hinc discedite, quis estWhoever drinks of it, is crazed: keep far away, all you


cura bonae mentis: qui bibit inde, furit.’Who desire a sound mind: who drinks of it is crazed.’


non pudet herbosum dixi ‘posuisse moretum‘They consider it no shame to set a dish of salad


in dominae mensis, an sua causa subest?’On the Lady’s table. What’s the reason?’ I asked.


‘lacte mero veteres usi narrantur et herbisShe replied: ‘It’s said the ancients lived on milk


sponte sua si quas terra ferebat’ ait.And on herbs that the earth produced of itself.


‘candidus elisae miscetur caseus herbaeNow they mix cream cheese with pounded herbs


cognoscat priscos ut dea prisca cibos.’ 5. G NON LVNISo the ancient goddess might know the ancient food.’


Postera cum caelo motis Pallantias astrisWhen the stars have vanished, and the Moon unyoke


fulserit, et niveos Luna levarit equosHer snowy horses, and the next dawn shines in the sky


qui dicet ‘quondam sacrata est colle QuiriniHe’ll speak true who says: ‘On this day long ago


hac Fortuna die Publica,’ verus erit.The temple of Public Fortune was dedicated on the Quirinal.’


Tertia lux (memini) ludis erat, ac mihi quidamIt was the third day of the games (I recall), and a certain


spectanti senior continuusque locoElderly man, who was sitting next to me at the show, said:


haec ait ‘illa dies, Libycis qua Caesar in oris‘This was the day when Julius Caesar crushed proud


perfida magnanimi contudit arma Iubae.Juba’s treacherous army, on the shores of Libya.


dux mihi Caesar erat, sub quo meruisse tribunusCaesar was my leader, under whom I’m proud


glorior: officio praefuit ille meo.To have been a tribune: he ordered me so to serve.


hanc ego militia sedem, tu pace parastiI won this seat in war, and you in peace


inter bis quinos usus honore viros.’Because of your role among the Decemvirs.’


plura locuturi subito seducimur imbre:We were about to speak again when a sudden shower


pendula caelestis Libra movebat aquas.Parted us: Libra balanced there shed heavenly waters.


Ante tamen, quam summa dies spectacula sistatBut before the last day completes the spectacle


ensifer Orion aequore mersus erit.Orion with his sword will have sunk in the sea.


Proxima victricem cum Romam inspexerit EosWhen the next dawn gazes on victorious Rome


et dederit Phoebo stella fugata locumAnd the fleeing stars have given way to the Sun


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

18 results
1. Varro, On The Latin Language, 6.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2. Catullus, Poems, 63 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 3.58-3.59 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.58. 1.  However, an account is handed down also that this goddess was born in Phrygia. For the natives of that country have the following myth: In ancient times Meïon became king of Phrygia and Lydia; and marrying Dindymê he begat an infant daughter, but being unwilling to rear her he exposed her on the mountain which was called Cybelus. There, in accordance with some divine providence, both the leopards and some of the other especially ferocious wild beasts offered their nipples to the child and so gave it nourishment,,2.  and some women who were tending the flocks in that place witnessed the happening, and being astonished at the strange event took up the babe and called her Cybelê after the name of the place. The child, as she grew up, excelled in both beauty and virtue and also came to be admired for her intelligence; for she was the first to devise the pipe of many reeds and to invent cymbals and kettledrums with which to accompany the games and the dance, and in addition she taught how to heal the sicknesses of both flocks and little children by means of rites of purification;,3.  in consequence, since the babes were saved from death by her spells and were generally taken up in her arms, her devotion to them and affection for them led all the people to speak of her as the "mother of the mountain." The man who associated with her and loved her more than anyone else, they say, was Marsyas the physician, who was admired for his intelligence and chastity; and a proof of his intelligence they find in the fact that he imitated the sounds made by the pipe of many reeds and carried all its notes over into the flute, and as an indication of his chastity they cite his abstinence from sexual pleasures until the day of his death.,4.  Now Cybelê, the myth records, having arrived at full womanhood, came to love a certain native youth who was known as Attis, but at a later time received the appellation Papas; with him she consorted secretly and became with child, and at about the same time her parents recognized her as their child.  Consequently she was brought up into the palace, and her father welcomed her at the outset under the impression that she was a virgin, but later, when he learned of her seduction, he put to death her nurses and Attis as well and cast their bodies forth to lie unburied; whereupon Cybelê, they say, because of her love for the youth and grief over the nurses, became frenzied and rushed out of the palace into the countryside. And crying aloud and beating upon a kettledrum she visited every country alone, with hair hanging free, and Marsyas, out of pity for her plight, voluntarily followed her and accompanied her in her wanderings because of the love which he had formerly borne her. 3.59. 2.  When they came to Dionysus in the city of Nysa they found there Apollo, who was being accorded high favour because of the lyre, which, they say, Hermes invented, though Apollo was the first to play it fittingly; and when Marsyas strove with Apollo in a contest of skill and the Nysaeans had been appointed judges, the first time Apollo played upon the lyre without accompanying it with his voice, while Marsyas, striking up upon his pipes, amazed the ears of his hearers by their strange music and in their opinion far excelled, by reason of his melody, the first contestant.,3.  But since they had agreed to take turn about in displaying their skill to the judges, Apollo, they say, added, this second time, his voice in harmony with the music of the lyre, whereby he gained greater approval than that which had formerly been accorded to the pipes. Marsyas, however, was enraged and tried to prove to the hearers that he was losing the contest in defiance of every principle of justice; for, he argued, it should be a comparison of skill and not of voice, and only by such a test was it possible to judge between the harmony and music of the lyre and of the pipes; and furthermore, it was unjust that two skills should be compared in combination against but one. Apollo, however, as the myth relates, replied that he was in no sense taking any unfair advantage of the other;,4.  in fact, when Marsyas blew into his pipes he was doing almost the same thing as himself; consequently the rule should be made either that they should both be accorded this equal privilege of combining their skills, or that neither of them should use his mouth in the contest but should display his special skill by the use only of his hands.,5.  When the hearers decided that Apollo presented the more just argument, their skills were again compared; Marsyas was defeated, and Apollo, who had become somewhat embittered by the quarrel, flayed the defeated man alive. But quickly repenting and being distressed at what he had done, he broke the strings of the lyre and destroyed the harmony of sounds which he had discovered.,6.  The harmony of the strings, however, was rediscovered, when the Muses added later the middle string, Linus the string struck with the forefinger, and Orpheus and Thamyras the lowest string and the one next to it. And Apollo, they say, laid away both the lyre and the pipes as a votive offering in the cave of Dionysus, and becoming enamoured of Cybelê joined in her wanderings as far as the land of the Hyperboreans.,7.  But, the myth goes on to say, a pestilence fell upon human beings throughout Phrygia and the land ceased to bear fruit, and when the unfortunate people inquired of the god how they might rid themselves of their ills he commanded them, it is said, to bury the body of Attis and to honour Cybelê as a goddess. Consequently the physicians, since the body had disappeared in the course of time, made an image of the youth, before which they sang dirges and by means of honours in keeping with his suffering propitiated the wrath of him who had been wronged; and these rites they continue to perform down to our own lifetime.,8.  As for Cybelê, in ancient times they erected altars and performed sacrifices to her yearly; and later they built for her a costly temple in Pisinus of Phrygia, and established honours and sacrifices of the greatest magnificence, Midas their king taking part in all these works out of his devotion to beauty; and beside the statue of the goddess they set up panthers and lions, since it was the common opinion that she had first been nursed by these animals. Such, then, are the myths which are told about Mother of the Gods both among the Phrygians and by the Atlantians who dwell on the coast of the ocean.
4. Livy, History, 22.57.2, 22.61.4, 27.37.9-27.37.10, 29.10, 29.14.5-29.14.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 2.614, 2.618, 2.620, 2.626 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 1.508 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Ovid, Fasti, 1.1-1.2, 1.7-1.8, 1.25, 3.87, 4.11-4.12, 4.95-4.162, 4.179, 4.181-4.390, 4.393-4.620, 4.623, 4.709 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. I’ll speak of divisions of time throughout the Roman year 1.2. Their origins, and the stars that set beneath the earth and rise. 1.7. Here you’ll revisit the sacred rites in the ancient texts 1.25. If it’s right and lawful, a poet, guide the poet’s reins 4.11. From ancient texts I sing the days and reasons 4.95. She created the gods (too numerous to mention): 4.96. She gave the crops and trees their first roots: 4.97. She brought the crude minds of men together 4.98. And taught them each to associate with a partner. 4.99. What but sweet pleasure creates all the race of birds? 4.100. Cattle wouldn’t mate, if gentle love were absent. 4.101. The wild ram butts the males with his horn 4.102. But won’t hurt the brow of his beloved ewe. 4.103. The bull, that the woods and pastures fear 4.104. Puts off his fierceness and follows the heifer. 4.105. The same force preserves whatever lives in the deep 4.106. And fills the waters with innumerable fish. 4.107. That force first stripped man of his wild apparel: 4.108. From it he learned refinement and elegance. 4.109. It’s said a banished lover first serenaded 4.110. His mistress by night, at her closed door 4.111. And eloquence then was the winning of a reluctant maid 4.112. And everyone pleaded his or her own cause. 4.113. A thousand arts are furthered by the goddess: and the wish 4.114. To delight has revealed many things that were hidden. 4.115. Who dares to steal her honour of naming the second month? 4.116. Let such madness be far from my thoughts. 4.117. Besides, though she’s powerful everywhere, her temple 4.118. Crowded, doesn’t she hold most sway in our City? 4.119. Venus, Roman, carried weapons to defend your Troy 4.120. And groaned at the spear wound in her gentle hand: 4.121. And she defeated two goddesses, by a Trojan judgement 4.122. (Ah! If only they hadn’t remembered her victory!) 4.123. And she was called the bride of Assaracus’s son 4.124. So that mighty Caesar would have Julian ancestors. 4.125. No season is more fitting for Venus than Spring: 4.126. In spring the earth gleams: in spring the ground’s soft 4.127. Now the grass pokes its tips through the broken soil 4.128. Now the vine bursts in buds through the swollen bark. 4.129. And lovely Venus deserves the lovely season 4.130. And is joined again to her darling Mars: 4.131. In Spring she tells the curving ships to sail, over 4.132. Her native seas, and fear the winter’s threat no longer. 4.133. Perform the rites of the goddess, Roman brides and mothers 4.134. And you who must not wear the headbands and long robes. 4.135. Remove the golden necklaces from her marble neck 4.136. Remove her riches: the goddess must be cleansed, complete. 4.137. Return the gold necklaces to her neck, once it’s dry: 4.138. Now she’s given fresh flowers, and new-sprung roses. 4.139. She commands you too to bathe, under the green myrtle 4.140. And there’s a particular reason for her command (learn, now!). 4.141. Naked, on the shore, she was drying her dripping hair: 4.142. The Satyrs, that wanton crowd, spied the goddess. 4.143. She sensed it, and hid her body with a screen of myrtle: 4.144. Doing so, she was safe: she commands that you do so too. 4.145. Learn now why you offer incense to Fortuna Virilis 4.146. In that place that steams with heated water. 4.147. All women remove their clothes on entering 4.148. And every blemish on their bodies is seen: 4.149. Virile Fortune undertakes to hide those from the men 4.150. And she does this at the behest of a little incense. 4.151. Don’t begrudge her poppies, crushed in creamy milk 4.152. And in flowing honey, squeezed from the comb: 4.153. When Venus was first led to her eager spouse 4.154. She drank so: and from that moment was a bride. 4.155. Please her with words of supplication: beauty 4.156. Virtue, and good repute are in her keeping. 4.157. In our forefather’s time Rome lapsed from chastity: 4.158. And the ancients consulted the old woman of Cumae. 4.159. She ordered a temple built to Venus: when it was done 4.160. Venus took the name of Heart-Changer (Verticordia). 4.161. Loveliest One, always look with a benign gaze 4.162. On the sons of Aeneas, and guard their many wives. 4.179. Let the sky turn three times on its axis 4.181. And the Berecyntian flute will begin sounding 4.182. Its curved horn, it will be the Idaean Mother’s feast. 4.183. Eunuchs will march, and sound the hollow drums 4.184. And cymbal will clash with cymbal, in ringing tones: 4.185. Seated on the soft necks of her servants, she’ll be carried 4.186. With howling, through the midst of the City streets. 4.187. The stage is set: the games are calling. Watch, then 4.188. Quirites, and let those legal wars in the fora cease. 4.189. I’d like to ask many things, but I’m made fearful 4.190. By shrill clash of bronze, and curved flute’s dreadful drone. 4.191. ‘Lend me someone to ask, goddess.’ Cybele spying her learned 4.192. Granddaughters, the Muses, ordered them to take care of me. 4.193. ‘Nurslings of Helicon, mindful of her orders, reveal 4.194. Why the Great Goddess delights in continual din.’ 4.195. So I spoke. And Erato replied (it fell to her to speak about 4.196. Venus’ month, because her name derives from tender love): 4.197. ‘Saturn was granted this prophecy: “Noblest of kings 4.198. You’ll be ousted by your own son’s sceptre.” 4.199. The god, fearful, devoured his children as soon a 4.200. Born, and then retained them deep in his guts. 4.201. often Rhea (Cybele) complained, at being so often pregt 4.202. Yet never a mother, and grieved at her own fruitfulness. 4.203. Then Jupiter was born (ancient testimony is credited 4.204. By most: so please don’t disturb the accepted belief): 4.205. A stone, concealed in clothing, went down Saturn’s throat 4.206. So the great progenitor was deceived by the fates. 4.207. Now steep Ida echoed to a jingling music 4.208. So the child might cry from its infant mouth, in safety. 4.209. Some beat shields with sticks, others empty helmets: 4.210. That was the Curetes’ and the Corybantes’ task. 4.211. The thing was hidden, and the ancient deed’s still acted out: 4.212. The goddess’s servants strike the bronze and sounding skins. 4.213. They beat cymbals for helmets, drums instead of shields: 4.214. The flute plays, as long ago, in the Phrygian mode.’ 4.215. The goddess ceased. I began: ‘Why do fierce lion 4.216. Yield untamed necks to the curving yoke for her?’ 4.217. I ceased. The goddess began: ‘It’s thought their ferocity 4.218. Was first tamed by her: the testament to it’s her chariot.’ 4.219. ‘But why is her head weighed down by a turreted crown? 4.220. Is it because she granted towers to the first cities?’ 4.221. She nodded. I said ‘Where did this urge to cut off 4.222. Their members come from?’ As I ended, the Muse spoke: 4.223. ‘In the woods, a Phrygian boy, Attis, of handsome face 4.224. Won the tower-bearing goddess with his chaste passion. 4.225. She desired him to serve her, and protect her temple 4.226. And said: “Wish, you might be a boy for ever.” 4.227. He promised to be true, and said: “If I’m lying 4.228. May the love I fail in be my last love.” 4.229. He did fail, and in meeting the nymph Sagaritis 4.230. Abandoned what he was: the goddess, angered, avenged it. 4.231. She destroyed the Naiad, by wounding a tree 4.232. Since the tree contained the Naiad’s fate. 4.233. Attis was maddened, and thinking his chamber’s roof 4.234. Was falling, fled for the summit of Mount Dindymus. 4.235. Now he cried: “Remove the torches”, now he cried: 4.236. “Take the whips away”: often swearing he saw the Furies. 4.237. He tore at his body too with a sharp stone 4.238. And dragged his long hair in the filthy dust 4.239. Shouting: “I deserved this! I pay the due penalty 4.240. In blood! Ah! Let the parts that harmed me, perish! 4.241. Let them perish!” cutting away the burden of his groin 4.242. And suddenly bereft of every mark of manhood. 4.243. His madness set a precedent, and his unmanly servant 4.244. Toss their hair, and cut off their members as if worthless.’ 4.245. So the Aonian Muse, eloquently answering the question 4.246. I’d asked her, regarding the causes of their madness. 4.247. ‘Guide of my work, I beg you, teach me also, where She 4.248. Was brought from. Was she always resident in our City? 4.249. ‘The Mother Goddess always loved Dindymus, Cybele 4.250. And Ida, with its pleasant streams, and the Trojan realm: 4.251. And when Aeneas brought Troy to Italian fields, the godde 4.252. Almost followed those ships that carried the sacred relics. 4.253. But she felt that fate didn’t require her powers in Latium 4.254. So she stayed behind in her long-accustomed place. 4.255. Later, when Rome was more than five centuries old 4.256. And had lifted its head above the conquered world 4.257. The priest consulted the fateful words of Euboean prophecy: 4.258. They say that what he found there was as follows: 4.259. ‘The Mother’s absent: Roman, I command you: seek the Mother. 4.260. When she arrives, she must be received in chaste hands.’ 4.261. The dark oracle’s ambiguity set the senators puzzling 4.262. As to who that parent might be, and where to seek her. 4.263. Apollo was consulted, and replied: ‘Fetch the Mother 4.264. of all the Gods, who you’ll find there on Mount Ida.’ 4.265. Noblemen were sent. Attalus at that time held 4.266. The Phrygian sceptre: he refused the Italian lords. 4.267. Marvellous to tell, the earth shook with long murmurs 4.268. And the goddess, from her shrine, spoke as follows: 4.269. ‘I myself wished them to seek me: don’t delay: send me 4.270. Willingly. Rome is a worthy place for all divinities.’ 4.271. Quaking with fear at her words, Attalus, said: ‘Go 4.272. You’ll still be ours: Rome claims Phrygian ancestry.’ 4.273. Immediately countless axes felled the pine-tree 4.274. Those trees pious Aeneas employed for his flight: 4.275. A thousand hands work, and the heavenly Mother 4.276. Soon has a hollow ship, painted in fiery colours. 4.277. She’s carried in perfect safety over her son’s waves 4.278. And reaches the long strait named for Phrixus’ sister 4.279. Passes fierce Rhoetum and the Sigean shore 4.280. And Tenedos and Eetion’s ancient kingdom. 4.281. Leaving Lesbos behind she then steered for the Cyclades 4.282. And the waves that break on Euboea’s Carystian shoals. 4.283. She passed the Icarian Sea, as well, where Icarus shed 4.284. His melting wings, giving his name to a vast tract of water. 4.285. Then leaving Crete to larboard, and the Pelopian wave 4.286. To starboard, she headed for Cythera, sacred to Venus. 4.287. From there to the Sicilian Sea, where Brontes, Sterope 4.288. And Aemonides forge their red-hot iron 4.289. Then, skirting African waters, she saw the Sardinian 4.290. Realm behind to larboard, and reached our Italy. 4.291. She’d arrived at the mouth (ostia) where the Tiber divide 4.292. To meet the deep, and flows with a wider sweep: 4.293. All the Knights, grave Senators, and commoners 4.294. Came to meet her at the mouth of the Tuscan river. 4.295. With them walked mothers, daughters, and brides 4.296. And all those virgins who tend the sacred fires. 4.297. The men wearied their arms hauling hard on the ropes: 4.298. The foreign vessel barely made way against the stream. 4.299. For a long time there’d been a drought: the grass was dry 4.300. And scorched: the boat stuck fast in the muddy shallows. 4.301. Every man, hauling, laboured beyond his strength 4.302. And encouraged their toiling hands with his cries. 4.303. Yet the ship lodged there, like an island fixed in mid-ocean: 4.304. And astonished at the portent, men stood and quaked. 4.305. Claudia Quinta traced her descent from noble Clausus 4.306. And her beauty was in no way unequal to her nobility: 4.307. She was chaste, but not believed so: hostile rumour 4.308. Had wounded her, false charges were levelled at her: 4.309. Her elegance, promenading around in various hairstyles 4.310. And her ready tongue, with stiff old men, counted against her. 4.311. Conscious of virtue, she laughed at the rumoured lies 4.312. But we’re always ready to credit others with faults. 4.313. Now, when she’d stepped from the line of chaste women 4.314. Taking pure river water in her hands, she wetted her head 4.315. Three times, three times lifted her palms to the sky 4.316. (Everyone watching her thought she’d lost her mind) 4.317. Then, kneeling, fixed her eyes on the goddess’s statue 4.318. And, with loosened hair, uttered these words: 4.319. “ Kind and fruitful Mother of the Gods, accept 4.320. A suppliant’s prayers, on this one condition: 4.321. They deny I’m chaste: let me be guilty if you condemn me: 4.322. Convicted by a goddess I’ll pay for it with my life. 4.323. But if I’m free of guilt, grant a pledge of my innocence 4.324. By your action: and, chaste, give way to my chaste hands.” 4.325. She spoke: then gave a slight pull at the rope 4.326. (A wonder, but the sacred drama attests what I say): 4.327. The goddess stirred, followed, and, following, approved her: 4.328. Witness the sound of jubilation carried to the stars. 4.329. They came to a bend in the river (called of old 4.330. The Halls of Tiber): there the stream turns left, ascending. 4.331. Night fell: they tied the rope to an oak stump 4.332. And, having eaten, settled to a tranquil sleep. 4.333. Dawn rose: they loosed the rope from the oak stump 4.334. After first laying a fire and offering incense 4.335. And crowned the stern, and sacrificed a heifer 4.336. Free of blemish, that had never known yoke or bull. 4.337. There’s a place where smooth-flowing Almo joins the Tiber 4.338. And the lesser flow loses its name in the greater: 4.339. There, a white-headed priest in purple robe 4.340. Washed the Lady, and sacred relics, in Almo’s water. 4.341. The attendants howled, and the mad flutes blew 4.342. And soft hands beat at the bull’s-hide drums. 4.343. Claudia walked in front with a joyful face 4.344. Her chastity proven by the goddess’s testimony: 4.345. The goddess herself, sitting in a cart, entered the Capene Gate: 4.346. Fresh flowers were scattered over the yoked oxen. 4.347. Nasica received her. The name of her temple’s founder is lost: 4.348. Augustus has re-dedicated it, and, before him, Metellus.’ 4.349. Here Erato ceased. There was a pause for me to ask more: 4.350. I said: ‘Why does the goddess collect money in small coins?’ 4.351. She said: ‘The people gave coppers, with which Metellu 4.352. Built her shrine, so now there’s a tradition of giving them.’ 4.353. I asked why people entertain each other at feasts 4.354. And invite others to banquets, more than at other times. 4.355. She said: ‘It’s because the Berecynthian goddess by good luck 4.356. Changed her house, and they try for the same luck, by their visits.’ 4.357. I was about to ask why the Megalesia are the first game 4.358. of the City’s year, when the goddess (anticipating) said: 4.359. ‘She gave birth to the gods. They yielded to their mother 4.360. And she was given the honour of precedence.’ 4.361. Why then do we call those who castrate themselves, Galli 4.362. When the Gallic country’s so far from Phrygia?’ 4.363. ‘Between green Cybele and high Celaenae,’ she said 4.364. ‘Runs a river of maddening water, called the Gallus. 4.365. Whoever drinks of it, is crazed: keep far away, all you 4.366. Who desire a sound mind: who drinks of it is crazed.’ 4.367. ‘They consider it no shame to set a dish of salad 4.368. On the Lady’s table. What’s the reason?’ I asked. 4.369. She replied: ‘It’s said the ancients lived on milk 4.370. And on herbs that the earth produced of itself. 4.371. Now they mix cream cheese with pounded herbs 4.372. So the ancient goddess might know the ancient food.’ 4.373. When the stars have vanished, and the Moon unyoke 4.374. Her snowy horses, and the next dawn shines in the sky 4.375. He’ll speak true who says: ‘On this day long ago 4.376. The temple of Public Fortune was dedicated on the Quirinal.’ 4.377. It was the third day of the games (I recall), and a certain 4.378. Elderly man, who was sitting next to me at the show, said: 4.379. ‘This was the day when Julius Caesar crushed proud 4.380. Juba’s treacherous army, on the shores of Libya. 4.381. Caesar was my leader, under whom I’m proud 4.382. To have been a tribune: he ordered me so to serve. 4.383. I won this seat in war, and you in peace 4.384. Because of your role among the Decemvirs.’ 4.385. We were about to speak again when a sudden shower 4.386. Parted us: Libra balanced there shed heavenly waters. 4.387. But before the last day completes the spectacle 4.388. Orion with his sword will have sunk in the sea. 4.389. When the next dawn gazes on victorious Rome 4.390. And the fleeing stars have given way to the Sun 4.393. Next, the Games of Ceres, there’s no need to say why: 4.413. You girded attendants lift those knives from the ox: 4.414. Let the ox plough, while you sacrifice the lazy sow 4.415. It’s not fitting for an axe to strike a neck that’s yoked: 4.416. Let the ox live, and toil through the stubborn soil. 4.423. Cool Arethusa gathered together the mothers of the gods: 4.424. And the yellow-haired goddess came to the sacred feast. 4.437. One picked marigolds: another loved violets 4.438. And one nipped the poppy-heads with her nails: 4.439. Some you tempt, hyacinth: others, amaranth, you delay: 4.440. Others desire thyme, cornflowers or clover. 4.445. Dis, her uncle saw her, and swiftly carried her off 4.448. Carried away!’ and tore at the breast of her robe: 4.457. She rushed about, distracted, as we’ve heard 4.458. The Thracian Maenads run with flowing hair. 4.516. And begged her to shelter under his insignificant roof. 4.517. She refused. She was disguised as an old woman, her hair 4.518. Covered with a cap. When he urged her she replied: 4.521. She spoke, and a crystal drop (though goddesses cannot weep) 4.584. Is married to Jupiter’s brother, and rules the third realm.’ 4.619. White is fitting for Ceres: dress in white clothes for Ceres’ 4.620. Festival: on this day no one wears dark-coloured thread.
8. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 4.28-4.30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Vergil, Aeneis, 6.784 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.784. Their brothers, or maltreated their gray sires
10. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 7.120 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Silius Italicus, Punica, 17.3, 17.23-17.25, 17.33-17.35 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds And Sayings, 8.15.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 8.24.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Lucian, Asinus, 36 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Lucian, The Syrian Goddess, 27 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Meantime the custom once adopted remains even today, and many persons every year castrate themselves and lose their virile powers: whether it be out of sympathy with Combabus, or to find favour with Hera. They certainly castrate themselves, and then cease to wear man's garb; they don women's raiment and perform women's tasks. I have heard the origin of this ascribed to Combabus as well, for the following event occurred to him. A certain foreign woman who had joined a sacred assembly, beholding a human form of extreme beauty and dressed in man's attire, became violently enamoured of him: after discovering that he was unsexed, she took away her life. Combabus accordingly in despair at his incapacity for love, donned woman's attire, that no woman in future might be deceived in the same way. This is the reason of the female attire of the Galli. Enough of Combabus and his story: in the course of my story I shall make mention of the Galli, and of their castration, and of the methods employed to effect it, and of the burial rites wherewith they are buried, and the reasons why they have no ingress to the temple; but before this I am inclined to speak of the site of the temple and of its size: and so I will even speak.
16. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7.17.9-7.17.12 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.17.9. The people of Dyme have a temple of Athena with an extremely ancient image; they have as well a sanctuary built for the Dindymenian mother and Attis. As to Attis, I could learn no secret about him, Or, with the proposed addition of ὄν : “Who Attis was I could not discover, as it is a religious secret.” but Hermesianax, the elegiac poet, says in a poem that he was the son of Galaus the Phrygian, and that he was a eunuch from birth. The account of Hermesianax goes on to say that, on growing up, Attis migrated to Lydia and celebrated for the Lydians the orgies of the Mother; that he rose to such honor with her that Zeus, being wroth at it, Or, reading αὐτοῖς and Ἄττῃ : “honor with them that Zeus, being wroth with him, sent, etc.” sent a boar to destroy the tillage of the Lydians. 7.17.10. Then certain Lydians, with Attis himself, were killed by the boar, and it is consistent with this that the Gauls who inhabit Pessinus abstain from pork. But the current view about Attis is different, the local legend about him being this. Zeus, it is said, let fall in his sleep seed upon the ground, which in course of time sent up a demon, with two sexual organs, male and female. They call the demon Agdistis. But the gods, fearing With δήσαντες the meaning is: “bound Agdistis and cut off.” Agdistis, cut off the male organ. 7.17.11. There grew up from it an almond-tree with its fruit ripe, and a daughter of the river Sangarius, they say, took of the fruit and laid it in her bosom, when it at once disappeared, but she was with child. A boy was born, and exposed, but was tended by a he-goat. As he grew up his beauty was more than human, and Agdistis fell in love with him. When he had grown up, Attis was sent by his relatives to Pessinus, that he might wed the king's daughter. 7.17.12. The marriage-song was being sung, when Agdistis appeared, and Attis went mad and cut off his genitals, as also did he who was giving him his daughter in marriage. But Agdistis repented of what he had done to Attis, and persuaded Zeus to grant that the body of Attis should neither rot at all nor decay.
17. Arnobius, Against The Gentiles, 5.5-5.7 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

18. Epigraphy, Ogis, 458



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(mithraic) Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 284
aetiology, origins, causae Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
agdistis Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
agonistic spirit, votive games Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
animals, donkey Gazzarri and Weiner, Searching for the Cinaedus in Ancient Rome (2023) 202
astronomy, stars Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
attis Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
berecynthus, mount Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 263
biography Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
borgeaud, philippe Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
calendar Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
callimachus Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
catullus Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 263
ceres, and magna mater Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 160
chastity Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
croesus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
cult images Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
curetes Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 263
cybele Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
cyrus the great Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
dea syria (atargatis) Gazzarri and Weiner, Searching for the Cinaedus in Ancient Rome (2023) 202
dedicatory epigrams, gifts to the gods Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
deification, ascent to heavens Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
effeminacy Gazzarri and Weiner, Searching for the Cinaedus in Ancient Rome (2023) 202
emotions Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
epiphany, of romulus-quirinus Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
eros (sexual desire), of barbarians Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 408
euhemerus, euhemeristic Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
fabius pictor Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 58
family, matrona Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
festivals, ludi saeculares Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
festivals Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
food, ritual for magna mater Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 160
gallos / gallus / galloi / galli Gazzarri and Weiner, Searching for the Cinaedus in Ancient Rome (2023) 202
gauls Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 58
gender, and greed Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 58
greed and bribery and acquisitiveness Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 58
gyges Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
hannibal Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 58
hesiod Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
homer Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
ida, mount Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 263
imperial family Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
individual Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
juno regina, veii Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
jupiter Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 263
kybebe Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
kybele Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
lampon Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
livy Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
lucretius Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 260, 263
lydia and lydians, dominion of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
magna mater, and ceres Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 160
magna mater Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
matar kubeleya Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
mater magna Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 284; Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 260, 263
megale(n)sia Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 284
megalesia Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 260
mermnads Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
mother of the gods, and persians Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
mother of the gods, and tyranny Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
mother of the gods, as lydian kybebe Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
mother of the gods, as phrygian matar Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
mother of the gods, multiple identities of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
mother of the gods, myths of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
muse, muses Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
music Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 260, 263
musical instruments, cymbal Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 260, 263
musical instruments, drums/tympanum Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 260, 263
musical instruments, in the metroac cult Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 260, 263
musical instruments, phrygian flute Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 260, 263
mutilation, sexual' Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 408
oracles Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
ostia Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
ovid, amores Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 263
ovid, fasti Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 260, 263
ovid Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 263; Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 58
performance, ritual Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
performance Gazzarri and Weiner, Searching for the Cinaedus in Ancient Rome (2023) 202
phrygia Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 263
phrygia and phrygians, dominion of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
politics and religion, census Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
politics and religion Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
prayers Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
priesthood Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
procession Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 260, 263
purity Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
rituals, ceremony Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
rituals, evocatio Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
rituals Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
robertson, noel Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
rome Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 260; Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
rome and romans Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
romulus, deified, quirinus Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
romulus Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
salii, carmen saliare Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
self-fashioning Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
senses, as divine presence Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 263
senses, in processions Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 260, 263
senses, in the metroac cult Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 260, 263
senses, of the divine/religious Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 263
senses, silius italicus Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 263
senses, soundscape Nuno et al., SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism (2021) 260
sexuality, perverse / deviant Gazzarri and Weiner, Searching for the Cinaedus in Ancient Rome (2023) 202
slave Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 284
soldiers Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
sovereignty, concept of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
temple Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
tiber Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
tyranny, associated with lydia Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
vates, inspired poet Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 133
vermaseren, maarten j. Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 4
vestal virgin, punishing of Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 58
voice / mannerisms of speech Gazzarri and Weiner, Searching for the Cinaedus in Ancient Rome (2023) 202
votive games Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 144
women and girls, agency of Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 58
women and girls, and greed Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 58
women and girls, and religion Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 58
women and girls, and wealth/power Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 58
women and girls, as benefit to men Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 58
women and girls Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 58