Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8585
Ovid, Fasti, 1.261-1.262


utque levis custos armillis capta SabinosAnd how the treacherous keeper, Tarpeia, bribed with bracelets


ad summae tacitos duxerit arcis iter.Led the silent Sabines to the heights of the citadel.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Cicero, Letters, 1.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2. Cicero, Letters, 1.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Cicero, Letters, 1.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Cicero, Letters, 1.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 4.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.62. 1.  It is said that during the reign of Tarquinius another very wonderful piece of good luck also came to the Roman state, conferred upon it by the favour of some god or other divinity; and this good fortune was not of short duration, but throughout the whole existence of the country it has often saved it from great calamities.,2.  A certain woman who was not a native of the country came to the tyrant wishing to sell him nine books filled with Sibylline oracles; but when Tarquinius refused to purchase the books at the price she asked, she went away and burned three of them. And not long afterwards, bringing the remaining six books, she offered to sell them for the same price. But when they thought her a fool and mocked at her for asking the same price for the smaller number of books that she had been unable to get for even the larger number, she again went away and burned half of those that were left; then, bringing the remaining books, she asked the same amount of money for these.,3.  Tarquinius, wondering at the woman's purpose, sent for the augurs and acquainting them with the matter, asked them what he should do. These, knowing by certain signs that he had rejected a god-sent blessing, and declaring it to be a great misfortune that he had not purchased all the books, directed him to pay the woman all the money she asked and to get the oracles that were left.,4.  The woman, after delivering the books and bidding him take great care of them, disappeared from among men. Tarquinius chose two men of distinction from among the citizens and appointing two public slaves to assist them, entrusted to them the guarding of the books; and when one of these men, named Marcus Atilius, seemed to have been faithless to his trust and was informed upon by one of the public slaves, he ordered him to be sewed up in a leather bag and thrown into the sea as a parricide.,5.  Since the expulsion of the kings, the commonwealth, taking upon itself the guarding of these oracles, entrusts the care of them to persons of the greatest distinction, who hold this office for life, being exempt from military service and from all civil employments, and it assigns public slaves to assist them, in whose absence the others are not permitted to inspect the oracles. In short, there is no possession of the Romans, sacred or profane, which they guard so carefully as they do the Sibylline oracles. They consult them, by order of the senate, when the state is in the grip of party strife or some great misfortune has happened to them in war, or some important prodigies and apparitions have been seen which are difficult of interpretation, as has often happened. These oracles till the time of the Marsian War, as it was called, were kept underground in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in a stone chest under the guard of ten men.,6.  But when the temple was burned after the close of the one hundred and seventy-third Olympiad, either purposely, as some think, or by accident, these oracles together with all the offerings consecrated to the god were destroyed by the fire. Those which are now extant have been scraped together from many places, some from the cities of Italy, others from Erythrae in Asia (whither three envoys were sent by vote of the senate to copy them), and others were brought from other cities, transcribed by private persons. Some of these are found to be interpolations among the genuine Sibylline oracles, being recognized as such by means of the so‑called acrostics. In all this I am following the account given by Terentius Varro in his work on religion.
6. Livy, History, 1.11.6-1.11.9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 5.432-5.445, 5.454, 5.463, 5.490-5.491 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Ovid, Fasti, 1.1-1.260, 1.262-1.290, 1.293-1.310, 1.315-1.334, 1.629-1.630, 2.21, 4.19-4.60, 4.79-4.84, 4.94, 4.123-4.124, 5.1-5.110, 6.1-6.2, 6.26, 6.88, 6.91-6.92, 6.96 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. I’ll speak of divisions of time throughout the Roman year 1.2. Their origins, and the stars that set beneath the earth and rise. 1.4. And direct the voyage of my uncertain vessel: 1.6. Receiving with favour the homage I pay you. 1.7. Here you’ll revisit the sacred rites in the ancient texts 1.9. And here you’ll find the festivals of your House 1.10. And see your father’s and your grandfather’s name: 1.14. And those days that he added to the sacred rites. 1.17. Be kind to me, and you’ll empower my verse: 1.18. My wit will stand or fall by your glance. 1.19. My page trembles, judged by a learned prince 1.20. As if it were being read by Clarian Apollo. 1.25. If it’s right and lawful, a poet, guide the poet’s reins 1.27. When Rome’s founder established the calendar 1.28. He determined there’d be ten months in every year. 1.29. You knew more about swords than stars, Romulus, surely 1.30. Since conquering neighbours was your chief concern. 1.31. Yet there’s a logic that might have possessed him 1.32. Caesar, and that might well justify his error. 1.33. He held that the time it takes for a mother’s womb 1.34. To produce a child, was sufficient for his year. 1.35. For as many months also, after her husband’s funeral 1.36. A widow maintains signs of mourning in her house. 1.37. So Quirinus in his ceremonial robes had that in view 1.38. When he decreed his year to an unsophisticated people. 1.39. Mars’ month, March, was the first, and Venus’ April second: 1.40. She was the mother of the race, and he its father. 1.41. The third month May took its name from the old (maiores) 1.42. The fourth, June, from the young (iuvenes), the rest were numbered. 1.43. But Numa did not neglect Janus and the ancestral shades 1.44. And therefore added two months to the ancient ten. 1.45. Yet lest you’re unaware of the laws of the various days 1.46. Know Dawn doesn’t always bring the same observances. 1.47. Those days are unlawful (nefastus) when the praetor’s three word 1.48. May not be spoken, lawful (fastus) when law may be enacted. 1.49. But don’t assume each day maintains its character throughout: 1.50. What’s now a lawful day may have been unlawful at dawn: 1.51. Since once the sacrifice has been offered, all is acceptable 1.52. And the honoured praetor is then allowed free speech. 1.53. There are those days, comitiales, when the people vote: 1.54. And the market days that always recur in a nine-day cycle. 1.56. While a larger white ewe-lamb falls to Jupiter on the Ides: 1.57. The Nones though lack a tutelary god. After all these days 1.63. See how Janus appears first in my song 1.64. To announce a happy year for you, Germanicus. 1.67. Be favourable to the leaders, whose labours win 1.69. Be favourable to the senate and Roman people 1.71. A prosperous day dawns: favour our thoughts and speech! 1.72. Let auspicious words be said on this auspicious day. 1.73. Let our ears be free of lawsuits then, and banish 1.74. Mad disputes now: you, malicious tongues, cease wagging! 1.75. See how the air shines with fragrant fire 1.76. And Cilician grains crackle on lit hearths! 1.77. The flame beats brightly on the temple’s gold 1.78. And spreads a flickering light on the shrine’s roof. 1.79. Spotless garments make their way to Tarpeian Heights 1.80. And the crowd wear the colours of the festival: 1.81. Now the new rods and axes lead, new purple glows 1.82. And the distinctive ivory chair feels fresh weight. 1.83. Heifers that grazed the grass on Faliscan plains 1.84. Unbroken to the yoke, bow their necks to the axe. 1.85. When Jupiter watches the whole world from his hill 1.86. Everything that he sees belongs to Rome. 1.87. Hail, day of joy, and return forever, happier still 1.88. Worthy to be cherished by a race that rules the world. 1.102. Over the days, and remember my speech. 1.103. The ancients called me Chaos (since I am of the first world): 1.105. The clear air, and the three other elements 1.106. Fire, water, earth, were heaped together as one. 1.107. When, through the discord of its components 1.108. The mass dissolved, and scattered to new regions 1.109. Flame found the heights: air took a lower place 1.110. While earth and sea sank to the furthest depth. 1.111. Then I, who was a shapeless mass, a ball 1.112. Took on the appearance, and noble limbs of a god. 1.113. Even now, a small sign of my once confused state 1.114. My front and back appear just the same. 1.117. Whatever you see: sky, sea, clouds, earth 1.118. All things are begun and ended by my hand. 1.119. Care of the vast world is in my hands alone 1.120. And mine the goverce of the turning pole. 1.121. When I choose to send Peace, from tranquil houses 1.122. Freely she walks the roads, and ceaselessly: 1.123. The whole world would drown in bloodstained slaughter 1.124. If rigid barriers failed to hold war in check. 1.129. With salt: on his sacrificial lips I’m Patulcius 1.130. And then again I’m called Clusius. 1.135. Every doorway has two sides, this way and that 1.136. One facing the crowds, and the other the Lares: 1.141. You see Hecate’s faces turned in three directions 1.171. Next I said: ‘Why, while I placate other gods, Janus 1.172. Do I bring the wine and incense first to you?’ 1.173. He replied: ‘So that through me, who guard the threshold 1.174. You can have access to whichever god you please.’ 1.181. When the temples and ears of the gods are open 1.209. But ever since Fortune, here, has raised her head 1.210. And Rome has brushed the heavens with her brow 1.223. We too delight in golden temples, however much 1.224. We approve the antique: such splendour suits a god. 1.225. We praise the past, but experience our own times: 1.226. Yet both are ways worthy of being cultivated.’ 1.229. ‘Indeed I’ve learned much: but why is there a ship’s figure 1.230. On one side of the copper as, a twin shape on the other?’ 1.231. ‘You might have recognised me in the double-image’ 1.232. He said, ‘if length of days had not worn the coin away. 1.233. The reason for the ship is that the god of the sickle 1.234. Wandering the globe, by ship, reached the Tuscan river. 1.235. I remember how Saturn was welcomed in this land: 1.236. Driven by Jupiter from the celestial regions. 1.243. Here, where Rome is now, uncut forest thrived 1.244. And all this was pasture for scattered cattle. 1.249. Justice had not yet fled from human sin 1.250. (She was the last deity to leave the earth) 1.251. Shame without force, instead of fear, ruled the people 1.260. He at once retold the warlike acts of Oebalian Tatius 1.262. Led the silent Sabines to the heights of the citadel. 1.277. ‘But why hide in peace, and open your gates in war?’ 1.278. He swiftly gave me the answer that I sought: 1.279. ‘My unbarred gate stands open wide, so that when 1.280. The people go to war the return path’s open too.’ 1.281. I bar it in peacetime so peace cannot depart: 1.282. And by Caesar’s will I shall be long closed.’ 1.283. He spoke, and raising his eyes that looked both ways 1.284. He surveyed whatever existed in the whole world. 1.285. There was peace, and already a cause of triumph, Germanicus 1.286. The Rhine had yielded her waters up in submission to you. 1.287. Janus, make peace and the agents of peace eternal 1.288. And grant the author may never abandon his work. 1.289. Now for what I’ve learned from the calendar itself: 1.290. The senate dedicated two temples on this day. 1.295. What prevents me speaking of the stars, and their rising 1.296. And setting? That was a part of what I’ve promised. 1.297. Happy minds that first took the trouble to consider 1.298. These things, and to climb to the celestial regions! 1.299. We can be certain that they raised their head 1.300. Above the failings and the homes of men, alike. 1.301. Neither wine nor lust destroyed their noble natures 1.302. Nor public business nor military service: 1.303. They were not seduced by trivial ambitions 1.304. Illusions of bright glory, nor hunger for great wealth. 1.305. They brought the distant stars within our vision 1.306. And subjected the heavens to their genius. 1.307. So we reach the sky: there’s no need for Ossa to be piled 1.308. On Olympus, or Pelion’s summit touch the highest stars. 1.309. Following these masters I too will measure out the skies 1.310. And attribute the wheeling signs to their proper dates. 1.315. Should the Nones be here, rain from dark cloud 1.316. Will be the sign, at the rising of the Lyre. 1.317. Add four successive days to the Nones and Janu 1.318. Must be propitiated on the Agonal day. 1.319. The day may take its name from the girded priest 1.320. At whose blow the god’s sacrifice is felled: 1.321. Always, before he stains the naked blade with hot blood 1.322. He asks if he should (agatne), and won’t unless commanded. 1.323. Some believe that the day is called Agonal because 1.324. The sheep do not come to the altar but are driven (agantur). 1.325. Others think the ancients called this festival Agnalia 1.326. ‘of the lambs’, dropping a letter from its usual place. 1.327. Or because the victim fears the knife mirrored in the water 1.328. The day might be so called from the creature’s agony? 1.329. It may also be that the day has a Greek name 1.330. From the games (agones) that were held in former times. 1.331. And in ancient speech agonia meant a sheep 1.332. And this last reason in my judgement is the truth. 1.333. Though the meaning is uncertain, the king of the rites 1.334. Must appease the gods with the mate of a woolly ewe. 1.629. Lest the pure hearths are defiled by sacrifice. 1.630. If you love ancient ritual, listen to the prayers 2.21. The high priests ask the King and the Flamen 4.23. When Romulus established the length of the year 4.24. He recognised this, and commemorated your sires: 4.25. And as he granted first place among months to fierce Mars 4.26. Being the immediate cause of his own existence 4.27. So he granted the second month to Venus 4.28. Tracing his descent from her through many generations: 4.29. Searching for the roots of his race, unwinding the roll 4.30. of the centuries, he came at last to his divine kin. 4.31. He couldn’t be ignorant that Electra daughter of Atla 4.32. Bore Dardanus, that Electra had slept with Jove. 4.33. From Dardanus came Ericthonius, and from himTros: 4.34. He in turn produced Assaracus, and Assaracus Capys. 4.35. Next was Anchises, with whom Venu 4.36. Didn’t disdain to share the name of parent. 4.37. From them came Aeneas, whose piety was seen, carrying 4.38. Holy things, and a father as holy, on his shoulders, through the fire. 4.39. Now at last we come to the fortunate name of Iulus 4.40. Through whom the Julian house claims Teucrian ancestors. 4.41. Postumus was his, called Silvius among the Latin 4.42. Race, being born in the depth of the woods. 4.43. He was your father, Latinus. Alba followed Latinus: 4.44. Epytus was next to take your titles Alba. 4.45. Epytus gave his son Capys a Trojan name 4.46. And the same was your grandfather Calpetus. 4.47. When Tiberinus ruled his father’s kingdom after him 4.48. It’s said he drowned in a deep pool of the Tuscan river. 4.49. But before that he saw the birth of a son Agrippa 4.50. And a grandson Remulus, who was struck by lightning. 4.51. Aventinus followed them, from whom the place and the hill 4.52. Took their name. After him the realm passed to Proca. 4.53. He was succeeded by Numitor, brother to harsh Amulius. 4.54. Ilia and Lausus were then the children of Numitor. 4.55. Lausus fell to his uncle’s sword: Ilia pleased Mars 4.56. And bore you Quirinus, and your brother Remus. 4.57. You always claimed your parents were Mars and Venus 4.58. And deserved to be believed when you said so: 4.59. And you granted successive months to your race’s gods 4.60. So your descendants might not be in ignorance of the truth. 4.94. And maintains all beings from her source. 4.123. And she was called the bride of Assaracus’s son 4.124. So that mighty Caesar would have Julian ancestors. 5.1. You ask where I think the name of May comes from? 5.2. Its origin’s not totally clear to me. 5.3. As a traveller stands unsure which way to go 5.4. Seeing the paths fan out in all directions 5.5. So I’m not sure which to accept, since it’s possible 5.6. To give different reasons: plenty itself confuses. 5.7. You who haunt the founts of Aganippian Hippocrene 5.8. Those beloved prints of the Medusaean horse, explain! 5.9. The goddesses are in conflict. Polyhymnia begins 5.10. While the others silently consider her speech. 5.11. ‘After the first Chaos, as soon as the three primary form 5.12. Were given to the world, all things were newly re-configured: 5.13. Earth sank under its own weight, and drew down the seas 5.14. But lightness lifted the sky to the highest regions: 5.15. And the sun and stars, not held back by their weight 5.16. And you, you horses of the moon, sprang high. 5.17. But Earth for a long time wouldn’t yield to Sky 5.18. Nor the other lights to the Sun: honours were equal. 5.19. One of the common crowd of gods, would often dare 5.20. To sit on the throne that you, Saturn, owned 5.21. None of the new gods took Ocean’s side 5.22. And Themis was relegated to the lowest place 5.23. Until Honour, and proper Reverence, she 5.24. of the calm look, were united in a lawful bed. 5.25. From them Majesty was born, she considers them 5.26. Her parents, she who was noble from her day of birth. 5.27. She took her seat, at once, high in the midst of Olympus 5.28. Conspicuous, golden, in her purple folds. 5.29. Modesty and Fear sat with her: you could see 5.30. All the gods modelling their expression on hers. 5.31. At once, respect for honour entered their minds: 5.32. The worthy had their reward, none thought of self. 5.33. This state of things lasted for years in heaven 5.34. Till the elder god was banished by fate from the citadel. 5.35. Earth bore the Giants, a fierce brood of savage monsters 5.36. Who dared to venture against Jupiter’s halls: 5.37. She gave them a thousands hands, serpents for legs 5.38. And said: “Take up arms against the mighty gods.” 5.39. They set to piling mountains to the highest stars 5.40. And to troubling mighty Jupiter with war: 5.41. He hurled lightning bolts from the heavenly citadel 5.42. And overturned the weighty mass on its creators. 5.43. These divine weapons protected Majesty well 5.44. She survived, and has been worshipped ever since: 5.45. So she attends on Jove, Jove’s truest guardian 5.46. And allows him to hold the sceptre without force. 5.47. She came to earth as well: Romulus and Numa 5.48. Both worshipped her, and so did others in later ages. 5.49. She maintains fathers and mothers in due honour 5.50. She keeps company with virgins and young boys 5.51. She burnishes the lictor’s rods, axes, and ivory chair 5.52. She rides high in triumph behind the garlanded horses.’ 5.53. Polyhymnia finished speaking: Clio, and Thalia 5.54. Mistress of the curved lyre, approved her words. 5.55. Urania continued: all the rest were silent 5.56. And hers was the only voice that could be heard. 5.57. ‘Once great reverence was shown to white hair 5.58. And wrinkled age was valued at its true worth. 5.59. The young waged work of war, and spirited battle 5.60. Holding to their posts for the sake of the gods: 5.61. Age, inferior in strength, and unfit for arms 5.62. often did the country a service by its counsel. 5.63. The Senate was only open to men of mature age 5.64. And Senators bear a name meaning ripe in years. 5.65. The elders made laws for the people, and specific 5.66. Rules governed the age when office might be sought: 5.67. Old men walked with the young, without their indignation 5.68. And on the inside, if they only had one companion. 5.69. Who dared then to talk shamefully in an older man’ 5.70. Presence? Old age granted rights of censorship. 5.71. Romulus knew this, and chose the City Father 5.72. From select spirits: making them the rulers of the City. 5.73. So I deduce that the elders (maiores) gave their own title 5.74. To the month of May: and looked after their own interests. 5.75. Numitor too may have said: “Romulus, grant this month 5.76. To the old men” and his grandson may have yielded. 5.77. The following month, June, named for young men (iuvenes) 5.78. Gives no slight proof of the honour intended.’ 5.79. Then Calliope herself, first of that choir, her hair 5.80. Unkempt and wreathed with ivy, began to speak: 5.81. ‘Tethys, the Titaness, was married long ago to Ocean 5.82. He who encircles the outspread earth with flowing water. 5.83. The story is that their daughter Pleione was united 5.84. To sky-bearing Atlas, and bore him the Pleiades. 5.85. Among them, Maia’s said to have surpassed her sister 5.86. In beauty, and to have slept with mighty Jove. 5.87. She bore Mercury, who cuts the air on winged feet 5.88. On the cypress-clothed ridge of Mount Cyllene. 5.89. The Arcadians, and swift Ladon, and vast Maenalus 5.90. A land thought older than the moon, rightly worship him. 5.91. Evander, in exile from Arcadia, came to the Latin fields 5.92. And brought his gods with him, aboard ship. 5.93. Where Rome, the capital of the world, now stand 5.94. There were trees, grass, a few sheep, the odd cottage. 5.95. When they arrived, his prophetic mother said: 5.96. “Halt here! This rural spot will be the place of Empire.” 5.97. The Arcadian hero obeyed his mother, the prophetess 5.98. And stayed, though a stranger in a foreign land. 5.99. He taught the people many rites, but, above all, those 5.100. of twin-horned Faunus, and Mercury the wing-footed god. 5.101. Faunus half-goat, you’re worshipped by the girded Luperci 5.102. When their strips of hide purify the crowded streets. 5.103. But you, Mercury, patron of thieves, inventor 5.104. of the curved lyre, gave your mother’s name to this month. 5.105. Nor was this your first act of piety: you’re thought 5.106. To have given the lyre seven strings, the Pleiads’ number.’ 5.107. Calliope too ended: and her sisters voiced their praise. 5.108. And so? All three were equally convincing. 5.109. May the Muses’ favour attend me equally 5.110. And let me never praise one more than the rest.
9. Propertius, Elegies, 4.4, 4.4.15-4.4.18 (1st cent. BCE

10. Strabo, Geography, 5.3.8-5.3.9, 13.1.54 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.3.8. These advantages accrued to the city from the nature of the country; but the foresight of the Romans added others besides. The Grecian cities are thought to have flourished mainly on account of the felicitous choice made by their founders, in regard to the beauty and strength of their sites, their proximity to some port, and the fineness of the country. But the Roman prudence was more particularly employed on matters which had received but little attention from the Greeks, such as paving their roads, constructing aqueducts, and sewers, to convey the sewage of the city into the Tiber. In fact, they have paved the roads, cut through hills, and filled up valleys, so that the merchandise may be conveyed by carriage from the ports. The sewers, arched over with hewn stones, are large enough in some parts for waggons loaded with hay to pass through; while so plentiful is the supply of water from the aqueducts, that rivers may be said to flow through the city and the sewers, and almost every house is furnished with water-pipes and copious fountains. To effect which Marcus Agrippa directed his special attention; he likewise bestowed upon the city numerous ornaments. We may remark, that the ancients, occupied with greater and more necessary concerns, paid but little attention to the beautifying of Rome. But their successors, and especially those of our own day, without neglecting these things, have at the same time embellished the city with numerous and splendid objects. Pompey, divus Caesar, and Augustus, with his children, friends, wife, and sister, have surpassed all others in their zeal and munificence in these decorations. The greater number of these may be seen in the Campus Martius, which to the beauties of nature adds those of art. The size of the plain is marvellous, permitting chariot-races and other feats of horsemanship without impediment, and multitudes to exercise themselves at ball, in the circus and the palaestra. The structures which surround it, the turf covered with herbage all the year round, the summits of the hills beyond the Tiber, extending from its banks with panoramic effect, present a spectacle which the eye abandons with regret. Near to this plain is another surrounded with columns, sacred groves, three theatres, an amphitheatre, and superb temples in close contiguity to each other; and so magnificent, that it would seem idle to describe the rest of the city after it. For this cause the Romans, esteeming it as the most sacred place, have there erected funeral monuments to the most illustrious persons of either sex. The most remarkable of these is that designated as the Mausoleum, which consists of a mound of earth raised upon a high foundation of white marble, situated near the river, and covered to the top with ever-green shrubs. Upon the summit is a bronze statue of Augustus Caesar, and beneath the mound are the ashes of himself, his relatives, and friends. Behind is a large grove containing charming promenades. In the centre of the plain, is the spot where this prince was reduced to ashes; it is surrounded with a double enclosure, one of marble, the other of iron, and planted within with poplars. If from hence you proceed to visit the ancient forum, which is equally filled with basilicas, porticos, and temples, you will there behold the Capitol, the Palatium, with the noble works which adorn them, and the promenade of Livia, each successive place causing you speedily to forget what you have before seen. Such is Rome. 5.3.9. of the other cities of Latium, some are distinguished by a variety of remarkable objects, others by the celebrated roads which intersect Latium, being situated either upon, or near to, or between these roads, the most celebrated of which are the Via Appia, the Via Latina, and the Via Valeria. The former of these bounds the maritime portion of Latium, as far as Sinuessa, the latter extends along Sabina as far as the Marsi, whilst between these is the Via Latina, which falls in with the Via Appia near to Casilinum, a city distant from Capua 19 stadia. The Via Latina commences from the Via Appia, branching from it towards the left, near to Rome. It passes over the Tusculan mountain, between the city of Tusculum and Mount Albanus; it then descends to the little city of Algidum, and the Pictae tavern; afterwards the Via Lavicana joins it, which commences, like the Via Praenestina, from the Esquiline gate. This road, as well as the Esquiline plain, the Via Lavicana leaves on the left; it then proceeds a distance of 120 stadia, or more, when it approaches Lavicum, an ancient city now in ruins, situated on an eminence; this and Tusculum it leaves on the right, and terminates near to Pictae in the Via Latina. This place is 210 stadia distant from Rome. Proceeding thence along the Via Latina there are noble residences, and the cities Ferentinum, Frusino, by which the river Cosa flows, Fabrateria, by which flows the river Sacco, Aquinum, a large city, by which flows the great river Melfa, Interamnium, situated at the confluence of two rivers, the Liris and another, Casinum, also an important city, and the last of those belonging to Latium. For Teanum, called Sidicinum, which lies next in order, shows by its name that it belongs to the nation of the Sidicini. These people are Osci, a surviving nation of the Campani, so that this city, which is the largest of those situated upon the Via Latina, may be said to be Campanian; as well as that of Cales, another considerable city which lies beyond, and is contiguous to Casilinum. 13.1.54. From Scepsis came the Socratic philosophers Erastus and Coriscus and Neleus the son of Coriscus, this last a man who not only was a pupil of Aristotle and Theophrastus, but also inherited the library of Theophrastus, which included that of Aristotle. At any rate, Aristotle bequeathed his own library to Theophrastus, to whom he also left his school; and he is the first man, so far as I know, to have collected books and to have taught the kings in Egypt how to arrange a library. Theophrastus bequeathed it to Neleus; and Neleus took it to Scepsis and bequeathed it to his heirs, ordinary people, who kept the books locked up and not even carefully stored. But when they heard bow zealously the Attalic kings to whom the city was subject were searching for books to build up the library in Pergamum, they hid their books underground in a kind of trench. But much later, when the books had been damaged by moisture and moths, their descendants sold them to Apellicon of Teos for a large sum of money, both the books of Aristotle and those of Theophrastus. But Apellicon was a bibliophile rather than a philosopher; and therefore, seeking a restoration of the parts that had been eaten through, he made new copies of the text, filling up the gaps incorrectly, and published the books full of errors. The result was that the earlier school of Peripatetics who came after Theophrastus had no books at all, with the exception of only a few, mostly exoteric works, and were therefore able to philosophize about nothing in a practical way, but only to talk bombast about commonplace propositions, whereas the later school, from the time the books in question appeared, though better able to philosophise and Aristotelise, were forced to call most of their statements probabilities, because of the large number of errors. Rome also contributed much to this; for, immediately after the death of Apellicon, Sulla, who had captured Athens, carried off Apellicon's library to Rome, where Tyrannion the grammarian, who was fond of Aristotle, got it in his hands by paying court to the librarian, as did also certain booksellers who used bad copyists and would not collate the texts — a thing that also takes place in the case of the other books that are copied for selling, both here and at Alexandria. However, this is enough about these men.
11. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 37.42 (1st cent. CE

37.42.  Then, knowing as I do that men spare not even the gods, should I imagine you to have been concerned for the statue of a mere mortal? Furthermore, while I think I shall say nothing of the others, at any rate the Isthmian, your own Master of the Games, Mummius tore from his base and dedicated to Zeus — disgusting ignorance! — illiterate creature that he was, totally unfamiliar with the proprieties, treating the brother as a votive offering! It was he who took the Philip son of Amyntas, which he got from Thespiae, and labelled it Zeus, and also the lads from Pheneüs he labelled Nestor and Priam respectively! But the Roman mob, as might have been expected, imagined they were beholding those very heroes, and not mere Arcadians from Pheneüs.
12. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 7.75, 13.83, 13.88, 13.92, 33.147, 34.11-34.12, 34.22-34.23, 34.59, 35.23, 35.26, 35.88, 36.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Plutarch, Lucullus, 42.1-42.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Plutarch, Marius, 17.1-17.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Plutarch, Nicias, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Plutarch, Romulus, 17.2-17.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17.2. At this the rest of the Sabines were enraged, and after appointing Tatius their general, marched upon Rome. The city was difficult of access, having as its fortress the present Capitol, on which a guard had been stationed, with Tarpeius as its captain,— not Tarpeia, a maiden, as some say, thereby making Romulus a simpleton. But Tarpeia, a daughter of the commander, betrayed the citadel to the Sabines, having set her heart on the golden armlets which she saw them wearing, and she asked as payment for her treachery that which they wore on their left arms. 17.3. Tatius agreed to this, whereupon she opened one of the gates by night and let the Sabines in. Antigonus was not alone, then, in saying that he loved men who offered to betray, but hated those who had betrayed; nor yet Caesar, in saying of the Thracian Rhoemetalces, that he loved treachery but hated a traitor; but this is a very general feeling towards the base on the part of those who need their services, just as they need certain wild creatures for their venom and gall; for while they feel the need of them, they put up with them, but abhor their vileness when they have obtained from them what they want. 17.4. This, too, was the feeling which Tatius then had towards Tarpeia, when he ordered his Sabines, mindful of their agreement, not to begrudge the girl anything they wore on their left arms. And he was first to take from his arm not only his armlet, but at the same time his shield, and cast them upon her. All his men followed his example, and the girl was smitten by the gold and buried under the shields, and died from the number and weight of them. 17.5. And Tarpeius also was convicted of treason when prosecuted by Romulus, as, according to Juba, Sulpicius Galba relates. of those who write differently about Tarpeia, they are worthy of no belief at all who say that she was a daughter of Tatius, the leader of the Sabines, and was living with Romulus under compulsion, and acted and suffered as she did, at her father’s behest; of these, Antigonus is one. And Simylus the poet is altogether absurd in supposing that Tarpeia betrayed the Capitol, not to the Sabines, but to the Gauls, because she had fallen in love with their king. These are his words:— And Tarpeia, who dwelt hard by the Capitolian steep, Became the destroyer of the walls of Rome; She longed to be the wedded wife of the Gallic chieftain, And betrayed the homes of her fathers. And a little after, speaking of her death:— Her the Boni and the myriad tribes of Gauls Did not, exulting, cast amid the currents of the Po; But hurled the shields from their belligerent arms Upon the hateful maid, and made their ornament her doom.
17. Plutarch, Sulla, 26.1-26.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Tacitus, Annals, 2.37 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.37.  In addition, he gave monetary help to several senators; so that it was the more surprising when he treated the application of the young noble, Marcus Hortalus, with a superciliousness uncalled for in view of his clearly straitened circumstances. He was a grandson of the orator Hortensius; and the late Augustus, by the grant of a million sesterces, had induced him to marry and raise a family, in order to save his famous house from extinction. With his four sons, then, standing before the threshold of the Curia, he awaited his turn to speak; then, directing his gaze now to the portrait of Hortensius among the orators (the senate was meeting in the Palace), now to that of Augustus, he opened in the following manner:— "Conscript Fathers, these children whose number and tender age you see for yourselves, became mine not from any wish of my own, but because the emperor so advised, and because, at the same time, my ancestors had earned the right to a posterity. For to me, who in this changed world had been able to inherit nothing and acquire nothing, — not money, nor popularity, nor eloquence, that general birthright of our house, — to me it seemed enough if my slender means were neither a disgrace to myself nor a burden to my neighbour. At the command of the sovereign, I took a wife; and here you behold the stock of so many consuls, the offspring of so many dictators! I say it, not to awaken odium, but to woo compassion. Some day, Caesar, under your happy sway, they will wear whatever honours you have chosen to bestow: in the meantime, rescue from beggary the great-grandsons of Quintus Hortensius, the fosterlings of the deified Augustus!
19. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds And Sayings, 9.6.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 58.7.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

58.7.2.  (for he was wont to include himself in such sacrifices), a rope was discovered coiled about the neck of the statue. Again, there was the behaviour of a statue of Fortune, which had belonged, they say, to Tullius, one of the former kings of Rome, but was at this time kept by Sejanus at his house and was a source of great pride to him:
21. Gellius, Attic Nights, 1.19 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Lactantius, Divine Institutes, 1.6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

1.6. Now let us pass to divine testimonies; but I will previously bring forward one which resembles a divine testimony, both on account of its very great antiquity, and because he whom I shall name was taken from men and placed among the gods. According to Cicero, Caius Cotta the pontiff, while disputing against the Stoics concerning superstitions, and the variety of opinions which prevail respecting the gods, in order that he might, after the custom of the Academics, make everything uncertain, says that there were five Mercuries; and having enumerated four in order, says that the fifth was he by whom Argus was slain, and that on this account he fled into Egypt, and gave laws and letters to the Egyptians. The Egyptians call him Thoth; and from him the first month of their year, that is, September, received its name among them. He also built a town, which is even now called in Greek Hermopolis (the town of Mercury), and the inhabitants of Phen honour him with religious worship. And although he was a man, yet he was of great antiquity, and most fully imbued with every kind of learning, so that the knowledge of many subjects and arts acquired for him the name of Trismegistus. He wrote books, and those in great numbers, relating to the knowledge of divine things, in which be asserts the majesty of the supreme and only God, and makes mention of Him by the same names which we use - God and Father. And that no one might inquire His name, he said that He was without name, and that on account of His very unity He does not require the peculiarity of a name. These are his own words: God is one, but He who is one only does not need a name; for He who is self-existent is without a name. God, therefore, has no name, because He is alone; nor is there any need of a proper name, except in cases where a multitude of persons requires a distinguishing mark, so that you may designate each person by his own mark and appellation. But God, because He is always one, has no peculiar name. It remains for me to bring forward testimonies respecting the sacred responses and predictions, which are much more to be relied upon. For perhaps they against whom we are arguing may think that no credence is to be given to poets, as though they invented fictions, nor to philosophers, inasmuch as they were liable to err, being themselves but men. Marcus Varro, than whom no man of greater learning ever lived, even among the Greeks, much less among the Latins, in those books respecting divine subjects which he addressed to Caius C sar the chief pontiff, when he was speaking of the Quindecemviri, says that the Sibylline books were not the production of one Sibyl only, but that they were called by one name Sibylline, because all prophetesses were called by the ancients Sibyls, either from the name of one, the Delphian priestess, or from their proclaiming the counsels of the gods. For in the Æolic dialect they used to call the gods by the word Sioi, not Theoi; and for counsel they used the word bule, not boule;- and so the Sibyl received her name as though Siobule. But he says that the Sibyls were ten in number, and he enumerated them all under the writers, who wrote an account of each: that the first was from the Persians, and of her Nicanor made mention, who wrote the exploits of Alexander of Macedon;- the second of Libya, and of her Euripides makes mention in the prologue of the Lamia;- the third of Delphi, concerning whom Chrysippus speaks in that book which he composed concerning divination - the fourth a Cimmerian in Italy, whom N vius mentions in his books of the Punic war, and Piso in his annals - the fifth of Erythr a, whom Apollodorus of Erythr a affirms to have been his own countrywoman, and that she foretold to the Greeks when they were setting out for Ilium, both that Troy was doomed to destruction, and that Homer would write falsehoods;- the sixth of Samos, respecting whom Eratosthenes writes that he had found a written notice in the ancient annals of the Samians. The seventh was of Cum, by name Amalth a, who is termed by some Herophile, or Demophile, and they say that she brought nine books to the king Tarquinius Priscus, and asked for them three hundred philippics, and that the king refused so great a price, and derided the madness of the woman; that she, in the sight of the king, burnt three of the books, and demanded the same price for those which were left; that Tarquinias much more considered the woman to be mad; and that when she again, having burnt three other books, persisted in asking the same price, the king was moved, and bought the remaining books for the three hundred pieces of gold: and the number of these books was afterwards increased, after the rebuilding of the Capitol; because they were collected from all cities of Italy and Greece, and especially from those of Erythr a, and were brought to Rome, under the name of whatever Sibyl they were. Further, that the eighth was from the Hellespont, born in the Trojan territory, in the village of Marpessus, about the town of Gergithus; and Heraclides of Pontus writes that she lived in the times of Solon and Cyrus - the ninth of Phrygia, who gave oracles at Ancyra;- the tenth of Tibur, by name Albunea, who is worshipped at Tibur as a goddess, near the banks of the river Anio, in the depths of which her statue is said to have been found, holding in her hand a book. The senate transferred her oracles into the Capitol. The predictions of all these Sibyls are both brought forward and esteemed as such, except those of the Cum an Sibyl, whose books are concealed by the Romans; nor do they consider it lawful for them to be inspected by any one but the Quindecemviri. And there are separate books the production of each, but because these are inscribed with the name of the Sibyl they are believed to be the work of one; and they are confused, nor can the productions of each be distinguished and assigned to their own authors, except in the case of the Erythr an Sibyl, for she both inserted her own true name in her verse, and predicted that she would be called Erythr an, though she was born at Babylon. But we also shall speak of the Sibyl without any distinction, wherever we shall have occasion to use their testimonies. All these Sibyls, then, proclaim one God, and especially the Erythr an, who is regarded among the others as more celebrated and noble; since Fenestella, a most diligent writer, speaking of the Quindecemviri, says that, after the rebuilding of the Capitol, Caius Curio the consul proposed to the senate that ambassadors should be sent to Erythr to search out and bring to Rome the writings of the Sibyl; and that, accordingly, Publius Gabinius, Marcus Otacilius, and Lucius Valerius were sent, who conveyed to Rome about a thousand verses written out by private persons. We have shown before that Varro made the same statement. Now in these verses which the ambassadors brought to Rome, are these testimonies respecting the one God:- 1. One God, who is alone, most mighty, uncreated. This is the only supreme God, who made the heaven, and decked it with lights. 2. But there is one only God of pre-eminent power, who made the heaven, and sun, and stars, and moon, and fruitful earth, and waves of the water of the sea. And since He alone is the framer of the universe, and the artificer of all things of which it consists or which are contained in it, it testifies that He alone ought to be worshipped: - 3. Worship Him who is alone the ruler of the world, who alone was and is from age to age. Also another Sibyl, whoever she is, when she said that she conveyed the voice of God to men, thus spoke:- 4. I am the one only God, and there is no other God. I would now follow up the testimonies of the others, were it not that these are sufficient, and that I reserve others for more befitting opportunities. But since we are defending the cause of truth before those who err from the truth and serve false religions, what kind of proof ought we to bring forward against them, rather than to refute them by the testimonies of their own gods?


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
access, to porticoes Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 304
access, to temples Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 304
aedituus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 304
aelius sejanus, l. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
aemilius paullus, m. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
aeneas Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 177
aeneid Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
ajax Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
allusion Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 177
altars Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
andronicus of rhodes Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
antony, marc Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
aphrodite Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
aristotle Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
augurium salutis Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
augury Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
augustus, his letters collected Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
augustus, prima porta Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 63
augustus Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 177; Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
book per month structure of fasti Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 102
brennus, gallic chieftan Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 257
caecilia, gaia Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
callimachus Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 235
carmentis Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
claudia quinta Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
claudius hermogenianus caesarius Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 304
constantine the great Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 304
corinthian bronze Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
cornelia Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
cornelius sulla, l. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
cosmology Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 235
debates Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
demonike Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 257
dionysius of halicarnassus, on the sibyl Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
etymology Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 235
fasti praenestini Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
festivals, carmentalia Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
fortuna Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
four elements theory Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 235
gegania Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
germanicus Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 177
gymnasia Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 63
herculaneum, female statue type from Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
hercules Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 63
hermae Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 63
hermathena Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 63
home Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 177
house, access to Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
humanitas Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 63
intermediality Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
janus Fantham, Latin Poets and Italian Gods (2009) 77; Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 177; Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 235; Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 201, 202
julius caesar, c., and the civil war Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
julius caesar, c., and the gallic war Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
julius caesar, c. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
juno Fantham, Latin Poets and Italian Gods (2009) 77
jupiter Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 177
libraries, of apellicon the teian Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
libraries Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
licinius lucullus, l. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
livy Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 257
marius, c., and the prophetess martha Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
mentor Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
mummius achaicus, l. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 304
muses Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 177
nero Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 304
numicus/numicius Fantham, Latin Poets and Italian Gods (2009) 77
nymphs, greek, lara' Fantham, Latin Poets and Italian Gods (2009) 77
objects, and identity Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 63
offerings, sacrificial rituals Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
oplontis Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 63
ovid Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 177; Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 201, 202, 257
palaestrum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 63
pax augusta Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
plutarch Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 257
pomponius secundus, p. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
prayer Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
propertius Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 201, 202
quindecemviri sacris faciundis Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
rape Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 201, 202, 257
reader and audience Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 201, 202
rome, access to Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 304
rome, deterioration in late antiquity Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 304
rome, palatine hill, access to Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 304
rome, portico of livia Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 304
rome, preservation of patrimony Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 304
rome, rostrum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
rome, statues of seven kings on Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
rome, strabos description of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 304
rome, temple of divus augustus, victoria in Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 63
rome/roman Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 235
rome Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 177
rome ara pacis, forum Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 201
romulus Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
romulus and camillus, qualities as a ruler Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 257
rüpke, j., war with Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
sabines Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 235
sacrifice Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 235
scythia Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 177
sempronius gracchus, ti. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
semproniusgracchus, c. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
ship motif as structuring device Pasco-Pranger, Founding the Year: Ovid's Fasti and the Poetics of the Roman Calendar (2006) 102
sibyl Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
simulacrum versus signum, of women Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
souls Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 177
statuary, miraculous properties of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
statuary, problems of identification Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 304
strife Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 235
tarpeia, her tomb on the capitoline Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
tarpeia Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 235; Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67, 304
tarpeia as amazon, as guardian Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 201, 202, 257
tarpeia as amazon, as vestal Welch, Tarpeia: Workings of a Roman Myth (2015) 257
tarquin the proud Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
tarquinius priscus, and the sibyl Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
temples, of janus Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
theophrastus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
tiber Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 177
tiberian Keith and Myers, Vergil and Elegy (2023) 177
titus tatius Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
trees, citrus wood Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
triumph Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
tullius cicero, m., and humanitas Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 63
tullius cicero, m., as collector Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 63
tullius cicero, m., his letters collected Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
tullius cicero, m., villa at tusculum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 63
tullius cicero, m. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 63
tyrannion the grammarian Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
veleda Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
vergil, his letters collected Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
vergil Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
verrius flaccus Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
vipsanius agrippa, m., purchases paintings from the cyzicans Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 67
war, weapons (arma) Erker, Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family (2023) 78
women, idealized values and Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179
women Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 179