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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8581
Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 1.67-1.170


rend=There take thy stand, and sharply looking out


rend=the place is fatal to chaste modesty. These shows were first made troublesome by Romulus, when the raped Sabines delighted unmarried men. Then no awnings hung from the marble theatre, the stage wasn’t stained with saffron perfumes: Then what the shady Palatine provided, leaves simply placed, was all the artless scene: The audience sat on tiers made from turf, and covered their shaggy hair, as best they could, with leaves. They watched, and each with his eye observed the girl


Primus sollicitos fecisti, Romule, ludosSoon may'st thou find a mistress in the rout


rend=For length of time or for a single bout.


Tunc neque marmoreo pendebant vela theatroThe Theatres are berries for the fair;


rend=Like ants or mole-hills thither they repair;


Illic quas tulerant nemorosa Palatia, frondesLike bees to hives so numerously they throng


rend=It may be said they to that place belong:


In gradibus sedit populus de caespite factisThither they swarm who have the public voice;


rend=There choose, if plenty not distracts thy choice.


Respiciunt, oculisque notant sibi quisque puellamTo see, and to be seen, in heaps they run;


rend=Some to undo, and some to be undone.


rend=he wanted, and trembled greatly in his silent heart. While, to the measure of the homely Etruscan flute, the dancer, with triple beat, struck the levelled earth, amongst the applause (applause that was never artful then) the king gave the watched-for signal for the rape. They sprang up straightaway, showing their intent by shouting, and eagerly took possession of the women. As doves flee the eagle, in a frightened crowd, as the new-born lamb runs from the hostile wolf: so they fled in panic from the lawless men


Dumque, rudem praebente modum tibicine TuscoFrom Romulus the rise of plays began


rend=To his new subjects a commodious man;


In medio plausu (plausus tunc arte carebant)Who, his unmarried soldiers to supply


rend=Took care the commonwealth should multiply;


Protinus exiliunt, animum clamore fatentesProviding Sabine women for his braves


rend=Like a true king, to get a race of slaves.


Ut fugiunt aquilas, timidissima turba, columbaeHis playhouse, not of Parian marble made


rend=Nor was it spread with purple sails for shade;


Sic illae timuere viros sine more ruentes;The stage with rushes or with leaves they strew'd; This idea of the Roman theatres in their infancy, may put us in mind of our own which we read of in the old poets, in Black-friars, the Bull-and-mouth, and Barbican, not much better than the strollers at a country-fair. Yet this must be said for them: that the audience were much better treated; their fare was good, though the house was homely. Which cannot be said of the Roman infant-stage, their wit and their theatres were alike rude; and the Shakspeares and Jonsons of Rome did not appear till the stage was pompous, and the scene magnificent.


rend=No scenes in prospect, no machining god.


rend=and not one showed the colour she had before. Now they all fear as one, but not with one face of fear: Some tear their hair: some sit there, all will lost: one mourns silently, another cries for her mother in vain: one moans, one faints: one stays, while that one runs: the captive girls were led away, a joyful prize, and many made even fear itself look fitting. Whoever showed too much fight, and denied her lover, he held her clasped high to his loving heart, and said to her: ‘Why mar your tender cheeks with tears?


Nam timor unus erat, facies non una timoris:On rows of homely turf they sat to see


rend=Crown'd with the wreaths of ev'ry common tree.


Altera maesta silet, frustra vocat altera matrem:There, while they sit in rustic majesty


rend= fugit;Each lover had his mistress in his eye;


Ducuntur raptae, genialis praeda, puellaeAnd whom he saw most suiting to his mind


rend=For joys of matrimonial rape design'd.


Siqua repugnarat nimium comitemque negabatScarce could they wait the plaudit in their haste;


rend=But ere the dances and the song were past


Atque ita 'quid teneros lacrimis corrumpis ocellos?The monarch gave the signal from his throne, At which the soldiers were to fall on the women. The poet and his translators make an agreeable description of this rape. Some say there were thirty of these Sabines ravished: others, as Valerius Antius, make the number to be four hundred and twenty-seven: and Jubas, as Plutarch writes in the life of Romulus , swells it to six hundred.


rend=And rising, bade his merry men fall on.


rend=as your father to your mother, I’ll be to you.’ Romulus, alone, knew what was fitting for soldiers: I’ll be a soldier, if you give me what suits me. From that I suppose came the theatres’ usual customs: now too they remain a snare for the beautiful. Don’t forget the races, those noble stallions: the Circus holds room for a vast obliging crowd. No need here for fingers to give secret messages, nor a nod of the head to tell you she accepts: You can sit by your lady: nothing’s forbidden


Romule, militibus scisti dare commoda solus:The martial crew, like soldiers, ready press'd


rend=Just at the word (the word too was the best)


Scilicet ex illo sollemnia more theatraWith joyful cries each other animate;


rend=Some choose, and some at hazard seize their mate.


Nec te nobilium fugiat certamen equorum;As doves from eagles, or from wolves the lambs


rend=So from their lawless lovers fly the dames.


Nil opus est digitis, per quos arcana loquarisTheir fear was one, but not one face of fear:


rend=Some rend the lovely tresses of the hair:


Proximus a domina, nullo prohibente, sedetoSome shriek, and some are struck with dumb despair.


rend=Her absent mother one invokes in vain;


rend=press your thigh to hers, as you can do, all the time: and it’s good the rows force you close, even if you don’t like it, since the girl is touched through the rules of the place. Now find your reason for friendly conversation, and first of all engage in casual talk. Make earnest enquiry whose those horses are: and rush to back her favourite, whatever it is. When the crowded procession of ivory gods goes by, you clap fervently for Lady Venus: if by chance a speck of dust falls in the girl’s lap


Et bene, quod cogit, si nolis, linea iungiOne stands amaz'd, not daring to complain;


rend=The nimbler trust their feet, the slow remain.


Hic tibi quaeratur socii sermonis origoBut nought availing, all are captives led


rend=Trembling and blushing, to the genial bed.


Cuius equi veniant, facito, studiose, requiras:She who too long resisted or denied


rend=The lusty lover made by force a bride


At cum pompa frequens caelestibus ibit eburnisAnd with superior strength compell'd her to his side


rend=Then sooth'd her thus! "My soul's far better part


Utque fit, in gremium pulvis si forte puellaeCease weeping, nor afflict thy tender heart;


rend=For what thy father to thy mother was


rend=as it may, let it be flicked away by your fingers: and if there’s nothing, flick away the nothing: let anything be a reason for you to serve her. If her skirt is trailing too near the ground, lift it, and raise it carefully from the dusty earth: Straightaway, the prize for service, if she allows it, is that your eyes catch a glimpse of her legs. Don’t forget to look at who’s sitting behind you, that he doesn’t press her sweet back with his knee. Small things please light minds: it’s very helpful


Etsi nullus erit pulvis, tamen excute nullum:That faith to thee, that solemn vow I pass !


rend=Thus Romulus became so popular;


Pallia si terra nimium demissa iacebuntThis was the way to thrive in peace and war;


rend=To pay his army, and fresh whores to bring:


Protinus, officii pretium, patiente puellaWho wouldn't fight for such a gracious king!


rend=Thus love in theatres did first improve


Respice praeterea, post vos quicumque sedebitAnd theatres are still the scene of love.


rend=Nor shun the chariots and the courser's race;


Parva leves capiunt animos: fuit utile multisThe circus is no inconvenient place.


rend=No need is there of talking on the hands;


rend=to puff up her cushion with a dextrous touch. And it’s good to raise a breeze with a light fan, and set a hollow stool beneath her tender feet. And the Circus brings assistance to new love, and the scattered sand of the gladiator’s ring. Venus’ boy often fights in that sand, and who see wounds, themselves receive a wound. While talking, touching hands, checking the programme, and asking, having bet, which one will win, wounded he groans, and feels the winged dart


Profuit et tenui ventos movisse tabellaNor nods, nor signs, which lovers understand. It is plain by this, the ancient Romans used to make love by signs on their fingers like the modern Spaniards and Portuguese; and this talking on the fingers is very common among us ever since Dr. Holder and Dr. Wallis taught by Mr. Popham, who was born deaf and dumb, with whom I have, however, myself held a conversation of many hours, and that many hundred times, by the help of our fingers. But the poet says there was no occasion of this dumb language at the cirque; for there was so much noise, that lovers might entertain one another as they pleased, without fear of being overheard.


rend=But boldly next the fair your seat provide, Young men are apt enough to do this of themselves, and need no advice; yet Juvenal, like Ovid , puts them in mind of it.


Hos aditus Circusque novo praebebit amoriClose as ye can to hers-and side by side.


rend=Pleas'd or unpleas'd, no matter, crowding sit;


Illa saepe puer Veneris pugnavit harenaFor so the laws of public shows permit.


rend=Then find occasion to begin discourse;


Dum loquitur tangitque manum poscitque libellumEnquire whose chariot this, and whose that horse?


rend=To whatsoever side she is inclin'd


Saucius ingemuit telumque volatile sensitSuit all her inclinations to her mind;


rend=Like what she likes, from thence your court begin.


rend=and himself becomes a part of the show he sees. When, lately, Caesar, in mock naval battle, exhibited the Greek and Persian fleets, surely young men and girls came from either coast, and all the peoples of the world were in the City? Who did not find one he might love in that crowd? Ah, how many were tortured by an alien love! Behold, now Caesar’s planning to add to our rule what’s left of earth: now the far East will be ours. Parthia , we’ll have vengeance: Crassus’s bust will cheer


Tu modo Pompeia lentus spatiare sub umbraHere may'st thou find thy full desires in both:


rend=Or if autumnal beauties please thy sight


Aut ubi muneribus nati sua munera mater(An age that knows to give and take delight;)


rend=Millions of matrons, of the graver sort


rend=with those rich works of foreign marble. Don’t miss the Portico that takes its name from Livia its creator, full of old masters: or where the daring Danaids prepare to murder their poor husbands, and their fierce father stands, with out-stretched sword. And don’t forget the shrine of Adonis, Venus wept for, and the sacred Sabbath rites of the Syrian Jews. Don’t skip the Memphite temple of the linen-clad heifer: she makes many a girl what she herself was to Jove. And the law-courts (who’d believe it?) they suit love:


Nec tibi vitetur quae, priscis sparsa tabellisIn common prudence, will not balk the sport.


rend=In summer's heats thou need'st but only go


Quaque parare necem miseris patruelibus ausaeTo Pompey's cool and shady portico; This was a shady walk which Pompey built for the people; and there were several in Rome of the same sort; but the most admirable one of all the porticos, was the Corinthian, near the Flaminian cirque, built by Cneius Octavius.


rend=Or Concord's fane; or that proud edifice


Nec te praetereat Veneri ploratus AdonisWhose turrets near the bawdy suburbs rise;


rend=Or to that other portico, where stand


Nec fuge linigerae Memphitica templa iuvencae:The cruel father urging his commands.


rend=And fifty daughters wait the time of rest


Et fora conveniunt (quis credere possit?) amori:To plunge their poniards in the bridegroom's breast.


rend=Or Venus ' temple; where, on annual nights


rend=a flame is often found in the noisy courts: where the Appian waters pulse into the air, from under Venus’s temple, made of marble, there the lawyer’s often caught by love, and he who guides others, fails to guide himself: in that place of eloquence often his words desert him, and a new case starts, his own cause is the brief. There Venus, from her neighbouring temples, laughs: he, who was once the counsel, now wants to be the client. But hunt for them, especially, at the tiered theatre:


Subdita qua Veneris facto de marmore temploThey mourn Adonis with Assyrian rites. It was the custom among the Romans, to meet in the temples of Venus to mourn Adonis; of which the prophet Ezekiel speaks, ( Ezek. viii. 14. ); and infamous acts of lewdness were there committed, if we may believe Juvenal in his sixth satire .


rend=Nor shun the Jewish walk, where the foul drove


Illo saepe loco capitur consultus AmoriOn sabbaths rest from everything but love. There were great numbers of the Jews at Rome in Augustus's reign, who were allowed full liberty to exercise their ceremonies, according to the law of Moses . And the Roman ladies went often to see them out of curiosity, which gave occasion for assignations at their synagogues.


rend=Nor Isis' temple; for that sacred whore


Illo saepe loco desunt sua verba disertoMakes others, what to Jove she was before; That is, many women were debauched by Isis's means, as she was by Jupiter under the name of Io.


rend=And if the hall itself be not belied


Hunc Venus e templis, quae sunt confinia, ridet:E'en there the cause of love is often tried;


rend=Near it at least, or in the palace yard


Sed tu praecipue curvis venare theatris:From whence the noisy combatants are heard.


rend=The crafty counsellors, in formal gown, The following verses are a happy paraphrase of Ovid ; in whose time we find the long robe dealt as much with the stola, etc., as it does in our own.


rend=that place is the most fruitful for your needs. There you’ll find one to love, or one you can play with, one to be with just once, or one you might wish to keep. As ants return home often in long processions, carrying their favourite food in their mouths, or as the bees buzz through the flowers and thyme, among their pastures and fragrant chosen meadows, so our fashionable ladies crowd to the famous shows: my choice is often constrained by such richness. They come to see, they come to be seen as well:


Illic invenies quod ames, quod ludere possisThere gain another's cause, but lose their own.


rend=Their eloquence is nonpluss'd in the suit;


Ut redit itque frequens longum formica per agmenAnd lawyers, who had words at will, are mute.


rend=Venus from her adjoining temple smile


Aut ut apes saltusque suos et olentia nactaeTo see them caught in their litigious wiles;


rend=Grave senators lead home the youthful dame, We see these assemblies were composed of all sorts of persons; upon which our French author remarks thus: " This does not very well agree to the practice in our days; and I cannot comprehend how gallant women could frequent the courts of justice : where it is to be supposed, nobody came but such as had business and suits depending.


Sic ruit ad celebres cultissima femina ludos:Returning clients when they patrons came.


rend=But above all, the Playhouse is the place; It must be owned, the theatres, amphitheatres, cirques, hippodromes, and all places where the public feasts and rejoicings were kept, were very fatal to the chastity of the women of old.


Spectatum veniunt, veniunt spectentur ut ipsae:There's choice of quarry in that narrow chace:


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

8 results
1. Cicero, Pro Caelio, 34, 33 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2. Augustus, Res Gestae Divi Augusti, 20 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3. Ovid, Amores, 3.2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 1.67-1.99, 1.101-1.170, 1.179, 1.181, 1.203-1.206, 1.213-1.214, 1.217-1.228, 1.263, 3.385-3.398 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Ovid, Fasti, 2.683-2.684, 6.478 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.683. The lands of other races have fixed boundaries: 2.684. The extent of the City of Rome and the world is one. 6.478. One that takes its name from the statue of an ox:
6. Ovid, Tristia, 2.285-2.286 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Juvenal, Satires, 6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 45.6.4, 53.2.4, 54.6.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

45.6.4.  After this came the festival appointed in honour of the completion of the temple of Venus, which some, while Caesar was still alive, had promised to celebrate, but were now holding in slight regard, even as they did the games in the Circus in honour of the Parilia; so, to win the favour of the populace, he provided for it at his private expense, on the ground that it concerned him because of his family. 53.2.4.  As for religious matters, he did not allow the Egyptian rites to be celebrated inside the pomerium, but made provision for the temples; those which had been built by private individuals he ordered their sons and descendants, if any survived, to repair, and the rest he restored himself. 54.6.6.  Agrippa, then, checked whatever other ailments he found still festering, and curtailed the Egyptian rites which were again invading the city, forbidding anyone to perform them even in the suburbs within one mile of the city. And when a disturbance arose over the election of the prefect of the city, the official chosen on account of the Feriae, he did not succeed in quelling it, but they went through that year without this official.  


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
addressee, victimization of Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
adviser, satirist as, on marriage Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
agrippa, portico of Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
agrippa Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 172, 173
anger, and women Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
appius claudius caecus Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
areae Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
audacia, and pudor Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
audiences, popular Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 174
augustus/octavian, as author and builder Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 173
augustus/octavian, as performer of a public image Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 174
augustus/octavian, relation with caesar Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 173
authority, poetic Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 174
balbus, theatre of Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
campus martius, male and female spheres of activity Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
circus maximus Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
cosmopolis Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 172, 173, 174
cynthia (in propertius) Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
drama, tragedy Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
elegy Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74; Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 172
emotion, infection with Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
empire, as territorial expanse Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 172, 173, 174, 175
epic Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
face, and pudor Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
face, threats to Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
female spheres of activity Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
fictionality Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 174
foreigners Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 175
historiography Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
indeterminacy, historical narratives Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 174
indeterminacy, horace Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 174
indeterminacy, strategies Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 174
indignatio, in satiric plot Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
isis, temple of Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
julius civilis Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
livia Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 173
love trysts, venues for Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
lyric poetry Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
male spheres of activity Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
maps and mapping Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 172, 173, 174, 175
marcellus, theatre of Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
marcellus Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 173
marriage Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
mars Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 175
masculinity Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74; Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 175
militarism Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 172, 174, 175
monuments Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 172, 173, 174, 175
naumachia Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 172, 174, 175
octavia Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 173
parks Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
performance Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 174
phantasia Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
philosophy, literary inspiration from Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
poets, rivalry with the princeps Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 172, 173
pompey, theatre of Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
portico of agrippa Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
portico of the argonauts Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
porticos, as venues for romance Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
porticos Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
poverty, and pudor Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
prosopopoeia Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
pudor, and audacia Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
pudor, and face Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
pudor, and poverty Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
pudor, and status quo Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
pudor, dispositional Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
pudor, occurrent Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
pudor, role of seeing in Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
pudor, scripts of, as complementary Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
pudor, scripts of, symmetries among Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
pudor, tension internal to Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
pudor Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
relation with reality Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 174
revisionary Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 175
rhetoric Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 172
roman cityscape Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 172, 173, 174, 175
romance, venues for Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
romanitas Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 172, 173, 174
romulus/quirinus Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 174
seeing, and invidia, role of, in pudor Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
silence Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 175
splitting of, in pudor Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
spoils Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 175
status, and fastidium, status quo, preservation of Kaster, Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome (2005) 56
story, subject matter and persona Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 74
temple Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 172, 173
temple of, isis Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
theater Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 172, 173, 174
theatre of balbus Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
theatre of marcellus Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
theatre of pompey Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
theatres, for romantic pursuit Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
tiberius Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 173
topography of rome, from ovid Jenkyns, God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination (2013) 105
venus Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 173, 174, 175
vision and viewership Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 173
women' Pandey, The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome (2018) 175