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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8253
New Testament, Romans, 8.30


οὓς δὲ προώρισεν, τούτους καὶ ἐκάλεσεν· καὶ οὓς ἐκάλεσεν, τούτους καὶ ἐδικαίωσεν· οὓς δὲ ἐδικαίωσεν, τούτους καὶ ἐδόξασεν.Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

67 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 4.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices.
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.22-4.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.22. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה בְּנִי בְכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 4.23. וָאֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ שַׁלַּח אֶת־בְּנִי וְיַעַבְדֵנִי וַתְּמָאֵן לְשַׁלְּחוֹ הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי הֹרֵג אֶת־בִּנְךָ בְּכֹרֶךָ׃ 4.22. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh: Thus saith the LORD: Israel is My son, My first-born." 4.23. And I have said unto thee: Let My son go, that he may serve Me; and thou hast refused to let him go. ‘Behold, I will slay thy first-born.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 11.1-11.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.1. אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה יֵלְכוּ כְּאַרְיֵה יִשְׁאָג כִּי־הוּא יִשְׁאַג וְיֶחֶרְדוּ בָנִים מִיָּם׃ 11.1. כִּי נַעַר יִשְׂרָאֵל וָאֹהֲבֵהוּ וּמִמִּצְרַיִם קָרָאתִי לִבְנִי׃ 11.2. קָרְאוּ לָהֶם כֵּן הָלְכוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם לַבְּעָלִים יְזַבֵּחוּ וְלַפְּסִלִים יְקַטֵּרוּן׃ 11.3. וְאָנֹכִי תִרְגַּלְתִּי לְאֶפְרַיִם קָחָם עַל־זְרוֹעֹתָיו וְלֹא יָדְעוּ כִּי רְפָאתִים׃ 11.4. בְּחַבְלֵי אָדָם אֶמְשְׁכֵם בַּעֲבֹתוֹת אַהֲבָה וָאֶהְיֶה לָהֶם כִּמְרִימֵי עֹל עַל לְחֵיהֶם וְאַט אֵלָיו אוֹכִיל׃ 11.1. When Israel was a child, then I loved him, And out of Egypt I called My son." 11.2. The more they called them, the more they went from them; They sacrificed unto the Baalim, And offered to graven images." 11.3. And I, I taught Ephraim to walk, Taking them by their arms; But they knew not that I healed them." 11.4. I drew them with cords of a man, With bands of love; And I was to them as they that take off the yoke on their jaws, And I fed them gently."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.7, 54.8, 89.20-89.37 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 89.21. מָצָאתִי דָּוִד עַבְדִּי בְּשֶׁמֶן קָדְשִׁי מְשַׁחְתִּיו׃ 89.22. אֲשֶׁר יָדִי תִּכּוֹן עִמּוֹ אַף־זְרוֹעִי תְאַמְּצֶנּוּ׃ 89.23. לֹא־יַשִּׁא אוֹיֵב בּוֹ וּבֶן־עַוְלָה לֹא יְעַנֶּנּוּ׃ 89.24. וְכַתּוֹתִי מִפָּנָיו צָרָיו וּמְשַׂנְאָיו אֶגּוֹף׃ 89.25. וֶאֶמוּנָתִי וְחַסְדִּי עִמּוֹ וּבִשְׁמִי תָּרוּם קַרְנוֹ׃ 89.26. וְשַׂמְתִּי בַיָּם יָדוֹ וּבַנְּהָרוֹת יְמִינוֹ׃ 89.27. הוּא יִקְרָאֵנִי אָבִי אָתָּה אֵלִי וְצוּר יְשׁוּעָתִי׃ 89.28. אַף־אָנִי בְּכוֹר אֶתְּנֵהוּ עֶלְיוֹן לְמַלְכֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 89.29. לְעוֹלָם אשמור־[אֶשְׁמָר־] לוֹ חַסְדִּי וּבְרִיתִי נֶאֱמֶנֶת לוֹ׃ 89.31. אִם־יַעַזְבוּ בָנָיו תּוֹרָתִי וּבְמִשְׁפָּטַי לֹא יֵלֵכוּן׃ 89.32. אִם־חֻקֹּתַי יְחַלֵּלוּ וּמִצְוֺתַי לֹא יִשְׁמֹרוּ׃ 89.33. וּפָקַדְתִּי בְשֵׁבֶט פִּשְׁעָם וּבִנְגָעִים עֲוֺנָם׃ 89.34. וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־אָפִיר מֵעִמּוֹ וְלֹא־אֲשַׁקֵּר בֶּאֱמוּנָתִי׃ 89.35. לֹא־אֲחַלֵּל בְּרִיתִי וּמוֹצָא שְׂפָתַי לֹא אֲשַׁנֶּה׃ 89.36. אַחַת נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי בְקָדְשִׁי אִם־לְדָוִד אֲכַזֵּב׃ 89.37. זַרְעוֹ לְעוֹלָם יִהְיֶה וְכִסְאוֹ כַשֶּׁמֶשׁ נֶגְדִּי׃ 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 89.20. Then Thou spokest in vision to Thy godly ones, And saidst: 'I have laid help upon one that is mighty; I have exalted one chosen out of the people." 89.21. I have found David My servant; With My holy oil have I anointed him;" 89.22. With whom My hand shall be established; Mine arm also shall strengthen him." 89.23. The enemy shall not exact from him; Nor the son of wickedness afflict him." 89.24. And I will beat to pieces his adversaries before him, And smite them that hate him." 89.25. But My faithfulness and My mercy shall be with him; And through My name shall his horn be exalted." 89.26. I will set his hand also on the sea, And his right hand on the rivers." 89.27. He shall call unto Me: Thou art my Father, My God, and the rock of my salvation. ." 89.28. I also will appoint him first-born, The highest of the kings of the earth." 89.29. For ever will I keep for him My mercy, And My covet shall stand fast with him." 89.30. His seed also will I make to endure for ever, And his throne as the days of heaven." 89.31. If his children forsake My law, And walk not in Mine ordices; :" 89.32. If they profane My statutes, And keep not My commandments;" 89.33. Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, And their iniquity with strokes." 89.34. But My mercy will I not break off from him, Nor will I be false to My faithfulness." 89.35. My covet will I not profane, Nor alter that which is gone out of My lips." 89.36. Once have I sworn by My holiness: Surely I will not be false unto David;" 89.37. His seed shall endure for ever, And his throne as the sun before Me."
6. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.14. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 7.14. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:"
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 61.1-61.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 31.31-31.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 31.32. לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.34. וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃ 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;" 31.32. not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD." 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;" 31.34. and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more."
9. Aristotle, Rhetoric, 2.1.2-2.1.4, 2.1.8, 2.8.2 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10. Anon., 1 Enoch, 60.8 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

60.8. abysses of the ocean over the fountains of the waters. But the male is named Behemoth, who occupied with his breast a waste wilderness named Duidain, on the east of the garden where the elect and righteous dwell, where my grandfather was taken up, the seventh from Adam, the first 1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
11. Cicero, On Invention, 1.106 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.106. conquestionis autem huiusmodi de rebus partes petere oportebit. Conquestio est oratio auditorum misericordiam cap- tans. in hac primum animum auditoris mitem et misericordem conficere oportet, quo facilius conque- stione commoveri possit. id locis communibus efficere oportebit, per quos fortunae vis in omnes et hominum infirmitas ostenditur; qua oratione habita graviter et sententiose maxime demittitur animus hominum et ad misericordiam conparatur, cum in alieno malo suam infirmitatem considerabit.
12. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.37 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.37. Zeno's pupil Aristo holds equally mistaken views. He thinks that the form of the deity cannot be comprehended, and he denies the gods sensation, and in fact is uncertain whether god is a living being at all. Cleanthes, who attended Zeno's lectures at the same time as the last-named, at one moment says that the world itself is god, at another gives this name to the mind and soul of the universe, and at another decides that the most unquestionable deity is that remote all‑surrounding fiery atmosphere called the aether, which encircles and embraces the universe on its outer side at an exceedingly lofty altitude; while in the books that he wrote to combat hedonism he babbles like one demented, now imagining gods of some definite shape and form, now assigning full divinity to the stars, now pronouncing that nothing is more divine than reason. The result is that the god whom we apprehend by our intelligence, and desire to make to correspond with a mental concept as a seal tallies with its impression, has utterly and entirely vanished.
13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 4.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness.
15. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, On The Admirable Style of Demosthenes, 6, 5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16. Ovid, Fasti, 2.503-2.504 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.503. It seemed to him that Romulus, handsome, more than human 2.504. And finely dressed, stood there, in the centre of the road
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.1-3.2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. There was once a time when, devoting my leisure to philosophy and to the contemplation of the world and the things in it, I reaped the fruit of excellent, and desirable, and blessed intellectual feelings, being always living among the divine oracles and doctrines, on which I fed incessantly and insatiably, to my great delight, never entertaining any low or grovelling thoughts, nor ever wallowing in the pursuit of glory or wealth, or the delights of the body, but I appeared to be raised on high and borne aloft by a certain inspiration of the soul, and to dwell in the regions of the sun and moon, and to associate with the whole heaven, and the whole universal world. 3.2. At that time, therefore, looking down from above, from the air, and straining the eye of my mind as from a watch-tower, I surveyed the unspeakable contemplation of all the things on the earth, and looked upon myself as happy as having forcibly escaped from all the evil fates that can attack human life.
18. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 13.3, 28.4, 37.5 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

19. Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander, 6.1.5 (1st cent. CE

6.1.5. ἐπεὶ μέντοι ἀτρεκέστερον ἐξήλεγξε τὰ ἀμφὶ τῷ ποταμῷ τῷ Ἰνδῷ, οὕτω δὴ μαθεῖν παρὰ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων τὸν μὲν Ὑδάσπην τῷ Ἀκεσίνῃ, τὸν Ἀκεσίνην δὲ τῷ Ἰνδῷ τό τε ὕδωρ ξυμβάλλοντας καὶ τῷ ὀνόματι ξυγχωροῦντας, τὸν Ἰνδὸν δὲ ἐκδιδόντα ἤδη ἐς τὴν μεγάλην θάλασσαν, δίστομον τὸν Ἰνδὸν ὄντα, οὐδέ ν τι αὐτῷ προσῆκον τῆς γῆς τῆς Αἰγυπτίας· τηνικαῦτα δὲ τῆς ἐπιστολῆς τῆς πρὸς τὴν μητέρα τοῦτο τὸ ἀμφὶ τῷ Νείλῳ γραφὲν ἀφελεῖν.
20. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.2.14, 1.9.11, 1.9.15, 1.29.3, 2.11.20, 2.16.28, 2.18.11, 2.23.30-2.23.35, 3.3.14-3.3.16, 3.22.1-3.22.2, 3.24.85, 4.1.1, 4.1.87-4.1.88, 4.1.111-4.1.112, 4.1.153, 4.4.33, 4.4.38, 4.5.28, 4.7.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Epictetus, Fragments, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. New Testament, 1 John, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. Beloved, now we are children of God, and it is not yet revealed what we will be. But we know that, when he is revealed, we will be like him; for we will see him just as he is.
23. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.4-1.5, 1.7-1.8, 5.8-5.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. to an incorruptible and undefiled inheritance that doesn't fade away, reserved in heaven for you 1.5. who by the power of God are guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. 1.7. that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ -- 1.8. whom not having known you love; in whom, though now you don't see him, yet believing, you rejoice greatly with joy unspeakable and full of glory -- 5.8. Be sober and self-controlled. Be watchful. Your adversary the devil, walks around like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour. 5.9. Withstand him steadfast in your faith, knowing that your brothers who are in the world are undergoing the same sufferings. 5.10. But may the God of all grace (who called you to his eternal glory by Christ Jesus), after you have suffered a while, perfect, establish, strengthen, and settle you. 5.11. To him be the glory and the power forever and ever. Amen.
24. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.1-1.2, 1.6, 1.9, 1.19, 1.26, 2.6-2.8, 3.1, 3.6, 3.21-3.22, 4.1-4.2, 4.6-4.13, 4.16-4.17, 5.2, 6.11, 7.15-7.24, 8.3, 9.4, 9.12, 9.21, 9.24, 10.1-10.2, 13.1-13.3, 13.8-13.13, 14.20, 15.1-15.5, 15.19-15.28, 15.35-15.58 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the willof God, and our brother Sosthenes 1.2. to the assembly of God whichis at Corinth; those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to besaints, with all who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in everyplace, both theirs and ours: 1.6. even as thetestimony of Christ was confirmed in you: 1.9. God is faithful, through whom you were calledinto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord. 1.19. For it is written,"I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,I will bring the discernment of the discerning to nothing. 1.26. For you seeyour calling, brothers, that not many are wise according to the flesh,not many mighty, and not many noble; 2.6. We speak wisdom, however, among those who are fullgrown; yet a wisdom not of this world, nor of the rulers of this world,who are coming to nothing. 2.7. But we speak God's wisdom in amystery, the wisdom that has been hidden, which God foreordained beforethe worlds to our glory 2.8. which none of the rulers of this worldhas known. For had they known it, they wouldn't have crucified the Lordof glory. 3.1. Brothers, I couldn't speak to you as to spiritual, but as tofleshly, as to babies in Christ. 3.6. I planted. Apollos watered. But Godgave the increase. 3.21. Therefore let no one boast in men. For all things are yours 3.22. whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death,or things present, or things to come. All are yours 4.1. So let a man think of us as Christ's servants, and stewards ofGod's mysteries. 4.2. Here, moreover, it is required of stewards, thatthey be found faithful. 4.6. Now these things, brothers, I have in a figure transferred tomyself and Apollos for your sakes, that in us you might learn not tothink beyond the things which are written, that none of you be puffedup against one another. 4.7. For who makes you different? And what doyou have that you didn't receive? But if you did receive it, why do youboast as if you had not received it? 4.8. You are already filled. Youhave already become rich. You have come to reign without us. Yes, and Iwish that you did reign, that we also might reign with you. 4.9. For,I think that God has displayed us, the apostles, last of all, like mensentenced to death. For we are made a spectacle to the world, both toangels and men. 4.10. We are fools for Christ's sake, but you are wisein Christ. We are weak, but you are strong. You have honor, but we havedishonor. 4.11. Even to this present hour we hunger, thirst, arenaked, are beaten, and have no certain dwelling place. 4.12. We toil,working with our own hands. Being reviled, we bless. Being persecuted,we endure. 4.13. Being defamed, we entreat. We are made as the filthof the world, the dirt wiped off by all, even until now. 4.16. I beg you therefore, be imitators of me. 4.17. Becauseof this I have sent Timothy to you, who is my beloved and faithfulchild in the Lord, who will remind you of my ways which are in Christ,even as I teach everywhere in every assembly. 5.2. You are puffed up, anddidn't rather mourn, that he who had done this deed might be removedfrom among you. 6.11. Such were some of you, but you were washed. But you were sanctified.But you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and in the Spiritof our God. 7.15. Yet if the unbeliever departs, let therebe separation. The brother or the sister is not under bondage in suchcases, but God has called us in peace. 7.16. For how do you know,wife, whether you will save your husband? Or how do you know, husband,whether you will save your wife? 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 7.20. Let eachman stay in that calling in which he was called. 7.21. Were you calledbeing a bondservant? Don't let that bother you, but if you get anopportunity to become free, use it. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 7.24. Brothers, let eachman, in whatever condition he was called, stay in that condition withGod. 8.3. But if anyone loves God, the same is known by him. 9.4. Have we no right to eat and to drink? 9.12. If others partake of this right overyou, don't we yet more? Nevertheless we did not use this right, but webear all things, that we may cause no hindrance to the gospel ofChrist. 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.24. Don't youknow that those who run in a race all run, but one receives the prize?Run like that, that you may win. 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 13.1. If I speak with the languages of men and of angels, but don'thave love, I have become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal. 13.2. If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and allknowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, butdon't have love, I am nothing. 13.3. If I dole out all my goods tofeed the poor, and if I give my body to be burned, but don't have love,it profits me nothing. 13.8. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies,they will be done away with. Where there are various languages, theywill cease. Where there is knowledge, it will be done away with. 13.9. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part; 13.10. but when thatwhich is complete has come, then that which is partial will be doneaway with. 13.11. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I felt as achild, I thought as a child. Now that I have become a man, I have putaway childish things. 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known. 13.13. But now faith, hope, and love remain-- these three. The greatest of these is love. 14.20. Brothers, don't be children in thoughts, yet in malice bebabies, but in thoughts be mature. 15.1. Now I declare to you, brothers, the gospel which I preachedto you, which also you received, in which you also stand 15.2. bywhich also you are saved, if you hold firmly the word which I preachedto you -- unless you believed in vain. 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.4. that he was buried, that he wasraised on the third day according to the Scriptures 15.5. and that heappeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 15.19. If we have only hoped inChrist in this life, we are of all men most pitiable. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 15.35. But someone will say, "Howare the dead raised?" and, "With what kind of body do they come? 15.36. You foolish one, that which you yourself sow is not made aliveunless it dies. 15.37. That which you sow, you don't sow the body thatwill be, but a bare grain, maybe of wheat, or of some other kind. 15.38. But God gives it a body even as it pleased him, and to eachseed a body of its own. 15.39. All flesh is not the same flesh, butthere is one flesh of men, another flesh of animals, another of fish,and another of birds. 15.40. There are also celestial bodies, andterrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial differs from that ofthe terrestrial. 15.41. There is one glory of the sun, another gloryof the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs fromanother star in glory. 15.42. So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly. 15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption. 15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed 15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory. 15.55. Death, where is your sting?Hades, where is your victory? 15.56. The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 15.57. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our LordJesus Christ. 15.58. Therefore, my beloved brothers, be steadfast,immovable, always abounding in the Lord's work, because you know thatyour labor is not in vain in the Lord.
25. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.4, 2.12, 3.2-3.3, 4.7, 4.13-4.14, 4.16-4.17, 5.10, 5.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. We know, brothers loved by God, that you are chosen 2.12. to the end that you should walk worthily of God, who calls you into his own kingdom and glory. 3.2. and sent Timothy, our brother and God's servant in the gospel of Christ, to establish you, and to comfort you concerning your faith; 3.3. that no one be moved by these afflictions. For you know that we are appointed to this task. 4.7. For God called us not for uncleanness, but in sanctification. 4.13. But we don't want you to be ignorant, brothers, concerning those who have fallen asleep, so that you don't grieve like the rest, who have no hope. 4.14. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so those who have fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with him. 4.16. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with God's trumpet. The dead in Christ will rise first 4.17. then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. So we will be with the Lord forever. 5.10. who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him. 5.24. Faithful is he who calls you, who will also do it.
26. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.12, 1.22, 2.12, 2.15, 3.18, 4.3, 4.4, 4.6, 4.7-5.10, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 6.4, 8.9, 9.13, 11.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 1.4-1.8, 1.11-1.12, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. so that we ourselves boast about you in the assemblies of God for your patience and faith in all your persecutions and in the afflictions which you endure. 1.5. This is an obvious sign of the righteous judgment of God, to the end that you may be counted worthy of the Kingdom of God, for which you also suffer. 1.6. Since it is a righteous thing with God to repay affliction to those who afflict you 1.7. and to give relief to you that are afflicted with us, when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels in flaming fire 1.8. giving vengeance to those who don't know God, and to those who don't obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus 1.11. To this end we also pray always for you, that our God may count you worthy of your calling, and fulfill every desire of goodness and work of faith, with power; 1.12. that the name of our Lord Jesus may be glorified in you, and you in him, according to the grace of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ. 2.14. to which he called you through our gospel, for the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.
28. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.7-1.8, 2.3, 2.11-2.12, 2.18, 3.10-3.14, 4.7-4.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. For God didn't give us a spirit of fear, but of power, love, and self-control. 1.8. Therefore don't be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner; but endure hardship for the gospel according to the power of God 2.3. You therefore must endure hardship, as a good soldier of Christ Jesus. 2.11. This saying is faithful: For if we died with him, We will also live with him. 2.12. If we endure, We will also reign with him. If we deny him, He also will deny us. 2.18. men who have erred concerning the truth, saying that the resurrection is already past, and overthrowing the faith of some. 3.10. But you did follow my teaching, conduct, purpose, faith, patience, love, steadfastness 3.11. persecutions, and sufferings: those things that happened to me at Antioch, Iconium, and Lystra. I endured those persecutions. Out of them all the Lord delivered me. 3.12. Yes, and all who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus will suffer persecution. 3.13. But evil men and impostors will grow worse and worse, deceiving and being deceived. 3.14. But you remain in the things which you have learned and have been assured of, knowing from whom you have learned them. 4.7. I have fought the good fight. I have finished the course. I have kept the faith. 4.8. From now on, there is stored up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, will give to me on that day; and not to me only, but also to all those who have loved his appearing.
29. New Testament, Acts, 13.30-13.37 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13.30. But God raised him from the dead 13.31. and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. 13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 13.36. For David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay. 13.37. But he whom God raised up saw no decay.
30. New Testament, Apocalypse, 12.7, 21.1-21.5, 21.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.7. There was war in the sky. Michael and his angels made war on the dragon. The dragon and his angels made war. 21.1. I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth have passed away, and the sea is no more. 21.2. I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready like a bride adorned for her husband. 21.3. I heard a loud voice out of heaven saying, "Behold, God's dwelling is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them as their God. 21.4. He will wipe away from them every tear from their eyes. Death will be no more; neither will there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain, any more. The first things have passed away. 21.5. He who sits on the throne said, "Behold, I am making all things new." He said, "Write, for these words of God are faithful and true. 21.8. But for the cowardly, unbelieving, sinners, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars, their part is in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, which is the second death.
31. New Testament, Colossians, 1.26-1.28, 2.12-2.13, 3.1-3.12, 3.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.26. the mystery which has been hidden for ages and generations. But now it has been revealed to his saints 1.27. to whom God was pleased to make known what are the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory; 1.28. whom we proclaim, admonishing every man and teaching every man in all wisdom, that we may present every man perfect in Christ Jesus; 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 2.13. You were dead through your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh. He made you alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses; 3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. 3.2. Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are on the earth. 3.3. For you died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 3.4. When Christ, our life, is revealed, then you will also be revealed with him in glory. 3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry; 3.6. for which things' sake the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 3.7. You also once walked in those, when you lived in them; 3.8. but now you also put them all away: anger, wrath, malice, slander, and shameful speaking out of your mouth. 3.9. Don't lie to one another, seeing that you have put off the old man with his doings 3.10. and have put on the new man, that is being renewed in knowledge after the image of his Creator 3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all. 3.12. Put on therefore, as God's elect, holy and beloved, a heart of compassion, kindness, lowliness, humility, and perseverance; 3.15. And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to which also you were called in one body; and be thankful.
32. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.3-1.14, 1.18-1.19, 2.6, 3.6, 4.4, 4.22-4.24, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.11. in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his will; 1.12. to the end that we should be to the praise of his glory, we who had before hoped in Christ: 1.13. in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, -- in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise 1.14. who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. 1.18. having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope of his calling, and what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints 1.19. and what is the exceeding greatness of his power toward us who believe, according to that working of the strength of his might 2.6. and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus 3.6. that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel 4.4. There is one body, and one Spirit, even as you also were called in one hope of your calling; 4.22. that you put away, as concerning your former way of life, the old man, that grows corrupt after the lusts of deceit; 4.23. and that you be renewed in the spirit of your mind 4.24. and put on the new man, who in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of truth. 5.5. Know this for sure, that no sexually immoral person, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the Kingdom of Christ and God.
33. New Testament, Galatians, 1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 2.16, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 3.8, 3.23-4.7, 3.26, 3.28, 3.29, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.23, 5.5, 5.6, 5.8, 5.13, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 6.1, 6.2, 6.8, 6.14, 6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead)
34. New Testament, Hebrews, 12.28, 13.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.28. Therefore, receiving a kingdom that can't be shaken, let us have grace, by which we may offer service well pleasing to God, with reverence and awe 13.11. For the bodies of those animals, whose blood is brought into the holy place by the high priest as an offering for sin, are burned outside of the camp.
35. New Testament, Philippians, 1.6, 1.23, 1.27-1.29, 2.13, 3.10-3.14, 3.19, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. being confident of this very thing, that he who began a good work in you will complete it until the day of Jesus Christ. 1.23. But I am in a dilemma between the two, having the desire to depart and be with Christ, which is far better. 1.27. Only let your manner of life be worthy of the gospel of Christ, that, whether I come and see you or am absent, I may hear of your state, that you stand firm in one spirit, with one soul striving for the faith of the gospel; 1.28. and in nothing frightened by the adversaries, which is for them a proof of destruction, but to you of salvation, and that from God. 1.29. Because it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ, not only to believe in him, but also to suffer on his behalf 2.13. For it is God who works in you both to will and to work, for his good pleasure. 3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead. 3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus. 3.13. Brothers, I don't regard myself as yet having taken hold, but one thing I do. Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before 3.14. I press on toward the goal for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. 3.19. whose end is destruction, whose god is the belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who think about earthly things. 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself.
36. New Testament, Romans, 1.1, 1.4, 1.7, 1.9, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.30, 1.31, 1.32, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.14, 2.15, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 2.24, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29, 3.6, 3.7, 3.18, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.30, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.19, 4.20, 4.24, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 6, 6.1, 6.1-8.13, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.22, 6.23, 7, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 9, 9.1, 9.4, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.29, 10, 10.9, 10.10, 11, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.33, 11.34, 11.35, 11.36, 12.2, 12.4, 12.5, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 14.7, 14.8, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 15.33, 15.44, 15.45, 15.54, 15.55, 15.56, 15.58 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God
37. New Testament, John, 1.9, 1.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace.
38. New Testament, Luke, 1.35, 3.22-3.38, 14.15-14.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.35. The angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God. 3.22. and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased. 3.23. Jesus himself, when he began to teach, was about thirty years old, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli 3.24. the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph 3.25. the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai 3.26. the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Joseph, the son of Judah 3.27. the son of Joa, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri 3.28. the son of Melchi, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmodam, the son of Er 3.29. the son of Josa, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi 3.30. the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jo, the son of Eliakim 3.31. the son of Melea, the son of Me, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David 3.32. the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon 3.33. the son of Amminadab, the son of Aram, the son of Joram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah 3.34. the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor 3.35. the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah 3.36. the son of Cai, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech 3.38. the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God. 14.15. When one of those who sat at the table with him heard these things, he said to him, "Blessed is he who will feast in the Kingdom of God! 14.16. But he said to him, "A certain man made a great supper, and he invited many people. 14.17. He sent out his servant at supper time to tell those who were invited, 'Come, for everything is ready now.' 14.18. They all as one began to make excuses. "The first said to him, 'I have bought a field, and I must go and see it. Please have me excused.' 14.19. Another said, 'I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I must go try them out. Please have me excused.' 14.20. Another said, 'I have married a wife, and therefore I can't come.' 14.21. That servant came, and told his lord these things. Then the master of the house, being angry, said to his servant, 'Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in the poor, maimed, blind, and lame.' 14.22. The servant said, 'Lord, it is done as you commanded, and there is still room.' 14.23. The lord said to the servant, 'Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled. 14.24. For I tell you that none of those men who were invited will taste of my supper.'
39. New Testament, Mark, 1.1, 1.8, 1.21-1.28, 3.28-3.30, 3.35, 13.11, 14.38, 15.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 1.21. They went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught. 1.22. They were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes. 1.23. Immediately there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit, and he cried out 1.24. saying, "Ha! What do we have to do with you, Jesus, you Nazarene? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 1.25. Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be quiet, and come out of him! 1.26. The unclean spirit, convulsing him and crying with a loud voice, came out of him. 1.27. They were all amazed, so that they questioned among themselves, saying, "What is this? A new teaching? For with authority he commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him! 1.28. The report of him went out immediately everywhere into all the region of Galilee and its surrounding area. 3.28. Most assuredly I tell you, all of the sons of men's sins will be forgiven them, including their blasphemies with which they may blaspheme; 3.29. but whoever may blaspheme against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin 3.30. -- because they said, "He has an unclean spirit. 3.35. For whoever does the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother. 13.11. When they lead you away and deliver you up, don't be anxious beforehand, or premeditate what you will say, but say whatever will be given you in that hour. For it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit. 14.38. Watch and pray, that you not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. 15.21. They compelled one passing by, coming from the country, Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to go with them, that he might bear his cross.
40. New Testament, Matthew, 8.11, 22.1-22.14, 26.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.11. I tell you that many will come from the east and the west, and will sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the Kingdom of Heaven 22.1. Jesus answered and spoke again in parables to them, saying 22.2. The Kingdom of Heaven is like a certain king, who made a marriage feast for his son 22.3. and sent out his servants to call those who were invited to the marriage feast, but they would not come. 22.4. Again he sent out other servants, saying, 'Tell those who are invited, "Behold, I have made ready my dinner. My oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready. Come to the marriage feast!"' 22.5. But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his own farm, another to his merchandise 22.6. and the rest grabbed his servants, and treated them shamefully, and killed them. 22.7. But the king was angry, and he sent his armies, destroyed those murderers, and burned their city. 22.8. Then he said to his servants, 'The wedding is ready, but those who were invited weren't worthy. 22.9. Go therefore to the intersections of the highways, and as many as you may find, invite to the marriage feast.' 22.10. Those servants went out into the highways, and gathered together as many as they found, both bad and good. The wedding was filled with guests. 22.11. But when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man who didn't have on wedding clothing 22.12. and he said to him, 'Friend, how did you come in here not wearing wedding clothing?' He was speechless. 22.13. Then the king said to the servants, 'Bind him hand and foot, take him away, and throw him into the outer darkness; there is where the weeping and grinding of teeth will be.' 22.14. For many are called, but few chosen. 26.29. But I tell you that I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom.
41. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 6.1-6.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

42. Anon., Odes of Solomon, 13.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

43. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 2.22.131-2.22.136, 3.3.12, 3.11.76, 3.14.95 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

44. Hermas, Similitudes, 5.7.1, 9.1.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

45. Hermas, Visions, 3.9.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

46. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 9.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.8. The doctrine of this Callistus having been reported abroad throughout the entire world, a cunning man, and full of desperation, one called Alcibiades, dwelling in Apamea, a city of Syria, examined carefully into this business. And considering himself a more formidable character, and more ingenious in such tricks, than Callistus, he repaired to Rome; and he brought some book, alleging that a certain just man, Elchasai, had received this from Serae, a town of Parthia, and that he gave it to one called Sobiai. And the contents of this volume, he alleged, had been revealed by an angel whose height was 24 schoenoi, which make 96 miles, and whose breadth is 4 schoenoi, and from shoulder to shoulder 6 schoenoi; and the tracks of his feet extend to the length of three and a half schoenoi, which are equal to fourteen miles, while the breadth is one schoenos and a half, and the height half a schoenos. And he alleges that also there is a female with him, whose measurement, he says, is according to the standards already mentioned. And he asserts that the male (angel) is Son of God, but that the female is called Holy Spirit. By detailing these prodigies he imagines that he confounds fools, while at the same time he utters the following sentence: that there was preached unto men a new remission of sins in the third year of Trajan's reign. And Elchasai determines the nature of baptism, and even this I shall explain. He alleges, as to those who have been involved in every description of lasciviousness, and filthiness, and in acts of wickedness, if only any of them be a believer, that he determines that such a one, on being converted, and obeying the book, and believing its contents, should by baptism receive remission of sins. Elchasai, however, ventured to continue these knaveries, taking occasion from the aforesaid tenet of which Callistus stood forward as a champion. For, perceiving that many were delighted at this sort of promise, he considered that he could opportunely make the attempt just alluded to. And notwithstanding we offered resistance to this, and did not permit many for any length of time to become victims of the delusion. For we carried conviction to the people, when we affirmed that this was the operation of a spurious spirit, and the invention of a heart inflated with pride, and that this one like a wolf had risen up against many wandering sheep, which Callistus, by his arts of deception, had scattered abroad. But since we have commenced, we shall not be silent as regards the opinions of this man. And, in the first place, we shall expose his life, and we shall prove that his supposed discipline is a mere pretence. And next, I shall adduce the principal heads of his assertions, in order that the reader, looking fixedly on the treatises of this (Elchasai), may be made aware what and what sort is the heresy which has been audaciously attempted by this man.
47. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 1.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

48. Maximus of Tyre, Dialexeis, 11.9-11.12 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 4.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

50. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 4.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

51. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 4.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

52. Origen, Commentariorum Series In Evangelium Matthaei (Mt. 22.342763), 38 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

53. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, 10.11, 13.11, 13.23, 17.33 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.11. Again the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast into the sea. Matthew 13:47 As in the case of images and statues, the likenesses are not likenesses in every respect of those things in relation to which they are made; but, for example, the image painted with wax on the plane surface of wood has the likeness of the surface along with the color, but does not further preserve the hollows and prominences, but only their outward appearance; and in the moulding of statues an endeavour is made to preserve the likeness in respect of the hollows and the prominences, but not in respect of the color; and, if the cast be formed of wax, it endeavours to preserve both, I mean both the color and also the hollows and the prominences, but is not indeed an image of the things in the respect of depth; so conceive with me also that, in the case of the similitudes in the Gospel, when the kingdom of heaven is likened unto anything, the comparison does not extend to all the features of that to which the kingdom is compared, but only to those features which are required by the argument in hand. And here, accordingly, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast into the sea, not (as supposed by some, who represent that by this word the different natures of those who have come into the net, to-wit, the evil and the righteous, are treated of), as if it is to be thought that, because of the phrase which gathered of every kind, there are many different natures of the righteous and likewise also of the evil; for to such an interpretation all the Scriptures are opposed, which emphasise the freedom of the will, and censure those who sin and approve those who do right; or otherwise blame could not rightly attach to those of the kinds that were such by nature, nor praise to those of a better kind. For the reason why fishes are good or bad lies not in the souls of the fishes, but is based on that which the Word said with knowledge, Let the waters bring forth creeping things with living souls, Genesis 1:20 when, also, God made great sea-monsters and every soul of creeping creatures which the waters brought forth according to their kinds. Genesis 1:21 There, accordingly, The waters brought forth every soul of creeping animals according to their kinds, the cause not being in it; but here we are responsible for our being good kinds and worthy of what are called vessels, or bad and worthy of being cast outside. For it is not the nature in us which is the cause of the evil, but it is the voluntary choice which works evil; and so our nature is not the cause of righteousness, as if it were incapable of admitting unrighteousness, but it is the principle which we have admitted that makes men righteous; for also you never see the kinds of things in the water changing from the bad kinds of fishes into the good, or from the better kind to the worse; but you can always behold the righteous or evil among men either coming from wickedness to virtue, or returning from progress towards virtue to the flood of wickedness. Wherefore also in Ezekiel, concerning the man who turns away from unrighteousness to the keeping of the divine commandments, it is thus written: But if the wicked man turn away from all his wickednesses which he has done, etc., down to the words, that he turn from his wicked way and live; Ezekiel 18:20-23 but concerning the man who returns from the advance towards virtue unto the flood of wickedness it is said, But in the case of the righteous man turning away from his righteousness and committing iniquity, etc., down to the words, in his sins which he has sinned in them shall he die. Ezekiel 18:24 Let those who, from the parable of the drag-net, introduce the doctrine of different natures, tell us in regard to the wicked man who afterwards turned aside from all the wickednesses which he committed and keeps all the commandments of God, and does that which is righteous and merciful, of what nature was he when he was wicked? Clearly not of a nature to be praised. If verily of a nature to be censured, of what kind of nature can he reasonably be described, when he turns away from all his sins which he did? For if he were of the bad class of natures, because of his former deeds, how did he change to that which was better? Or if because of his subsequent deeds you would say that he was of the good class, how being good by nature did he become wicked? And you will also meet with a like dilemma in regard to the righteous man turning away from his righteousness and committing unrighteousness in all manner of sins. For before he turned away from righteousness, being occupied with righteous deeds he was not of a bad nature, for a bad nature could not be in righteousness, since a bad tree - that is wickedness- cannot produce good fruits - the fruits that spring from virtue. Again, on the other hand, if he had been of a good and unchangeable nature he would not have turned away from the good after being called righteous, so as to commit unrighteousness in all his sins which he committed. 13.11. And this may be put in another way. There are some who are kings' sons on the earth, and yet they are not sons of those kings, but sons, and sons absolutely; but others, because of their being strangers to the sons of the kings of the earth, and sons of no one of those upon the earth, but on this very account are sons, whether of God or of His Son, or of some one of those who are God's. If, then, the Saviour inquires of Peter, saying, The kings of the earth from whom do they receive toll or tribute - from their own sons or from strangers? Matthew 17:25 and Peter replies not from their own sons, but from strangers, then Jesus says about such as are strangers to the kings of the earth, and on account of being free are sons, Therefore the sons are free; Matthew 17:26 for the sons of the kings of the earth are not free, since every one that commits sin is the bond-servant of sin, John 8:34 but they are free who abide in the truth of the word of God, and on this account, know the truth, that they also may become free from sin. If, any one then, is a son simply, and not in this matter wholly a son of the kings of the earth, he is free. And nevertheless, though he is free, he takes care not to offend even the kings of the earth, and their sons, and those who receive the half-shekel; wherefore He says, Let us not cause them to stumble, but go and cast your net, and take up the fish that first comes up, Matthew 17:27 etc. But I would inquire of those who are pleased to make myths about different natures, of what sort of nature they were, whether the kings of the earth, or their sons, or those who receive the half-shekel, whom the Saviour does not wish to offend; it appears of a verity, ex hypothesi, that they are not of a nature worthy of praise, and yet He took heed not to cause them to stumble, and He prevents any stumbling-block being put in their way, that they may not sin more grievously, and that with a view to their being saved - if they will - even by receiving Him who has spared them from being caused to stumble. And as in a place verily of consolation - for such is, by interpretation, Capernaum - comforting the disciple as being both free and a son, He gives to him the power of catching the fish first, that when it came up Peter might be comforted by its coming up and being caught, and by the stater being taken from its mouth, in order to be paid to those whose the stater was, and who demanded as their own such a piece of money. 13.23. Next we must test accurately the meaning of the word necessity in the passage, For there is a necessity that the occasions come, Matthew 18:7 and to the like effect in Luke, It is 'inadmissible' but that occasions of stumbling should come, Luke 18:1 instead of impossible. And as it is necessary that that which is mortal should die, and it is impossible but that it should die, and as it must needs be that he who is in the body should be fed, for it is impossible for one who is not fed to live, so it is necessary and impossible but that occasions of stumbling should arise, since there is a necessity also that wickedness should exist before virtue in men, from which wickedness stumbling-blocks arise; for it is impossible that a man should be found altogether sinless, and who, without sin, has attained to virtue. For the wickedness in the evil powers, which is the primal source of the wickedness among men, is altogether eager to work through certain instruments against the men in the world. And perhaps also the wicked powers are more exasperated when they are cast out by the word of Jesus, and their worship is lessened, their customary sacrifices not being offered unto them; and there is a necessity that these offenses come; but there is no necessity that they should come through any particular one; wherefore the woe falls on the man through whom the stumbling-block comes, as he has given a place to the wicked power whose purpose it is to create a stumbling-block. But do not suppose that by nature, and from constitution, there are certain stumbling-blocks which seek out men through whom they come; for as God did not make death, so neither did He create stumbling-blocks; but free-will begot the stumbling-blocks in some who did not wish to endure toils for virtue.
54. Origen, On First Principles, 1.5.3, 1.8.1, 2.9.5-2.9.7, 3.1.8-3.1.9, 3.1.16, 3.1.18, 3.4.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5.3. After the enumeration, then, of so many and so important names of orders and offices, underlying which it is certain that there are personal existences, let us inquire whether God, the creator and founder of all things, created certain of them holy and happy, so that they could admit no element at all of an opposite kind, and certain others so that they were made capable both of virtue and vice; or whether we are to suppose that He created some so as to be altogether incapable of virtue, and others again altogether incapable of wickedness, but with the power of abiding only in a state of happiness, and others again such as to be capable of either condition. In order, now, that our first inquiry may begin with the names themselves, let us consider whether the holy angels, from the period of their first existence, have always been holy, and are holy still, and will be holy, and have never either admitted or had the power to admit any occasion of sin. Then in the next place, let us consider whether those who are called holy principalities began from the moment of their creation by God to exercise power over some who were made subject to them, and whether these latter were created of such a nature, and formed for the very purpose of being subject and subordinate. In like manner, also, whether those which are called powers were created of such a nature and for the express purpose of exercising power, or whether their arriving at that power and dignity is a reward and desert of their virtue. Moreover, also, whether those which are called thrones or seats gained that stability of happiness at the same time with their coming forth into being, so as to have that possession from the will of the Creator alone; or whether those which are called dominions had their dominion conferred on them, not as a reward for their proficiency, but as the peculiar privilege of their creation, so that it is something which is in a certain degree inseparable from them, and natural. Now, if we adopt the view that the holy angels, and the holy powers, and the blessed seats, and the glorious virtues, and the magnificent dominions, are to be regarded as possessing those powers and dignities and glories in virtue of their nature, it will doubtless appear to follow that those beings which have been mentioned as holding offices of an opposite kind must be regarded in the same manner; so that those principalities with whom we have to struggle are to be viewed, not as having received that spirit of opposition and resistance to all good at a later period, or as falling away from good through the freedom of the will, but as having had it in themselves as the essence of their being from the beginning of their existence. In like manner also will it be the case with the powers and virtues, in none of which was wickedness subsequent or posterior to their first existence. Those also whom the apostle termed rulers and princes of the darkness of this world, are said, with respect to their rule and occupation of darkness, to fall not from perversity of intention, but from the necessity of their creation. Logical reasoning will compel us to take the same view with regard to wicked and maligt spirits and unclean demons. But if to entertain this view regarding maligt and opposing powers seem to be absurd, as it is certainly absurd that the cause of their wickedness should be removed from the purpose of their own will, and ascribed of necessity to their Creator, why should we not also be obliged to make a similar confession regarding the good and holy powers, that, viz., the good which is in them is not theirs by essential being, which we have manifestly shown to be the case with Christ and the Holy Spirit alone, as undoubtedly with the Father also? For it was proved that there was nothing compound in the nature of the Trinity, so that these qualities might seem to belong to it as accidental consequences. From which it follows, that in the case of every creature it is a result of his own works and movements, that those powers which appear either to hold sway over others or to exercise power or dominion, have been preferred to and placed over those whom they are said to govern or exercise power over, and not in consequence of a peculiar privilege inherent in their constitutions, but on account of merit. 1.8.1. A similar method must be followed in treating of the angels; nor are we to suppose that it is the result of accident that a particular office is assigned to a particular angel: as to Raphael, e.g., the work of curing and healing; to Gabriel, the conduct of wars; to Michael, the duty of attending to the prayers and supplications of mortals. For we are not to imagine that they obtained these offices otherwise than by their own merits, and by the zeal and excellent qualities which they severally displayed before this world was formed; so that afterwards in the order of archangels, this or that office was assigned to each one, while others deserved to be enrolled in the order of angels, and to act under this or that archangel, or that leader or head of an order. All of which things were disposed, as I have said, not indiscriminately and fortuitously, but by a most appropriate and just decision of God, who arranged them according to deserts, in accordance with His own approval and judgment: so that to one angel the Church of the Ephesians was to be entrusted; to another, that of the Smyrnæans; one angel was to be Peter's, another Paul's; and so on through every one of the little ones that are in the Church, for such and such angels as even daily behold the face of God must be assigned to each one of them; and there must also be some angel that encamps round about them that fear God. All of which things, assuredly, it is to be believed, are not performed by accident or chance, or because they (the angels) were so created, lest on that view the Creator should be accused of partiality; but it is to be believed that they were conferred by God, the just and impartial Ruler of all things, agreeably to the merits and good qualities and mental vigour of each individual spirit. 2.9.5. Now, when we say that this world was established in the variety in which we have above explained that it was created by God, and when we say that this God is good, and righteous, and most just, there are numerous individuals, especially those who, coming from the school of Marcion, and Valentinus, and Basilides, have heard that there are souls of different natures, who object to us, that it cannot consist with the justice of God in creating the world to assign to some of His creatures an abode in the heavens, and not only to give such a better habitation, but also to grant them a higher and more honourable position; to favour others with the grant of principalities; to bestow powers upon some, dominions on others; to confer upon some the most honourable seats in the celestial tribunals; to enable some to shine with more resplendent glory, and to glitter with a starry splendour; to give to some the glory of the sun, to others the glory of the moon, to others the glory of the stars; to cause one star to differ from another star in glory. And, to speak once for all, and briefly, if the Creator God wants neither the will to undertake nor the power to complete a good and perfect work, what reason can there be that, in the creation of rational natures, i.e., of beings of whose existence He Himself is the cause, He should make some of higher rank, and others of second, or third, or of many lower and inferior degrees? In the next place, they object to us, with regard to terrestrial beings, that a happier lot by birth is the case with some rather than with others; as one man, e.g., is begotten of Abraham, and born of the promise; another, too, of Isaac and Rebekah, and who, while still in the womb, supplants his brother, and is said to be loved by God before he is born. Nay, this very circumstance — especially that one man is born among the Hebrews, with whom he finds instruction in the divine law; another among the Greeks, themselves also wise, and men of no small learning; and then another among the Ethiopians, who are accustomed to feed on human flesh; or among the Scythians, with whom parricide is an act sanctioned by law; or among the people of Taurus, where strangers are offered in sacrifice — is a ground of strong objection. Their argument accordingly is this: If there be this great diversity of circumstances, and this diverse and varying condition by birth, in which the faculty of free-will has no scope (for no one chooses for himself either where, or with whom, or in what condition he is born); if, then, this is not caused by the difference in the nature of souls, i.e., that a soul of an evil nature is destined for a wicked nation, and a good soul for a righteous nation, what other conclusion remains than that these things must be supposed to be regulated by accident and chance? And if that be admitted, then it will be no longer believed that the world was made by God, or administered by His providence; and as a consequence, a judgment of God upon the deeds of each individual will appear a thing not to be looked for. In which matter, indeed, what is clearly the truth of things is the privilege of Him alone to know who searches all things, even the deep things of God. 2.9.6. We, however, although but men, not to nourish the insolence of the heretics by our silence, will return to their objections such answers as occur to us, so far as our abilities enable us. We have frequently shown, by those declarations which we were able to produce from the holy Scriptures, that God, the Creator of all things, is good, and just, and all-powerful. When He in the beginning created those beings which He desired to create, i.e., rational natures, He had no other reason for creating them than on account of Himself, i.e., His own goodness. As He Himself, then, was the cause of the existence of those things which were to be created, in whom there was neither any variation nor change, nor want of power, He created all whom He made equal and alike, because there was in Himself no reason for producing variety and diversity. But since those rational creatures themselves, as we have frequently shown, and will yet show in the proper place, were endowed with the power of free-will, this freedom of will incited each one either to progress by imitation of God, or reduced him to failure through negligence. And this, as we have already stated, is the cause of the diversity among rational creatures, deriving its origin not from the will or judgment of the Creator, but from the freedom of the individual will. Now God, who deemed it just to arrange His creatures according to their merit, brought down these different understandings into the harmony of one world, that He might adorn, as it were, one dwelling, in which there ought to be not only vessels of gold and silver, but also of wood and clay (and some indeed to honour, and others to dishonour), with those different vessels, or souls, or understandings. And these are the causes, in my opinion, why that world presents the aspect of diversity, while Divine Providence continues to regulate each individual according to the variety of his movements, or of his feelings and purpose. On which account the Creator will neither appear to be unjust in distributing (for the causes already mentioned) to every one according to his merits; nor will the happiness or unhappiness of each one's birth, or whatever be the condition that falls to his lot, be deemed accidental; nor will different creators, or souls of different natures, be believed to exist. 2.9.7. But even holy Scripture does not appear to me to be altogether silent on the nature of this secret, as when the Apostle Paul, in discussing the case of Jacob and Esau, says: For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of Him who calls, it was said, The elder shall serve the younger, as it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. And after that, he answers himself, and says, What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? And that he might furnish us with an opportunity of inquiring into these matters, and of ascertaining how these things do not happen without a reason, he answers himself, and says, God forbid. For the same question, as it seems to me, which is raised concerning Jacob and Esau, may be raised regarding all celestial and terrestrial creatures, and even those of the lower world as well. And in like manner it seems to me, that as he there says, The children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, so it might also be said of all other things, When they were not yet created, neither had yet done any good or evil, that the decree of God according to election may stand, that (as certain think) some things on the one hand were created heavenly, some on the other earthly, and others, again, beneath the earth, not of works (as they think), but of Him who calls, what shall we say then, if these things are so? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid. As, therefore, when the Scriptures are carefully examined regarding Jacob and Esau, it is not found to be unrighteousness with God that it should be said, before they were born, or had done anything in this life, the elder shall serve the younger; and as it is found not to be unrighteousness that even in the womb Jacob supplanted his brother, if we feel that he was worthily beloved by God, according to the deserts of his previous life, so as to deserve to be preferred before his brother; so also is it with regard to heavenly creatures, if we notice that diversity was not the original condition of the creature, but that, owing to causes that have previously existed, a different office is prepared by the Creator for each one in proportion to the degree of his merit, on this ground, indeed, that each one, in respect of having been created by God an understanding, or a rational spirit, has, according to the movements of his mind and the feelings of his soul, gained for himself a greater or less amount of merit, and has become either an object of love to God, or else one of dislike to Him; while, nevertheless, some of those who are possessed of greater merit are ordained to suffer with others for the adorning of the state of the world, and for the discharge of duty to creatures of a lower grade, in order that by this means they themselves may be participators in the endurance of the Creator, according to the words of the apostle: For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who has subjected the same in hope. Keeping in view, then, the sentiment expressed by the apostle, when, speaking of the birth of Esau and Jacob, he says, Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid, I think it right that this same sentiment should be carefully applied to the case of all other creatures, because, as we formerly remarked, the righteousness of the Creator ought to appear in everything. And this, it appears to me, will be seen more clearly at last, if each one, whether of celestial or terrestrial or infernal beings, be said to have the causes of his diversity in himself, and antecedent to his bodily birth. For all things were created by the Word of God, and by His Wisdom, and were set in order by His Justice. And by the grace of His compassion He provides for all men, and encourages all to the use of whatever remedies may lead to their cure, and incites them to salvation. 3.1.8. Let us begin, then, with those words which were spoken to Pharaoh, who is said to have been hardened by God, in order that he might not let the people go; and, along with his case, the language of the apostle also will be considered, where he says, Therefore He has mercy on whom He will, and whom He will He hardens. For it is on these passages chiefly that the heretics rely, asserting that salvation is not in our own power, but that souls are of such a nature as must by all means be either lost or saved; and that in no way can a soul which is of an evil nature become good, or one which is of a virtuous nature be made bad. And hence they maintain that Pharaoh, too, being of a ruined nature, was on that account hardened by God, who hardens those that are of an earthly nature, but has compassion on those who are of a spiritual nature. Let us see, then, what is the meaning of their assertion; and let us, in the first place, request them to tell us whether they maintain that the soul of Pharaoh was of an earthly nature, such as they term lost. They will undoubtedly answer that it was of an earthly nature. If so, then to believe God, or to obey Him, when his nature opposed his so doing, was an impossibility. And if this were his condition by nature, what further need was there for his heart to be hardened, and this not once, but several times, unless indeed because it was possible for him to yield to persuasion? Nor could any one be said to be hardened by another, save him who of himself was not obdurate. And if he were not obdurate of himself, it follows that neither was he of an earthly nature, but such an one as might give way when overpowered by signs and wonders. But he was necessary for God's purpose, in order that, for the saving of the multitude, He might manifest in him His power by his offering resistance to numerous miracles, and struggling against the will of God, and his heart being by this means said to be hardened. Such are our answers, in the first place, to these persons; and by these their assertion may be overturned, according to which they think that Pharaoh was destroyed in consequence of his evil nature. And with regard to the language of the Apostle Paul, we must answer them in a similar way. For who are they whom God hardens, according to your view? Those, namely, whom you term of a ruined nature, and who, I am to suppose, would have done something else had they not been hardened. If, indeed, they come to destruction in consequence of being hardened, they no longer perish naturally, but in virtue of what befalls them. Then, in the next place, upon whom does God show mercy? On those, namely, who are to be saved. And in what respect do those persons stand in need of a second compassion, who are to be saved once by their nature, and so come naturally to blessedness, except that it is shown even from their case, that, because it was possible for them to perish, they therefore obtain mercy, that so they may not perish, but come to salvation, and possess the kingdom of the good. And let this be our answer to those who devise and invent the fable of good or bad natures, i.e., of earthly or spiritual souls, in consequence of which, as they say, each one is either saved or lost. 3.1.8. Let us begin, then, with what is said about Pharaoh— that he was hardened by God, that he might not send away the people; along with which will be examined also the statement of the apostle, Therefore has He mercy on whom He will have mercy, and whom He will He hardens. And certain of those who hold different opinions misuse these passages, themselves also almost destroying free-will by introducing ruined natures incapable of salvation, and others saved which it is impossible can be lost; and Pharaoh, they say, as being of a ruined nature, is therefore hardened by God, who has mercy upon the spiritual, but hardens the earthly. Let us see now what they mean. For we shall ask them if Pharaoh was of an earthy nature; and when they answer, we shall say that he who is of an earthy nature is altogether disobedient to God: but if disobedient, what need is there of his heart being hardened, and that not once, but frequently? Unless perhaps, since it was possible for him to obey (in which case he would certainly have obeyed, as not being earthy, when hard pressed by the signs and wonders), God needs him to be disobedient to a greater degree, in order that He may manifest His mighty deeds for the salvation of the multitude, and therefore hardens his heart. This will be our answer to them in the first place, in order to overturn their supposition that Pharaoh was of a ruined nature. And the same reply must be given to them with respect to the statement of the apostle. For whom does God harden? Those who perish, as if they would obey unless they were hardened, or manifestly those who would be saved because they are not of a ruined nature. And on whom has He mercy? Is it on those who are to be saved? And how is there need of a second mercy for those who have been prepared once for salvation, and who will by all means become blessed on account of their nature? Unless perhaps, since they are capable of incurring destruction, if they did not receive mercy, they will obtain mercy, in order that they may not incur that destruction of which they are capable, but may be in the condition of those who are saved. And this is our answer to such persons. 3.1.9. And now we must return an answer also to those who would have the God of the law to be just only, and not also good; and let us ask such in what manner they consider the heart of Pharaoh to have been hardened by God— by what acts or by what prospective arrangements. For we must observe the conception of a God who in our opinion is both just and good, but according to them only just. And let them show us how a God whom they also acknowledge to be just, can with justice cause the heart of a man to be hardened, that, in consequence of that very hardening, he may sin and be ruined. And how shall the justice of God be defended, if He Himself is the cause of the destruction of those whom, owing to their unbelief (through their being hardened), He has afterwards condemned by the authority of a judge? For why does He blame him, saying, But since you will not let My people go, lo, I will smite all the first-born in Egypt, even your first-born, and whatever else was spoken through Moses by God to Pharaoh? For it behooves every one who maintains the truth of what is recorded in Scripture, and who desires to show that the God of the law and the prophets is just, to render a reason for all these things, and to show how there is in them nothing at all derogatory to the justice of God, since, although they deny His goodness, they admit that He is a just judge, and creator of the world. Different, however, is the method of our reply to those who assert that the creator of this world is a maligt being, i.e., a devil. 3.1.9. But to those who think they understand the term hardened, we must address the inquiry, What do they mean by saying that God, by His working, hardens the heart, and with what purpose does He do this? For let them observe the conception of a God who is in reality just and good; but if they will not allow this, let it be conceded to them for the present that He is just; and let them show how the good and just God, or the just God only, appears to be just, in hardening the heart of him who perishes because of his being hardened: and how the just God becomes the cause of destruction and disobedience, when men are chastened by Him on account of their hardness and disobedience. And why does He find fault with him, saying, You will not let My people go; Lo, I will smite all the first-born in Egypt, even your first-born; and whatever else is recorded as spoken from God to Pharaoh through the intervention of Moses? For he who believes that the Scriptures are true, and that God is just, must necessarily endeavour, if he be honest, to show how God, in using such expressions, may be distinctly understood to be just. But if any one should stand, declaring with uncovered head that the Creator of the world was inclined to wickedness, we should need other words to answer them. 3.1.16. There is next brought before us that declaration uttered by the Saviour in the Gospel: That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest they should happen to be converted, and their sins be forgiven them. On which our opponent will remark: If those who shall hear more distinctly are by all means to be corrected and converted, and converted in such a manner as to be worthy of receiving the remission of sins, and if it be not in their own power to hear the word distinctly, but if it depend on the Instructor to teach more openly and distinctly, while he declares that he does not proclaim to them the word with clearness, lest they should perhaps hear and understand, and be converted, and be saved, it will follow, certainly, that their salvation is not dependent upon themselves. And if this be so, then we have no free-will either as regards salvation or destruction. Now were it not for the words that are added, Lest perhaps they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them, we might be more inclined to return the answer, that the Saviour was unwilling that those individuals whom He foresaw would not become good, should understand the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, and that therefore He spoke to them in parables; but as that addition follows, Lest perhaps they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them, the explanation is rendered more difficult. And, in the first place, we have to notice what defense this passage furnishes against those heretics who are accustomed to hunt out of the Old Testament any expressions which seem, according to their view, to predicate severity and cruelty of God the Creator, as when He is described as being affected with the feeling of vengeance or punishment, or by any of those emotions, however named, from which they deny the existence of goodness in the Creator; for they do not judge of the Gospels with the same mind and feelings, and do not observe whether any such statements are found in them as they condemn and censure in the Old Testament. For manifestly, in the passage referred to, the Saviour is shown, as they themselves admit, not to speak distinctly, for this very reason, that men may not be converted, and when converted, receive the remission of sins. Now, if the words be understood according to the letter merely, nothing less, certainly, will be contained in them than in those passages which they find fault with in the Old Testament. And if they are of opinion that any expressions occurring in such a connection in the New Testament stand in need of explanation, it will necessarily follow that those also occurring in the Old Testament, which are the subject of censure, may be freed from aspersion by an explanation of a similar kind, so that by such means the passages found in both Testaments may be shown to proceed from one and the same God. But let us return, as we best may, to the question proposed. 3.1.16. There was after this the passage from the Gospel, where the Saviour said, that for this reason did He speak to those without in parables, that seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not understand; lest they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them. Now, our opponent will say, If some persons are assuredly converted on hearing words of greater clearness, so that they become worthy of the remission of sins, and if it does not depend upon themselves to hear these words of greater clearness, but upon him who teaches, and he for this reason does not announce them to them more distinctly, lest they should see and understand, it is not within the power of such to be saved; and if so, we are not possessed of free-will as regards salvation and destruction. Effectual, indeed, would be the reply to such arguments, were it not for the addition, Lest they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them,— namely, that the Saviour did not wish those who were not to become good and virtuous to understand the more mystical (parts of His teaching), and for this reason spoke to them in parables; but now, on account of the words, Lest they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them, the defense is more difficult. In the first place, then, we must notice the passage in its bearing on the heretics, who hunt out those portions from the Old Testament where is exhibited, as they themselves daringly assert, the cruelty of the Creator of the world in His purpose of avenging and punishing the wicked, or by whatever other name they wish to designate such a quality, so speaking only that they may say that goodness does not exist in the Creator; and who do not deal with the New Testament in a similar manner, nor in a spirit of candour, but pass by places similar to those which they consider censurable in the Old Testament. For manifestly, and according to the Gospel, is the Saviour shown, as they assert, by His former words, not to speak distinctly for this reason, that men might not be converted, and, being converted, might become deserving of the remission of sins: which statement of itself is nothing inferior to those passages from the Old Testament which are objected to. And if they seek to defend the Gospel, we must ask them whether they are not acting in a blameworthy manner in dealing differently with the same questions; and, while not stumbling against the New Testament, but seeking to defend it, they nevertheless bring a charge against the Old regarding similar points, whereas they ought to offer a defense in the same way of the passages from the New. And therefore we shall force them, on account of the resemblances, to regard all as the writings of one God. Come, then, and let us, to the best of our ability, furnish an answer to the question submitted to us. 3.1.18. Let us now look to the expression, It is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For our opponents assert, that if it does not depend upon him that wills, nor on him that runs, but on God that shows mercy, that a man be saved, our salvation is not in our own power. For our nature is such as to admit of our either being saved or not, or else our salvation rests solely on the will of Him who, if He wills it, shows mercy, and confers salvation. Now let us inquire, in the first place, of such persons, whether to desire blessings be a good or evil act; and whether to hasten after good as a final aim be worthy of praise. If they were to answer that such a procedure was deserving of censure, they would evidently be mad; for all holy men both desire blessings and run after them, and certainly are not blameworthy. How, then, is it that he who is not saved, if he be of an evil nature, desires blessing, and runs after them, but does not find them? For they say that a bad tree does not bring forth good fruits, whereas it is a good fruit to desire blessings. And how is the fruit of a bad tree good? And if they assert that to desire blessings, and to run after them, is an act of indifference, i.e., neither good nor bad, we shall reply, that if it be an indifferent act to desire blessings, and to run after them, then the opposite of that will also be an indifferent act, viz., to desire evils, and to run after them; whereas it is certain that it is not an indifferent act to desire evils, and to run after them, but one that is manifestly wicked. It is established, then, that to desire and follow after blessings is not an indifferent, but a virtuous proceeding. 3.1.18. Let us look next at the passage: So, then, it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For they who find fault say: If it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy, salvation does not depend upon ourselves, but upon the arrangement made by Him who has formed us such as we are, or on the purpose of Him who shows mercy when he pleases. Now we must ask these persons the following questions: Whether to desire what is good is virtuous or vicious; and whether the desire to run in order to reach the goal in the pursuit of what is good be worthy of praise or censure? And if they shall say that it is worthy of censure, they will return an absurd answer; since the saints desire and run, and manifestly in so acting do nothing that is blameworthy. But if they shall say that it is virtuous to desire what is good, and to run after what is good, we shall ask them how a perishing nature desires better things; for it is like an evil tree producing good fruit, since it is a virtuous act to desire better things. They will give (perhaps) a third answer, that to desire and run after what is good is one of those things that are indifferent, and neither beautiful nor wicked. Now to this we must say, that if to desire and to run after what is good be a thing of indifference, then the opposite also is a thing of indifference, viz., to desire what is evil, and to run after it. But it is not a thing of indifference to desire what is evil, and to run after it. And therefore also, to desire what is good, and to run after it, is not a thing of indifference. Such, then, is the defense which I think we can offer to the statement, that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. Solomon says in the book of Psalms (for the Song of Degrees is his, from which we shall quote the words): Unless the Lord build the house, they labour in vain that build it; except the Lord keep the city, the watchman wakes in vain: not dissuading us from building, nor teaching us not to keep watch in order to guard the city in our soul, but showing that what is built without God, and does not receive a guard from Him, is built in vain and watched to no purpose, because God might reasonably be entitled the Lord of the building; and the Governor of all things, the Ruler of the guard of the city. As, then, if we were to say that such a building is not the work of the builder, but of God, and that it was not owing to the successful effort of the watcher, but of the God who is over all, that such a city suffered no injury from its enemies, we should not be wrong, it being understood that something also had been done by human means, but the benefit being gratefully referred to God who brought it to pass; so, seeing that the (mere) human desire is not sufficient to attain the end, and that the running of those who are, as it were, athletes, does not enable them to gain the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus — for these things are accomplished with the assistance of God — it is well said that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. As if also it were said with regard to husbandry what also is actually recorded: I planted, Apollos watered; and God gave the increase. So then neither is he that plants anything, neither he that waters; but God that gives the increase. Now we could not piously assert that the production of full crops was the work of the husbandman, or of him that watered, but the work of God. So also our own perfection is brought about, not as if we ourselves did nothing; for it is not completed by us, but God produces the greater part of it. And that this assertion may be more clearly believed, we shall take an illustration from the art of navigation. For in comparison with the effect of the winds, and the mildness of the air, and the light of the stars, all co-operating in the preservation of the crew, what proportion could the art of navigation be said to bear in the bringing of the ship into harbour? — since even the sailors themselves, from piety, do not venture to assert often that they had saved the ship, but refer all to God; not as if they had done nothing, but because what had been done by Providence was infinitely greater than what had been effected by their art. And in the matter of our salvation, what is done by God is infinitely greater than what is done by ourselves; and therefore, I think, is it said that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For if in the manner which they imagine we must explain the statement, that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy, the commandments are superfluous; and it is in vain that Paul himself blames some for having fallen away, and approves of others as having remained upright, and enacts laws for the Churches: it is in vain also that we give ourselves up to desire better things, and in vain also (to attempt) to run. But it is not in vain that Paul gives such advice, censuring some and approving of others; nor in vain that we give ourselves up to the desire of better things, and to the chase after things that are pre-eminent. They have accordingly not well explained the meaning of the passage. 3.4.5. With respect, however, to the following being ranked among the works of the flesh, viz., heresies, and envyings, and contentions, or other (vices), they so understand the passage, that the mind, being rendered grosser in feeling, from its yielding itself to the passions of the body, and being oppressed by the mass of its vices, and having no refined or spiritual feelings, is said to be made flesh, and derives its name from that in which it exhibits more vigour and force of will. They also make this further inquiry, Who will be found, or who will be said to be, the creator of this evil sense, called the sense of the flesh? Because they defend the opinion that there is no other creator of soul and flesh than God. And if we were to assert that the good God created anything in His own creation that was hostile to Himself, it would appear to be a manifest absurdity. If, then, it is written, that carnal wisdom is enmity against God, and if this be declared to be a result of creation, God Himself will appear to have formed a nature hostile to Himself, which cannot be subject to Him nor to His law, as if it were (supposed to be) an animal of which such qualities are predicated. And if this view be admitted, in what respect will it appear to differ from that of those who maintain that souls of different natures are created, which, according to their natures, are destined either to be lost or saved? But this is an opinion of the heretics alone, who, not being able to maintain the justice of God on grounds of piety, compose impious inventions of this kind. And now we have brought forward to the best of our ability, in the person of each of the parties, what might be advanced by way of argument regarding the several views, and let the reader choose out of them for himself that which he thinks ought to be preferred.
55. Origen, Fragments On 1 Corinthians, 34 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

56. Origen, Homilies On Ezekiel, 2.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

57. Origen, Philocalia, 25.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

58. Origen, Philocalia, 25.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

59. Augustine, Confessions, 6.6 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

60. Augustine, De Correptione Et Gratia, 25, 23 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

61. Augustine, De Diversis Quaestionibus Ad Simplicianum, 1.2, 1.2.3, 1.2.10, 66.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

62. Augustine, De Natura Et Gratia Ad Timasium Et Jacobum Contra Pelagium, 2 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

63. Augustine, De Peccatorum Meritis Et Remissione Et De Baptismo Parvulorum, 1.9-1.10, 1.13-1.15, 1.19 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

64. Augustine, De Praedestinatione Sanctorum., 11 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

65. Anon., 2 Enoch, 71.1

66. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.21-3.22, 3.26, 4.4, 4.30, 7.36, 7.48

3.21. For the first Adam, burdened with an evil heart, transgressed and was overcome, as were also all who were descended from him. 3.22. Thus the disease became permanent; the law was in the people's heart along with the evil root, but what was good departed, and the evil remained. 3.26. in everything doing as Adam and all his descendants had done, for they also had the evil heart. 4.4. If you can solve one of them for me, I also will show you the way you desire to see, and will teach you why the heart is evil. 4.30. For a grain of evil seed was sown in Adam's heart from the beginning, and how much ungodliness it has produced until now, and will produce until the time of threshing comes! 7.36. Then the pit of torment shall appear, and opposite it shall be the place of rest; and the furnace of hell shall be disclosed, and opposite it the paradise of delight. 7.48. For an evil heart has grown up in us, which has alienated us from God, and has brought us into corruption and the ways of death, and has shown us the paths of perdition and removed us far from life -- and that not just a few of us but almost all who have been created!
67. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., 2.930-2.931



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, gods promise to Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
abraham Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 512; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 265; Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
adam, heart of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
adam-christ typology Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 437
adam Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
adiaphora/indistinguishable/neutral Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
adoption as master-metaphor in christian divine sonship, begottenness as master-metaphor in divine sonship of jesus Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
adoption as master-metaphor in christian divine sonship, preoccupation with assigning christological moment Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
adoption by augustus Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption in roman society greek terminology for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
adoption in roman society inheritance/wealth transfer through Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136
adoption in roman society legal frameworks for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption in roman society papyrus contracts for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
adoption in roman society preservation of family lines through Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption in roman society social status of adoptees Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
adoption in roman society tensions between biological and adopted sons Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption in roman society vs. modern western practice Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption metaphor in pauline epistles Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136, 138, 139
aeterna merces, eternal reward Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 512, 513
aeterna uita, eternal life Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 512
agency, divine Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
agency, human Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
agency, in conversion Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
allegory, allegorical exegesis Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 419
aloe Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
ambrose Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 419
angel Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 186
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
anthropology Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 208
apistia, apistos, of israelites Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 170
apistia, apistos Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 169
apollo Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
apostle paul Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 419, 437, 540
apostles disciples Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 208
aristotle Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
asceticism Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 132
assimilation, to god/gods Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
atemporal, temporal Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 589
augustine Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 367, 419, 432, 437, 512, 513, 514, 515, 539, 540, 589
augustus adoption by caesar Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
augustus adoptions by Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
augustus divine ancestry of Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
augustus worship of Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113, 135, 136, 138, 139
babut, d., baptism cluster Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 53
babut, d. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
baptism Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 335; Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 432; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 208; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
baptism of jesus divine sonship bestowed at Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
baptism of jesus divine voice at Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
baptism of jesus holy spirit at Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
baptism of jesus in gospel of luke Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
baptism of jesus in gospel of mark Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
basilides Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
believing Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 361
berakah deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
blessed, blessedness Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 512, 513
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
body in paul, earthly body as literally dying Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 51, 52
boer, m. de Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
bonum Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 539
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 361
boys-stones, g. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
caelestius Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 589
care, of god or christ for creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
chrysippus Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
church Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328; Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 186; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 208
cicero Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
cleanthes Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
clement of alexandria Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
collins, a. y. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
conformity with christ, in his death and resurrection Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 51, 52, 53, 54
conversion account for paraenetic, fits stoicism better than platonism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
corinth Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
creator, creation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 265
dahl, n. a. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 230
day, judgment, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
death Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 361
deification/theosis/christosis Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
determinism deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
devil Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 115
dibelius, m. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 96, 232
diogenes the cynic Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
divine sonship adoptive metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136, 138, 139
divine sonship mixed metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
divine sonship of jesus adoptive metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 138, 139
divine sonship of jesus begotten metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
divine sonship of jesus considered through roman sociopolitical lens Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
divine sonship of jesus eschatological power of Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
divine sonship of jesus mixed metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 139
divine sonship of jesus uniting christ with christians through Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 139
divine sonship offered by god through the spirit Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
divine sonship paul's master-metaphor of adoptive" Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136, 138, 139
divine sonship uniting with christ Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 139
divine voice at baptism of jesus Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
donatist, donatism Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 367
education Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 208
emperors legitimation options for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
epictetus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
epistle to diognetus, and justification Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 324
esau Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 513
eschatological Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
eschatology Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 115, 116
eschaton, eschatology Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 512, 513
evil Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 115
expulsion, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
expulsion, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
faith Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 361
faithfulness, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
family ideology as center of roman life Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 335
father Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 265
fragrances Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
frankincense, tree of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
free/freedom (ἐλεύθερος/ἐλευθερία, liber/libertas), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 110, 111
freedom, and cognition Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
friendship, differences between divine and human Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
gens Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
gentiles Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 265
gentiles (ethnē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
genuine humanness, role of spirit Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 226
gift of cognition, in epictetus and paul Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
gift of the spirit Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
glory, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 452
glory, hope of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 115, 116, 169
glory Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 335
glory (doxa) Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 52; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
gnosticism, as heretical or other Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
gnosticism, specific doctrines Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
god, cognitive conception in stoicism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
god, purposes of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
god Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 186
god (pauline), character (love) Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
gods, paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 110, 111, 112
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
grace, response to deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 169, 170
grain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
grief (lupē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
heart, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
heart, evil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
heart Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
heaven, third Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 452
heracleon (gnostic) Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
himmelfarb, m. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
holy spirit, role for genuine humanness Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 226
honor and dishonor deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
hope Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74, 115, 116, 169
human vocation, cosmic horizon of Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 226
imago dei Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 513
imitation, of christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
imitation, of paul Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 115
imperial adoption meritocratic vs. dynastic succession Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
israel Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
iustitia, justice Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 419, 432, 437, 539
iustitia dei Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 432, 589
jacob Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 513
jesus christ Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 432, 512, 513, 589; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
jews Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 540
judgment Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
judgment (divine) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
knowledge, divine Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
knowledge, pauline Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
law, laws Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 265
law, the, in origen Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
lex fidei Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 515
lex operum / factorum Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 437, 515
liberum arbitrium Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 514, 539, 540
life Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
life in the present, in the light of the future Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 54
long, a. a. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
love Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 115, 169
lucchetta, g. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
luke, gospel of audience for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
luke, gospel of baptism narrative in Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
luke, gospel of birth/infancy narratives Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
luke, gospel of lxx (septuagint) Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
luke, gospel of sources of jesus legitimation Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
magi, elision with gnosticism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
magi, on law and the old testament Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
marcellinus Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 367, 419, 432, 437, 512, 513, 514, 515, 539, 540
marriage, heretical contempt for Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
martyrdom, heretics sophistically avoid Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
metaphorical language Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 54
milan Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 419
mixed metaphors in early christianity Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 139
moral criticism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
moral formation, involvement of god/gods within Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
moral formation, love in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
mother, motherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 335
myrrh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
new creation, producing signs of Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 226, 227
new creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 169
numen (divine power) described Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
obedience Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
old testament, defense as christian scripture Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
origen, on gnosticism as heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
origen Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 208
ovid Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 186
papyri adoption contracts Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
papyri p.lips. Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
parents Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 335
passions (pathē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
paterfamilias Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
patience Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 115
paul, and eschatology Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
paul, and passions (pathē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
paul, and stoicism Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 112
paul, apostle Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 208
paul, his demonology Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 96
paul, on freedom (ἐλευθερία) in god Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 110, 111
paul, on god Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 110, 111, 112
paul, on human responsibility Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107
paul, on predestination/predetermination (προόρισις) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 111, 112
paul, on salvation (σωτηρία) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107
paul, on slavery Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 110, 111, 112
paul, on spirit (πνεῦμα) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 110, 111, 112
paul, pauline, paulinism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 265
paul, pauline soteriology Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
paul, rhetoric of Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
paul Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 110, 111, 112; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 132
paul (apostle), sense of vocation Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 227
pauline epistles adoption metaphors in Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136, 138, 139
pauline epistles christ as firstborn in Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
pauline epistles family lineage of jesus Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
pauline epistles on adoption of israelites Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138, 139
pauline theology, deutero/ps.-pauline notions and writings Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
pauline theology, eschatology Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
pauline writings, romans Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
pauline writings Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
pelagius xxvi Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 539, 540, 589
per fidem iesu christi Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 432, 437
peristasis catalogues Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 175
perseverance Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 115
philo judeas Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
philosophy Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 4, 170
plato/platonic/platonism, theaetetus Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
plato/platonism, christian platonism Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
plato/platonism, middle platonism Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
plato/platonism Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
platonism Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 132
pneuma (spirit) in paul, and baptism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 230
pneuma (spirit) in paul, as a material phenomenon in paul Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 51, 52, 53, 54, 71
pneuma (spirit) in paul, as arriving in the bodies of believers Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 71
pneuma (spirit) in paul, how received? Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 71
pneuma (spirit) in paul, in 2 corinthians Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 51
pneuma (spirit) in paul, world Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 96
pneumatic humans/powers Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 208
praeceptum Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 589
predestination Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 419, 512, 514, 515, 539, 540, 589
predestination (προόρισις), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 111, 112
promises of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
psychic humans/powers Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 208
purification/purity Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 175
ramelli, i. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
reciprocity deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
regions Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
relation to trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
reliability Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
reliance, on god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
resonance with greco-roman ideology Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136, 138
restoration, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 452
restoration Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
resurrection, uniting christ with christians Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 139
resurrection Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 335; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 208; Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 138; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 361
rhetoric, and letters Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 4
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 4, 175
risk, relation to divine-human trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74, 116
roman assembly, correspondence Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
rome Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 186
romulus Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
rowland, c. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
rulers of the present aeon Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 96
salvation, and life Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 71, 96
salvation Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
salvation (σωτηρία), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107
satan, decay Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 96
savior jesus, christ, and son Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 208
school Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 208
schweizer, e. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
seeds, evil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
seeds, food (sustece), for Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
self-trust, negative Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 169
service to god or christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 74
sex/sexual Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
sin, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
slavery Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
slavery (δουλεία), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 110, 111, 112
son Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 186
spices, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
spices Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
spirit, effects of, power, empowerment Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
spirit, effects of, transformation Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
spirit, holy, role for genuine humanness Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 226
spirit (πνεῦμα), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 110, 111, 112
spiritual gifts, love and Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
stewardship Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 115