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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8253
New Testament, Romans, 8.29-8.30


ὅτι οὓς προέγνω, καὶ προώρισεν συμμόρφους τῆς εἰκόνος τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν πρωτότοκον ἐν πολλοῖς ἀδελφοῖς·For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers.


οὓς δὲ προώρισεν, τούτους καὶ ἐκάλεσεν· καὶ οὓς ἐκάλεσεν, τούτους καὶ ἐδικαίωσεν· οὓς δὲ ἐδικαίωσεν, τούτους καὶ ἐδόξασεν.Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

93 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 4.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.4. כִּי־אֶשָּׂא אֶל־שָׁמַיִם יָדִי וְאָמַרְתִּי חַי אָנֹכִי לְעֹלָם׃ 32.4. הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ כִּי כָל־דְּרָכָיו מִשְׁפָּט אֵל אֱמוּנָה וְאֵין עָוֶל צַדִּיק וְיָשָׁר הוּא׃ 32.4. The Rock, His work is perfect; For all His ways are justice; A God of faithfulness and without iniquity, Just and right is He. ."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.22-4.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.22. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה בְּנִי בְכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 4.23. וָאֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ שַׁלַּח אֶת־בְּנִי וְיַעַבְדֵנִי וַתְּמָאֵן לְשַׁלְּחוֹ הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי הֹרֵג אֶת־בִּנְךָ בְּכֹרֶךָ׃ 4.22. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh: Thus saith the LORD: Israel is My son, My first-born." 4.23. And I have said unto thee: Let My son go, that he may serve Me; and thou hast refused to let him go. ‘Behold, I will slay thy first-born.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1, 1.26-1.27, 3.7, 18.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 3.7. וַתִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּדְעוּ כִּי עֵירֻמִּם הֵם וַיִּתְפְּרוּ עֲלֵה תְאֵנָה וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם חֲגֹרֹת׃ 18.25. חָלִלָה לְּךָ מֵעֲשֹׂת כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְהָמִית צַדִּיק עִם־רָשָׁע וְהָיָה כַצַּדִּיק כָּרָשָׁע חָלִלָה לָּךְ הֲשֹׁפֵט כָּל־הָאָרֶץ לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 3.7. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles." 18.25. That be far from Thee to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked, that so the righteous should be as the wicked; that be far from Thee; shall not the judge of all the earth do justly?’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 11.1-11.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.1. אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה יֵלְכוּ כְּאַרְיֵה יִשְׁאָג כִּי־הוּא יִשְׁאַג וְיֶחֶרְדוּ בָנִים מִיָּם׃ 11.1. כִּי נַעַר יִשְׂרָאֵל וָאֹהֲבֵהוּ וּמִמִּצְרַיִם קָרָאתִי לִבְנִי׃ 11.2. קָרְאוּ לָהֶם כֵּן הָלְכוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם לַבְּעָלִים יְזַבֵּחוּ וְלַפְּסִלִים יְקַטֵּרוּן׃ 11.3. וְאָנֹכִי תִרְגַּלְתִּי לְאֶפְרַיִם קָחָם עַל־זְרוֹעֹתָיו וְלֹא יָדְעוּ כִּי רְפָאתִים׃ 11.4. בְּחַבְלֵי אָדָם אֶמְשְׁכֵם בַּעֲבֹתוֹת אַהֲבָה וָאֶהְיֶה לָהֶם כִּמְרִימֵי עֹל עַל לְחֵיהֶם וְאַט אֵלָיו אוֹכִיל׃ 11.1. When Israel was a child, then I loved him, And out of Egypt I called My son." 11.2. The more they called them, the more they went from them; They sacrificed unto the Baalim, And offered to graven images." 11.3. And I, I taught Ephraim to walk, Taking them by their arms; But they knew not that I healed them." 11.4. I drew them with cords of a man, With bands of love; And I was to them as they that take off the yoke on their jaws, And I fed them gently."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.17. וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וְעָשְׂתָה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְלֹא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 5.17. And if any one sin, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity."
7. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 1.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.7. טוֹב יְהוָה לְמָעוֹז בְּיוֹם צָרָה וְיֹדֵעַ חֹסֵי בוֹ׃ 1.7. The LORD is good, A stronghold in the day of trouble; And He knoweth them that take refuge in Him."
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.22-8.25, 21.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 21.1. פַּלְגֵי־מַיִם לֶב־מֶלֶךְ בְּיַד־יְהוָה עַל־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יַחְפֹּץ יַטֶּנּוּ׃ 21.1. נֶפֶשׁ רָשָׁע אִוְּתָה־רָע לֹא־יֻחַן בְּעֵינָיו רֵעֵהוּ׃ 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;" 21.1. The king’s heart is in the hand of the LORD, as the watercourses: He turneth it whithersoever He will."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.7, 38.7, 54.8, 78.2, 89.20-89.37, 95.5, 106.1, 135.3, 136.5-136.9, 145.17, 147.5, 148.2-148.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 78.2. הֵן הִכָּה־צוּר וַיָּזוּבוּ מַיִם וּנְחָלִים יִשְׁטֹפוּ הֲגַם־לֶחֶם יוּכַל תֵּת אִם־יָכִין שְׁאֵר לְעַמּוֹ׃ 78.2. אֶפְתְּחָה בְמָשָׁל פִּי אַבִּיעָה חִידוֹת מִנִּי־קֶדֶם׃ 89.21. מָצָאתִי דָּוִד עַבְדִּי בְּשֶׁמֶן קָדְשִׁי מְשַׁחְתִּיו׃ 89.22. אֲשֶׁר יָדִי תִּכּוֹן עִמּוֹ אַף־זְרוֹעִי תְאַמְּצֶנּוּ׃ 89.23. לֹא־יַשִּׁא אוֹיֵב בּוֹ וּבֶן־עַוְלָה לֹא יְעַנֶּנּוּ׃ 89.24. וְכַתּוֹתִי מִפָּנָיו צָרָיו וּמְשַׂנְאָיו אֶגּוֹף׃ 89.25. וֶאֶמוּנָתִי וְחַסְדִּי עִמּוֹ וּבִשְׁמִי תָּרוּם קַרְנוֹ׃ 89.26. וְשַׂמְתִּי בַיָּם יָדוֹ וּבַנְּהָרוֹת יְמִינוֹ׃ 89.27. הוּא יִקְרָאֵנִי אָבִי אָתָּה אֵלִי וְצוּר יְשׁוּעָתִי׃ 89.28. אַף־אָנִי בְּכוֹר אֶתְּנֵהוּ עֶלְיוֹן לְמַלְכֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 89.29. לְעוֹלָם אשמור־[אֶשְׁמָר־] לוֹ חַסְדִּי וּבְרִיתִי נֶאֱמֶנֶת לוֹ׃ 89.31. אִם־יַעַזְבוּ בָנָיו תּוֹרָתִי וּבְמִשְׁפָּטַי לֹא יֵלֵכוּן׃ 89.32. אִם־חֻקֹּתַי יְחַלֵּלוּ וּמִצְוֺתַי לֹא יִשְׁמֹרוּ׃ 89.33. וּפָקַדְתִּי בְשֵׁבֶט פִּשְׁעָם וּבִנְגָעִים עֲוֺנָם׃ 89.34. וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־אָפִיר מֵעִמּוֹ וְלֹא־אֲשַׁקֵּר בֶּאֱמוּנָתִי׃ 89.35. לֹא־אֲחַלֵּל בְּרִיתִי וּמוֹצָא שְׂפָתַי לֹא אֲשַׁנֶּה׃ 89.36. אַחַת נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי בְקָדְשִׁי אִם־לְדָוִד אֲכַזֵּב׃ 89.37. זַרְעוֹ לְעוֹלָם יִהְיֶה וְכִסְאוֹ כַשֶּׁמֶשׁ נֶגְדִּי׃ 95.5. אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ הַיָּם וְהוּא עָשָׂהוּ וְיַבֶּשֶׁת יָדָיו יָצָרוּ׃ 106.1. וַיּוֹשִׁיעֵם מִיַּד שׂוֹנֵא וַיִּגְאָלֵם מִיַּד אוֹיֵב׃ 106.1. הַלְלוּיָהּ הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה כִּי־טוֹב כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 135.3. הַלְלוּ־יָהּ כִּי־טוֹב יְהוָה זַמְּרוּ לִשְׁמוֹ כִּי נָעִים׃ 136.5. לְעֹשֵׂה הַשָּׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 136.6. לְרֹקַע הָאָרֶץ עַל־הַמָּיִם כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 136.7. לְעֹשֵׂה אוֹרִים גְּדֹלִים כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 136.8. אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת בַּיּוֹם כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 136.9. אֶת־הַיָּרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים לְמֶמְשְׁלוֹת בַּלָּיְלָה כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 145.17. צַדִּיק יְהוָה בְּכָל־דְּרָכָיו וְחָסִיד בְּכָל־מַעֲשָׂיו׃ 147.5. גָּדוֹל אֲדוֹנֵינוּ וְרַב־כֹּחַ לִתְבוּנָתוֹ אֵין מִסְפָּר׃ 148.2. הַלְלוּהוּ כָל־מַלְאָכָיו הַלְלוּהוּ כָּל־צבאו [צְבָאָיו׃] 148.3. הַלְלוּהוּ שֶׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ הַלְלוּהוּ כָּל־כּוֹכְבֵי אוֹר׃ 148.4. הַלְלוּהוּ שְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם וְהַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 148.5. יְהַלְלוּ אֶת־שֵׁם יְהוָה כִּי הוּא צִוָּה וְנִבְרָאוּ׃ 148.6. וַיַּעֲמִידֵם לָעַד לְעוֹלָם חָק־נָתַן וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר׃ 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 78.2. I will open my mouth with a parable; I will utter dark sayings concerning days of old;" 89.20. Then Thou spokest in vision to Thy godly ones, And saidst: 'I have laid help upon one that is mighty; I have exalted one chosen out of the people." 89.21. I have found David My servant; With My holy oil have I anointed him;" 89.22. With whom My hand shall be established; Mine arm also shall strengthen him." 89.23. The enemy shall not exact from him; Nor the son of wickedness afflict him." 89.24. And I will beat to pieces his adversaries before him, And smite them that hate him." 89.25. But My faithfulness and My mercy shall be with him; And through My name shall his horn be exalted." 89.26. I will set his hand also on the sea, And his right hand on the rivers." 89.27. He shall call unto Me: Thou art my Father, My God, and the rock of my salvation. ." 89.28. I also will appoint him first-born, The highest of the kings of the earth." 89.29. For ever will I keep for him My mercy, And My covet shall stand fast with him." 89.30. His seed also will I make to endure for ever, And his throne as the days of heaven." 89.31. If his children forsake My law, And walk not in Mine ordices; :" 89.32. If they profane My statutes, And keep not My commandments;" 89.33. Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, And their iniquity with strokes." 89.34. But My mercy will I not break off from him, Nor will I be false to My faithfulness." 89.35. My covet will I not profane, Nor alter that which is gone out of My lips." 89.36. Once have I sworn by My holiness: Surely I will not be false unto David;" 89.37. His seed shall endure for ever, And his throne as the sun before Me." 95.5. The sea is His, and He made it; And His hands formed the dry land." 106.1. Hallelujah. O give thanks unto the LORD; for He is good; for His mercy endureth for ever." 135.3. Praise ye the LORD, for the LORD is good; Sing praises unto His name, for it is pleasant." 136.5. To Him that by understanding made the heavens, for His mercy endureth for ever." 136.6. To Him that spread forth the earth above the waters, For His mercy endureth for ever." 136.7. To Him that made great lights, For His mercy endureth for ever;" 136.8. The sun to rule by day, For His mercy endureth for ever;" 136.9. The moon and stars to rule by night, For His mercy endureth for ever." 145.17. The LORD is righteous in all His ways, And gracious in all His works." 147.5. Great is our Lord, and mighty in power; His understanding is infinite." 148.2. Praise ye Him, all His angels; Praise ye Him, all His hosts." 148.3. Praise ye Him, sun and moon; Praise Him, all ye stars of light." 148.4. Praise Him, ye heavens of heavens, And ye waters that are above the heavens." 148.5. Let them praise the name of the LORD; For He commanded, and they were created." 148.6. He hath also established them for ever and ever; He hath made a decree which shall not be transgressed."
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.14. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 7.14. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:"
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.2, 40.13, 45.8-45.18, 46.10, 61.1-61.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.2. וְאִם־תְּמָאֲנוּ וּמְרִיתֶם חֶרֶב תְּאֻכְּלוּ כִּי פִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃ 1.2. שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמַיִם וְהַאֲזִינִי אֶרֶץ כִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר בָּנִים גִּדַּלְתִּי וְרוֹמַמְתִּי וְהֵם פָּשְׁעוּ בִי׃ 40.13. מִי־תִכֵּן אֶת־רוּחַ יְהוָה וְאִישׁ עֲצָתוֹ יוֹדִיעֶנּוּ׃ 45.8. הַרְעִיפוּ שָׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וּשְׁחָקִים יִזְּלוּ־צֶדֶק תִּפְתַּח־אֶרֶץ וְיִפְרוּ־יֶשַׁע וּצְדָקָה תַצְמִיחַ יַחַד אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּרָאתִיו׃ 45.9. הוֹי רָב אֶת־יֹצְרוֹ חֶרֶשׂ אֶת־חַרְשֵׂי אֲדָמָה הֲיֹאמַר חֹמֶר לְיֹצְרוֹ מַה־תַּעֲשֶׂה וּפָעָלְךָ אֵין־יָדַיִם לוֹ׃ 45.11. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיֹצְרוֹ הָאֹתִיּוֹת שְׁאָלוּנִי עַל־בָּנַי וְעַל־פֹּעַל יָדַי תְּצַוֻּנִי׃ 45.12. אָנֹכִי עָשִׂיתִי אֶרֶץ וְאָדָם עָלֶיהָ בָרָאתִי אֲנִי יָדַי נָטוּ שָׁמַיִם וְכָל־צְבָאָם צִוֵּיתִי׃ 45.13. אָנֹכִי הַעִירֹתִהוּ בְצֶדֶק וְכָל־דְּרָכָיו אֲיַשֵּׁר הוּא־יִבְנֶה עִירִי וְגָלוּתִי יְשַׁלֵּחַ לֹא בִמְחִיר וְלֹא בְשֹׁחַד אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 45.14. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה יְגִיעַ מִצְרַיִם וּסְחַר־כּוּשׁ וּסְבָאִים אַנְשֵׁי מִדָּה עָלַיִךְ יַעֲבֹרוּ וְלָךְ יִהְיוּ אַחֲרַיִךְ יֵלֵכוּ בַּזִּקִּים יַעֲבֹרוּ וְאֵלַיִךְ יִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ אֵלַיִךְ יִתְפַּלָּלוּ אַךְ בָּךְ אֵל וְאֵין עוֹד אֶפֶס אֱלֹהִים׃ 45.15. אָכֵן אַתָּה אֵל מִסְתַּתֵּר אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 45.16. בּוֹשׁוּ וְגַם־נִכְלְמוּ כֻּלָּם יַחְדָּו הָלְכוּ בַכְּלִמָּה חָרָשֵׁי צִירִים׃ 45.17. יִשְׂרָאֵל נוֹשַׁע בַּיהוָה תְּשׁוּעַת עוֹלָמִים לֹא־תֵבֹשׁוּ וְלֹא־תִכָּלְמוּ עַד־עוֹלְמֵי עַד׃ 45.18. כִּי כֹה אָמַר־יְהוָה בּוֹרֵא הַשָּׁמַיִם הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים יֹצֵר הָאָרֶץ וְעֹשָׂהּ הוּא כוֹנְנָהּ לֹא־תֹהוּ בְרָאָהּ לָשֶׁבֶת יְצָרָהּ אֲנִי יְהוָה וְאֵין עוֹד׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 1.2. Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth, For the LORD hath spoken: Children I have reared, and brought up, And they have rebelled against Me." 40.13. Who hath meted out the spirit of the LORD? Or who was His counsellor that he might instruct Him?" 45.8. Drop down, ye heavens, from above, and let the skies pour down righteousness; let the earth open, that they may bring forth salvation, and let her cause righteousness to spring up together; I the LORD have created it." 45.9. Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker, as a potsherd with the potsherds of the earth! Shall the clay say to him that fashioned it: ‘What makest thou?’ Or: ‘Thy work, it hath no hands’?" 45.10. Woe unto him that saith unto his father. 'Wherefore begettest thou?’ Or to a woman: ‘Wherefore travailest thou?’" 45.11. Thus saith the LORD, The Holy One of Israel, and his Maker: Ask Me of the things that are to come; Concerning My sons, and concerning the work of My hands, command ye Me." 45.12. I, even I, have made the earth, And created man upon it; I, even My hands, have stretched out the heavens, And all their host have I commanded." 45.13. I have roused him up in victory, And I make level all his ways; He shall build My city, And he shall let Mine exiles go free, Not for price nor reward, Saith the LORD of hosts." 45.14. Thus saith the LORD: The labour of Egypt, and the merchandise of Ethiopia, And of the Sabeans, men of stature, Shall come over unto thee, and they shall be thine; They shall go after thee, in chains they shall come over; And they shall fall down unto thee, They shall make supplication unto thee: Surely God is in thee, and there is none else, There is no other God." 45.15. Verily Thou art a God that hidest Thyself, O God of Israel, the Saviour." 45.16. They shall be ashamed, yea, confounded, all of them; They shall go in confusion together that are makers of idols." 45.17. O Israel, that art saved by the LORD with an everlasting salvation; Ye shall not be ashamed nor confounded world without end." 45.18. For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens, He is God; That formed the earth and made it, He established it, He created it not to be empty or chaotic, He established it to be settled and inhabited: I am the LORD, and there is none else." 46.10. Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times things that are not yet done; Saying: ‘My counsel shall stand, and all My pleasure will I do’;" 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;"
12. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 36.26 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

36.26. וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh."
13. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 3.89.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.89.5. The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, and suddenly recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see how such an accident could happen.
15. Aristotle, Rhetoric, 2.1.2-2.1.4, 2.1.8, 2.8.2 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

16. Anon., 1 Enoch, 60.8 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

60.8. abysses of the ocean over the fountains of the waters. But the male is named Behemoth, who occupied with his breast a waste wilderness named Duidain, on the east of the garden where the elect and righteous dwell, where my grandfather was taken up, the seventh from Adam, the first 1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
17. Anon., Testament of Benjamin, 8.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.3. For as the sun is not defiled by shining on dung and mire, but rather drieth up both and driveth away the evil smell; so also the pure mind, though encompassed by the defilements of earth, rather cleanseth (them) and is not itself defiled.
18. Anon., Testament of Dan, 5.1-5.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.1. Observe, therefore, my children, the commandments of the Lord, And keep His law; Depart from wrath, And hate lying, That the Lord may dwell among you, And Beliar may flee from you. 5.2. Speak truth each one with his neighbour. So shall ye not fall into wrath and confusion; But ye shall be in peace, having the God of peace, So shall no war prevail over you.
19. Anon., Testament of Gad, 6.1-6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. AND now, my children, I exhort you, love ye each one his brother, and put away hatred from your hearts, love one another in deed, and in word, and in the inclination of the soul. 6.2. For in the presence of my father I spake peaceably to Joseph; and when I had gone out, the spirit of hatred darkened my mind, and stirred up my soul to slay him. 6.3. Love ye one another from the heart; and if a man sin against thee, speak peaceably to him, and in thy soul hold not guile; and if he repent and confess, forgive him. 6.4. But if he deny it, do not get into a passion with him, lest catching the poison from thee he take to swearing and so thou sin doubly. 6.5. Let not another man hear thy secrets when engaged in legal strife, lest he come to hate thee and become thy enemy, and commit a great sin against thee; for ofttimes he addresseth thee guilefully or busieth himself about thee with wicked intent. 6.6. And though he deny it and yet have a sense of shame when reproved, give over reproving him. For be who denieth may repent so as not again to wrong thee; yea, he may also honour thee, and fear and be at peace with thee. 6.7. And if he be shameless and persist in his wrong-doing, even so forgive him from the heart, and leave to God the avenging.
20. Cicero, On Invention, 1.106 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.106. conquestionis autem huiusmodi de rebus partes petere oportebit. Conquestio est oratio auditorum misericordiam cap- tans. in hac primum animum auditoris mitem et misericordem conficere oportet, quo facilius conque- stione commoveri possit. id locis communibus efficere oportebit, per quos fortunae vis in omnes et hominum infirmitas ostenditur; qua oratione habita graviter et sententiose maxime demittitur animus hominum et ad misericordiam conparatur, cum in alieno malo suam infirmitatem considerabit.
21. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.37 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.37. Zeno's pupil Aristo holds equally mistaken views. He thinks that the form of the deity cannot be comprehended, and he denies the gods sensation, and in fact is uncertain whether god is a living being at all. Cleanthes, who attended Zeno's lectures at the same time as the last-named, at one moment says that the world itself is god, at another gives this name to the mind and soul of the universe, and at another decides that the most unquestionable deity is that remote all‑surrounding fiery atmosphere called the aether, which encircles and embraces the universe on its outer side at an exceedingly lofty altitude; while in the books that he wrote to combat hedonism he babbles like one demented, now imagining gods of some definite shape and form, now assigning full divinity to the stars, now pronouncing that nothing is more divine than reason. The result is that the god whom we apprehend by our intelligence, and desire to make to correspond with a mental concept as a seal tallies with its impression, has utterly and entirely vanished.
22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 4.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 4.35 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.4, 1.9, 17.1-17.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.4. Wisdom was created before all things,and prudent understanding from eternity. 1.9. The fear of the Lord is glory and exultation,and gladness and a crown of rejoicing. 17.1. The Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again. 17.1. And they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works. 17.2. He gave to men few days, a limited time,but granted them authority over the things upon the earth. 17.2. Their iniquities are not hidden from him,and all their sins are before the Lord. 17.3. He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image. 17.4. He placed the fear of them in all living beings,and granted them dominion over beasts and birds.
25. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.23, 7.26, 9.9, 9.15, 12.19, 16.28, 17.1-17.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.23. for God created man for incorruption,and made him in the image of his own eternity 7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 9.9. With thee is wisdom, who knows thy works and was present when thou didst make the world,and who understand what is pleasing in thy sight and what is right according to thy commandments. 9.15. for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind. 12.19. Through such works thou has taught thy people that the righteous man must be kind,and thou hast filled thy sons with good hope,because thou givest repentance for sins. 16.28. to make it known that one must rise before the sun to give thee thanks,and must pray to thee at the dawning of the light; 17.1. Great are thy judgments and hard to describe;therefore unintructed souls have gone astray. 17.2. For when lawless men supposed that they held the holy nation in their power,they themselves lay as captives of darkness and prisoners of long night,shut in under their roofs, exiles from eternal providence. 17.3. For thinking that in their secret sins they were unobserved behind a dark curtain of forgetfulness,they were scattered, terribly alarmed,and appalled by specters.
26. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, On The Admirable Style of Demosthenes, 6, 5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

27. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 51 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

51. and let every one in his turn say the same thing, for it is very becoming to every man who loves God to study such a song as this, but above all this world should sing it. For God, like a shepherd and a king, governs (as if they were a flock of sheep) the earth, and the water, and the air, and the fire, and all the plants, and living creatures that are in them, whether mortal or divine; and he regulates the nature of the heaven, and the periodical revolutions of the sun and moon, and the variations and harmonious movements of the other stars, ruling them according to law and justice; appointing, as their immediate superintendent, his own right reason, his first-born son, who is to receive the charge of this sacred company, as the lieutet of the great king; for it is said somewhere, "Behold, I am he! I will send my messenger before thy face, who shall keep thee in the Road.
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 147, 146 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

146. And even if there be not as yet any one who is worthy to be called a son of God, nevertheless let him labour earnestly to be adorned according to his first-born word, the eldest of his angels, as the great archangel of many names; for he is called, the authority, and the name of God, and the Word, and man according to God's image, and he who sees Israel.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 31, 30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. but of the father and mother the appellations are common, but their powers are different. At all events we shall speak with justice, if we say that the Creator of the universe is also the father of his creation; and that the mother was the knowledge of the Creator with whom God uniting, not as a man unites, became the father of creation. And this knowledge having received the seed of God, when the day of her travail arrived, brought forth her only and well-beloved son, perceptible by the external senses, namely this world.
30. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 25, 77-88, 24 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. And if any one were to desire to use more undisguised terms, he would not call the world, which is perceptible only to the intellect, any thing else but the reason of God, already occupied in the creation of the world; for neither is a city, while only perceptible to the intellect, anything else but the reason of the architect, who is already designing to build one perceptible to the external senses, on the model of that which is so only to the intellect--
31. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.1-3.2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. There was once a time when, devoting my leisure to philosophy and to the contemplation of the world and the things in it, I reaped the fruit of excellent, and desirable, and blessed intellectual feelings, being always living among the divine oracles and doctrines, on which I fed incessantly and insatiably, to my great delight, never entertaining any low or grovelling thoughts, nor ever wallowing in the pursuit of glory or wealth, or the delights of the body, but I appeared to be raised on high and borne aloft by a certain inspiration of the soul, and to dwell in the regions of the sun and moon, and to associate with the whole heaven, and the whole universal world. 3.2. At that time, therefore, looking down from above, from the air, and straining the eye of my mind as from a watch-tower, I surveyed the unspeakable contemplation of all the things on the earth, and looked upon myself as happy as having forcibly escaped from all the evil fates that can attack human life.
32. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Exodus, 2.29 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. Anon., 2 Baruch, 14.17-14.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 13.3, 28.4, 37.5 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

35. Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander, 6.1.5 (1st cent. CE

6.1.5. ἐπεὶ μέντοι ἀτρεκέστερον ἐξήλεγξε τὰ ἀμφὶ τῷ ποταμῷ τῷ Ἰνδῷ, οὕτω δὴ μαθεῖν παρὰ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων τὸν μὲν Ὑδάσπην τῷ Ἀκεσίνῃ, τὸν Ἀκεσίνην δὲ τῷ Ἰνδῷ τό τε ὕδωρ ξυμβάλλοντας καὶ τῷ ὀνόματι ξυγχωροῦντας, τὸν Ἰνδὸν δὲ ἐκδιδόντα ἤδη ἐς τὴν μεγάλην θάλασσαν, δίστομον τὸν Ἰνδὸν ὄντα, οὐδέ ν τι αὐτῷ προσῆκον τῆς γῆς τῆς Αἰγυπτίας· τηνικαῦτα δὲ τῆς ἐπιστολῆς τῆς πρὸς τὴν μητέρα τοῦτο τὸ ἀμφὶ τῷ Νείλῳ γραφὲν ἀφελεῖν.
36. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.2.14, 1.9.11, 1.9.15, 1.29.3, 2.11.20, 2.16.28, 2.18.11, 2.23.30-2.23.35, 3.3.14-3.3.16, 3.22.1-3.22.2, 3.24.85, 4.1.1, 4.1.87-4.1.88, 4.1.111-4.1.112, 4.1.153, 4.4.33, 4.4.38, 4.5.28, 4.7.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Epictetus, Fragments, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 20.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20.1. If Jesus Christ should count me worthy through your prayer, and it should be the Divine will, in my second tract, which I intend to write to you, I will further set before you the dispensation whereof I have begun to speak, relating to the new man Jesus Christ, which consisteth in faith towards Him and in love towards Him, in His passion and resurrection
39. New Testament, 1 John, 3.10-3.18, 4.7-4.11, 4.19-4.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. In this the children of God are revealed, and the children of the devil. Whoever doesn't do righteousness is not of God, neither is he who doesn't love his brother. 3.11. For this is the message which you heard from the beginning, that we should love one another; 3.12. unlike Cain, who was of the evil one, and killed his brother. Why did he kill him? Because his works were evil, and his brother's righteous. 3.13. Don't be surprised, my brothers, if the world hates you. 3.14. We know that we have passed out of death into life, because we love the brothers. He who doesn't love his brother remains in death. 3.15. Whoever hates his brother is a murderer, and you know that no murderer has eternal life remaining in him. 3.16. By this we know love, because he laid down his life for us. And we ought to lay down our lives for the brothers. 3.17. But whoever has the world's goods, and sees his brother in need, and closes his heart of compassion against him, how does the love of God remain in him? 3.18. My little children, let's not love in word only, neither with the tongue only, but in deed and truth. 4.7. Beloved, let us love one another, for love is of God; and everyone who loves is born of God, and knows God. 4.8. He who doesn't love doesn't know God, for God is love. 4.9. By this was God's love revealed in us, that God has sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him. 4.10. In this is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son as the atoning sacrifice for our sins. 4.11. Beloved, if God loved us in this way, we also ought to love one another. 4.19. We love Him, because he first loved us. 4.20. If a man says, "I love God," and hates his brother, he is a liar; for he who doesn't love his brother whom he has seen, how can he love God whom he has not seen? 4.21. This commandment we have from him, that he who loves God should also love his brother.
40. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.4-1.5, 1.7-1.8, 1.12, 2.22, 5.8-5.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. to an incorruptible and undefiled inheritance that doesn't fade away, reserved in heaven for you 1.5. who by the power of God are guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. 1.7. that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ -- 1.8. whom not having known you love; in whom, though now you don't see him, yet believing, you rejoice greatly with joy unspeakable and full of glory -- 1.12. To them it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to you, did they minister these things, which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent out from heaven; which things angels desire to look into. 2.22. who did not sin, "neither was deceit found in his mouth. 5.8. Be sober and self-controlled. Be watchful. Your adversary the devil, walks around like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour. 5.9. Withstand him steadfast in your faith, knowing that your brothers who are in the world are undergoing the same sufferings. 5.10. But may the God of all grace (who called you to his eternal glory by Christ Jesus), after you have suffered a while, perfect, establish, strengthen, and settle you. 5.11. To him be the glory and the power forever and ever. Amen.
41. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.6-1.7, 1.9, 1.19, 2.6-2.10, 2.12-2.13, 3.1, 3.6, 3.9-3.12, 3.16, 3.21-3.22, 4.1-4.2, 4.6-4.13, 4.15-4.17, 7.10, 7.19, 8.3, 9.1, 9.12, 9.14, 9.21, 9.24, 10.1-10.2, 10.7, 10.11, 11.1, 11.7, 12.7, 12.12-12.30, 13.1-13.13, 14.18, 14.20, 15.1-15.8, 15.20-15.28, 15.34-15.57 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. even as thetestimony of Christ was confirmed in you: 1.7. o that you come behindin no gift; waiting for the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ; 1.9. God is faithful, through whom you were calledinto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord. 1.19. For it is written,"I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,I will bring the discernment of the discerning to nothing. 2.6. We speak wisdom, however, among those who are fullgrown; yet a wisdom not of this world, nor of the rulers of this world,who are coming to nothing. 2.7. But we speak God's wisdom in amystery, the wisdom that has been hidden, which God foreordained beforethe worlds to our glory 2.8. which none of the rulers of this worldhas known. For had they known it, they wouldn't have crucified the Lordof glory. 2.9. But as it is written,"Things which an eye didn't see, and an ear didn't hear,Which didn't enter into the heart of man,These God has prepared for those who love him. 2.10. But to us, God revealed them through the Spirit. For theSpirit searches all things, yes, the deep things of God. 2.12. But we received, not the spirit of the world, but theSpirit which is from God, that we might know the things that werefreely given to us by God. 2.13. Which things also we speak, not inwords which man's wisdom teaches, but which the Holy Spirit teaches,comparing spiritual things with spiritual things. 3.1. Brothers, I couldn't speak to you as to spiritual, but as tofleshly, as to babies in Christ. 3.6. I planted. Apollos watered. But Godgave the increase. 3.9. For we are God's fellow workers. Youare God's farming, God's building. 3.10. According to the grace of Godwhich was given to me, as a wise master builder I laid a foundation,and another builds on it. But let each man be careful how he builds onit. 3.11. For no one can lay any other foundation than that which hasbeen laid, which is Jesus Christ. 3.12. But if anyone builds on thefoundation with gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay, or stubble; 3.16. Don't you know that you are a temple of God, and that God'sSpirit lives in you? 3.21. Therefore let no one boast in men. For all things are yours 3.22. whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death,or things present, or things to come. All are yours 4.1. So let a man think of us as Christ's servants, and stewards ofGod's mysteries. 4.2. Here, moreover, it is required of stewards, thatthey be found faithful. 4.6. Now these things, brothers, I have in a figure transferred tomyself and Apollos for your sakes, that in us you might learn not tothink beyond the things which are written, that none of you be puffedup against one another. 4.7. For who makes you different? And what doyou have that you didn't receive? But if you did receive it, why do youboast as if you had not received it? 4.8. You are already filled. Youhave already become rich. You have come to reign without us. Yes, and Iwish that you did reign, that we also might reign with you. 4.9. For,I think that God has displayed us, the apostles, last of all, like mensentenced to death. For we are made a spectacle to the world, both toangels and men. 4.10. We are fools for Christ's sake, but you are wisein Christ. We are weak, but you are strong. You have honor, but we havedishonor. 4.11. Even to this present hour we hunger, thirst, arenaked, are beaten, and have no certain dwelling place. 4.12. We toil,working with our own hands. Being reviled, we bless. Being persecuted,we endure. 4.13. Being defamed, we entreat. We are made as the filthof the world, the dirt wiped off by all, even until now. 4.15. For though you have ten thousand tutors in Christ, yetnot many fathers. For in Christ Jesus, I became your father through thegospel. 4.16. I beg you therefore, be imitators of me. 4.17. Becauseof this I have sent Timothy to you, who is my beloved and faithfulchild in the Lord, who will remind you of my ways which are in Christ,even as I teach everywhere in every assembly. 7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 8.3. But if anyone loves God, the same is known by him. 9.1. Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Haven't I seen JesusChrist, our Lord? Aren't you my work in the Lord? 9.12. If others partake of this right overyou, don't we yet more? Nevertheless we did not use this right, but webear all things, that we may cause no hindrance to the gospel ofChrist. 9.14. Even so the Lord ordained thatthose who proclaim the gospel should live from the gospel. 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.24. Don't youknow that those who run in a race all run, but one receives the prize?Run like that, that you may win. 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 10.7. Neither be idolaters, as someof them were. As it is written, "The people sat down to eat and drink,and rose up to play. 10.11. Now all these thingshappened to them by way of example, and they were written for ouradmonition, on whom the ends of the ages have come. 11.1. Be imitators of me, even as I also am of Christ. 11.7. For a man indeed ought not to have his head covered,because he is the image and glory of God, but the woman is the glory ofthe man. 12.7. But to each one is given the manifestation of theSpirit for the profit of all. 12.12. For as the body is one, and has many members, and all themembers of the body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 12.14. For the body is not one member, but many. 12.15. If the foot would say, "Because I'm not the hand, I'm not part of thebody," it is not therefore not part of the body. 12.16. If the earwould say, "Because I'm not the eye, I'm not part of the body," it'snot therefore not part of the body. 12.17. If the whole body were aneye, where would the hearing be? If the whole were hearing, where wouldthe smelling be? 12.18. But now God has set the members, each one ofthem, in the body, just as he desired. 12.19. If they were all onemember, where would the body be? 12.20. But now they are many members,but one body. 12.21. The eye can't tell the hand, "I have no need foryou," or again the head to the feet, "I have no need for you. 12.22. No, much rather, those members of the body which seem to be weaker arenecessary. 12.23. Those parts of the body which we think to be lesshonorable, on those we bestow more abundant honor; and ourunpresentable parts have more abundant propriety; 12.24. whereas ourpresentable parts have no such need. But God composed the bodytogether, giving more abundant honor to the inferior part 12.25. thatthere should be no division in the body, but that the members shouldhave the same care for one another. 12.26. When one member suffers,all the members suffer with it. Or when one member is honored, all themembers rejoice with it. 12.27. Now you are the body of Christ, and members individually. 12.28. God has set some in the assembly: first apostles, secondprophets, third teachers, then miracle workers, then gifts of healings,helps, governments, and various kinds of languages. 12.29. Are allapostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Are all miracle workers? 12.30. Do all have gifts of healings? Do all speak with variouslanguages? Do all interpret? 13.1. If I speak with the languages of men and of angels, but don'thave love, I have become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal. 13.2. If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and allknowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, butdon't have love, I am nothing. 13.3. If I dole out all my goods tofeed the poor, and if I give my body to be burned, but don't have love,it profits me nothing. 13.4. Love is patient and is kind; love doesn't envy. Love doesn'tbrag, is not proud 13.5. doesn't behave itself inappropriately,doesn't seek its own way, is not provoked, takes no account of evil; 13.6. doesn't rejoice in unrighteousness, but rejoices with the truth; 13.7. bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, enduresall things. 13.8. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies,they will be done away with. Where there are various languages, theywill cease. Where there is knowledge, it will be done away with. 13.9. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part; 13.10. but when thatwhich is complete has come, then that which is partial will be doneaway with. 13.11. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I felt as achild, I thought as a child. Now that I have become a man, I have putaway childish things. 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known. 13.13. But now faith, hope, and love remain-- these three. The greatest of these is love. 14.18. I thank my God, I speak with otherlanguages more than you all. 14.20. Brothers, don't be children in thoughts, yet in malice bebabies, but in thoughts be mature. 15.1. Now I declare to you, brothers, the gospel which I preachedto you, which also you received, in which you also stand 15.2. bywhich also you are saved, if you hold firmly the word which I preachedto you -- unless you believed in vain. 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.4. that he was buried, that he wasraised on the third day according to the Scriptures 15.5. and that heappeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 15.6. Then he appeared to overfive hundred brothers at once, most of whom remain until now, but somehave also fallen asleep. 15.7. Then he appeared to James, then to allthe apostles 15.8. and last of all, as to the child born at the wrongtime, he appeared to me also. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 15.34. Wake up righteously, and don't sin, for some have no knowledgeof God. I say this to your shame. 15.35. But someone will say, "Howare the dead raised?" and, "With what kind of body do they come? 15.36. You foolish one, that which you yourself sow is not made aliveunless it dies. 15.37. That which you sow, you don't sow the body thatwill be, but a bare grain, maybe of wheat, or of some other kind. 15.38. But God gives it a body even as it pleased him, and to eachseed a body of its own. 15.39. All flesh is not the same flesh, butthere is one flesh of men, another flesh of animals, another of fish,and another of birds. 15.40. There are also celestial bodies, andterrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial differs from that ofthe terrestrial. 15.41. There is one glory of the sun, another gloryof the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs fromanother star in glory. 15.42. So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly. 15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption. 15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed 15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory. 15.55. Death, where is your sting?Hades, where is your victory? 15.56. The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 15.57. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our LordJesus Christ.
42. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.10, 2.11-2.12, 3.2, 4.1, 4.16-4.17, 5.10, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come. 2.11. As you know how we exhorted, comforted, and implored every one of you, as a father does his own children 2.12. to the end that you should walk worthily of God, who calls you into his own kingdom and glory. 3.2. and sent Timothy, our brother and God's servant in the gospel of Christ, to establish you, and to comfort you concerning your faith; 4.1. Finally then, brothers, we beg and exhort you in the Lord Jesus, that as you received from us how you ought to walk and to please God, that you abound more and more. 4.16. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with God's trumpet. The dead in Christ will rise first 4.17. then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. So we will be with the Lord forever. 5.10. who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him. 5.13. and to respect and honor them in love for their work's sake. Be at peace among yourselves.
43. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.7, 1.12, 1.19, 1.22, 2.12, 2.15, 3, 3.3, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.18, 4, 4.3, 4.4, 4.6, 4.7-5.10, 4.11, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.21, 8.9, 9.8, 9.13, 9.14, 10.8, 11.7, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.31, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.8, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 12.19, 13.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

44. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 1.4-1.8, 1.11-1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. so that we ourselves boast about you in the assemblies of God for your patience and faith in all your persecutions and in the afflictions which you endure. 1.5. This is an obvious sign of the righteous judgment of God, to the end that you may be counted worthy of the Kingdom of God, for which you also suffer. 1.6. Since it is a righteous thing with God to repay affliction to those who afflict you 1.7. and to give relief to you that are afflicted with us, when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels in flaming fire 1.8. giving vengeance to those who don't know God, and to those who don't obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus 1.11. To this end we also pray always for you, that our God may count you worthy of your calling, and fulfill every desire of goodness and work of faith, with power; 1.12. that the name of our Lord Jesus may be glorified in you, and you in him, according to the grace of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ.
45. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.7-1.10, 2.3, 2.11-2.12, 2.18, 3.10-3.14, 4.7-4.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. For God didn't give us a spirit of fear, but of power, love, and self-control. 1.8. Therefore don't be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner; but endure hardship for the gospel according to the power of God 1.9. who saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given to us in Christ Jesus before times eternal 1.10. but has now been revealed by the appearing of our Savior, Christ Jesus, who abolished death, and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel. 2.3. You therefore must endure hardship, as a good soldier of Christ Jesus. 2.11. This saying is faithful: For if we died with him, We will also live with him. 2.12. If we endure, We will also reign with him. If we deny him, He also will deny us. 2.18. men who have erred concerning the truth, saying that the resurrection is already past, and overthrowing the faith of some. 3.10. But you did follow my teaching, conduct, purpose, faith, patience, love, steadfastness 3.11. persecutions, and sufferings: those things that happened to me at Antioch, Iconium, and Lystra. I endured those persecutions. Out of them all the Lord delivered me. 3.12. Yes, and all who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus will suffer persecution. 3.13. But evil men and impostors will grow worse and worse, deceiving and being deceived. 3.14. But you remain in the things which you have learned and have been assured of, knowing from whom you have learned them. 4.7. I have fought the good fight. I have finished the course. I have kept the faith. 4.8. From now on, there is stored up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, will give to me on that day; and not to me only, but also to all those who have loved his appearing.
46. New Testament, Acts, 2.23, 2.36, 13.30-13.37, 15.15, 16.30, 20.35, 24.19, 26.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.23. him, being delivered up by the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by the hand of lawless men, crucified and killed; 2.36. Let all the house of Israel therefore know assuredly that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified. 13.30. But God raised him from the dead 13.31. and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. 13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 13.36. For David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay. 13.37. But he whom God raised up saw no decay. 15.15. This agrees with the words of the prophets. As it is written 16.30. and brought them out and said, "Sirs, what must I do to be saved? 20.35. In all things I gave you an example, that so laboring you ought to help the weak, and to remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that he himself said, 'It is more blessed to give than to receive.' 24.19. They ought to have been here before you, and to make accusation, if they had anything against me. 26.9. I myself most assuredly thought that I ought to do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth.
47. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.5, 12.7, 21.1-21.5, 21.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood; 12.7. There was war in the sky. Michael and his angels made war on the dragon. The dragon and his angels made war. 21.1. I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth have passed away, and the sea is no more. 21.2. I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready like a bride adorned for her husband. 21.3. I heard a loud voice out of heaven saying, "Behold, God's dwelling is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them as their God. 21.4. He will wipe away from them every tear from their eyes. Death will be no more; neither will there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain, any more. The first things have passed away. 21.5. He who sits on the throne said, "Behold, I am making all things new." He said, "Write, for these words of God are faithful and true. 21.8. But for the cowardly, unbelieving, sinners, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars, their part is in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, which is the second death.
48. New Testament, Colossians, 1.5-1.6, 1.12-1.13, 1.15-1.20, 1.25-1.28, 2.9, 2.12-2.13, 2.17, 3.1-3.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. because of the hope which is laid up for you in the heavens, whereof you heard before in the word of the truth of the gospel 1.6. which has come to you; even as it is in all the world and is bearing fruit and increasing, as it does in you also, since the day you heard and knew the grace of God in truth; 1.12. giving thanks to the Father, who made us fit to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light; 1.13. who delivered us out of the power of darkness, and translated us into the Kingdom of the Son of his love; 1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.17. He is before all things, and in him all things are held together. 1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.19. For all the fullness was pleased to dwell in him; 1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens. 1.25. of which I was made a servant, according to the stewardship of God which was given me toward you, to fulfill the word of God 1.26. the mystery which has been hidden for ages and generations. But now it has been revealed to his saints 1.27. to whom God was pleased to make known what are the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory; 1.28. whom we proclaim, admonishing every man and teaching every man in all wisdom, that we may present every man perfect in Christ Jesus; 2.9. For in him all the fullness of the Godhead dwells bodily 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 2.13. You were dead through your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh. He made you alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses; 2.17. which are a shadow of the things to come; but the body is Christ's. 3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. 3.2. Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are on the earth. 3.3. For you died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 3.4. When Christ, our life, is revealed, then you will also be revealed with him in glory. 3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry; 3.6. for which things' sake the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 3.7. You also once walked in those, when you lived in them; 3.8. but now you also put them all away: anger, wrath, malice, slander, and shameful speaking out of your mouth. 3.9. Don't lie to one another, seeing that you have put off the old man with his doings 3.10. and have put on the new man, that is being renewed in knowledge after the image of his Creator 3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all. 3.12. Put on therefore, as God's elect, holy and beloved, a heart of compassion, kindness, lowliness, humility, and perseverance;
49. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.3-1.14, 1.18-1.21, 1.23, 2.4-2.9, 2.19-2.22, 3.5-3.6, 3.10, 3.19-3.20, 4.7-4.16, 4.22-4.24, 5.1-5.14, 6.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.11. in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his will; 1.12. to the end that we should be to the praise of his glory, we who had before hoped in Christ: 1.13. in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, -- in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise 1.14. who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. 1.18. having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope of his calling, and what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints 1.19. and what is the exceeding greatness of his power toward us who believe, according to that working of the strength of his might 1.20. which he worked in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and made him to sit at his right hand in the heavenly places 1.21. far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 1.23. which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all. 2.4. But God, being rich in mercy, for his great love with which he loved us 2.5. even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved) 2.6. and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus 2.7. that in the ages to come he might show the exceeding riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus; 2.8. for by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God 2.9. not of works, that no one would boast. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 3.5. which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit; 3.6. that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel 3.10. to the intent that now through the assembly the manifold wisdom of God might be made known to the principalities and the powers in the heavenly places 3.19. and to know Christ's love which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled with all the fullness of God. 3.20. Now to him who is able to do exceedingly abundantly above all that we ask or think, according to the power that works in us 4.7. But to each one of us was the grace given according to the measure of the gift of Christ. 4.8. Therefore he says, "When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men. 4.9. Now this, "He ascended," what is it but that he also first descended into the lower parts of the earth? 4.10. He who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things. 4.11. He gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, shepherds and teachers; 4.12. for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ; 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; 4.14. that we may no longer be children, tossed back and forth and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in craftiness, after the wiles of error; 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.16. from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love. 4.22. that you put away, as concerning your former way of life, the old man, that grows corrupt after the lusts of deceit; 4.23. and that you be renewed in the spirit of your mind 4.24. and put on the new man, who in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of truth. 5.1. Be therefore imitators of God, as beloved children. 5.2. Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling fragrance. 5.3. But sexual immorality, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not even be mentioned among you, as becomes saints; 5.4. nor filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not appropriate; but rather giving of thanks. 5.5. Know this for sure, that no sexually immoral person, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the Kingdom of Christ and God. 5.6. Let no one deceive you with empty words. For because of these things, the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 5.7. Therefore don't be partakers with them. 5.8. For you were once darkness, but are now light in the Lord. Walk as children of light 5.9. for the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth 5.10. proving what is well-pleasing to the Lord. 5.11. Have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather even reprove them. 5.12. For the things which are done by them in secret, it is a shame even to speak of. 5.13. But all things, when they are reproved, are revealed by the light, for everything that is revealed is light. 5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you. 6.12. For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world's rulers of the darkness of this age, and against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.
50. New Testament, Galatians, 1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 2.16, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 3.1, 3.2, 3.5, 3.19, 3.23-4.7, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.11, 4.16, 4.19, 4.21, 4.23, 5.6, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 6.1, 6.2, 6.8, 6.14, 6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead)
51. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.1, 1.4, 3.2, 3.12, 4.15, 7.26, 12.28, 13.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. God, having in the past spoken to the fathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways 1.4. having become so much better than the angels, as he has inherited a more excellent name than they have. 3.2. who was faithful to him who appointed him, as also was Moses in all his house. 3.12. Beware, brothers, lest perhaps there be in any one of you an evil heart of unbelief, in falling away from the living God; 4.15. For we don't have a high priest who can't be touched with the feeling of our infirmities, but one who has been in all points tempted like we are, yet without sin. 7.26. For such a high priest was fitting for us: holy, guiltless, undefiled, separated from sinners, and made higher than the heavens; 12.28. Therefore, receiving a kingdom that can't be shaken, let us have grace, by which we may offer service well pleasing to God, with reverence and awe 13.11. For the bodies of those animals, whose blood is brought into the holy place by the high priest as an offering for sin, are burned outside of the camp.
52. New Testament, Philippians, 1.21, 1.23, 1.27-1.28, 2.2-2.11, 2.13, 3.2, 3.8, 3.10-3.13, 3.19, 3.21, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.21. For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain. 1.23. But I am in a dilemma between the two, having the desire to depart and be with Christ, which is far better. 1.27. Only let your manner of life be worthy of the gospel of Christ, that, whether I come and see you or am absent, I may hear of your state, that you stand firm in one spirit, with one soul striving for the faith of the gospel; 1.28. and in nothing frightened by the adversaries, which is for them a proof of destruction, but to you of salvation, and that from God. 2.2. make my joy full, by being like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind; 2.3. doing nothing through rivalry or through conceit, but in humility, each counting others better than himself; 2.4. each of you not just looking to his own things, but each of you also to the things of others. 2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 2.13. For it is God who works in you both to will and to work, for his good pleasure. 3.2. Beware of the dogs, beware of the evil workers, beware of the false circumcision. 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead. 3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus. 3.13. Brothers, I don't regard myself as yet having taken hold, but one thing I do. Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before 3.19. whose end is destruction, whose god is the belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who think about earthly things. 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself. 4.14. However you did well that you had fellowship with my affliction.
53. New Testament, Romans, 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.7, 1.9, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.30, 1.31, 1.32, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.14, 2.15, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 2.24, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29, 3, 3.3, 3.4, 3.6, 3.7, 3.9, 3.16, 3.18, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.30, 4, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.19, 4.20, 4.24, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 6, 6.1, 6.1-8.13, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.22, 6.23, 7, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 9, 9.1, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.29, 10, 10.9, 10.10, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.32, 11.33, 11.36, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 15.33, 15.44, 15.45, 15.54, 15.55, 15.56, 15.58, 16.7, 16.21, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God
54. New Testament, John, 1.9, 1.14, 1.16, 1.18, 8.29, 8.36, 8.38, 8.46, 13.34-13.35, 15.12, 15.17, 20.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 8.29. He who sent me is with me. The Father hasn't left me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to him. 8.36. If therefore the Son makes you free, you will be free indeed. 8.38. I say the things which I have seen with my Father; and you also do the things which you have seen with your father. 8.46. Which of you convicts me of sin? If I tell the truth, why do you not believe me? 13.34. A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, just like I have loved you; that you also love one another. 13.35. By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another. 15.12. This is my commandment, that you love one another, even as I have loved you. 15.17. I command these things to you, that you may love one another. 20.17. Jesus said to her, "Don't touch me, for I haven't yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brothers, and tell them, 'I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.'
55. New Testament, Luke, 1.35, 2.49, 3.22-3.38, 6.27-6.35, 10.20, 11.2, 12.12, 13.16, 14.15-14.24, 18.1, 22.7, 22.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.35. The angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God. 2.49. He said to them, "Why were you looking for me? Didn't you know that I must be in my Father's house? 3.22. and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased. 3.23. Jesus himself, when he began to teach, was about thirty years old, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli 3.24. the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph 3.25. the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai 3.26. the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Joseph, the son of Judah 3.27. the son of Joa, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri 3.28. the son of Melchi, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmodam, the son of Er 3.29. the son of Josa, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi 3.30. the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jo, the son of Eliakim 3.31. the son of Melea, the son of Me, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David 3.32. the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon 3.33. the son of Amminadab, the son of Aram, the son of Joram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah 3.34. the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor 3.35. the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah 3.36. the son of Cai, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech 3.38. the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God. 6.27. But I tell you who hear: love your enemies, do good to those who hate you 6.28. bless those who curse you, and pray for those who insult you. 6.29. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak, don't withhold your coat also. 6.30. Give to everyone who asks you, and don't ask him who takes away your goods to give them back again. 6.31. As you would like people to do to you, do exactly so to them. 6.32. If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 6.33. If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 6.34. If you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners, to receive back as much. 6.35. But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind toward the unthankful and evil. 10.20. Nevertheless, don't rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven. 11.2. He said to them, "When you pray, say, 'Our Father in heaven, May your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come. May your will be done on Earth, as it is in heaven. 12.12. for the Holy Spirit will teach you in that same hour what you must say. 13.16. Ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan had bound eighteen long years, be freed from this bondage on the Sabbath day? 14.15. When one of those who sat at the table with him heard these things, he said to him, "Blessed is he who will feast in the Kingdom of God! 14.16. But he said to him, "A certain man made a great supper, and he invited many people. 14.17. He sent out his servant at supper time to tell those who were invited, 'Come, for everything is ready now.' 14.18. They all as one began to make excuses. "The first said to him, 'I have bought a field, and I must go and see it. Please have me excused.' 14.19. Another said, 'I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I must go try them out. Please have me excused.' 14.20. Another said, 'I have married a wife, and therefore I can't come.' 14.21. That servant came, and told his lord these things. Then the master of the house, being angry, said to his servant, 'Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in the poor, maimed, blind, and lame.' 14.22. The servant said, 'Lord, it is done as you commanded, and there is still room.' 14.23. The lord said to the servant, 'Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled. 14.24. For I tell you that none of those men who were invited will taste of my supper.' 18.1. He also spoke a parable to them that they must always pray, and not give up 22.7. The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed. 22.29. I confer on you a kingdom, even as my Father conferred on me
56. New Testament, Mark, 1.1, 1.8, 1.21-1.28, 3.28-3.30, 3.35, 10.18, 12.29-12.31, 13.11, 14.38, 15.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 1.21. They went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught. 1.22. They were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes. 1.23. Immediately there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit, and he cried out 1.24. saying, "Ha! What do we have to do with you, Jesus, you Nazarene? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 1.25. Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be quiet, and come out of him! 1.26. The unclean spirit, convulsing him and crying with a loud voice, came out of him. 1.27. They were all amazed, so that they questioned among themselves, saying, "What is this? A new teaching? For with authority he commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him! 1.28. The report of him went out immediately everywhere into all the region of Galilee and its surrounding area. 3.28. Most assuredly I tell you, all of the sons of men's sins will be forgiven them, including their blasphemies with which they may blaspheme; 3.29. but whoever may blaspheme against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin 3.30. -- because they said, "He has an unclean spirit. 3.35. For whoever does the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother. 10.18. Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good except one -- God. 12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these. 13.11. When they lead you away and deliver you up, don't be anxious beforehand, or premeditate what you will say, but say whatever will be given you in that hour. For it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit. 14.38. Watch and pray, that you not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. 15.21. They compelled one passing by, coming from the country, Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to go with them, that he might bear his cross.
57. New Testament, Matthew, 1.18, 3.17, 4.3, 6.9, 7.29, 8.5, 8.11, 9.6, 9.8, 10.1, 11.27, 13.35, 16.16, 17.5, 18.5-18.35, 21.24, 21.27, 21.33-21.44, 22.1-22.14, 22.19-22.21, 23.8, 26.29, 26.63, 27.40, 28.18, 28.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. Now the birth of Jesus Christ was like this; for after his mother, Mary, was engaged to Joseph, before they came together, she was found pregt by the Holy Spirit. 3.17. Behold, a voice out of the heavens said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased. 4.3. The tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 7.29. for he taught them with authority, and not like the scribes. 8.5. When he came into Capernaum, a centurion came to him, asking him 8.11. I tell you that many will come from the east and the west, and will sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the Kingdom of Heaven 9.6. But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins..." (then he said to the paralytic), "Get up, and take up your mat, and go up to your house. 9.8. But when the multitudes saw it, they marveled and glorified God, who had given such authority to men. 10.1. He called to himself his twelve disciples, and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every sickness. 11.27. All things have been delivered to me by my Father. No one knows the Son, except the Father; neither does anyone know the Father, except the Son, and he to whom the Son desires to reveal him. 13.35. that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophet, saying, "I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things hidden from the foundation of the world. 16.16. Simon Peter answered, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God. 17.5. While he was still speaking, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them. Behold, a voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Listen to him. 18.5. Whoever receives one such little child in my name receives me 18.6. but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to stumble, it would be better for him that a huge millstone should be hung around his neck, and that he should be sunk in the depths of the sea. 18.7. Woe to the world because of occasions of stumbling! For it must be that the occasions come, but woe to that person through whom the occasion comes! 18.8. If your hand or your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off, and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life maimed or crippled, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into the eternal fire. 18.9. If your eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out, and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehenna of fire. 18.10. See that you don't despise one of these little ones, for I tell you that in heaven their angels always see the face of my Father who is in heaven. 18.11. For the Son of Man came to save that which was lost. 18.12. What do you think? If a man has one hundred sheep, and one of them goes astray, doesn't he leave the ninety-nine, go to the mountains, and seek that which has gone astray? 18.13. If he finds it, most assuredly I tell you, he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine which have not gone astray. 18.14. Even so it is not the will of your Father who is in heaven that one of these little ones should perish. 18.15. If your brother sins against you, go, show him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained back your brother. 18.16. But if he doesn't listen, take one or two more with you, that at the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. 18.17. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the assembly. If he refuses to hear the assembly also, let him be to you as a Gentile or a tax collector. 18.18. Most assuredly I tell you, whatever things you will bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever things you will loose on earth will be loosed in heaven. 18.19. Again, assuredly I tell you, that if two of you will agree on earth concerning anything that they will ask, it will be done for them by my Father who is in heaven. 18.20. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there I am in the midst of them. 18.21. Then Peter came and said to him, "Lord, how often shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Until seven times? 18.22. Jesus said to him, "I don't tell you until seven times, but, until seventy times seven. 18.23. Therefore the Kingdom of Heaven is like a certain king, who wanted to reconcile accounts with his servants. 18.24. When he had begun to reconcile, one was brought to him who owed him ten thousand talents. 18.25. But because he couldn't pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, with his wife, his children, and all that he had, and payment to be made. 18.26. The servant therefore fell down and kneeled before him, saying, 'Lord, have patience with me, and I will repay you all.' 18.27. The lord of that servant, being moved with compassion, released him, and forgave him the debt. 18.28. But that servant went out, and found one of his fellow servants, who owed him one hundred denarii, and he grabbed him, and took him by the throat, saying, 'Pay me what you owe!' 18.29. So his fellow servant fell down at his feet and begged him, saying, 'Have patience with me, and I will repay you.' 18.30. He would not, but went and cast him into prison, until he should pay back that which was due. 18.31. So when his fellow servants saw what was done, they were exceedingly sorry, and came and told to their lord all that was done. 18.32. Then his lord called him in, and said to him, 'You wicked servant! I forgave you all that debt, because you begged me. 18.33. Shouldn't you also have had mercy on your fellow servant, even as I had mercy on you?' 18.34. His lord was angry, and delivered him to the tormentors, until he should pay all that was due to him. 18.35. So my heavenly Father will also do to you, if you don't each forgive your brother from your hearts for his misdeeds. 21.24. Jesus answered them, "I also will ask you one question, which if you tell me, I likewise will tell you by what authority I do these things. 21.27. They answered Jesus, and said, "We don't know."He also said to them, "Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things. 21.33. Hear another parable. There was a man who was a master of a household, who planted a vineyard, set a hedge about it, dug a winepress in it, built a tower, leased it out to farmers, and went into another country. 21.34. When the season for the fruit drew near, he sent his servants to the farmers, to receive his fruit. 21.35. The farmers took his servants, beat one, killed another, and stoned another. 21.36. Again, he sent other servants more than the first: and they treated them the same way. 21.37. But afterward he sent to them his son, saying, 'They will respect my son.' 21.38. But the farmers, when they saw the son, said among themselves, 'This is the heir. Come, let's kill him, and seize his inheritance.' 21.39. So they took him, and threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him. 21.40. When therefore the lord of the vineyard comes, what will he do to those farmers? 21.41. They told him, "He will miserably destroy those miserable men, and will lease out the vineyard to other farmers, who will give him the fruit in its season. 21.42. Jesus said to them, "Did you never read in the Scriptures, 'The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the head of the corner. This was from the Lord. It is marvelous in our eyes?' 21.43. Therefore I tell you, the Kingdom of God will be taken away from you, and will be given to a nation bringing forth its fruits. 21.44. He who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces, but on whoever it will fall, it will scatter him as dust. 22.1. Jesus answered and spoke again in parables to them, saying 22.2. The Kingdom of Heaven is like a certain king, who made a marriage feast for his son 22.3. and sent out his servants to call those who were invited to the marriage feast, but they would not come. 22.4. Again he sent out other servants, saying, 'Tell those who are invited, "Behold, I have made ready my dinner. My oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready. Come to the marriage feast!"' 22.5. But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his own farm, another to his merchandise 22.6. and the rest grabbed his servants, and treated them shamefully, and killed them. 22.7. But the king was angry, and he sent his armies, destroyed those murderers, and burned their city. 22.8. Then he said to his servants, 'The wedding is ready, but those who were invited weren't worthy. 22.9. Go therefore to the intersections of the highways, and as many as you may find, invite to the marriage feast.' 22.10. Those servants went out into the highways, and gathered together as many as they found, both bad and good. The wedding was filled with guests. 22.11. But when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man who didn't have on wedding clothing 22.12. and he said to him, 'Friend, how did you come in here not wearing wedding clothing?' He was speechless. 22.13. Then the king said to the servants, 'Bind him hand and foot, take him away, and throw him into the outer darkness; there is where the weeping and grinding of teeth will be.' 22.14. For many are called, but few chosen. 22.19. Show me the tax money."They brought to him a denarius. 22.20. He asked them, "Whose is this image and inscription? 22.21. They said to him, "Caesar's."Then he said to them, "Give therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 23.8. But don't you be called 'Rabbi,' for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers. 26.29. But I tell you that I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom. 26.63. But Jesus held his peace. The high priest answered him, "I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you are the Christ, the Son of God. 27.40. and saying, "You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross! 28.18. Jesus came to them and spoke to them, saying, "All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. 28.20. teaching them to observe all things which I commanded you. Behold, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Amen.
58. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 6.1-6.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

59. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

60. Anon., Odes of Solomon, 13.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

61. Apuleius, On The God of Socrates, 12 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

62. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 2.22.131-2.22.136, 3.3.12, 3.11.76, 3.14.95 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

63. Hermas, Similitudes, 8.3.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

64. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.18.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

65. Lucian, Alexander The False Prophet, 38 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. It was with his eye on this Italian propaganda, too, that he took a further step. This was the institution of mysteries, with hierophants and torch bearers complete. The ceremonies occupied three successive days. On the first, proclamation was made on the Athenian model to this effect: ‘If there be any atheist or Christian or Epicurean here spying upon our rites, let him depart in haste; and let all such as have faith in the God be initiated and all blessing attend them.’ He led the litany with, ‘Christians, avaunt!’ and the crowd responded, ‘Epicureans, avaunt!’ Then was presented the child bed of Leto and birth of Apollo, the bridal of Coronis, Asclepius born. The second day, the epiphany and nativity of the God Glycon.
66. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 1.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

67. Maximus of Tyre, Dialexeis, 11.9-11.12 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

68. Tertullian, On Baptism, 5.7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

69. Tertullian, On The Resurrection of The Flesh, 47.11-47.12 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

70. Athanasius, Defense Against The Arians, 2.75-2.76 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

71. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 4.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

72. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 4.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

73. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 4.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

74. Origen, Commentariorum Series In Evangelium Matthaei (Mt. 22.342763), 38 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

75. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, 10.11, 13.11, 13.23, 17.33 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.11. Again the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast into the sea. Matthew 13:47 As in the case of images and statues, the likenesses are not likenesses in every respect of those things in relation to which they are made; but, for example, the image painted with wax on the plane surface of wood has the likeness of the surface along with the color, but does not further preserve the hollows and prominences, but only their outward appearance; and in the moulding of statues an endeavour is made to preserve the likeness in respect of the hollows and the prominences, but not in respect of the color; and, if the cast be formed of wax, it endeavours to preserve both, I mean both the color and also the hollows and the prominences, but is not indeed an image of the things in the respect of depth; so conceive with me also that, in the case of the similitudes in the Gospel, when the kingdom of heaven is likened unto anything, the comparison does not extend to all the features of that to which the kingdom is compared, but only to those features which are required by the argument in hand. And here, accordingly, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast into the sea, not (as supposed by some, who represent that by this word the different natures of those who have come into the net, to-wit, the evil and the righteous, are treated of), as if it is to be thought that, because of the phrase which gathered of every kind, there are many different natures of the righteous and likewise also of the evil; for to such an interpretation all the Scriptures are opposed, which emphasise the freedom of the will, and censure those who sin and approve those who do right; or otherwise blame could not rightly attach to those of the kinds that were such by nature, nor praise to those of a better kind. For the reason why fishes are good or bad lies not in the souls of the fishes, but is based on that which the Word said with knowledge, Let the waters bring forth creeping things with living souls, Genesis 1:20 when, also, God made great sea-monsters and every soul of creeping creatures which the waters brought forth according to their kinds. Genesis 1:21 There, accordingly, The waters brought forth every soul of creeping animals according to their kinds, the cause not being in it; but here we are responsible for our being good kinds and worthy of what are called vessels, or bad and worthy of being cast outside. For it is not the nature in us which is the cause of the evil, but it is the voluntary choice which works evil; and so our nature is not the cause of righteousness, as if it were incapable of admitting unrighteousness, but it is the principle which we have admitted that makes men righteous; for also you never see the kinds of things in the water changing from the bad kinds of fishes into the good, or from the better kind to the worse; but you can always behold the righteous or evil among men either coming from wickedness to virtue, or returning from progress towards virtue to the flood of wickedness. Wherefore also in Ezekiel, concerning the man who turns away from unrighteousness to the keeping of the divine commandments, it is thus written: But if the wicked man turn away from all his wickednesses which he has done, etc., down to the words, that he turn from his wicked way and live; Ezekiel 18:20-23 but concerning the man who returns from the advance towards virtue unto the flood of wickedness it is said, But in the case of the righteous man turning away from his righteousness and committing iniquity, etc., down to the words, in his sins which he has sinned in them shall he die. Ezekiel 18:24 Let those who, from the parable of the drag-net, introduce the doctrine of different natures, tell us in regard to the wicked man who afterwards turned aside from all the wickednesses which he committed and keeps all the commandments of God, and does that which is righteous and merciful, of what nature was he when he was wicked? Clearly not of a nature to be praised. If verily of a nature to be censured, of what kind of nature can he reasonably be described, when he turns away from all his sins which he did? For if he were of the bad class of natures, because of his former deeds, how did he change to that which was better? Or if because of his subsequent deeds you would say that he was of the good class, how being good by nature did he become wicked? And you will also meet with a like dilemma in regard to the righteous man turning away from his righteousness and committing unrighteousness in all manner of sins. For before he turned away from righteousness, being occupied with righteous deeds he was not of a bad nature, for a bad nature could not be in righteousness, since a bad tree - that is wickedness- cannot produce good fruits - the fruits that spring from virtue. Again, on the other hand, if he had been of a good and unchangeable nature he would not have turned away from the good after being called righteous, so as to commit unrighteousness in all his sins which he committed. 13.11. And this may be put in another way. There are some who are kings' sons on the earth, and yet they are not sons of those kings, but sons, and sons absolutely; but others, because of their being strangers to the sons of the kings of the earth, and sons of no one of those upon the earth, but on this very account are sons, whether of God or of His Son, or of some one of those who are God's. If, then, the Saviour inquires of Peter, saying, The kings of the earth from whom do they receive toll or tribute - from their own sons or from strangers? Matthew 17:25 and Peter replies not from their own sons, but from strangers, then Jesus says about such as are strangers to the kings of the earth, and on account of being free are sons, Therefore the sons are free; Matthew 17:26 for the sons of the kings of the earth are not free, since every one that commits sin is the bond-servant of sin, John 8:34 but they are free who abide in the truth of the word of God, and on this account, know the truth, that they also may become free from sin. If, any one then, is a son simply, and not in this matter wholly a son of the kings of the earth, he is free. And nevertheless, though he is free, he takes care not to offend even the kings of the earth, and their sons, and those who receive the half-shekel; wherefore He says, Let us not cause them to stumble, but go and cast your net, and take up the fish that first comes up, Matthew 17:27 etc. But I would inquire of those who are pleased to make myths about different natures, of what sort of nature they were, whether the kings of the earth, or their sons, or those who receive the half-shekel, whom the Saviour does not wish to offend; it appears of a verity, ex hypothesi, that they are not of a nature worthy of praise, and yet He took heed not to cause them to stumble, and He prevents any stumbling-block being put in their way, that they may not sin more grievously, and that with a view to their being saved - if they will - even by receiving Him who has spared them from being caused to stumble. And as in a place verily of consolation - for such is, by interpretation, Capernaum - comforting the disciple as being both free and a son, He gives to him the power of catching the fish first, that when it came up Peter might be comforted by its coming up and being caught, and by the stater being taken from its mouth, in order to be paid to those whose the stater was, and who demanded as their own such a piece of money. 13.23. Next we must test accurately the meaning of the word necessity in the passage, For there is a necessity that the occasions come, Matthew 18:7 and to the like effect in Luke, It is 'inadmissible' but that occasions of stumbling should come, Luke 18:1 instead of impossible. And as it is necessary that that which is mortal should die, and it is impossible but that it should die, and as it must needs be that he who is in the body should be fed, for it is impossible for one who is not fed to live, so it is necessary and impossible but that occasions of stumbling should arise, since there is a necessity also that wickedness should exist before virtue in men, from which wickedness stumbling-blocks arise; for it is impossible that a man should be found altogether sinless, and who, without sin, has attained to virtue. For the wickedness in the evil powers, which is the primal source of the wickedness among men, is altogether eager to work through certain instruments against the men in the world. And perhaps also the wicked powers are more exasperated when they are cast out by the word of Jesus, and their worship is lessened, their customary sacrifices not being offered unto them; and there is a necessity that these offenses come; but there is no necessity that they should come through any particular one; wherefore the woe falls on the man through whom the stumbling-block comes, as he has given a place to the wicked power whose purpose it is to create a stumbling-block. But do not suppose that by nature, and from constitution, there are certain stumbling-blocks which seek out men through whom they come; for as God did not make death, so neither did He create stumbling-blocks; but free-will begot the stumbling-blocks in some who did not wish to endure toils for virtue.
76. Origen, Against Celsus, 2.20, 6.55 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.20. Let us see how he continues after this: These events, he says, he predicted as being a God, and the prediction must by all means come to pass. God, therefore, who above all others ought to do good to men, and especially to those of his own household, led on his own disciples and prophets, with whom he was in the habit of eating and drinking, to such a degree of wickedness, that they became impious and unholy men. Now, of a truth, he who shared a man's table would not be guilty of conspiring against him; but after banqueting with God, he became a conspirator. And, what is still more absurd, God himself plotted against the members of his own table, by converting them into traitors and villains! Now, since you wish me to answer even those charges of Celsus which seem to me frivolous, the following is our reply to such statements. Celsus imagines that an event, predicted through foreknowledge, comes to pass because it was predicted; but we do not grant this, maintaining that he who foretold it was not the cause of its happening, because he foretold it would happen; but the future event itself, which would have taken place though not predicted, afforded the occasion to him, who was endowed with foreknowledge, of foretelling its occurrence. Now, certainly this result is present to the foreknowledge of him who predicts an event, when it is possible that it may or may not happen, viz., that one or other of these things will take place. For we do not assert that he who foreknows an event, by secretly taking away the possibility of its happening or not, makes any such declaration as this: This shall infallibly happen, and it is impossible that it can be otherwise. And this remark applies to all the foreknowledge of events dependent upon ourselves, whether contained in the sacred Scriptures or in the histories of the Greeks. Now, what is called by logicians an idle argument, which is a sophism, will be no sophism as far as Celsus can help, but according to sound reasoning it is a sophism. And that this may be seen, I shall take from the Scriptures the predictions regarding Judas, or the foreknowledge of our Saviour regarding him as the traitor; and from the Greek histories the oracle that was given to Laius, conceding for the present its truth, since it does not affect the argument. Now, in Ps. cviii., Judas is spoken of by the mouth of the Saviour, in words beginning thus: Hold not Your peace, O God of my praise; for the mouth of the wicked and the mouth of the deceitful are opened against me. Now, if you carefully observe the contents of the psalm, you will find that, as it was foreknown that he would betray the Saviour, so also was he considered to be himself the cause of the betrayal, and deserving, on account of his wickedness, of the imprecations contained in the prophecy. For let him suffer these things, because, says the psalmist, he remembered not to show mercy, but persecuted the poor and needy man. Wherefore it was possible for him to show mercy, and not to persecute him whom he did persecute. But although he might have done these things, he did not do them, but carried out the act of treason, so as to merit the curses pronounced against him in the prophecy. And in answer to the Greeks we shall quote the following oracular response to Laius, as recorded by the tragic poet, either in the exact words of the oracle or in equivalent terms. Future events are thus made known to him by the oracle: Do not try to beget children against the will of the gods. For if you beget a son, your son shall murder you; and all your household shall wade in blood. Now from this it is clear that it was within the power of Laius not to try to beget children, for the oracle would not have commanded an impossibility; and it was also in his power to do the opposite, so that neither of these courses was compulsory. And the consequence of his not guarding against the begetting of children was, that he suffered from so doing the calamities described in the tragedies relating to Œdipus and Jocasta and their sons. Now that which is called the idle argument, being a quibble, is such as might be applied, say in the case of a sick man, with the view of sophistically preventing him from employing a physician to promote his recovery; and it is something like this: If it is decreed that you should recover from your disease, you will recover whether you call in a physician or not; but if it is decreed that you should not recover, you will not recover whether you call in a physician or no. But it is certainly decreed either that you should recover, or that you should not recover; and therefore it is in vain that you call in a physician. Now with this argument the following may be wittily compared: If it is decreed that you should beget children, you will beget them, whether you have intercourse with a woman or not. But if it is decreed that you should not beget children, you will not do so, whether you have intercourse with a woman or no. Now, certainly, it is decreed either that you should beget children or not; therefore it is in vain that you have intercourse with a woman. For, as in the latter instance, intercourse with a woman is not employed in vain, seeing it is an utter impossibility for him who does not use it to beget children; so, in the former, if recovery from disease is to be accomplished by means of the healing art, of necessity the physician is summoned, and it is therefore false to say that in vain do you call in a physician. We have brought forward all these illustrations on account of the assertion of this learned Celsus, that being a God He predicted these things, and the predictions must by all means come to pass. Now, if by by all means he means necessarily, we cannot admit this. For it was quite possible, also, that they might not come to pass. But if he uses by all means in the sense of simple futurity, which nothing hinders from being true (although it was possible that they might not happen), he does not at all touch my argument; nor did it follow, from Jesus having predicted the acts of the traitor or the perjurer, that it was the same thing with His being the cause of such impious and unholy proceedings. For He who was among us, and knew what was in man, seeing his evil disposition, and foreseeing what he would attempt from his spirit of covetousness, and from his want of stable ideas of duty towards his Master, along with many other declarations, gave utterance to this also: He that dips his hand with Me in the dish, the same shall betray Me. 6.55. Passages, indeed, might be found where corporeal and external (benefits) are improperly called good,- those things, viz., which contribute to the natural life, while those which do the reverse are termed evil. It is in this sense that Job says to his wife: If we have received good at the hand of the Lord, shall we not also receive evil! Since, then, there is found in the sacred Scriptures, in a certain passage, this statement put into the mouth of God, I make peace, and create evil; and again another, where it is said of Him that evil came down from the Lord to the gate of Jerusalem, the noise of chariots and horsemen, - passages which have disturbed many readers of Scripture, who are unable to see what Scripture means by good and evil,- it is probable that Celsus, being perplexed thereby, gave utterance to the question, How is it that God created evil? or, perhaps, having heard some one discussing the matters relating to it in an ignorant manner, he made this statement which we have noticed. We, on the other hand, maintain that evil, or wickedness, and the actions which proceed from it, were not created by God. For if God created that which is really evil, how was it possible that the proclamation regarding (the last) judgment should be confidently announced, which informs us that the wicked are to be punished for their evil deeds in proportion to the amount of their wickedness, while those who have lived a virtuous life, or performed virtuous actions, will be in the enjoyment of blessedness, and will receive rewards from God? I am well aware that those who would daringly assert that these evils were created by God will quote certain expressions of Scripture (in their support), because we are not able to show one consistent series of passages; for although Scripture (generally) blames the wicked and approves of the righteous, it nevertheless contains some statements which, although comparatively few in number, seem to disturb the minds of ignorant readers of holy Scripture. I have not, however, deemed it appropriate to my present treatise to quote on the present occasion those discordant statements, which are many in number, and their explanations, which would require a long array of proofs. Evils, then, if those be meant which are properly so called, were not created by God; but some, although few in comparison with the order of the whole world, have resulted from His principal works, as there follow from the chief works of the carpenter such things as spiral shavings and sawdust, or as architects might appear to be the cause of the rubbish which lies around their buildings in the form of the filth which drops from the stones and the plaster.
77. Origen, On First Principles, 1.5.3, 1.8.1, 2.9.5-2.9.7, 3.1.8-3.1.9, 3.1.14, 3.1.16, 3.1.18, 3.3.5, 3.4.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5.3. After the enumeration, then, of so many and so important names of orders and offices, underlying which it is certain that there are personal existences, let us inquire whether God, the creator and founder of all things, created certain of them holy and happy, so that they could admit no element at all of an opposite kind, and certain others so that they were made capable both of virtue and vice; or whether we are to suppose that He created some so as to be altogether incapable of virtue, and others again altogether incapable of wickedness, but with the power of abiding only in a state of happiness, and others again such as to be capable of either condition. In order, now, that our first inquiry may begin with the names themselves, let us consider whether the holy angels, from the period of their first existence, have always been holy, and are holy still, and will be holy, and have never either admitted or had the power to admit any occasion of sin. Then in the next place, let us consider whether those who are called holy principalities began from the moment of their creation by God to exercise power over some who were made subject to them, and whether these latter were created of such a nature, and formed for the very purpose of being subject and subordinate. In like manner, also, whether those which are called powers were created of such a nature and for the express purpose of exercising power, or whether their arriving at that power and dignity is a reward and desert of their virtue. Moreover, also, whether those which are called thrones or seats gained that stability of happiness at the same time with their coming forth into being, so as to have that possession from the will of the Creator alone; or whether those which are called dominions had their dominion conferred on them, not as a reward for their proficiency, but as the peculiar privilege of their creation, so that it is something which is in a certain degree inseparable from them, and natural. Now, if we adopt the view that the holy angels, and the holy powers, and the blessed seats, and the glorious virtues, and the magnificent dominions, are to be regarded as possessing those powers and dignities and glories in virtue of their nature, it will doubtless appear to follow that those beings which have been mentioned as holding offices of an opposite kind must be regarded in the same manner; so that those principalities with whom we have to struggle are to be viewed, not as having received that spirit of opposition and resistance to all good at a later period, or as falling away from good through the freedom of the will, but as having had it in themselves as the essence of their being from the beginning of their existence. In like manner also will it be the case with the powers and virtues, in none of which was wickedness subsequent or posterior to their first existence. Those also whom the apostle termed rulers and princes of the darkness of this world, are said, with respect to their rule and occupation of darkness, to fall not from perversity of intention, but from the necessity of their creation. Logical reasoning will compel us to take the same view with regard to wicked and maligt spirits and unclean demons. But if to entertain this view regarding maligt and opposing powers seem to be absurd, as it is certainly absurd that the cause of their wickedness should be removed from the purpose of their own will, and ascribed of necessity to their Creator, why should we not also be obliged to make a similar confession regarding the good and holy powers, that, viz., the good which is in them is not theirs by essential being, which we have manifestly shown to be the case with Christ and the Holy Spirit alone, as undoubtedly with the Father also? For it was proved that there was nothing compound in the nature of the Trinity, so that these qualities might seem to belong to it as accidental consequences. From which it follows, that in the case of every creature it is a result of his own works and movements, that those powers which appear either to hold sway over others or to exercise power or dominion, have been preferred to and placed over those whom they are said to govern or exercise power over, and not in consequence of a peculiar privilege inherent in their constitutions, but on account of merit. 1.8.1. A similar method must be followed in treating of the angels; nor are we to suppose that it is the result of accident that a particular office is assigned to a particular angel: as to Raphael, e.g., the work of curing and healing; to Gabriel, the conduct of wars; to Michael, the duty of attending to the prayers and supplications of mortals. For we are not to imagine that they obtained these offices otherwise than by their own merits, and by the zeal and excellent qualities which they severally displayed before this world was formed; so that afterwards in the order of archangels, this or that office was assigned to each one, while others deserved to be enrolled in the order of angels, and to act under this or that archangel, or that leader or head of an order. All of which things were disposed, as I have said, not indiscriminately and fortuitously, but by a most appropriate and just decision of God, who arranged them according to deserts, in accordance with His own approval and judgment: so that to one angel the Church of the Ephesians was to be entrusted; to another, that of the Smyrnæans; one angel was to be Peter's, another Paul's; and so on through every one of the little ones that are in the Church, for such and such angels as even daily behold the face of God must be assigned to each one of them; and there must also be some angel that encamps round about them that fear God. All of which things, assuredly, it is to be believed, are not performed by accident or chance, or because they (the angels) were so created, lest on that view the Creator should be accused of partiality; but it is to be believed that they were conferred by God, the just and impartial Ruler of all things, agreeably to the merits and good qualities and mental vigour of each individual spirit. 2.9.5. Now, when we say that this world was established in the variety in which we have above explained that it was created by God, and when we say that this God is good, and righteous, and most just, there are numerous individuals, especially those who, coming from the school of Marcion, and Valentinus, and Basilides, have heard that there are souls of different natures, who object to us, that it cannot consist with the justice of God in creating the world to assign to some of His creatures an abode in the heavens, and not only to give such a better habitation, but also to grant them a higher and more honourable position; to favour others with the grant of principalities; to bestow powers upon some, dominions on others; to confer upon some the most honourable seats in the celestial tribunals; to enable some to shine with more resplendent glory, and to glitter with a starry splendour; to give to some the glory of the sun, to others the glory of the moon, to others the glory of the stars; to cause one star to differ from another star in glory. And, to speak once for all, and briefly, if the Creator God wants neither the will to undertake nor the power to complete a good and perfect work, what reason can there be that, in the creation of rational natures, i.e., of beings of whose existence He Himself is the cause, He should make some of higher rank, and others of second, or third, or of many lower and inferior degrees? In the next place, they object to us, with regard to terrestrial beings, that a happier lot by birth is the case with some rather than with others; as one man, e.g., is begotten of Abraham, and born of the promise; another, too, of Isaac and Rebekah, and who, while still in the womb, supplants his brother, and is said to be loved by God before he is born. Nay, this very circumstance — especially that one man is born among the Hebrews, with whom he finds instruction in the divine law; another among the Greeks, themselves also wise, and men of no small learning; and then another among the Ethiopians, who are accustomed to feed on human flesh; or among the Scythians, with whom parricide is an act sanctioned by law; or among the people of Taurus, where strangers are offered in sacrifice — is a ground of strong objection. Their argument accordingly is this: If there be this great diversity of circumstances, and this diverse and varying condition by birth, in which the faculty of free-will has no scope (for no one chooses for himself either where, or with whom, or in what condition he is born); if, then, this is not caused by the difference in the nature of souls, i.e., that a soul of an evil nature is destined for a wicked nation, and a good soul for a righteous nation, what other conclusion remains than that these things must be supposed to be regulated by accident and chance? And if that be admitted, then it will be no longer believed that the world was made by God, or administered by His providence; and as a consequence, a judgment of God upon the deeds of each individual will appear a thing not to be looked for. In which matter, indeed, what is clearly the truth of things is the privilege of Him alone to know who searches all things, even the deep things of God. 2.9.6. We, however, although but men, not to nourish the insolence of the heretics by our silence, will return to their objections such answers as occur to us, so far as our abilities enable us. We have frequently shown, by those declarations which we were able to produce from the holy Scriptures, that God, the Creator of all things, is good, and just, and all-powerful. When He in the beginning created those beings which He desired to create, i.e., rational natures, He had no other reason for creating them than on account of Himself, i.e., His own goodness. As He Himself, then, was the cause of the existence of those things which were to be created, in whom there was neither any variation nor change, nor want of power, He created all whom He made equal and alike, because there was in Himself no reason for producing variety and diversity. But since those rational creatures themselves, as we have frequently shown, and will yet show in the proper place, were endowed with the power of free-will, this freedom of will incited each one either to progress by imitation of God, or reduced him to failure through negligence. And this, as we have already stated, is the cause of the diversity among rational creatures, deriving its origin not from the will or judgment of the Creator, but from the freedom of the individual will. Now God, who deemed it just to arrange His creatures according to their merit, brought down these different understandings into the harmony of one world, that He might adorn, as it were, one dwelling, in which there ought to be not only vessels of gold and silver, but also of wood and clay (and some indeed to honour, and others to dishonour), with those different vessels, or souls, or understandings. And these are the causes, in my opinion, why that world presents the aspect of diversity, while Divine Providence continues to regulate each individual according to the variety of his movements, or of his feelings and purpose. On which account the Creator will neither appear to be unjust in distributing (for the causes already mentioned) to every one according to his merits; nor will the happiness or unhappiness of each one's birth, or whatever be the condition that falls to his lot, be deemed accidental; nor will different creators, or souls of different natures, be believed to exist. 2.9.7. But even holy Scripture does not appear to me to be altogether silent on the nature of this secret, as when the Apostle Paul, in discussing the case of Jacob and Esau, says: For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of Him who calls, it was said, The elder shall serve the younger, as it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. And after that, he answers himself, and says, What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? And that he might furnish us with an opportunity of inquiring into these matters, and of ascertaining how these things do not happen without a reason, he answers himself, and says, God forbid. For the same question, as it seems to me, which is raised concerning Jacob and Esau, may be raised regarding all celestial and terrestrial creatures, and even those of the lower world as well. And in like manner it seems to me, that as he there says, The children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, so it might also be said of all other things, When they were not yet created, neither had yet done any good or evil, that the decree of God according to election may stand, that (as certain think) some things on the one hand were created heavenly, some on the other earthly, and others, again, beneath the earth, not of works (as they think), but of Him who calls, what shall we say then, if these things are so? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid. As, therefore, when the Scriptures are carefully examined regarding Jacob and Esau, it is not found to be unrighteousness with God that it should be said, before they were born, or had done anything in this life, the elder shall serve the younger; and as it is found not to be unrighteousness that even in the womb Jacob supplanted his brother, if we feel that he was worthily beloved by God, according to the deserts of his previous life, so as to deserve to be preferred before his brother; so also is it with regard to heavenly creatures, if we notice that diversity was not the original condition of the creature, but that, owing to causes that have previously existed, a different office is prepared by the Creator for each one in proportion to the degree of his merit, on this ground, indeed, that each one, in respect of having been created by God an understanding, or a rational spirit, has, according to the movements of his mind and the feelings of his soul, gained for himself a greater or less amount of merit, and has become either an object of love to God, or else one of dislike to Him; while, nevertheless, some of those who are possessed of greater merit are ordained to suffer with others for the adorning of the state of the world, and for the discharge of duty to creatures of a lower grade, in order that by this means they themselves may be participators in the endurance of the Creator, according to the words of the apostle: For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who has subjected the same in hope. Keeping in view, then, the sentiment expressed by the apostle, when, speaking of the birth of Esau and Jacob, he says, Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid, I think it right that this same sentiment should be carefully applied to the case of all other creatures, because, as we formerly remarked, the righteousness of the Creator ought to appear in everything. And this, it appears to me, will be seen more clearly at last, if each one, whether of celestial or terrestrial or infernal beings, be said to have the causes of his diversity in himself, and antecedent to his bodily birth. For all things were created by the Word of God, and by His Wisdom, and were set in order by His Justice. And by the grace of His compassion He provides for all men, and encourages all to the use of whatever remedies may lead to their cure, and incites them to salvation. 3.1.8. Let us begin, then, with those words which were spoken to Pharaoh, who is said to have been hardened by God, in order that he might not let the people go; and, along with his case, the language of the apostle also will be considered, where he says, Therefore He has mercy on whom He will, and whom He will He hardens. For it is on these passages chiefly that the heretics rely, asserting that salvation is not in our own power, but that souls are of such a nature as must by all means be either lost or saved; and that in no way can a soul which is of an evil nature become good, or one which is of a virtuous nature be made bad. And hence they maintain that Pharaoh, too, being of a ruined nature, was on that account hardened by God, who hardens those that are of an earthly nature, but has compassion on those who are of a spiritual nature. Let us see, then, what is the meaning of their assertion; and let us, in the first place, request them to tell us whether they maintain that the soul of Pharaoh was of an earthly nature, such as they term lost. They will undoubtedly answer that it was of an earthly nature. If so, then to believe God, or to obey Him, when his nature opposed his so doing, was an impossibility. And if this were his condition by nature, what further need was there for his heart to be hardened, and this not once, but several times, unless indeed because it was possible for him to yield to persuasion? Nor could any one be said to be hardened by another, save him who of himself was not obdurate. And if he were not obdurate of himself, it follows that neither was he of an earthly nature, but such an one as might give way when overpowered by signs and wonders. But he was necessary for God's purpose, in order that, for the saving of the multitude, He might manifest in him His power by his offering resistance to numerous miracles, and struggling against the will of God, and his heart being by this means said to be hardened. Such are our answers, in the first place, to these persons; and by these their assertion may be overturned, according to which they think that Pharaoh was destroyed in consequence of his evil nature. And with regard to the language of the Apostle Paul, we must answer them in a similar way. For who are they whom God hardens, according to your view? Those, namely, whom you term of a ruined nature, and who, I am to suppose, would have done something else had they not been hardened. If, indeed, they come to destruction in consequence of being hardened, they no longer perish naturally, but in virtue of what befalls them. Then, in the next place, upon whom does God show mercy? On those, namely, who are to be saved. And in what respect do those persons stand in need of a second compassion, who are to be saved once by their nature, and so come naturally to blessedness, except that it is shown even from their case, that, because it was possible for them to perish, they therefore obtain mercy, that so they may not perish, but come to salvation, and possess the kingdom of the good. And let this be our answer to those who devise and invent the fable of good or bad natures, i.e., of earthly or spiritual souls, in consequence of which, as they say, each one is either saved or lost. 3.1.8. Let us begin, then, with what is said about Pharaoh— that he was hardened by God, that he might not send away the people; along with which will be examined also the statement of the apostle, Therefore has He mercy on whom He will have mercy, and whom He will He hardens. And certain of those who hold different opinions misuse these passages, themselves also almost destroying free-will by introducing ruined natures incapable of salvation, and others saved which it is impossible can be lost; and Pharaoh, they say, as being of a ruined nature, is therefore hardened by God, who has mercy upon the spiritual, but hardens the earthly. Let us see now what they mean. For we shall ask them if Pharaoh was of an earthy nature; and when they answer, we shall say that he who is of an earthy nature is altogether disobedient to God: but if disobedient, what need is there of his heart being hardened, and that not once, but frequently? Unless perhaps, since it was possible for him to obey (in which case he would certainly have obeyed, as not being earthy, when hard pressed by the signs and wonders), God needs him to be disobedient to a greater degree, in order that He may manifest His mighty deeds for the salvation of the multitude, and therefore hardens his heart. This will be our answer to them in the first place, in order to overturn their supposition that Pharaoh was of a ruined nature. And the same reply must be given to them with respect to the statement of the apostle. For whom does God harden? Those who perish, as if they would obey unless they were hardened, or manifestly those who would be saved because they are not of a ruined nature. And on whom has He mercy? Is it on those who are to be saved? And how is there need of a second mercy for those who have been prepared once for salvation, and who will by all means become blessed on account of their nature? Unless perhaps, since they are capable of incurring destruction, if they did not receive mercy, they will obtain mercy, in order that they may not incur that destruction of which they are capable, but may be in the condition of those who are saved. And this is our answer to such persons. 3.1.9. And now we must return an answer also to those who would have the God of the law to be just only, and not also good; and let us ask such in what manner they consider the heart of Pharaoh to have been hardened by God— by what acts or by what prospective arrangements. For we must observe the conception of a God who in our opinion is both just and good, but according to them only just. And let them show us how a God whom they also acknowledge to be just, can with justice cause the heart of a man to be hardened, that, in consequence of that very hardening, he may sin and be ruined. And how shall the justice of God be defended, if He Himself is the cause of the destruction of those whom, owing to their unbelief (through their being hardened), He has afterwards condemned by the authority of a judge? For why does He blame him, saying, But since you will not let My people go, lo, I will smite all the first-born in Egypt, even your first-born, and whatever else was spoken through Moses by God to Pharaoh? For it behooves every one who maintains the truth of what is recorded in Scripture, and who desires to show that the God of the law and the prophets is just, to render a reason for all these things, and to show how there is in them nothing at all derogatory to the justice of God, since, although they deny His goodness, they admit that He is a just judge, and creator of the world. Different, however, is the method of our reply to those who assert that the creator of this world is a maligt being, i.e., a devil. 3.1.9. But to those who think they understand the term hardened, we must address the inquiry, What do they mean by saying that God, by His working, hardens the heart, and with what purpose does He do this? For let them observe the conception of a God who is in reality just and good; but if they will not allow this, let it be conceded to them for the present that He is just; and let them show how the good and just God, or the just God only, appears to be just, in hardening the heart of him who perishes because of his being hardened: and how the just God becomes the cause of destruction and disobedience, when men are chastened by Him on account of their hardness and disobedience. And why does He find fault with him, saying, You will not let My people go; Lo, I will smite all the first-born in Egypt, even your first-born; and whatever else is recorded as spoken from God to Pharaoh through the intervention of Moses? For he who believes that the Scriptures are true, and that God is just, must necessarily endeavour, if he be honest, to show how God, in using such expressions, may be distinctly understood to be just. But if any one should stand, declaring with uncovered head that the Creator of the world was inclined to wickedness, we should need other words to answer them. 3.1.14. But let us take from the Gospels also the similitudes of those things which we have mentioned, in which is described a certain rock, having on it a little superficial earth, on which, when a seed falls, it is said quickly to spring up; but when sprung up, it withers as the sun ascends in the heavens, and dies away, because it did not cast its root deeply into the ground. Now this rock undoubtedly represents the human soul, hardened on account of its own negligence, and converted into stone because of its wickedness. For God gave no one a stony heart by a creative act; but each individual's heart is said to become stony through his own wickedness and disobedience. As, therefore, if one were to blame a husbandman for not casting his seed more quickly upon rocky ground, because seed cast upon other rocky soil was seen to spring up speedily, the husbandman would certainly say in reply: I sow this soil more slowly, for this reason, that it may retain the seed which it has received; for it suits this ground to be sown somewhat slowly, lest perhaps the crop, having sprouted too rapidly, and coming forth from the mere surface of a shallow soil, should be unable to withstand the rays of the sun. Would not he who formerly found fault acquiesce in the reasons and superior knowledge of the husbandman, and approve as done on rational grounds what formerly appeared to him as founded on no reason? And in the same way, God, the thoroughly skilled husbandman of all His creation, undoubtedly conceals and delays to another time those things which we think ought to have obtained health sooner, in order that not the outside of things, rather than the inside, may be cured. But if any one now were to object to us that certain seeds do even fall upon rocky ground, i.e., on a hard and stony heart, we should answer that even this does not happen without the arrangement of Divine Providence; inasmuch as, but for this, it would not be known what condemnation was incurred by rashness in hearing and indifference in investigation, nor, certainly, what benefit was derived from being trained in an orderly manner. And hence it happens that the soul comes to know its defects, and to cast the blame upon itself, and, consistently with this, to reserve and submit itself to training, i.e., in order that it may see that its faults must first be removed, and that then it must come to receive the instruction of wisdom. As, therefore, souls are innumerable, so also are their manners, and purposes, and movements, and appetencies, and incitements different, the variety of which can by no means be grasped by the human mind; and therefore to God alone must be left the art, and the knowledge, and the power of an arrangement of this kind, as He alone can know both the remedies for each individual soul, and measure out the time of its cure. It is He alone then who, as we said, recognises the ways of individual men, and determines by what way He ought to lead Pharaoh, that through him His name might be named in all the earth, having previously chastised him by many blows, and finally drowning him in the sea. By this drowning, however, it is not to be supposed that God's providence as regards Pharaoh was terminated; for we must not imagine, because he was drowned, that therefore he had immediately completely perished: for in the hand of God are both we and our words; all wisdom, also, and knowledge of workmanship, as Scripture declares. But these points we have discussed according to our ability, treating of that chapter of Scripture in which it is said that God hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and agreeably to the statement, He has mercy on whom He will have mercy, and whom He will He hardens. 3.1.14. Come now, and let us use the following image from the Gospel. There is a certain rock, with a little surface-soil, on which, if seeds fall, they quickly spring up; but when sprung up, as not having root, they are burned and withered when the sun has arisen. Now this rock is a human soul, hardened on account of its negligence, and converted to stone because of its wickedness; for no one receives from God a heart created of stone, but it becomes such in consequence of wickedness. If one, then, were to find fault with the husbandman for not sowing his seed sooner upon the rocky soil, when he saw other rocky ground which had received seed flourishing, the husbandman would reply, I shall sow this ground more slowly, casting in seeds that will be able to retain their hold, this slower method being better for the ground, and more secure than that which receives the seed in a more rapid manner, and more upon the surface. (The person finding fault) would yield his assent to the husbandman, as one who spoke with sound reason, and who acted with skill: so also the great Husbandman of all nature postpones that benefit which might be deemed premature, that it may not prove superficial. But it is probable that here some one may object to us with reference to this: Why do some of the seeds fall upon the earth that has superficial soil, the soul being, as it were, a rock? Now we must say, in answer to this, that it was better for this soul, which desired better things precipitately, and not by a way which led to them, to obtain its desire, in order that, condemning itself on this account, it may, after a long time, endure to receive the husbandry which is according to nature. For souls are, as one may say, innumerable; and their habits are innumerable, and their movements, and their purposes, and their assaults, and their efforts, of which there is only one admirable administrator, who knows both the season, and the fitting helps, and the avenues, and the ways, viz., the God and Father of all things, who knows how He conducts even Pharaoh by so great events, and by drowning in the sea, with which latter occurrence His superintendence of Pharaoh does not cease. For he was not annihilated when drowned: For in the hand of God are both we and our words; all wisdom also, and knowledge of workmanship. And such is a moderate defense with regard to the statement that Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and that God has mercy upon whom He will have mercy, and whom He will He hardens. 3.1.16. There is next brought before us that declaration uttered by the Saviour in the Gospel: That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest they should happen to be converted, and their sins be forgiven them. On which our opponent will remark: If those who shall hear more distinctly are by all means to be corrected and converted, and converted in such a manner as to be worthy of receiving the remission of sins, and if it be not in their own power to hear the word distinctly, but if it depend on the Instructor to teach more openly and distinctly, while he declares that he does not proclaim to them the word with clearness, lest they should perhaps hear and understand, and be converted, and be saved, it will follow, certainly, that their salvation is not dependent upon themselves. And if this be so, then we have no free-will either as regards salvation or destruction. Now were it not for the words that are added, Lest perhaps they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them, we might be more inclined to return the answer, that the Saviour was unwilling that those individuals whom He foresaw would not become good, should understand the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, and that therefore He spoke to them in parables; but as that addition follows, Lest perhaps they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them, the explanation is rendered more difficult. And, in the first place, we have to notice what defense this passage furnishes against those heretics who are accustomed to hunt out of the Old Testament any expressions which seem, according to their view, to predicate severity and cruelty of God the Creator, as when He is described as being affected with the feeling of vengeance or punishment, or by any of those emotions, however named, from which they deny the existence of goodness in the Creator; for they do not judge of the Gospels with the same mind and feelings, and do not observe whether any such statements are found in them as they condemn and censure in the Old Testament. For manifestly, in the passage referred to, the Saviour is shown, as they themselves admit, not to speak distinctly, for this very reason, that men may not be converted, and when converted, receive the remission of sins. Now, if the words be understood according to the letter merely, nothing less, certainly, will be contained in them than in those passages which they find fault with in the Old Testament. And if they are of opinion that any expressions occurring in such a connection in the New Testament stand in need of explanation, it will necessarily follow that those also occurring in the Old Testament, which are the subject of censure, may be freed from aspersion by an explanation of a similar kind, so that by such means the passages found in both Testaments may be shown to proceed from one and the same God. But let us return, as we best may, to the question proposed. 3.1.16. There was after this the passage from the Gospel, where the Saviour said, that for this reason did He speak to those without in parables, that seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not understand; lest they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them. Now, our opponent will say, If some persons are assuredly converted on hearing words of greater clearness, so that they become worthy of the remission of sins, and if it does not depend upon themselves to hear these words of greater clearness, but upon him who teaches, and he for this reason does not announce them to them more distinctly, lest they should see and understand, it is not within the power of such to be saved; and if so, we are not possessed of free-will as regards salvation and destruction. Effectual, indeed, would be the reply to such arguments, were it not for the addition, Lest they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them,— namely, that the Saviour did not wish those who were not to become good and virtuous to understand the more mystical (parts of His teaching), and for this reason spoke to them in parables; but now, on account of the words, Lest they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them, the defense is more difficult. In the first place, then, we must notice the passage in its bearing on the heretics, who hunt out those portions from the Old Testament where is exhibited, as they themselves daringly assert, the cruelty of the Creator of the world in His purpose of avenging and punishing the wicked, or by whatever other name they wish to designate such a quality, so speaking only that they may say that goodness does not exist in the Creator; and who do not deal with the New Testament in a similar manner, nor in a spirit of candour, but pass by places similar to those which they consider censurable in the Old Testament. For manifestly, and according to the Gospel, is the Saviour shown, as they assert, by His former words, not to speak distinctly for this reason, that men might not be converted, and, being converted, might become deserving of the remission of sins: which statement of itself is nothing inferior to those passages from the Old Testament which are objected to. And if they seek to defend the Gospel, we must ask them whether they are not acting in a blameworthy manner in dealing differently with the same questions; and, while not stumbling against the New Testament, but seeking to defend it, they nevertheless bring a charge against the Old regarding similar points, whereas they ought to offer a defense in the same way of the passages from the New. And therefore we shall force them, on account of the resemblances, to regard all as the writings of one God. Come, then, and let us, to the best of our ability, furnish an answer to the question submitted to us. 3.1.18. Let us now look to the expression, It is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For our opponents assert, that if it does not depend upon him that wills, nor on him that runs, but on God that shows mercy, that a man be saved, our salvation is not in our own power. For our nature is such as to admit of our either being saved or not, or else our salvation rests solely on the will of Him who, if He wills it, shows mercy, and confers salvation. Now let us inquire, in the first place, of such persons, whether to desire blessings be a good or evil act; and whether to hasten after good as a final aim be worthy of praise. If they were to answer that such a procedure was deserving of censure, they would evidently be mad; for all holy men both desire blessings and run after them, and certainly are not blameworthy. How, then, is it that he who is not saved, if he be of an evil nature, desires blessing, and runs after them, but does not find them? For they say that a bad tree does not bring forth good fruits, whereas it is a good fruit to desire blessings. And how is the fruit of a bad tree good? And if they assert that to desire blessings, and to run after them, is an act of indifference, i.e., neither good nor bad, we shall reply, that if it be an indifferent act to desire blessings, and to run after them, then the opposite of that will also be an indifferent act, viz., to desire evils, and to run after them; whereas it is certain that it is not an indifferent act to desire evils, and to run after them, but one that is manifestly wicked. It is established, then, that to desire and follow after blessings is not an indifferent, but a virtuous proceeding. 3.1.18. Let us look next at the passage: So, then, it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For they who find fault say: If it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy, salvation does not depend upon ourselves, but upon the arrangement made by Him who has formed us such as we are, or on the purpose of Him who shows mercy when he pleases. Now we must ask these persons the following questions: Whether to desire what is good is virtuous or vicious; and whether the desire to run in order to reach the goal in the pursuit of what is good be worthy of praise or censure? And if they shall say that it is worthy of censure, they will return an absurd answer; since the saints desire and run, and manifestly in so acting do nothing that is blameworthy. But if they shall say that it is virtuous to desire what is good, and to run after what is good, we shall ask them how a perishing nature desires better things; for it is like an evil tree producing good fruit, since it is a virtuous act to desire better things. They will give (perhaps) a third answer, that to desire and run after what is good is one of those things that are indifferent, and neither beautiful nor wicked. Now to this we must say, that if to desire and to run after what is good be a thing of indifference, then the opposite also is a thing of indifference, viz., to desire what is evil, and to run after it. But it is not a thing of indifference to desire what is evil, and to run after it. And therefore also, to desire what is good, and to run after it, is not a thing of indifference. Such, then, is the defense which I think we can offer to the statement, that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. Solomon says in the book of Psalms (for the Song of Degrees is his, from which we shall quote the words): Unless the Lord build the house, they labour in vain that build it; except the Lord keep the city, the watchman wakes in vain: not dissuading us from building, nor teaching us not to keep watch in order to guard the city in our soul, but showing that what is built without God, and does not receive a guard from Him, is built in vain and watched to no purpose, because God might reasonably be entitled the Lord of the building; and the Governor of all things, the Ruler of the guard of the city. As, then, if we were to say that such a building is not the work of the builder, but of God, and that it was not owing to the successful effort of the watcher, but of the God who is over all, that such a city suffered no injury from its enemies, we should not be wrong, it being understood that something also had been done by human means, but the benefit being gratefully referred to God who brought it to pass; so, seeing that the (mere) human desire is not sufficient to attain the end, and that the running of those who are, as it were, athletes, does not enable them to gain the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus — for these things are accomplished with the assistance of God — it is well said that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. As if also it were said with regard to husbandry what also is actually recorded: I planted, Apollos watered; and God gave the increase. So then neither is he that plants anything, neither he that waters; but God that gives the increase. Now we could not piously assert that the production of full crops was the work of the husbandman, or of him that watered, but the work of God. So also our own perfection is brought about, not as if we ourselves did nothing; for it is not completed by us, but God produces the greater part of it. And that this assertion may be more clearly believed, we shall take an illustration from the art of navigation. For in comparison with the effect of the winds, and the mildness of the air, and the light of the stars, all co-operating in the preservation of the crew, what proportion could the art of navigation be said to bear in the bringing of the ship into harbour? — since even the sailors themselves, from piety, do not venture to assert often that they had saved the ship, but refer all to God; not as if they had done nothing, but because what had been done by Providence was infinitely greater than what had been effected by their art. And in the matter of our salvation, what is done by God is infinitely greater than what is done by ourselves; and therefore, I think, is it said that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For if in the manner which they imagine we must explain the statement, that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy, the commandments are superfluous; and it is in vain that Paul himself blames some for having fallen away, and approves of others as having remained upright, and enacts laws for the Churches: it is in vain also that we give ourselves up to desire better things, and in vain also (to attempt) to run. But it is not in vain that Paul gives such advice, censuring some and approving of others; nor in vain that we give ourselves up to the desire of better things, and to the chase after things that are pre-eminent. They have accordingly not well explained the meaning of the passage. 3.3.5. This too, I think, should next be inquired into, viz., what are the reasons why a human soul is acted on at one time by good (spirits), and at another by bad: the grounds of which I suspect to be older than the bodily birth of the individual, as John (the Baptist) showed by his leaping and exulting in his mother's womb, when the voice of the salutation of Mary reached the ears of his mother Elisabeth; and as Jeremiah the prophet declares, who was known to God before he was formed in his mother's womb, and before he was born was sanctified by Him, and while yet a boy received the grace of prophecy. And again, on the other hand it is shown beyond a doubt, that some have been possessed by hostile spirits from the very beginning of their lives: i.e., some were born with an evil spirit; and others, according to credible histories, have practised divination from childhood. Others have been under the influence of the demon called Python, i.e., the ventriloquial spirit, from the commencement of their existence. To all which instances, those who maintain that everything in the world is under the administration of Divine Providence (as is also our own belief), can, as it appears to me, give no other answer, so as to show that no shadow of injustice rests upon the divine government, than by holding that there were certain causes of prior existence, in consequence of which the souls, before their birth in the body, contracted a certain amount of guilt in their sensitive nature, or in their movements, on account of which they have been judged worthy by Divine Providence of being placed in this condition. For a soul is always in possession of free-will, as well when it is in the body as when it is without it; and freedom of will is always directed either to good or evil. Nor can any rational and sentient being, i.e., a mind or soul, exist without some movement either good or bad. And it is probable that these movements furnish grounds for merit even before they do anything in this world; so that on account of these merits or grounds they are, immediately on their birth, and even before it, so to speak, assorted by Divine Providence for the endurance either of good or evil. 3.4.5. With respect, however, to the following being ranked among the works of the flesh, viz., heresies, and envyings, and contentions, or other (vices), they so understand the passage, that the mind, being rendered grosser in feeling, from its yielding itself to the passions of the body, and being oppressed by the mass of its vices, and having no refined or spiritual feelings, is said to be made flesh, and derives its name from that in which it exhibits more vigour and force of will. They also make this further inquiry, Who will be found, or who will be said to be, the creator of this evil sense, called the sense of the flesh? Because they defend the opinion that there is no other creator of soul and flesh than God. And if we were to assert that the good God created anything in His own creation that was hostile to Himself, it would appear to be a manifest absurdity. If, then, it is written, that carnal wisdom is enmity against God, and if this be declared to be a result of creation, God Himself will appear to have formed a nature hostile to Himself, which cannot be subject to Him nor to His law, as if it were (supposed to be) an animal of which such qualities are predicated. And if this view be admitted, in what respect will it appear to differ from that of those who maintain that souls of different natures are created, which, according to their natures, are destined either to be lost or saved? But this is an opinion of the heretics alone, who, not being able to maintain the justice of God on grounds of piety, compose impious inventions of this kind. And now we have brought forward to the best of our ability, in the person of each of the parties, what might be advanced by way of argument regarding the several views, and let the reader choose out of them for himself that which he thinks ought to be preferred.
78. Origen, Fragments On 1 Corinthians, 34 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

79. Origen, Homilies On Ezekiel, 2.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

80. Origen, Philocalia, 23.7-23.8, 25.1-25.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

81. Origen, Philocalia, 23.7-23.8, 25.1-25.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

82. Plotinus, Enneads, 4.3.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

83. Augustine, Confessions, 6.6 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

84. Augustine, Reply To Faustus, 2.5, 12.14, 19.7 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

85. Augustine, Contra Felicem, 2.4 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

86. Augustine, Against Julian, 4.104 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

87. Augustine, De Correptione Et Gratia, 25, 23 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

88. Augustine, De Diversis Quaestionibus Ad Simplicianum, 1.2, 1.2.3, 1.2.10 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

89. Augustine, De Natura Et Gratia Ad Timasium Et Jacobum Contra Pelagium, 2 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

90. Titus of Bostra, Contra Manich., 3.21 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

91. Anon., 2 Enoch, 71.1

92. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.21-3.22, 3.26, 4.4, 4.30, 6.49-6.59, 7.36, 7.48, 8.44-8.45

3.21. For the first Adam, burdened with an evil heart, transgressed and was overcome, as were also all who were descended from him. 3.22. Thus the disease became permanent; the law was in the people's heart along with the evil root, but what was good departed, and the evil remained. 3.26. in everything doing as Adam and all his descendants had done, for they also had the evil heart. 4.4. If you can solve one of them for me, I also will show you the way you desire to see, and will teach you why the heart is evil. 4.30. For a grain of evil seed was sown in Adam's heart from the beginning, and how much ungodliness it has produced until now, and will produce until the time of threshing comes! 6.53. On the sixth day thou didst command the earth to bring forth before thee cattle, beasts, and creeping things; 6.54. and over these thou didst place Adam, as ruler over all the works which thou hadst made; and from him we have all come, the people whom thou hast chosen. 6.55. All this I have spoken before thee, O Lord, because thou hast said that it was for us that thou didst create this world. 6.56. As for the other nations which have descended from Adam, thou hast said that they are nothing, and that they are like spittle, and thou hast compared their abundance to a drop from a bucket. 6.57. And now, O Lord, behold, these nations, which are reputed as nothing, domineer over us and devour us. 6.58. But we thy people, whom thou hast called thy first-born, only begotten, zealous for thee, and most dear, have been given into their hands. 6.59. If the world has indeed been created for us, why do we not possess our world as an inheritance? How long will this be so? 7.36. Then the pit of torment shall appear, and opposite it shall be the place of rest; and the furnace of hell shall be disclosed, and opposite it the paradise of delight. 7.48. For an evil heart has grown up in us, which has alienated us from God, and has brought us into corruption and the ways of death, and has shown us the paths of perdition and removed us far from life -- and that not just a few of us but almost all who have been created! 8.44. But man, who has been formed by thy hands and is called thy own image because he is made like thee, and for whose sake thou hast formed all things -- hast thou also made him like the farmer's seed? 8.45. No, O Lord who art over us! But spare thy people and have mercy on thy inheritance, for thou hast mercy on thy own creation.
93. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., 2.930-2.931



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 213
abraham Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 265; Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
adam, heart of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
adam Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 323; Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 108; McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 90, 183; Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
adiaphora/indistinguishable/neutral Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
adoption Black, Thomas, and Thompson, Ephesos as a Religious Center under the Principate (2022) 216; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 211, 247
adoption as master-metaphor in christian divine sonship, begottenness as master-metaphor in divine sonship of jesus Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
adoption as master-metaphor in christian divine sonship, preoccupation with assigning christological moment Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
adoption as sons, old testament Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 231
adoption as sons, soteriology Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 231
adoption by augustus Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption in roman society greek terminology for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
adoption in roman society inheritance/wealth transfer through Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136
adoption in roman society legal frameworks for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption in roman society papyrus contracts for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
adoption in roman society preservation of family lines through Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption in roman society social status of adoptees Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
adoption in roman society tensions between biological and adopted sons Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption in roman society vs. modern western practice Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption metaphor in pauline epistles Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136, 138, 139
agency, all things McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 183
agency, divine Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
agency, human Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
agency, in conversion Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
agency, of christ McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 183
agency, of kings McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 183
alexander of abonoteichus Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 100
allegory, allegorical exegesis Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 419
aloe Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
ambrose Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 419
amidah Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 213
angel Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 161
angels O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 143; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 174, 384
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
animism Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 239
antiochene school Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 403
apistia, apistos, of israelites Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 170
apistia, apistos Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 169
apocalypse, apocalyptic, apocalypticism, apocalypticist Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
apollo Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
apostle paul Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 105, 419, 540
apostleship Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 174
appearances Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 330
apuleius O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 143
archē Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 61
aristotle Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
arius, ananism Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 210
ascent Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 100
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 384
asceticism Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 132
assimilation, to god/gods Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
astrology Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
atemporal, temporal Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 589
attention Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 325
augustine, saint Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 273
augustine Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 105, 419, 432, 514, 539, 540, 589
augustus adoption by caesar Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
augustus adoptions by Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
augustus divine ancestry of Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
augustus worship of Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113, 135, 136, 138, 139
authority, from god to christ Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 156
authority Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
authors relationship with audience, style and vocabulary deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 18
babut, d., baptism cluster Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 53
babut, d. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
baptism Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 335; Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 432; Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 325; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
baptism of jesus divine sonship bestowed at Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
baptism of jesus divine voice at Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
baptism of jesus holy spirit at Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
baptism of jesus in gospel of luke Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
baptism of jesus in gospel of mark Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
basilides Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
being and will, making Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 210
being and will, scripture Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 210
belief, believer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 219
belief and faith Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 325
beliefs, basic and non-basic Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 64
believing Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 361
berakah deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
biblical interpretation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 161
blessing Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 174
blindness Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 195
boasting Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 384
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
body, bodily Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30, 195, 196
body, gender of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 269
body in paul, earthly body as literally dying Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 51, 52
body of christ, see church Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 384
boer, m. de Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
bonum Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 539
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 361
boyarin, daniel, on circumcision Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 269
boys-stones, g. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
bread Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 213
caelestius Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 589
care, of god or christ for creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 64
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
choices, freedom of Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 326, 339, 403
christ, as creator McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 90
christ, as son McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 183
christ, jesus, authority, from god to Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 156
christ-followers, johannine Black, Thomas, and Thompson, Ephesos as a Religious Center under the Principate (2022) 168
christ-followers, pauline Black, Thomas, and Thompson, Ephesos as a Religious Center under the Principate (2022) 168
christology, christological Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 108
christology Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 323; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 267
chrysippus Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
church Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 323, 328; Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 108; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 174
cicero Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
circumcision, boyarin on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 269
cleanthes Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
clement of alexandria Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
cognitive terms, and physical ones Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 180
cognitive terms, two sides of same coin Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 180
collins, a. y. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
commandments, in the vineyard parable Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 156
community, christian, reception of jesus identity Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 178
community Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 213
comparison, of paul and greco-roman philosophers Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 4
compassion (misericordia) O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 143
conformity with christ, in his death and resurrection Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 51, 52, 53, 54
connection Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 122
conversion, philosophical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 325
conversion Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
conversion account for paraenetic, fits stoicism better than platonism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
corinth Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
corpus christi, body of christ Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 122
correspondence Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 122
cosmic christology Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 161
counsellor Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 61
covenant and creation, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 64
creation Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 323
creation and ownership, related to redemption McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 183
creator, creation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 161, 265
creator Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 105
dahl, n. a. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 230
damnation, eternal Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
day, judgment, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
death Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 321, 328; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 361
decor, splendor Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 122
deification/theosis/christosis Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 318, 327, 328
demons, in apuleius O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 143
determinism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
devil, satan Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 403
devil Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 115
dibelius, m. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 96, 232
diogenes the cynic Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
dionysius of alexandria Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 210
disciples of jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 213
discourse Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 273
divine Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 325
divine name, tetragrammaton Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 384
divine plan/βουλή Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 159
divine self-communication McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 183
divine sonship adoptive metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136, 138, 139
divine sonship mixed metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
divine sonship of jesus adoptive metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 138, 139
divine sonship of jesus begotten metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
divine sonship of jesus considered through roman sociopolitical lens Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
divine sonship of jesus eschatological power of Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
divine sonship of jesus mixed metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 139
divine sonship of jesus uniting christ with christians through Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 139
divine sonship offered by god through the spirit Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
divine sonship paul's master-metaphor of adoptive" Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136, 138, 139
divine sonship uniting with christ Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 139
divine voice at baptism of jesus Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
divinization Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 231
dominion McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 90, 183
dream, vision Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 195
dualism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 174
dust Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
ecclesiology Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 122
ecstasis, ecstasy, ecstatic, ex stasis Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 195, 196
education, character Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 267
education, educational, educative, progress Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 326
election/elect Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
emperors legitimation options for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
endurance Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 122
ephesians, letter to the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 174
ephesians (letter), relationship to colossians Black, Thomas, and Thompson, Ephesos as a Religious Center under the Principate (2022) 168
epictetus Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 4; Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
epicureanism, comparison to pauline christianity Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 4
epikrypsis Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 61
equality, and sameness Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 269
eschatological Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 319, 328; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
eschatology, pagan Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 239
eschatology, perspective Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 267
eschatology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 213; Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 115, 116
evil Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 108; Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 115
exegesis Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 61
experience, of spirit Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 324
experience Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 122
expulsion, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
expulsion, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
eye Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
faith, fides Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 62
faith Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 361
faithfulness, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 64
family ideology as center of roman life Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 159
father, child relationship Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 213, 219
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 249, 335, 336
father-son relation, adoption as sons Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 231
father Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 62; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 213, 219; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 265
first-born McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 183
firstborn Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 161
foreknowledge, causative/non-causative Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
foreknowledge, middle knowledge Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
foreknowledge, proginosko Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
foreknowledge Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
foreknowledge (prògnvsiw), anticipate Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 326, 339, 403
forgiveness, among believers deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 247
forgiveness, gods deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 247
forgiveness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 219; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
fragrances Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
frankincense, tree of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
free/freedom (ἐλεύθερος/ἐλευθερία, liber/libertas), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 110, 111
free choice/free will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
freedom, and cognition Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
freedom Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 108
friendship, differences between divine and human Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
fulfillment, universality of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 178
futura contingentia Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 403
galatians Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 324
gens Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
gentiles Black, Thomas, and Thompson, Ephesos as a Religious Center under the Principate (2022) 216; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 265
gentiles (ethnē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
genuine humanness, role of spirit Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 226
gift of cognition, in epictetus and paul Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
glory, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 452
glory, doxa (δόξα) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 319
glory, hope of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 115, 116, 169
glory, of christ Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 318, 319
glory, of god Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 318, 321, 324
glory Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 335, 336; McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 90, 183; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30, 195
glory (doxa) Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 52; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
gnosis, gnostics, gnosticism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 339
gnosticism, as heretical or other Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
gnosticism, gnosis Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 384
gnosticism, specific doctrines Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
gnosticism/gnostics Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
god, as father deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 247
god, cognitive conception in stoicism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
god, goodness of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
god, hands of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
god, kingdom of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 219
god, likeness of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
god, purposes of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
god, reign of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 213
god, relationship to Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 213, 219
god, will of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 219
god Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 267
god (pauline), character (love) Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
gods, paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 110, 111, 112
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
gospel, of john Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 219
gospel, synoptic Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 219
gospel of john, vis-à-vis pauline tradition Black, Thomas, and Thompson, Ephesos as a Religious Center under the Principate (2022) 168
grace, response to deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 169, 170; Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
grain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
grief (lupē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
groan, moan Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 195, 196
guilt) Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 108
gutman, h., habitus Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 180
handbook (manual) Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 122
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
hardening Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 325
harnack, a. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 239
heart, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
heart, evil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
heart Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 30
heaven, third Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 452
hebrews, letter to the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 174
hekhalot Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 384
heracleon (gnostic) Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
heresy, heretics, heretical Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 403
hermeneutics Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 122
hiddenness Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 174
himmelfarb, m. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
historical reality Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 122
history Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 122
holiness deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 247
holy spirit, role for genuine humanness Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 226
holy spirit, transformation Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 267
honor and dishonor deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
hope Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 115, 116, 169
human vocation, cosmic horizon of Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 226
humility Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 62, 108
identity, and universal fulfillment Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 178
identity, christian, frei on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 178
ignorance (êgnoia) (of creator), ignorant (creator) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 326
image, adam as image of god McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 90, 183
image, christ as image of god McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 90, 183
image, of god McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 90, 183
image Lynskey, Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics (2021) 122
image of god Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 325; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 161
image of god (in man) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 326
image xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 384
imago dei Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 105