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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8253
New Testament, Romans, 8.28


οἴδαμεν δὲ ὅτι τοῖς ἀγαπῶσι τὸν θεὸν πάντα συνεργεῖ [ὁ θεὸς] εἰς ἀγαθόν, τοῖς κατὰ πρόθεσιν κλητοῖς οὖσιν.We know that all things work together for good for those who love God, to those who are called according to his purpose.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

48 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 2.3, 5.9-5.14, 5.17 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.3. But he came back and said, "Father, one of our people has been strangled and thrown into the market place. 5.9. So Tobias invited him in; he entered and they greeted each other. 5.10. Then Tobit said to him, "My brother, to what tribe and family do you belong? Tell me. 5.11. But he answered, "Are you looking for a tribe and a family or for a man whom you will pay to go with your son?" And Tobit said to him, "I should like to know, my brother, your people and your name. 5.12. He replied, "I am Azarias the son of the great Aias, one of your relatives. 5.13. Then Tobit said to him, "You are welcome, my brother. Do not be angry with me because I tried to learn your tribe and family. You are a relative of mine, of a good and noble lineage. For I used to know Aias and Jathan, the sons of the great Shemaiah, when we went together to Jerusalem to worship and offered the first-born of our flocks and the tithes of our produce. They did not go astray in the error of our brethren. My brother, you come of good stock. 5.14. But tell me, what wages am I to pay you -- a drachma a day, and expenses for yourself as for my son? 5.17. But Anna, his mother, began to weep, and said to Tobit, "Why have you sent our child away? Is he not the staff of our hands as he goes in and out before us?
2. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 4.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices.
3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 30.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.16. אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בִּדְרָכָיו וְלִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וְחָיִיתָ וְרָבִיתָ וּבֵרַכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בָא־שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 30.16. in that I command thee this day to love the LORD thy God, to walk in His ways, and to keep His commandments and His statutes and His ordices; then thou shalt live and multiply, and the LORD thy God shall bless thee in the land whither thou goest in to possess it."
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.22-4.23, 20.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.22. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה בְּנִי בְכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 4.23. וָאֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ שַׁלַּח אֶת־בְּנִי וְיַעַבְדֵנִי וַתְּמָאֵן לְשַׁלְּחוֹ הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי הֹרֵג אֶת־בִּנְךָ בְּכֹרֶךָ׃ 20.6. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָי׃ 4.22. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh: Thus saith the LORD: Israel is My son, My first-born." 4.23. And I have said unto thee: Let My son go, that he may serve Me; and thou hast refused to let him go. ‘Behold, I will slay thy first-born.’" 20.6. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments."
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them."
6. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 11.1-11.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.1. אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה יֵלְכוּ כְּאַרְיֵה יִשְׁאָג כִּי־הוּא יִשְׁאַג וְיֶחֶרְדוּ בָנִים מִיָּם׃ 11.1. כִּי נַעַר יִשְׂרָאֵל וָאֹהֲבֵהוּ וּמִמִּצְרַיִם קָרָאתִי לִבְנִי׃ 11.2. קָרְאוּ לָהֶם כֵּן הָלְכוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם לַבְּעָלִים יְזַבֵּחוּ וְלַפְּסִלִים יְקַטֵּרוּן׃ 11.3. וְאָנֹכִי תִרְגַּלְתִּי לְאֶפְרַיִם קָחָם עַל־זְרוֹעֹתָיו וְלֹא יָדְעוּ כִּי רְפָאתִים׃ 11.4. בְּחַבְלֵי אָדָם אֶמְשְׁכֵם בַּעֲבֹתוֹת אַהֲבָה וָאֶהְיֶה לָהֶם כִּמְרִימֵי עֹל עַל לְחֵיהֶם וְאַט אֵלָיו אוֹכִיל׃ 11.1. When Israel was a child, then I loved him, And out of Egypt I called My son." 11.2. The more they called them, the more they went from them; They sacrificed unto the Baalim, And offered to graven images." 11.3. And I, I taught Ephraim to walk, Taking them by their arms; But they knew not that I healed them." 11.4. I drew them with cords of a man, With bands of love; And I was to them as they that take off the yoke on their jaws, And I fed them gently."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.7, 11.5, 89.20-89.37 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 11.5. יְהוָה צַדִּיק יִבְחָן וְרָשָׁע וְאֹהֵב חָמָס שָׂנְאָה נַפְשׁוֹ׃ 89.21. מָצָאתִי דָּוִד עַבְדִּי בְּשֶׁמֶן קָדְשִׁי מְשַׁחְתִּיו׃ 89.22. אֲשֶׁר יָדִי תִּכּוֹן עִמּוֹ אַף־זְרוֹעִי תְאַמְּצֶנּוּ׃ 89.23. לֹא־יַשִּׁא אוֹיֵב בּוֹ וּבֶן־עַוְלָה לֹא יְעַנֶּנּוּ׃ 89.24. וְכַתּוֹתִי מִפָּנָיו צָרָיו וּמְשַׂנְאָיו אֶגּוֹף׃ 89.25. וֶאֶמוּנָתִי וְחַסְדִּי עִמּוֹ וּבִשְׁמִי תָּרוּם קַרְנוֹ׃ 89.26. וְשַׂמְתִּי בַיָּם יָדוֹ וּבַנְּהָרוֹת יְמִינוֹ׃ 89.27. הוּא יִקְרָאֵנִי אָבִי אָתָּה אֵלִי וְצוּר יְשׁוּעָתִי׃ 89.28. אַף־אָנִי בְּכוֹר אֶתְּנֵהוּ עֶלְיוֹן לְמַלְכֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 89.29. לְעוֹלָם אשמור־[אֶשְׁמָר־] לוֹ חַסְדִּי וּבְרִיתִי נֶאֱמֶנֶת לוֹ׃ 89.31. אִם־יַעַזְבוּ בָנָיו תּוֹרָתִי וּבְמִשְׁפָּטַי לֹא יֵלֵכוּן׃ 89.32. אִם־חֻקֹּתַי יְחַלֵּלוּ וּמִצְוֺתַי לֹא יִשְׁמֹרוּ׃ 89.33. וּפָקַדְתִּי בְשֵׁבֶט פִּשְׁעָם וּבִנְגָעִים עֲוֺנָם׃ 89.34. וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־אָפִיר מֵעִמּוֹ וְלֹא־אֲשַׁקֵּר בֶּאֱמוּנָתִי׃ 89.35. לֹא־אֲחַלֵּל בְּרִיתִי וּמוֹצָא שְׂפָתַי לֹא אֲשַׁנֶּה׃ 89.36. אַחַת נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי בְקָדְשִׁי אִם־לְדָוִד אֲכַזֵּב׃ 89.37. זַרְעוֹ לְעוֹלָם יִהְיֶה וְכִסְאוֹ כַשֶּׁמֶשׁ נֶגְדִּי׃ 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 11.5. The LORD trieth the righteous; but the wicked and him that loveth violence His soul hateth." 89.20. Then Thou spokest in vision to Thy godly ones, And saidst: 'I have laid help upon one that is mighty; I have exalted one chosen out of the people." 89.21. I have found David My servant; With My holy oil have I anointed him;" 89.22. With whom My hand shall be established; Mine arm also shall strengthen him." 89.23. The enemy shall not exact from him; Nor the son of wickedness afflict him." 89.24. And I will beat to pieces his adversaries before him, And smite them that hate him." 89.25. But My faithfulness and My mercy shall be with him; And through My name shall his horn be exalted." 89.26. I will set his hand also on the sea, And his right hand on the rivers." 89.27. He shall call unto Me: Thou art my Father, My God, and the rock of my salvation. ." 89.28. I also will appoint him first-born, The highest of the kings of the earth." 89.29. For ever will I keep for him My mercy, And My covet shall stand fast with him." 89.30. His seed also will I make to endure for ever, And his throne as the days of heaven." 89.31. If his children forsake My law, And walk not in Mine ordices; :" 89.32. If they profane My statutes, And keep not My commandments;" 89.33. Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, And their iniquity with strokes." 89.34. But My mercy will I not break off from him, Nor will I be false to My faithfulness." 89.35. My covet will I not profane, Nor alter that which is gone out of My lips." 89.36. Once have I sworn by My holiness: Surely I will not be false unto David;" 89.37. His seed shall endure for ever, And his throne as the sun before Me."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.14. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 7.14. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:"
9. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 2.4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

2.4. הִנֵּה עֻפְּלָה לֹא־יָשְׁרָה נַפְשׁוֹ בּוֹ וְצַדִּיק בֶּאֱמוּנָתוֹ יִחְיֶה׃ 2.4. Behold, his soul is puffed up, it is not upright in him; But the righteous shall live by his faith."
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 61.1-61.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;"
11. Aristotle, Rhetoric, 2.1.2-2.1.4, 2.1.8, 2.8.2 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12. Septuagint, Tobit, 2.3, 5.9-5.14, 5.17 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.3. But he came back and said, "Father, one of our people has been strangled and thrown into the market place. 5.9. So Tobias invited him in; he entered and they greeted each other. 5.10. Then Tobit said to him, "My brother, to what tribe and family do you belong? Tell me. 5.11. But he answered, "Are you looking for a tribe and a family or for a man whom you will pay to go with your son?" And Tobit said to him, "I should like to know, my brother, your people and your name. 5.12. He replied, "I am Azarias the son of the great Aias, one of your relatives. 5.13. Then Tobit said to him, "You are welcome, my brother. Do not be angry with me because I tried to learn your tribe and family. You are a relative of mine, of a good and noble lineage. For I used to know Aias and Jathan, the sons of the great Shemaiah, when we went together to Jerusalem to worship and offered the first-born of our flocks and the tithes of our produce. They did not go astray in the error of our brethren. My brother, you come of good stock. 5.14. But tell me, what wages am I to pay you -- a drachma a day, and expenses for yourself as for my son? 5.17. But Anna, his mother, began to weep, and said to Tobit, "Why have you sent our child away? Is he not the staff of our hands as he goes in and out before us?
13. Anon., 1 Enoch, 60.8, 108.8 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

60.8. abysses of the ocean over the fountains of the waters. But the male is named Behemoth, who occupied with his breast a waste wilderness named Duidain, on the east of the garden where the elect and righteous dwell, where my grandfather was taken up, the seventh from Adam, the first 108.8. by God; and of those who have been put to shame by wicked men: Who love God and loved neither gold nor silver nor any of the good things which are in the world, but gave over their bodies to torture. Who, since they came into being, longed not after earthly food, but regarded everything as a passing breath, and lived accordingly, and the Lord tried them much, and their spirits were 1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
14. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 10.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15. Cicero, On Invention, 1.106 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.106. conquestionis autem huiusmodi de rebus partes petere oportebit. Conquestio est oratio auditorum misericordiam cap- tans. in hac primum animum auditoris mitem et misericordem conficere oportet, quo facilius conque- stione commoveri possit. id locis communibus efficere oportebit, per quos fortunae vis in omnes et hominum infirmitas ostenditur; qua oratione habita graviter et sententiose maxime demittitur animus hominum et ad misericordiam conparatur, cum in alieno malo suam infirmitatem considerabit.
16. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.37 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.37. Zeno's pupil Aristo holds equally mistaken views. He thinks that the form of the deity cannot be comprehended, and he denies the gods sensation, and in fact is uncertain whether god is a living being at all. Cleanthes, who attended Zeno's lectures at the same time as the last-named, at one moment says that the world itself is god, at another gives this name to the mind and soul of the universe, and at another decides that the most unquestionable deity is that remote all‑surrounding fiery atmosphere called the aether, which encircles and embraces the universe on its outer side at an exceedingly lofty altitude; while in the books that he wrote to combat hedonism he babbles like one demented, now imagining gods of some definite shape and form, now assigning full divinity to the stars, now pronouncing that nothing is more divine than reason. The result is that the god whom we apprehend by our intelligence, and desire to make to correspond with a mental concept as a seal tallies with its impression, has utterly and entirely vanished.
17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 4.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 13.3, 28.4, 37.5 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

19. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.2.14, 1.9.11, 1.9.15, 1.29.3, 2.11.20, 2.16.28, 2.18.11, 2.23.30-2.23.35, 3.3.14-3.3.16, 3.22.1-3.22.2, 3.24.85, 4.1.1, 4.1.87-4.1.88, 4.1.111-4.1.112, 4.1.153, 4.4.33, 4.4.38, 4.5.28, 4.7.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Epictetus, Fragments, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.6, 2.6-2.9, 3.1, 3.7, 3.21-3.22, 4.14-4.21, 7.19, 8.3, 9.12, 10.1-10.2, 13.1-13.3, 13.8-13.13, 14.2, 14.7-14.9, 14.14-14.15, 14.20, 14.28, 15.1-15.5, 15.20-15.28, 15.57 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. even as thetestimony of Christ was confirmed in you: 2.6. We speak wisdom, however, among those who are fullgrown; yet a wisdom not of this world, nor of the rulers of this world,who are coming to nothing. 2.7. But we speak God's wisdom in amystery, the wisdom that has been hidden, which God foreordained beforethe worlds to our glory 2.8. which none of the rulers of this worldhas known. For had they known it, they wouldn't have crucified the Lordof glory. 2.9. But as it is written,"Things which an eye didn't see, and an ear didn't hear,Which didn't enter into the heart of man,These God has prepared for those who love him. 3.1. Brothers, I couldn't speak to you as to spiritual, but as tofleshly, as to babies in Christ. 3.7. So then neither he who plants is anything, norhe who waters, but God who gives the increase. 3.21. Therefore let no one boast in men. For all things are yours 3.22. whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death,or things present, or things to come. All are yours 4.14. I don'twrite these things to shame you, but to admonish you as my belovedchildren. 4.15. For though you have ten thousand tutors in Christ, yetnot many fathers. For in Christ Jesus, I became your father through thegospel. 4.16. I beg you therefore, be imitators of me. 4.17. Becauseof this I have sent Timothy to you, who is my beloved and faithfulchild in the Lord, who will remind you of my ways which are in Christ,even as I teach everywhere in every assembly. 4.18. Now some arepuffed up, as though I were not coming to you. 4.19. But I will cometo you shortly, if the Lord is willing. And I will know, not the wordof those who are puffed up, but the power. 4.20. For the Kingdom ofGod is not in word, but in power. 4.21. What do you want? Shall I cometo you with a rod, or in love and a spirit of gentleness? 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 8.3. But if anyone loves God, the same is known by him. 9.12. If others partake of this right overyou, don't we yet more? Nevertheless we did not use this right, but webear all things, that we may cause no hindrance to the gospel ofChrist. 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 13.1. If I speak with the languages of men and of angels, but don'thave love, I have become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal. 13.2. If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and allknowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, butdon't have love, I am nothing. 13.3. If I dole out all my goods tofeed the poor, and if I give my body to be burned, but don't have love,it profits me nothing. 13.8. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies,they will be done away with. Where there are various languages, theywill cease. Where there is knowledge, it will be done away with. 13.9. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part; 13.10. but when thatwhich is complete has come, then that which is partial will be doneaway with. 13.11. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I felt as achild, I thought as a child. Now that I have become a man, I have putaway childish things. 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known. 13.13. But now faith, hope, and love remain-- these three. The greatest of these is love. 14.2. For he who speaks in anotherlanguage speaks not to men, but to God; for no one understands; but inthe Spirit he speaks mysteries. 14.7. Even things without life, giving a voice, whether pipe or harp,if they didn't give a distinction in the sounds, how would it be knownwhat is piped or harped? 14.8. For if the trumpet gave an uncertainsound, who would prepare himself for war? 14.9. So also you, unlessyou uttered by the tongue words easy to understand, how would it beknown what is spoken? For you would be speaking into the air. 14.14. For if I pray in another language, myspirit prays, but my understanding is unfruitful. 14.15. What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I willpray with the understanding also. I will sing with the spirit, and Iwill sing with the understanding also. 14.20. Brothers, don't be children in thoughts, yet in malice bebabies, but in thoughts be mature. 14.28. Butif there is no interpreter, let him keep silent in the assembly, andlet him speak to himself, and to God. 15.1. Now I declare to you, brothers, the gospel which I preachedto you, which also you received, in which you also stand 15.2. bywhich also you are saved, if you hold firmly the word which I preachedto you -- unless you believed in vain. 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.4. that he was buried, that he wasraised on the third day according to the Scriptures 15.5. and that heappeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 15.57. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our LordJesus Christ.
23. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.3, 1.6, 2.7, 2.11-2.12, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. remembering without ceasing your work of faith and labor of love and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, before our God and Father. 1.6. You became imitators of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Spirit 2.7. But we were gentle in the midst of you, as when a nurse cherishes her own children. 2.11. As you know how we exhorted, comforted, and implored every one of you, as a father does his own children 2.12. to the end that you should walk worthily of God, who calls you into his own kingdom and glory. 3.2. and sent Timothy, our brother and God's servant in the gospel of Christ, to establish you, and to comfort you concerning your faith;
24. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.12, 1.22, 2.12, 4.4, 4.7-5.10, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 9.13, 11.7, 12.4, 12.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. giving vengeance to those who don't know God, and to those who don't obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus
26. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.7, 2.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. For God didn't give us a spirit of fear, but of power, love, and self-control. 2.18. men who have erred concerning the truth, saying that the resurrection is already past, and overthrowing the faith of some.
27. New Testament, Acts, 2.10-2.12, 13.30-13.37 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.10. Phrygia, Pamphylia, Egypt, the parts of Libya around Cyrene, visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes 2.11. Cretans and Arabians: we hear them speaking in our languages the mighty works of God! 2.12. They were all amazed, and were perplexed, saying one to another, "What does this mean? 13.30. But God raised him from the dead 13.31. and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. 13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 13.36. For David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay. 13.37. But he whom God raised up saw no decay.
28. New Testament, Apocalypse, 12.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.7. There was war in the sky. Michael and his angels made war on the dragon. The dragon and his angels made war.
29. New Testament, Colossians, 2.12-2.13, 3.4, 3.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 2.13. You were dead through your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh. He made you alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses; 3.4. When Christ, our life, is revealed, then you will also be revealed with him in glory. 3.12. Put on therefore, as God's elect, holy and beloved, a heart of compassion, kindness, lowliness, humility, and perseverance;
30. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.3-1.14, 2.6, 3.6, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.11. in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his will; 1.12. to the end that we should be to the praise of his glory, we who had before hoped in Christ: 1.13. in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, -- in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise 1.14. who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. 2.6. and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus 3.6. that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ;
31. New Testament, Galatians, 1.1, 1.12, 1.15, 1.16, 3.23-4.7, 3.28, 3.29, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.23, 5.6, 5.14, 5.22, 5.23, 6.1, 6.2, 6.14, 6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead)
32. New Testament, Hebrews, 13.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.11. For the bodies of those animals, whose blood is brought into the holy place by the high priest as an offering for sin, are burned outside of the camp.
33. New Testament, Philippians, 1.27, 2.22, 3.1-3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.27. Only let your manner of life be worthy of the gospel of Christ, that, whether I come and see you or am absent, I may hear of your state, that you stand firm in one spirit, with one soul striving for the faith of the gospel; 2.22. But you know the proof of him, that, as a child serves a father, so he served with me in furtherance of the gospel. 3.1. Finally, my brothers, rejoice in the Lord. To write the same things to you, to me indeed is not tiresome, but for you it is safe. 3.2. Beware of the dogs, beware of the evil workers, beware of the false circumcision. 3.3. For we are the circumcision, who worship God in the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh; 3.4. though I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. If any other man thinks that he has confidence in the flesh, I yet more: 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.7. However, what things were gain to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith; 3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead. 3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus. 3.13. Brothers, I don't regard myself as yet having taken hold, but one thing I do. Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before 3.14. I press on toward the goal for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. 3.15. Let us therefore, as many as are perfect, think this way. If in anything you think otherwise, God will also reveal that to you. 3.16. Nevertheless, to the extent that we have already attained, let us walk by the same rule. Let us be of the same mind. 3.17. Brothers, be imitators together of me, and note those who walk this way, even as you have us for an example. 3.18. For many walk, of whom I told you often, and now tell you even weeping, as the enemies of the cross of Christ 3.19. whose end is destruction, whose god is the belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who think about earthly things. 3.20. For our citizenship is in heaven, from where we also wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ; 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself.
34. New Testament, Romans, 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.9, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.30, 1.31, 1.32, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.17, 2.23, 3.6, 3.7, 3.18, 3.23, 3.27, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.19, 4.20, 4.24, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 6, 6.1, 6.1-8.13, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.9, 6.11, 6.22, 7, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 9, 9.1, 9.4, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.29, 10, 10.1, 10.9, 10.10, 11, 11.5, 11.6, 11.25, 13.8, 14.11, 14.12, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 15.33, 15.44, 15.45, 15.54, 15.55, 15.56, 15.58 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God
35. New Testament, Titus, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. to Titus, my true child according to a common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Savior.
36. New Testament, John, 7.42, 19.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.42. Hasn't the Scripture said that the Christ comes of the seed of David, and from Bethlehem, the village where David was? 19.21. The chief priests of the Jews therefore said to Pilate, "Don't write, 'The King of the Jews,' but, 'he said, I am King of the Jews.'
37. New Testament, Luke, 1.35, 3.22-3.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.35. The angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God. 3.22. and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased. 3.23. Jesus himself, when he began to teach, was about thirty years old, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli 3.24. the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph 3.25. the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai 3.26. the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Joseph, the son of Judah 3.27. the son of Joa, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri 3.28. the son of Melchi, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmodam, the son of Er 3.29. the son of Josa, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi 3.30. the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jo, the son of Eliakim 3.31. the son of Melea, the son of Me, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David 3.32. the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon 3.33. the son of Amminadab, the son of Aram, the son of Joram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah 3.34. the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor 3.35. the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah 3.36. the son of Cai, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech 3.38. the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.
38. New Testament, Mark, 1.1, 1.8, 1.21-1.28, 3.28-3.30, 3.35, 10.48, 12.28-12.34, 13.11, 14.38, 15.2, 15.9, 15.21, 15.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 1.21. They went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught. 1.22. They were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes. 1.23. Immediately there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit, and he cried out 1.24. saying, "Ha! What do we have to do with you, Jesus, you Nazarene? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 1.25. Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be quiet, and come out of him! 1.26. The unclean spirit, convulsing him and crying with a loud voice, came out of him. 1.27. They were all amazed, so that they questioned among themselves, saying, "What is this? A new teaching? For with authority he commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him! 1.28. The report of him went out immediately everywhere into all the region of Galilee and its surrounding area. 3.28. Most assuredly I tell you, all of the sons of men's sins will be forgiven them, including their blasphemies with which they may blaspheme; 3.29. but whoever may blaspheme against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin 3.30. -- because they said, "He has an unclean spirit. 3.35. For whoever does the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother. 10.48. Many rebuked him, that he should be quiet, but he cried out much more, "You son of David, have mercy on me! 12.28. One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all? 12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these. 12.32. The scribe said to him, "Truly, teacher, you have said well that he is one, and there is none other but he 12.33. and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbor as himself, is more important than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. 12.34. When Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, "You are not far from the Kingdom of God."No one dared ask him any question after that. 13.11. When they lead you away and deliver you up, don't be anxious beforehand, or premeditate what you will say, but say whatever will be given you in that hour. For it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit. 14.38. Watch and pray, that you not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. 15.2. Pilate asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?"He answered, "So you say. 15.9. Pilate answered them, saying, "Do you you want me to release to you the King of the Jews? 15.21. They compelled one passing by, coming from the country, Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to go with them, that he might bear his cross. 15.26. The superscription of his accusation was written over him, "THE KING OF THE JEWS.
39. New Testament, Matthew, 5.21, 22.34-22.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.21. You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' 22.34. But the Pharisees, when they heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, gathered themselves together. 22.35. One of them, a lawyer, asked him a question, testing him. 22.36. Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the law? 22.37. Jesus said to him, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.' 22.38. This is the first and great commandment. 22.39. A second likewise is this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 22.40. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments.
40. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 6.1-6.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

41. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 2.22.131-2.22.136, 3.3.12, 3.11.76, 3.14.95 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

42. Origen, Against Celsus, 2.20, 6.55 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.20. Let us see how he continues after this: These events, he says, he predicted as being a God, and the prediction must by all means come to pass. God, therefore, who above all others ought to do good to men, and especially to those of his own household, led on his own disciples and prophets, with whom he was in the habit of eating and drinking, to such a degree of wickedness, that they became impious and unholy men. Now, of a truth, he who shared a man's table would not be guilty of conspiring against him; but after banqueting with God, he became a conspirator. And, what is still more absurd, God himself plotted against the members of his own table, by converting them into traitors and villains! Now, since you wish me to answer even those charges of Celsus which seem to me frivolous, the following is our reply to such statements. Celsus imagines that an event, predicted through foreknowledge, comes to pass because it was predicted; but we do not grant this, maintaining that he who foretold it was not the cause of its happening, because he foretold it would happen; but the future event itself, which would have taken place though not predicted, afforded the occasion to him, who was endowed with foreknowledge, of foretelling its occurrence. Now, certainly this result is present to the foreknowledge of him who predicts an event, when it is possible that it may or may not happen, viz., that one or other of these things will take place. For we do not assert that he who foreknows an event, by secretly taking away the possibility of its happening or not, makes any such declaration as this: This shall infallibly happen, and it is impossible that it can be otherwise. And this remark applies to all the foreknowledge of events dependent upon ourselves, whether contained in the sacred Scriptures or in the histories of the Greeks. Now, what is called by logicians an idle argument, which is a sophism, will be no sophism as far as Celsus can help, but according to sound reasoning it is a sophism. And that this may be seen, I shall take from the Scriptures the predictions regarding Judas, or the foreknowledge of our Saviour regarding him as the traitor; and from the Greek histories the oracle that was given to Laius, conceding for the present its truth, since it does not affect the argument. Now, in Ps. cviii., Judas is spoken of by the mouth of the Saviour, in words beginning thus: Hold not Your peace, O God of my praise; for the mouth of the wicked and the mouth of the deceitful are opened against me. Now, if you carefully observe the contents of the psalm, you will find that, as it was foreknown that he would betray the Saviour, so also was he considered to be himself the cause of the betrayal, and deserving, on account of his wickedness, of the imprecations contained in the prophecy. For let him suffer these things, because, says the psalmist, he remembered not to show mercy, but persecuted the poor and needy man. Wherefore it was possible for him to show mercy, and not to persecute him whom he did persecute. But although he might have done these things, he did not do them, but carried out the act of treason, so as to merit the curses pronounced against him in the prophecy. And in answer to the Greeks we shall quote the following oracular response to Laius, as recorded by the tragic poet, either in the exact words of the oracle or in equivalent terms. Future events are thus made known to him by the oracle: Do not try to beget children against the will of the gods. For if you beget a son, your son shall murder you; and all your household shall wade in blood. Now from this it is clear that it was within the power of Laius not to try to beget children, for the oracle would not have commanded an impossibility; and it was also in his power to do the opposite, so that neither of these courses was compulsory. And the consequence of his not guarding against the begetting of children was, that he suffered from so doing the calamities described in the tragedies relating to Œdipus and Jocasta and their sons. Now that which is called the idle argument, being a quibble, is such as might be applied, say in the case of a sick man, with the view of sophistically preventing him from employing a physician to promote his recovery; and it is something like this: If it is decreed that you should recover from your disease, you will recover whether you call in a physician or not; but if it is decreed that you should not recover, you will not recover whether you call in a physician or no. But it is certainly decreed either that you should recover, or that you should not recover; and therefore it is in vain that you call in a physician. Now with this argument the following may be wittily compared: If it is decreed that you should beget children, you will beget them, whether you have intercourse with a woman or not. But if it is decreed that you should not beget children, you will not do so, whether you have intercourse with a woman or no. Now, certainly, it is decreed either that you should beget children or not; therefore it is in vain that you have intercourse with a woman. For, as in the latter instance, intercourse with a woman is not employed in vain, seeing it is an utter impossibility for him who does not use it to beget children; so, in the former, if recovery from disease is to be accomplished by means of the healing art, of necessity the physician is summoned, and it is therefore false to say that in vain do you call in a physician. We have brought forward all these illustrations on account of the assertion of this learned Celsus, that being a God He predicted these things, and the predictions must by all means come to pass. Now, if by by all means he means necessarily, we cannot admit this. For it was quite possible, also, that they might not come to pass. But if he uses by all means in the sense of simple futurity, which nothing hinders from being true (although it was possible that they might not happen), he does not at all touch my argument; nor did it follow, from Jesus having predicted the acts of the traitor or the perjurer, that it was the same thing with His being the cause of such impious and unholy proceedings. For He who was among us, and knew what was in man, seeing his evil disposition, and foreseeing what he would attempt from his spirit of covetousness, and from his want of stable ideas of duty towards his Master, along with many other declarations, gave utterance to this also: He that dips his hand with Me in the dish, the same shall betray Me. 6.55. Passages, indeed, might be found where corporeal and external (benefits) are improperly called good,- those things, viz., which contribute to the natural life, while those which do the reverse are termed evil. It is in this sense that Job says to his wife: If we have received good at the hand of the Lord, shall we not also receive evil! Since, then, there is found in the sacred Scriptures, in a certain passage, this statement put into the mouth of God, I make peace, and create evil; and again another, where it is said of Him that evil came down from the Lord to the gate of Jerusalem, the noise of chariots and horsemen, - passages which have disturbed many readers of Scripture, who are unable to see what Scripture means by good and evil,- it is probable that Celsus, being perplexed thereby, gave utterance to the question, How is it that God created evil? or, perhaps, having heard some one discussing the matters relating to it in an ignorant manner, he made this statement which we have noticed. We, on the other hand, maintain that evil, or wickedness, and the actions which proceed from it, were not created by God. For if God created that which is really evil, how was it possible that the proclamation regarding (the last) judgment should be confidently announced, which informs us that the wicked are to be punished for their evil deeds in proportion to the amount of their wickedness, while those who have lived a virtuous life, or performed virtuous actions, will be in the enjoyment of blessedness, and will receive rewards from God? I am well aware that those who would daringly assert that these evils were created by God will quote certain expressions of Scripture (in their support), because we are not able to show one consistent series of passages; for although Scripture (generally) blames the wicked and approves of the righteous, it nevertheless contains some statements which, although comparatively few in number, seem to disturb the minds of ignorant readers of holy Scripture. I have not, however, deemed it appropriate to my present treatise to quote on the present occasion those discordant statements, which are many in number, and their explanations, which would require a long array of proofs. Evils, then, if those be meant which are properly so called, were not created by God; but some, although few in comparison with the order of the whole world, have resulted from His principal works, as there follow from the chief works of the carpenter such things as spiral shavings and sawdust, or as architects might appear to be the cause of the rubbish which lies around their buildings in the form of the filth which drops from the stones and the plaster.
43. Origen, On First Principles, 3.1.14, 3.3.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1.14. But let us take from the Gospels also the similitudes of those things which we have mentioned, in which is described a certain rock, having on it a little superficial earth, on which, when a seed falls, it is said quickly to spring up; but when sprung up, it withers as the sun ascends in the heavens, and dies away, because it did not cast its root deeply into the ground. Now this rock undoubtedly represents the human soul, hardened on account of its own negligence, and converted into stone because of its wickedness. For God gave no one a stony heart by a creative act; but each individual's heart is said to become stony through his own wickedness and disobedience. As, therefore, if one were to blame a husbandman for not casting his seed more quickly upon rocky ground, because seed cast upon other rocky soil was seen to spring up speedily, the husbandman would certainly say in reply: I sow this soil more slowly, for this reason, that it may retain the seed which it has received; for it suits this ground to be sown somewhat slowly, lest perhaps the crop, having sprouted too rapidly, and coming forth from the mere surface of a shallow soil, should be unable to withstand the rays of the sun. Would not he who formerly found fault acquiesce in the reasons and superior knowledge of the husbandman, and approve as done on rational grounds what formerly appeared to him as founded on no reason? And in the same way, God, the thoroughly skilled husbandman of all His creation, undoubtedly conceals and delays to another time those things which we think ought to have obtained health sooner, in order that not the outside of things, rather than the inside, may be cured. But if any one now were to object to us that certain seeds do even fall upon rocky ground, i.e., on a hard and stony heart, we should answer that even this does not happen without the arrangement of Divine Providence; inasmuch as, but for this, it would not be known what condemnation was incurred by rashness in hearing and indifference in investigation, nor, certainly, what benefit was derived from being trained in an orderly manner. And hence it happens that the soul comes to know its defects, and to cast the blame upon itself, and, consistently with this, to reserve and submit itself to training, i.e., in order that it may see that its faults must first be removed, and that then it must come to receive the instruction of wisdom. As, therefore, souls are innumerable, so also are their manners, and purposes, and movements, and appetencies, and incitements different, the variety of which can by no means be grasped by the human mind; and therefore to God alone must be left the art, and the knowledge, and the power of an arrangement of this kind, as He alone can know both the remedies for each individual soul, and measure out the time of its cure. It is He alone then who, as we said, recognises the ways of individual men, and determines by what way He ought to lead Pharaoh, that through him His name might be named in all the earth, having previously chastised him by many blows, and finally drowning him in the sea. By this drowning, however, it is not to be supposed that God's providence as regards Pharaoh was terminated; for we must not imagine, because he was drowned, that therefore he had immediately completely perished: for in the hand of God are both we and our words; all wisdom, also, and knowledge of workmanship, as Scripture declares. But these points we have discussed according to our ability, treating of that chapter of Scripture in which it is said that God hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and agreeably to the statement, He has mercy on whom He will have mercy, and whom He will He hardens. 3.1.14. Come now, and let us use the following image from the Gospel. There is a certain rock, with a little surface-soil, on which, if seeds fall, they quickly spring up; but when sprung up, as not having root, they are burned and withered when the sun has arisen. Now this rock is a human soul, hardened on account of its negligence, and converted to stone because of its wickedness; for no one receives from God a heart created of stone, but it becomes such in consequence of wickedness. If one, then, were to find fault with the husbandman for not sowing his seed sooner upon the rocky soil, when he saw other rocky ground which had received seed flourishing, the husbandman would reply, I shall sow this ground more slowly, casting in seeds that will be able to retain their hold, this slower method being better for the ground, and more secure than that which receives the seed in a more rapid manner, and more upon the surface. (The person finding fault) would yield his assent to the husbandman, as one who spoke with sound reason, and who acted with skill: so also the great Husbandman of all nature postpones that benefit which might be deemed premature, that it may not prove superficial. But it is probable that here some one may object to us with reference to this: Why do some of the seeds fall upon the earth that has superficial soil, the soul being, as it were, a rock? Now we must say, in answer to this, that it was better for this soul, which desired better things precipitately, and not by a way which led to them, to obtain its desire, in order that, condemning itself on this account, it may, after a long time, endure to receive the husbandry which is according to nature. For souls are, as one may say, innumerable; and their habits are innumerable, and their movements, and their purposes, and their assaults, and their efforts, of which there is only one admirable administrator, who knows both the season, and the fitting helps, and the avenues, and the ways, viz., the God and Father of all things, who knows how He conducts even Pharaoh by so great events, and by drowning in the sea, with which latter occurrence His superintendence of Pharaoh does not cease. For he was not annihilated when drowned: For in the hand of God are both we and our words; all wisdom also, and knowledge of workmanship. And such is a moderate defense with regard to the statement that Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and that God has mercy upon whom He will have mercy, and whom He will He hardens. 3.3.5. This too, I think, should next be inquired into, viz., what are the reasons why a human soul is acted on at one time by good (spirits), and at another by bad: the grounds of which I suspect to be older than the bodily birth of the individual, as John (the Baptist) showed by his leaping and exulting in his mother's womb, when the voice of the salutation of Mary reached the ears of his mother Elisabeth; and as Jeremiah the prophet declares, who was known to God before he was formed in his mother's womb, and before he was born was sanctified by Him, and while yet a boy received the grace of prophecy. And again, on the other hand it is shown beyond a doubt, that some have been possessed by hostile spirits from the very beginning of their lives: i.e., some were born with an evil spirit; and others, according to credible histories, have practised divination from childhood. Others have been under the influence of the demon called Python, i.e., the ventriloquial spirit, from the commencement of their existence. To all which instances, those who maintain that everything in the world is under the administration of Divine Providence (as is also our own belief), can, as it appears to me, give no other answer, so as to show that no shadow of injustice rests upon the divine government, than by holding that there were certain causes of prior existence, in consequence of which the souls, before their birth in the body, contracted a certain amount of guilt in their sensitive nature, or in their movements, on account of which they have been judged worthy by Divine Providence of being placed in this condition. For a soul is always in possession of free-will, as well when it is in the body as when it is without it; and freedom of will is always directed either to good or evil. Nor can any rational and sentient being, i.e., a mind or soul, exist without some movement either good or bad. And it is probable that these movements furnish grounds for merit even before they do anything in this world; so that on account of these merits or grounds they are, immediately on their birth, and even before it, so to speak, assorted by Divine Providence for the endurance either of good or evil.
44. Origen, Philocalia, 23.7, 25.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

45. Origen, Philocalia, 23.7, 25.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

46. Anon., 2 Enoch, 71.1

47. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.21-3.22, 3.26, 4.4, 4.30, 7.36, 7.48

3.21. For the first Adam, burdened with an evil heart, transgressed and was overcome, as were also all who were descended from him. 3.22. Thus the disease became permanent; the law was in the people's heart along with the evil root, but what was good departed, and the evil remained. 3.26. in everything doing as Adam and all his descendants had done, for they also had the evil heart. 4.4. If you can solve one of them for me, I also will show you the way you desire to see, and will teach you why the heart is evil. 4.30. For a grain of evil seed was sown in Adam's heart from the beginning, and how much ungodliness it has produced until now, and will produce until the time of threshing comes! 7.36. Then the pit of torment shall appear, and opposite it shall be the place of rest; and the furnace of hell shall be disclosed, and opposite it the paradise of delight. 7.48. For an evil heart has grown up in us, which has alienated us from God, and has brought us into corruption and the ways of death, and has shown us the paths of perdition and removed us far from life -- and that not just a few of us but almost all who have been created!
48. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., 2.930-2.931



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 265; Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
adam, heart of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
adam Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
adiaphora/indistinguishable/neutral Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
adoption as master-metaphor in christian divine sonship, begottenness as master-metaphor in divine sonship of jesus Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
adoption as master-metaphor in christian divine sonship, preoccupation with assigning christological moment Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
adoption by augustus Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption in roman society greek terminology for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
adoption in roman society inheritance/wealth transfer through Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136
adoption in roman society legal frameworks for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption in roman society papyrus contracts for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
adoption in roman society preservation of family lines through Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption in roman society social status of adoptees Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
adoption in roman society tensions between biological and adopted sons Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption in roman society vs. modern western practice Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
adoption metaphor in pauline epistles Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136, 138, 139
agency, divine Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
agency, human Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
agency, in conversion Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
aloe Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
apollo Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
aristotle Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 231, 232; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
asceticism Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 132
assimilation, to god/gods Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
astrology Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
augustine Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 73
augustus adoption by caesar Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
augustus adoptions by Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 136
augustus divine ancestry of Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
augustus worship of Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113, 135, 136, 138, 139
babut, d., baptism cluster Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 53
babut, d. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
baptism Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 335; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
baptism of jesus divine sonship bestowed at Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
baptism of jesus divine voice at Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
baptism of jesus holy spirit at Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
baptism of jesus in gospel of luke Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
baptism of jesus in gospel of mark Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
basilides Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 453
believing Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 361
berakah deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
body, bodies Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 130
body in paul, earthly body as literally dying Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 51, 52
boer, m. de Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
bonum Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 73, 665
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 361
boys-stones, g. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
caritas, charity Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 202
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
chrysippus Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
church Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
cicero Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
clausula Burton, Dionysus and Rome: Religion and Literature (2009) 163
cleanthes Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
clement of alexandria Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
collins, a. y. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
conformity with christ, in his death and resurrection Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 51, 52, 53, 54
conversion account for paraenetic, fits stoicism better than platonism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 231, 232
corinth Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
creator, creation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 265
cupiditas Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 73
dahl, n. a. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 230
damnation, eternal Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
dative/ablative plural Burton, Dionysus and Rome: Religion and Literature (2009) 163
day, judgment, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
death Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 361
deeds, works Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 202
deification/theosis/christosis Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
delectatio, delight Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 202
determinism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
dibelius, m. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 96, 232
diogenes the cynic Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
divine sonship adoptive metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136, 138, 139
divine sonship mixed metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
divine sonship of jesus adoptive metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 138, 139
divine sonship of jesus begotten metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
divine sonship of jesus considered through roman sociopolitical lens Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
divine sonship of jesus eschatological power of Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
divine sonship of jesus mixed metaphors for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 139
divine sonship of jesus uniting christ with christians through Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 139
divine sonship offered by god through the spirit Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
divine sonship paul's master-metaphor of adoptive" Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136, 138, 139
divine sonship uniting with christ Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 139
divine voice at baptism of jesus Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
dunn, j. d. g. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 231
election/elect Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
emperors legitimation options for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
epictetus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
eschatological Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
exemplars of trust, jesus as Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 178
experience Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 130
expulsion, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
expulsion, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
faith, fides Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 202
faith Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 361
family ideology as center of roman life Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 335, 338
father Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 265
feeling, religious Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 44, 45
foreign languages Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 44, 45
foreknowledge, causative/non-causative Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
foreknowledge, middle knowledge Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
foreknowledge, proginosko Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
foreknowledge Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
fragrances Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
frankincense, tree of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
free/freedom (ἐλεύθερος/ἐλευθερία, liber/libertas), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 110, 111
free choice/free will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
freedom, and cognition Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
friendship, differences between divine and human Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
gens Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
gentiles Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 265
gentiles (ethnē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
genuine humanness, role of spirit Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 226
gift of cognition, in epictetus and paul Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
gifts Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 44, 45
glory, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 452
glory Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 335; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 130
glory (doxa) Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 52; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
glossolalia Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 44, 45
gnosticism/gnostics Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
god, cognitive conception in stoicism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
god, purposes of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
god (pauline), character (love) Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
gods, paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 110, 111, 112, 113
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
grace, response to deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 178; Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
grain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
grief (lupē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
heart, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
heart, evil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
heart Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
heaven, third Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 452
heresy, human origin of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 454
heresy, novelty of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 453
himmelfarb, m. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
holy spirit, role for genuine humanness Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 226
honor and dishonor deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
human vocation, cosmic horizon of Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 226
imitation, of christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 178
imitation, outlies modern typologies of imitation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 178
imperial adoption meritocratic vs. dynastic succession Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
irenaeus Osborne, Clement of Alexandria (2010) 54
israel Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
james, law in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 174
james, love of god in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 174
jesus Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 136
jesus christ Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
jewish succession, orthodox borrowings from jewish heresiology Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 454
judgment Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
judgment (divine) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
king Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 130
kingdom Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 130
knowledge, pauline Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
knowledge Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 202
law, laws Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 265
law-giving, law-givers Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 136
law , of moses Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 202
life Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
life in the present, in the light of the future Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 54
long, a. a. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
love Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 202; Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 178
loving god and neighbours Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 73, 665
lucchetta, g. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
luke, gospel of audience for Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
luke, gospel of baptism narrative in Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
luke, gospel of birth/infancy narratives Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
luke, gospel of lxx (septuagint) Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
luke, gospel of sources of jesus legitimation Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
magi, as part of heretical succession Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 453
marcellinus Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 73
metaphorical language Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 54
meyer, p. w. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 231
mixed metaphors in early christianity Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 139
moral formation, involvement of god/gods within Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
moral formation, love in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
mother, motherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 335, 338
myrrh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
new creation, producing signs of Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 226, 227
numen (divine power) described Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
ophites Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 454
origen Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
orthodoxy, antiquity of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 453, 454
orthodoxy, unity of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 453, 454
papyri adoption contracts Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
papyri p.lips. Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
paraenesis (moral exhortation), its stoic character Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 231
parents Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 335, 338
passions (pathē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
paterfamilias Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 113
paul, and eschatology Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
paul, and passions (pathē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
paul, and stoicism Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 112, 113
paul, his demonology Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 96
paul, on freedom (ἐλευθερία) in god Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 110, 111
paul, on god Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 110, 111, 112, 113
paul, on human responsibility Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107
paul, on predestination/predetermination (προόρισις) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 111, 112, 113
paul, on salvation (σωτηρία) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107
paul, on slavery Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 110, 111, 112, 113
paul, on spirit (πνεῦμα) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 110, 111, 112
paul, pauline, paulinism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 130, 265
paul, pauline soteriology Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
paul, rhetoric of Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
paul Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 110, 111, 112, 113; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328; Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 132
paul (apostle), sense of vocation Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 227
pauline epistles adoption metaphors in Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136, 138, 139
pauline epistles christ as firstborn in Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 139
pauline epistles family lineage of jesus Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138
pauline epistles on adoption of israelites Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 138, 139
pauline theology, deutero/ps.-pauline notions and writings Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
pauline theology, eschatology Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
pauline writings, romans Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
pauline writings Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
peristasis catalogues Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 175
philo judeas Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
plato/platonic/platonism, theaetetus Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
plato/platonism, christian platonism Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
plato/platonism, middle platonism Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
plato/platonism Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401
plato Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 231
platonism Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 132
pneuma (spirit) in paul, and baptism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 230
pneuma (spirit) in paul, and prayer Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 231
pneuma (spirit) in paul, as a material phenomenon in paul Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 51, 52, 53, 54, 71, 72
pneuma (spirit) in paul, as arriving in the bodies of believers Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 71, 72
pneuma (spirit) in paul, how received? Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 71, 72
pneuma (spirit) in paul, in 2 corinthians Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 51
pneuma (spirit) in paul, world Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 96
praeceptum Cheuk-Yin Yam, Trinity and Grace in Augustine (2019) 73, 665
prayer, and pneuma Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 231
predestination Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
predestination (προόρισις), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 111, 112, 113
predetermination, πρωοριζω/proorizo Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
predetermination Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
prophecy Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 44, 45
providence, stoic type Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
ramelli, i. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
reciprocity deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
regions Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
resonance with greco-roman ideology Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 136, 138
restoration, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 452
restoration Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
resurrection, uniting christ with christians Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 139
resurrection Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 335; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 130; Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135, 138; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 401; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 361
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 175
roman assembly, correspondence Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89
romulus Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 135
rowland, c. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
rulers of the present aeon Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 96
salvation, and life Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 71, 96
salvation Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 89; Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
salvation (σωτηρία), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107
satan, decay Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 96
schweizer, e. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
seeds, evil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
seeds, food (sustece), for Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
service to god or christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 178
sex/sexual Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
shema Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 171, 174
simon of samaria Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 453
simonians (sect) Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 454
sin, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
slavery Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 90
slavery (δουλεία), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 110, 111, 112, 113
soul Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 44
sounds Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 44, 45
sovereignty of god, judaeo-christian view Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
sovereignty of god Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 68
speech, ecstatic Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 44, 45
spices, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
spices Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
spirit, effects of, power, empowerment Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
spirit, effects of, transformation Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
spirit, holy, role for genuine humanness Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 226
spirit (πνεῦμα), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 107, 110, 111, 112
spiritual gifts, love and Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 159
stoicism, and freedom through cognition Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 126
stoicism, and paraenesis Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 231
stoicism, internal reason versus uttered word Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 232
stoics/stoicism, paul and Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 112, 113
stowers, s. k. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 231
stranger Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 132
suavitas, dulcedo, sweetness Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 202
testaments of the twelve patriarchs Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 171
thanksgiving deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 65
theissen, g. Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 231
titulus crucis Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 136
torah Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
train journey, as image of atonement Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 178
transformation, as bodily in paul Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 53
transformation Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
tree, life, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452