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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8253
New Testament, Romans, 7.4


ὥστε, ἀδελφοί μου, καὶ ὑμεῖς ἐθανατώθητε τῷ νόμῳ διὰ τοῦ σώματος τοῦ χριστοῦ, εἰς τὸ γενέσθαι ὑμᾶς ἑτέρῳ, τῷ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἐγερθέντι ἵνα καρποφορήσωμεν τῷ θεῷ.Therefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you would be joined to another, to him who was raised from the dead, that we might bring forth fruit to God.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

40 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 24.1-24.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.1. כִּי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵעֲךָ מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה לֹא־תָבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲבֹט עֲבֹטוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינָיו כִּי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ׃ 24.2. וְיָצְאָה מִבֵּיתוֹ וְהָלְכָה וְהָיְתָה לְאִישׁ־אַחֵר׃ 24.2. כִּי תַחְבֹּט זֵיתְךָ לֹא תְפָאֵר אַחֲרֶיךָ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה׃ 24.3. וּשְׂנֵאָהּ הָאִישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ אוֹ כִי יָמוּת הָאִישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן אֲשֶׁר־לְקָחָהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 24.4. לֹא־יוּכַל בַּעְלָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר־שִׁלְּחָהּ לָשׁוּב לְקַחְתָּהּ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר הֻטַּמָּאָה כִּי־תוֹעֵבָה הִוא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְלֹא תַחֲטִיא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃ 24.1. When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house," 24.2. and she departeth out of his house, and goeth and becometh another man’s wife," 24.3. and the latter husband hateth her, and writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house; or if the latter husband die, who took her to be his wife;" 24.4. her former husband, who sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled; for that is abomination before the LORD; and thou shalt not cause the land to sin, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.13, 3.20, 4.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לָאִשָּׁה מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂית וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הַנָּחָשׁ הִשִּׁיאַנִי וָאֹכֵל׃ 4.25. וַיֵּדַע אָדָם עוֹד אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֵׁת כִּי שָׁת־לִי אֱלֹהִים זֶרַע אַחֵר תַּחַת הֶבֶל כִּי הֲרָגוֹ קָיִן׃ 3.13. And the LORD God said unto the woman: ‘What is this thou hast done?’ And the woman said: ‘The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.’" 3.20. And the man called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living." 4.25. And Adam knew his wife again; and she bore a son, and called his name Seth: ‘for God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew him.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 3.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.1. וְגַם־בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־שָׁבָה אֵלַי בָּגוֹדָה אֲחוֹתָהּ יְהוּדָה בְּכָל־לִבָּהּ כִּי אִם־בְּשֶׁקֶר נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 3.1. לֵאמֹר הֵן יְשַׁלַּח אִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָלְכָה מֵאִתּוֹ וְהָיְתָה לְאִישׁ־אַחֵר הֲיָשׁוּב אֵלֶיהָ עוֹד הֲלוֹא חָנוֹף תֶּחֱנַף הָאָרֶץ הַהִיא וְאַתְּ זָנִית רֵעִים רַבִּים וְשׁוֹב אֵלַי נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה׃ 3.1. . . . saying: If a man put away his wife, and she go from him, and become another man’s, may he return unto her again? Will not that land be greatly polluted? But thou hast played the harlot with many lovers; and wouldest thou yet return to Me? Saith the LORD."
5. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 3.75, 4.74 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.75. quam gravis vero, quam magnifica, quam constans conficitur persona sapientis! qui, cum ratio docuerit, quod honestum esset, id esse solum bonum, semper sit necesse est beatus vereque omnia ista nomina possideat, quae irrideri ab inperitis solent. rectius enim appellabitur rex quam Tarquinius, qui nec se nec suos regere potuit, rectius magister populi—is enim est dictator dictator est BE —quam Sulla, qui trium pestiferorum vitiorum, luxuriae, avaritiae, crudelitatis, magister fuit, rectius dives quam Crassus, qui nisi eguisset, numquam Euphraten nulla belli causa transire voluisset. recte eius omnia dicentur, qui scit uti solus omnibus, recte etiam pulcher appellabitur— animi enim liniamenta sunt pulchriora quam corporis quam corporis NV quam corporibus ABE corporibus ( om. quam) R —, recte solus liber nec dominationi cuiusquam parens nec oboediens cupiditati, recte invictus, cuius etiamsi corpus constringatur, animo tamen vincula inici nulla possint, nec expectet ullum tempus aetatis, uti tum uti tum Se. ut tum (ut in ras., sequente ras. 2 vel 3 litt. ) N virtutum ABE ututū R ubi tum V denique iudicetur beatusne fuerit, cum extremum vitae diem morte confecerit, quod ille unus e septem sapientibus non sapienter Croesum monuit; 4.74. Nam ex eisdem verborum praestrigiis praestrigiis BEN praestigiis et regna nata vobis sunt et imperia et divitiae, et tantae quidem, ut omnia, quae ubique sint, sapientis esse dicatis. solum praeterea formosum, solum liberum, solum civem, stultos omnia contraria, add. hoc loco Mdv., post contraria Morel. quos etiam insanos esse vultis. haec para/doca illi, nos admirabilia dicamus. quid autem habent admirationis, cum prope accesseris? conferam tecum, quam cuique verbo rem subicias; nulla erit controversia. Omnia peccata paria dicitis. non ego tecum iam ita iocabor, Jocabor N locabor RB locabar E letabor V ut isdem his de his de edd. is de ER ijs de V de B om. N rebus, cum L. Murenam te accusante defenderem. apud imperitos tum illa dicta sunt, aliquid etiam coronae datum; nunc agendum est subtilius. Peccata paria. 3.75.  "Then, how dignified, how lofty, how consistent is the character of the Wise Man as they depict it! Since reason has proved that moral worth is the sole good, it follows that he must always be happy, and that all those titles which the ignorant are so fond of deriding do in very truth belong to him. For he will have a better claim to the title of King than Tarquin, who could not rule either himself or his subjects; a better right to the name of 'Master of the People' (for that is what a dictator is) than Sulla, who was a master of three pestilential vices, licentiousness, avarice and cruelty; a better right to be called rich than Crassus, who had he lacked nothing could never have been induced to cross the Euphrates with no pretext for war. Rightly will he be said to own all things, who alone knows how to use all things; rightly also will he be styled beautiful, for the features of the soul are fairer than those of the body; rightly the one and only free man, as subject to no man's authority, and slave of no appetite; rightly unconquerable, for though his body be thrown into fetters, no bondage can enchain his soul. 4.74.  "The same verbal legerdemain supplies you with your kingdoms and empires and riches, riches so vast that you declare that everything the world contains is the property of the Wise Man. He alone, you say, is handsome, he alone a free man and a citizen: while the foolish are the opposite of all these, and according to you insane into the bargain. The Stoics call these paradoxa, as we might say 'startling truths.' But what is there so startling about them viewed at close quarters? I will consult you as to the meaning you attach to each term; there shall be no dispute. You Stoics say that all transgressions are equal. I won't jest with you now, as I did on the same subjects when you were prosecuting and I defending Lucius Murena. On that occasion I was addressing a jury, not an audience of scholars, and I even had to play to the gallery a little; but now I must reason more closely.
6. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 4.20-5.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 4.20-5.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 57.17-57.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Septuagint, Judith, 8.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

8.4. Judith had lived at home as a widow for three years and four months.
10. Mishnah, Eduyot, 9.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.5, 2.16, 2.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. You also, as living stones, are built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. 2.16. as free, and not using your freedom for a cloak of wickedness, but as bondservants of God. 2.24. who his own self bore our sins in his body on the tree, that we, having died to sins, might live to righteousness; by whose stripes you were healed.
12. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.20-1.22, 1.26, 2.13, 3.18-3.21, 3.23, 5.5, 6.12-6.13, 6.15-6.18, 7.6, 7.10, 7.18-7.19, 7.21-7.23, 7.25, 7.39, 10.16-10.17, 10.32, 11.24-11.27, 12.12-12.31, 15.23, 15.39, 15.42-15.44, 15.53-15.55, 15.57 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.20. Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the lawyerof this world? Hasn't God made foolish the wisdom of this world? 1.21. For seeing that in the wisdom of God, the world through its wisdomdidn't know God, it was God's good pleasure through the foolishness ofthe preaching to save those who believe. 1.22. For Jews ask for signs,Greeks seek after wisdom 1.26. For you seeyour calling, brothers, that not many are wise according to the flesh,not many mighty, and not many noble; 2.13. Which things also we speak, not inwords which man's wisdom teaches, but which the Holy Spirit teaches,comparing spiritual things with spiritual things. 3.18. Letno one deceive himself. If anyone thinks that he is wise among you inthis world, let him become a fool, that he may become wise. 3.19. Forthe wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written,"He has taken the wise in their craftiness. 3.20. And again, "TheLord knows the reasoning of the wise, that it is worthless. 3.21. Therefore let no one boast in men. For all things are yours 3.23. and you areChrist's, and Christ is God's. 5.5. are to deliver such a one to Satan for thedestruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day ofthe Lord Jesus. 6.12. All things are lawful for me," but not all thingsare expedient. "All things are lawful for me," but I will not bebrought under the power of anything. 6.13. Foods for the belly, andthe belly for foods," but God will bring to nothing both it and them.But the body is not for sexual immorality, but for the Lord; and theLord for the body. 6.15. Don't you know that your bodies aremembers of Christ? Shall I then take the members of Christ, and makethem members of a prostitute? May it never be! 6.16. Or don't you knowthat he who is joined to a prostitute is one body? For, "The two," sayshe, "will become one flesh. 6.17. But he who is joined to the Lord isone spirit. 6.18. Flee sexual immorality! "Every sin that a man doesis outside the body," but he who commits sexual immorality sins againsthis own body. 7.6. But this I say by way of concession, not of commandment. 7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 7.21. Were you calledbeing a bondservant? Don't let that bother you, but if you get anopportunity to become free, use it. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 7.25. Now concerning virgins, I have no commandment from the Lord,but I give my judgment as one who has obtained mercy from the Lord tobe trustworthy. 7.39. A wife is bound by law for as long as her husband lives;but if the husband is dead, she is free to be married to whoever shedesires, only in the Lord. 10.16. Thecup of blessing which we bless, isn't it a communion of the blood ofChrist? The bread which we break, isn't it a communion of the body ofChrist? 10.17. Because we, who are many, are one bread, one body; forwe all partake of the one bread. 10.32. Give no occasions for stumbling, either to Jews, or to Greeks,or to the assembly of God; 11.24. When he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "Take,eat. This is my body, which is broken for you. Do this in memory ofme. 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me. 11.26. For as often as you eat this breadand drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes. 11.27. Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks the Lord's cup i unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and the blood of theLord. 12.12. For as the body is one, and has many members, and all themembers of the body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 12.14. For the body is not one member, but many. 12.15. If the foot would say, "Because I'm not the hand, I'm not part of thebody," it is not therefore not part of the body. 12.16. If the earwould say, "Because I'm not the eye, I'm not part of the body," it'snot therefore not part of the body. 12.17. If the whole body were aneye, where would the hearing be? If the whole were hearing, where wouldthe smelling be? 12.18. But now God has set the members, each one ofthem, in the body, just as he desired. 12.19. If they were all onemember, where would the body be? 12.20. But now they are many members,but one body. 12.21. The eye can't tell the hand, "I have no need foryou," or again the head to the feet, "I have no need for you. 12.22. No, much rather, those members of the body which seem to be weaker arenecessary. 12.23. Those parts of the body which we think to be lesshonorable, on those we bestow more abundant honor; and ourunpresentable parts have more abundant propriety; 12.24. whereas ourpresentable parts have no such need. But God composed the bodytogether, giving more abundant honor to the inferior part 12.25. thatthere should be no division in the body, but that the members shouldhave the same care for one another. 12.26. When one member suffers,all the members suffer with it. Or when one member is honored, all themembers rejoice with it. 12.27. Now you are the body of Christ, and members individually. 12.28. God has set some in the assembly: first apostles, secondprophets, third teachers, then miracle workers, then gifts of healings,helps, governments, and various kinds of languages. 12.29. Are allapostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Are all miracle workers? 12.30. Do all have gifts of healings? Do all speak with variouslanguages? Do all interpret? 12.31. But earnestly desire the bestgifts. Moreover, I show a most excellent way to you. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.39. All flesh is not the same flesh, butthere is one flesh of men, another flesh of animals, another of fish,and another of birds. 15.42. So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory. 15.55. Death, where is your sting?Hades, where is your victory? 15.57. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our LordJesus Christ.
13. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.14, 5.5, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.14. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so those who have fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with him. 5.5. You are all sons of light, and sons of the day. We don't belong to the night, nor to darkness 5.9. For God didn't appoint us to wrath, but to the obtaining of salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ
14. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 3.16, 5.3-5.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. Without controversy, the mystery of godliness is great: God was revealed in the flesh, Justified in the spirit, Seen by angels, Preached among the nations, Believed on in the world, And received up in glory. 5.3. Honor widows who are widows indeed. 5.4. But if any widow has children or grandchildren, let them learn first to show piety towards their own family, and to repay their parents, for this is acceptable in the sight of God. 5.5. Now she who is a widow indeed, and desolate, has her hope set on God, and continues in petitions and prayers night and day. 5.6. But she who gives herself to pleasure is dead while she lives. 5.7. Also command these things, that they may be without reproach. 5.8. But if anyone doesn't provide for his own, and especially his own household, he has denied the faith, and is worse than an unbeliever. 5.9. Let no one be enrolled as a widow under sixty years old, having been the wife of one man 5.10. being approved by good works, if she has brought up children, if she has been hospitable to strangers, if she has washed the saints' feet, if she has relieved the afflicted, and if she has diligently followed every good work. 5.11. But refuse younger widows, for when they have grown wanton against Christ, they desire to marry; 5.12. having condemnation, because they have rejected their first pledge. 5.13. Besides, they also learn to be idle, going about from house to house. Not only idle, but also gossips and busybodies, saying things which they ought not. 5.14. I desire therefore that the younger widows marry, bear children, rule the household, and give no occasion to the adversary for reviling. 5.15. For already some have turned aside after Satan. 5.16. If any man or woman who believes has widows, let them relieve them, and don't let the assembly be burdened; that it might relieve those who are widows indeed.
15. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16. New Testament, Acts, 2.22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.22. You men of Israel, hear these words. Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved by God to you by mighty works and wonders and signs which God did by him in the midst of you, even as you yourselves know
17. New Testament, Jude, 25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18. New Testament, Colossians, 1.16, 1.18, 1.22, 1.24, 2.13, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.22. yet now he has reconciled in the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and without blemish and blameless before him 1.24. Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and fill up on my part that which is lacking of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh for his body's sake, which is the assembly; 2.13. You were dead through your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh. He made you alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses; 3.4. When Christ, our life, is revealed, then you will also be revealed with him in glory.
19. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.5, 1.22, 2.1-2.22, 4.4-4.6, 4.10-4.16, 5.29-5.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.22. He put all things in subjection under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things for the assembly 2.1. You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.4. But God, being rich in mercy, for his great love with which he loved us 2.5. even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved) 2.6. and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus 2.7. that in the ages to come he might show the exceeding riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus; 2.8. for by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God 2.9. not of works, that no one would boast. 2.10. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared before that we would walk in them. 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 4.4. There is one body, and one Spirit, even as you also were called in one hope of your calling; 4.5. one Lord, one faith, one baptism 4.6. one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in us all. 4.10. He who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things. 4.11. He gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, shepherds and teachers; 4.12. for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ; 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; 4.14. that we may no longer be children, tossed back and forth and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in craftiness, after the wiles of error; 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.16. from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love. 5.29. For no man ever hated his own flesh; but nourishes and cherishes it, even as the Lord also does the assembly; 5.30. because we are members of his body, of his flesh and bones. 5.31. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will be joined to his wife. The two will become one flesh. 5.32. This mystery is great, but I speak concerning Christ and of the assembly. 5.33. Nevertheless each of you must also love his own wife even as himself; and let the wife see that she respects her husband.
20. New Testament, Galatians, 1.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 5.1, 5.2, 5.11, 5.13, 5.13-6.10, 6.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. For am I now seeking thefavor of men, or of God? Or am I striving to please men? For if I werestill pleasing men, I wouldn't be a servant of Christ.
21. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.2-1.3, 4.14, 9.11-9.12, 10.10, 13.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. has at the end of these days spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds. 1.3. His Son is the radiance of his glory, the very image of his substance, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself made purification for our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; 4.14. Having then a great high priest, who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold tightly to our confession. 9.11. But Christ having come as a high priest of the coming good things, through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation 9.12. nor yet through the blood of goats and calves, but through his own blood, entered in once for all into the Holy Place, having obtained eternal redemption. 10.10. by which will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 13.21. make you complete in every good work to do his will, working in you that which is well pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
22. New Testament, Philippians, 1.1, 2.6-2.8, 3.3-3.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ; To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the overseers and deacons: 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 3.3. For we are the circumcision, who worship God in the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh; 3.4. though I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. If any other man thinks that he has confidence in the flesh, I yet more: 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.7. However, what things were gain to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith;
23. New Testament, Romans, 1.1, 1.13, 1.24, 2.25, 3.1-3.2, 3.6, 3.9-3.10, 3.18, 3.21-3.31, 5.9-5.15, 5.21, 6.2, 6.4-6.23, 7.1-7.3, 7.5-7.13, 7.18, 7.24-7.25, 8.1-8.30, 9.3-9.5, 10.4, 10.17, 11.13, 12.3-12.5, 13.14, 14.15, 14.21, 15.12-15.33, 15.44-15.45, 15.54-15.56, 15.58 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God 1.13. Now I don't desire to have you unaware, brothers, that I often planned to come to you, and was hindered so far, that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among the rest of the Gentiles. 1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves 2.25. For circumcision indeed profits, if you are a doer of the law, but if you are a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. 3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 3.2. Much in every way! Because first of all, they were entrusted with the oracles of God. 3.6. May it never be! For then how will God judge the world? 3.9. What then? Are we better than they? No, in no way. For we previously charged both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin. 3.10. As it is written, "There is no one righteous. No, not one. 3.18. There is no fear of God before their eyes. 3.21. But now apart from the law, a righteousness of God has been revealed, being testified by the law and the prophets; 3.22. even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ to all and on all those who believe. For there is no distinction 3.23. for all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God; 3.24. being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; 3.25. whom God set forth to be an atoning sacrifice, through faith in his blood, for a demonstration of his righteousness through the passing over of prior sins, in God's forbearance; 3.26. to demonstrate his righteousness at this present time; that he might himself be just, and the justifier of him who has faith in Jesus. 3.27. Where then is the boasting? It is excluded. By what manner of law? of works? No, but by a law of faith. 3.28. We maintain therefore that a man is justified by faith apart from the works of the law. 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 3.31. Do we then nullify the law through faith? May it never be! No, we establish the law. 5.9. Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we will be saved from God's wrath through him. 5.10. For if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we will be saved by his life. 5.11. Not only so, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation. 5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 5.13. For until the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 5.15. But the free gift isn't like the trespass. For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. 5.21. that as sin reigned in death, even so might grace reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. 6.2. May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer? 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.5. For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will also be part of his resurrection; 6.6. knowing this, that our old man was crucified with him, that the body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be in bondage to sin. 6.7. For he who has died has been freed from sin. 6.8. But if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him; 6.9. knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dies no more. Death no more has dominion over him! 6.10. For the death that he died, he died to sin one time; but the life that he lives, he lives to God. 6.11. Thus also consider yourselves also to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord. 6.12. Therefore don't let sin reign in your mortal body, that you should obey it in its lusts. 6.13. Neither present your members to sin as instruments of unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God, as alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God. 6.14. For sin will not have dominion over you. For you are not under law, but under grace. 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 6.20. For when you were servants of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 6.21. What fruit then did you have at that time in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 6.23. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. 7.1. Or don't you know, brothers (for I speak to men who know the law), that the law has dominion over a man for as long as he lives? 7.2. For the woman that has a husband is bound by law to the husband while he lives, but if the husband dies, she is discharged from the law of the husband. 7.3. So then if, while the husband lives, she is joined to another man, she would be called an adulteress. But if the husband dies, she is free from the law, so that she is no adulteress, though she is joined to another man. 7.5. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. 7.6. But now we have been discharged from the law, having died to that in which we were held; so that we serve in newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter. 7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet. 7.8. But sin, finding occasion through the commandment, produced in me all kinds of coveting. For apart from the law, sin is dead. 7.9. I was alive apart from the law once, but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. 7.10. The commandment, which was for life, this I found to be for death; 7.11. for sin, finding occasion through the commandment, deceived me, and through it killed me. 7.12. Therefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good. 7.13. Did then that which is good become death to me? May it never be! But sin, that it might be shown to be sin, by working death to me through that which is good; that through the commandment sin might become exceeding sinful. 7.18. For I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwells no good thing. For desire is present with me, but I don't find it doing that which is good. 7.24. What a wretched man I am! Who will deliver me out of the body of this death? 7.25. I thank God through Jesus Christ, our Lord! So then with the mind, I myself serve God's law, but with the flesh, the sin's law. 8.1. There is therefore now no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus, who don't walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit. 8.2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.6. For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace; 8.7. because the mind of the flesh is hostile towards God; for it is not subject to God's law, neither indeed can it be. 8.8. Those who are in the flesh can't please God. 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.14. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are children of God. 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father! 8.16. The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God; 8.17. and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if indeed we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him. 8.18. For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which will be revealed toward us. 8.19. For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 8.20. For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 8.21. that the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. 8.22. For we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together until now. 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 8.24. For we were saved in hope, but hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for that which he sees? 8.25. But if we hope for that which we don't see, we wait for it with patience. 8.26. In the same way, the Spirit also helps our weaknesses, for we don't know how to pray as we ought. But the Spirit himself makes intercession for us with groanings which can't be uttered. 8.27. He who searches the hearts knows what is on the Spirit's mind, because he makes intercession for the saints according to God. 8.28. We know that all things work together for good for those who love God, to those who are called according to his purpose. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 8.30. Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified. 9.3. For I could wish that I myself were accursed from Christ for my brothers' sake, my relatives according to the flesh 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.5. of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen. 10.4. For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes. 10.17. So faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 12.3. For I say, through the grace that was given me, to every man who is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think; but to think reasonably, as God has apportioned to each person a measure of faith. 12.4. For even as we have many members in one body, and all the members don't have the same function 12.5. so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another. 13.14. But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, for its lusts. 14.15. Yet if because of food your brother is grieved, you walk no longer in love. Don't destroy with your food him for whom Christ died. 14.21. It is good to not eat meat, drink wine, nor do anything by which your brother stumbles, is offended, or is made weak. 15.12. Again, Isaiah says, "There will be the root of Jesse, He who arises to rule over the Gentiles; On him will the Gentiles hope. 15.13. Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that you may abound in hope, in the power of the Holy Spirit. 15.14. I myself am also persuaded about you, my brothers, that you yourselves are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish others. 15.15. But I write the more boldly to you in part, as reminding you, because of the grace that was given to me by God 15.16. that I should be a servant of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles, ministering as a priest the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be made acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. 15.17. I have therefore my boasting in Christ Jesus in things pertaining to God. 15.18. For I will not dare to speak of any things except those which Christ worked through me, for the obedience of the Gentiles, by word and deed 15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; 15.20. yes, making it my aim to preach the gospel, not where Christ was already named, that I might not build on another's foundation. 15.21. But, as it is written, "They will see, to whom no news of him came. They who haven't heard will understand. 15.22. Therefore also I was hindered these many times from coming to you 15.23. but now, no longer having any place in these regions, and having these many years a longing to come to you 15.24. whenever I journey to Spain, I will come to you. For I hope to see you on my journey, and to be helped on my way there by you, if first I may enjoy your company for a while. 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.27. Yes, it has been their good pleasure, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to them also to serve them in fleshly things. 15.28. When therefore I have accomplished this, and have sealed to them this fruit, I will go on by way of you to Spain. 15.29. I know that, when I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ. 15.30. Now I beg you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, that you strive together with me in your prayers to God for me 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints; 15.32. that I may come to you in joy through the will of God, and together with you, find rest. 15.33. Now the God of peace be with you all. Amen.
24. New Testament, Titus, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. which he poured out on us richly, through Jesus Christ our Savior;
25. New Testament, John, 1.3, 1.10, 1.12, 2.19, 2.21, 3.17, 4.18, 4.28, 4.30, 14.20, 15.4-15.6, 17.20-17.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 2.19. Jesus answered them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. 2.21. But he spoke of the temple of his body. 3.17. For God didn't send his Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world should be saved through him. 4.18. for you have had five husbands; and he whom you now have is not your husband. This you have said truly. 4.28. So the woman left her water pot, and went away into the city, and said to the people 4.30. They went out of the city, and were coming to him. 14.20. In that day you will know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you. 15.4. Remain in me, and I in you. As the branch can't bear fruit by itself, unless it remains in the vine, so neither can you, unless you remain in me. 15.5. I am the vine. You are the branches. He who remains in me, and I in him, the same bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing. 15.6. If a man doesn't remain in me, he is thrown out as a branch, and is withered; and they gather them, throw them into the fire, and they are burned. 17.20. Not for these only do I pray, but for those also who believe in me through their word 17.21. that they may all be one; even as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be one in us; that the world may believe that you sent me. 17.22. The glory which you have given me, I have given to them; that they may be one, even as we are one; 17.23. I in them, and you in me, that they may be perfected into one; that the world may know that you sent me, and loved them, even as you loved me.
26. New Testament, Luke, 2.36, 15.15, 16.18, 24.37-24.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.36. There was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was of a great age, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity 15.15. He went and joined himself to one of the citizens of that country, and he sent him into his fields to feed pigs. 16.18. Everyone who divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery. He who marries one who is divorced from a husband commits adultery. 24.37. But they were terrified and filled with fear, and supposed that they had seen a spirit. 24.38. He said to them, "Why are you troubled? Why do doubts arise in your hearts? 24.39. See my hands and my feet, that it is truly me. Touch me and see, for a spirit doesn't have flesh and bones, as you see that I have. 24.40. When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.
27. New Testament, Mark, 7.2, 10.2-10.12, 14.58, 15.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.2. Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is, unwashed, hands, they found fault. 10.2. Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? 10.3. He answered, "What did Moses command you? 10.4. They said, "Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her. 10.5. But Jesus said to them, "For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. 10.6. But from the beginning of the creation, 'God made them male and female. 10.7. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will join to his wife 10.8. and the two will become one flesh,' so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. 10.9. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate. 10.10. In the house, his disciples asked him again about the same matter. 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery. 14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.' 15.29. Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying, "Ha! You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days
28. New Testament, Matthew, 19.3-19.9, 26.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19.3. Pharisees came to him, testing him, and saying, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason? 19.4. He answered, "Haven't you read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female 19.5. and said, 'For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall join to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh?' 19.6. So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don't let man tear apart. 19.7. They asked him, "Why then did Moses command us to give her a bill of divorce, and divorce her? 19.8. He said to them, "Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it has not been so. 19.9. I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her when she is divorced commits adultery. 26.26. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body.
29. Seneca The Younger, De Vita Beata (Dialogorum Liber Vii), 15.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 2.22.131-2.22.136 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

31. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 10.19.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

32. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.25.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

33. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 5.17.14 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

34. Tertullian, On Baptism, 8.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

19. The Passover affords a more than usually solemn day for baptism; when, withal, the Lord's passion, in which we are baptized, was completed. Nor will it be incongruous to interpret figuratively the fact that, when the Lord was about to celebrate the last Passover, He said to the disciples who were sent to make preparation, You will meet a man bearing water. He points out the place for celebrating the Passover by the sign of water. After that, Pentecost is a most joyous space for conferring baptisms; wherein, too, the resurrection of the Lord was repeatedly proved among the disciples, and the hope of the advent of the Lord indirectly pointed to, in that, at that time, when He had been received back into the heavens, the angels told the apostles that He would so come, as He had withal ascended into the heavens; at Pentecost, of course. But, moreover, when Jeremiah says, And I will gather them together from the extremities of the land in the feast-day, he signifies the day of the Passover and of Pentecost, which is properly a feast-day. However, every day is the Lord's; every hour, every time, is apt for baptism: if there is a difference in the solemnity, distinction there is none in the grace.
35. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

90a. והלכתא מותרת לשניהם:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בית שמאי אומרים לא יגרש אדם את אשתו אלא אם כן מצא בה דבר ערוה שנאמר (דברים כד, א) כי מצא בה ערות דבר,ובית הלל אומרים אפילו הקדיחה תבשילו שנאמר כי מצא בה ערות דבר,ר' עקיבא אומר אפי' מצא אחרת נאה הימנה שנאמר (דברים כד, א) והיה אם לא תמצא חן בעיניו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא אמרו בית הלל לבית שמאי והלא כבר נאמר דבר אמרו להם ב"ש והלא כבר נאמר ערות,אמרו להם ב"ה אם נאמר ערות ולא נאמר דבר הייתי אומר משום ערוה תצא משום דבר לא תצא לכך נאמר דבר ואילו נאמר דבר ולא נאמר ערות הייתי אומר משום דבר תנשא לאחר ומשום ערוה לא תנשא לאחר לכך נאמר ערות,וב"ש האי דבר מאי עבדי ליה נאמר כאן דבר ונאמר להלן דבר (דברים יט, טו) על פי שני עדים או על פי שלשה עדים יקום דבר מה להלן בשני עדים אף כאן בשני עדים,וב"ה מי כתיב ערוה בדבר וב"ש מי כתיב או ערוה או דבר,וב"ה להכי כתיב ערות דבר דמשמע הכי ומשמע הכי:,ר"ע אומר אפי' מצא אחרת: במאי קא מיפלגי בדר"ל דאמר ריש לקיש כי משמש בד' לשונות אי דלמא אלא דהא,ב"ש סברי [והיה אם לא תמצא חן בעיניו] כי מצא בה ערות דבר דהא מצא בה ערות דבר ור"ע סבר כי מצא בה ערות דבר אי נמי מצא בה ערות דבר,אמר ליה רב פפא לרבא לא מצא בה לא ערוה ולא דבר מהו,א"ל מדגלי רחמנא גבי אונס (דברים כב, יט) לא יוכל לשלחה כל ימיו כל ימיו בעמוד והחזיר קאי התם הוא דגלי רחמנא אבל הכא מאי דעבד עבד,א"ל רב משרשיא לרבא אם לבו לגרשה והיא יושבת תחתיו ומשמשתו מהו קרי עליה (משלי ג, כט) אל תחרש על רעך רעה והוא יושב לבטח אתך,תניא היה רבי מאיר אומר כשם שהדעות במאכל כך דעות בנשים יש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך כוסו וזורקו ואינו שותהו וזו היא מדת פפוס בן יהודה שהיה נועל בפני אשתו ויוצא,ויש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך כוסו וזורקו ושותהו וזו היא מדת כל אדם שמדברת עם אחיה וקרוביה ומניחה,ויש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך תמחוי מוצצו ואוכלו זו היא מדת אדם רע שרואה את אשתו יוצאה וראשה פרוע וטווה בשוק 90a. bAnd the ihalakha /iis that bshe is permitted to both of them. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bBeit Shammai say: A man may not divorce his wife unless he findsout babout herhaving engaged in ba matter of forbidden sexual intercourse [ idevar erva /i],i.e., she committed adultery or is suspected of doing so, bas it is stated: “Because he has found some unseemly matter [ iervat davar /i] in her,and he writes her a scroll of severance” (Deuteronomy 24:1)., bAnd Beit Hillel say:He may divorce her bevendue to a minor issue, e.g., because bshe burnedor over-salted bhis dish, as it is stated: “Because he has found some unseemly matter in her,”meaning that he found any type of shortcoming in her., bRabbi Akiva says:He may divorce her bevenif bhe found another womanwho is bbetter looking than herand wishes to marry her, bas it is statedin that verse: b“And it comes to pass, if she finds no favor in his eyes”(Deuteronomy 24:1)., strongGEMARA: /strong It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bBeit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: But isn’tthe word b“matter” already statedin the verse, indicating that any disadvantageous matter is a legitimate reason for divorce? bBeit Shammai said to them: But isn’tthe word b“unseemly [ iervat /i]” already stated? /b, bBeit Hillel said to them: Ifthe word b“unseemly” had been stated andthe word b“matter” had not been stated, I would have saidthat a wife bshould leaveher husband bdue to forbidden sexual intercourse,but bshe should nothave to bleavehim bdue toany other bmatter. Therefore,the word b“matter” is stated. And ifthe word b“matter” had been stated andthe word b“unseemly” had not been stated, I would have saidthat if he divorced her merely bdue toa disadvantageous bmatter she may marry anotherman, as the Torah continues: “And she departs out of his house, and goes and becomes another man’s wife” (Deuteronomy 24:2). bButif she was divorced bdue toher engaging in bforbidden sexual intercourse, she may not marry anotherman, as she is prohibited from remarrying. bTherefore,the word b“unseemly” is stated,indicating that even a wife who is divorced due to adultery is permitted to remarry.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what do Beit Shammai do with thisword b“matter”?How do they interpret it? It seems superfluous, as in their opinion the verse refers specifically to a wife who engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse. The Gemara answers: The word b“matter” is stated here,with regard to divorce, bandthe word b“matter” is stated there,with regard to testimony: b“At the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, a matter shall be established”(Deuteronomy 19:15). bJust as there,it is stated that a matter is established only bthrough two witnesses, so too here,a matter of forbidden sexual intercourse justifies divorce only if it is established bthrough two witnesses. /b, bAnd Beit Hillelwould respond to this analogy in the following manner: bIs it written:Because he has found something bunseemly in a matter [ ierva bedavar /i],indicating that it was established through the testimony of two witnesses that she engaged in adultery? bAnd Beit Shammaiwould respond to Beit Hillel’s interpretation as follows: bIs it written:Because he has found beithersomething bunseemly oranother bmatter i[o erva o davar /i],in accordance with Beit Hillel’s understanding?, bAnd Beit Hillelwould respond that bfor thisreason the expression b“some unseemly matter [ iervat davar /i]” is written, as it indicates thatinterpretation, i.e., that a husband is not obligated to divorce his wife unless there are two witnesses to her having engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse, band italso bindicates thisinterpretation, i.e., that he may divorce her due to any deficiency, be it adultery or any other shortcoming.,§ It is stated in the mishna that bRabbi Akiva says:He may divorce her bevenif bhe found another womanwho is better looking than her. bWith regard to what do they disagree?They disagree bwith regard tothe application of bReish Lakish’sstatement, bas Reish Lakish saidthat the term iki /iactually bhasat least bfourdistinct bmeanings: If, perhaps, rather,and bbecause. /b, bBeit Shammai holdthat the verse b“And it comes to pass, if she finds no favor in his eyes, because [ iki /i] he has found some unseemly matter in her”means that she did not find favor in his eyes bdue tothe fact that bhe has found some unseemly matter in her. And Rabbi Akiva holdsthat the phrase b“because [ iki /i] he has found some unseemly matter in her”means: bOr if he has found some unseemly matter in her. /b,§ bRav Pappa said to Rava:According to Beit Hillel, if the husband bfound about her neither forbidden sexual intercourse norany other bmatter,but divorced her anyway, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? Is the divorce valid?,Rava bsaid to himthat the answer can be derived bfrom what the Merciful One revealsin the Torah bwith regard to a rapist: “He may not send her away all his days”(Deuteronomy 22:29), indicating that even if he divorces the woman whom he raped and was subsequently commanded to marry, ball his days he standscommanded bto arise and remarryher as his wife. Evidently, bspecifically therethe husband is obligated to remarry his divorcée, bas the Merciful One revealsas much. bBut here, what he did, he did. /b, bRav Mesharshiyya said to Rava: If he intends to divorce her and she is living with him and serving him, what isthe ihalakha /i? Rava breadthe following verse baboutsuch a person: b“Devise not evil against your neighbor, seeing he dwells securely by you”(Proverbs 3:29).,§ It bis taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iSota5:9) that bRabbi Meir would say: Just as there aredifferent battitudes with regard to food, so too, there aredifferent battitudes with regard to women.With regard to food, byou have a person who,when ba fly falls into his cup, he throws outthe wine with the fly band does not drink it. And this iscomparable to bthe demeanor of Pappos ben Yehudawith regard to his wife, bas he would lockthe door bbefore his wife and leaveso that she would not see any other man., bAnd you have a person who,when ba fly falls into his cup, he throws outthe fly band drinksthe wine. bAnd this iscomparable to bthe demeanor of anycommon bman, whosewife bspeaks with her siblings and relatives, and he lets herdo so., bAnd you have a man who,when ba fly falls intohis bserving bowl, he sucksthe fly band eatsthe food. bThis is the demeanor of a bad man, who sees his wife going outinto the street bwith her head uncovered, and spinning in the marketplaceimmodestly
36. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.121-7.122 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.121. But Heraclides of Tarsus, who was the disciple of Antipater of Tarsus, and Athenodorus both assert that sins are not equal.Again, the Stoics say that the wise man will take part in politics, if nothing hinders him – so, for instance, Chrysippus in the first book of his work On Various Types of Life – since thus he will restrain vice and promote virtue. Also (they maintain) he will marry, as Zeno says in his Republic, and beget children. Moreover, they say that the wise man will never form mere opinions, that is to say, he will never give assent to anything that is false; that he will also play the Cynic, Cynicism being a short cut to virtue, as Apollodorus calls it in his Ethics; that he will even turn cannibal under stress of circumstances. They declare that he alone is free and bad men are slaves, freedom being power of independent action, whereas slavery is privation of the same; 7.122. though indeed there is also a second form of slavery consisting in subordination, and a third which implies possession of the slave as well as his subordination; the correlative of such servitude being lordship; and this too is evil. Moreover, according to them not only are the wise free, they are also kings; kingship being irresponsible rule, which none but the wise can maintain: so Chrysippus in his treatise vindicating Zeno's use of terminology. For he holds that knowledge of good and evil is a necessary attribute of the ruler, and that no bad man is acquainted with this science. Similarly the wise and good alone are fit to be magistrates, judges, or orators, whereas among the bad there is not one so qualified.
37. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Philip, 74.2-74.12, 75.3-75.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

38. Origen, Commentary On John, 10.43, 13.33, 13.38, 13.59 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

39. Origen, On First Principles, 4.2.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

40. Stobaeus, Eclogues, None



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 384
adultery Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 386
agency, of christ McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 47
allegory, allegorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 383
analogy Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 26
animalism Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 390
apostolic tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 390
apostolikon, marcions Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 263
aratos of kilikia Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 230
authority of ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 386
baptism, as seal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 86
baptism, dying and rising with christ Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 349
baptismal formulae, short form for name Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 86
biography/biographical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 349
blasphemy, heresy as Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
body of christ Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
bridal chamber Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
carpocratians Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 334, 352
change of bodily conditions, for sign production Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 223
christ, as son McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 47
christ, mighty works of McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 47
christ-followers, vocation of Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 223
christ event, and human vocation Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 223
christian union with christ Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 230
christology Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
church, as one body in christ deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 144
church Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94
clement of alexandria, assimilation of heresy to paganism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 334
clement of alexandria, moral criticism of heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
clement of alexandria, on the technical criterion Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
clement of alexandria, reduction of diverse heresies to common errors Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
clement of alexandria Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
cognitive terms, and physical ones Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 175
colossians Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 178; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 178
commandments, living to god (ζῆν τῷ θεῷ) Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 108
comparative method Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 26
compassion, conversion, significance of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 144
corinth Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 86; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 594
cotexts Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 86
covenant, mosaic Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
creation, mistake Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
creation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
creation and ownership, related to redemption McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 47
creation and ownership, through christ McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 47
creator Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
cross, sign of the Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 86
crucifixion Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
cynics Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 63
death, death to life, or dying to, to the law Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 108
death Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
death of christ Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 349
death of jesus McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 47
death of the body Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 349
defilement Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
deification/theosis/christosis Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
didymus the blind Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 384
divorce, law/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94
divorce Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 26
drunkenness Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
ekklesia of god, not just a metaphor Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 175
encratites Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
eschatological Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
eschatology/eschatological Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 349
eschatology Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
eucharist Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
evil, and good Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
exegesis, allegorical Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 334
exegesis, figurative Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 334
exegesis, in clement of alexandria Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 334
exorcisms/exorcise/exorcists/exorcistic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
exousia Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 63
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 338
flesh (as negative force) deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 144
formulae, of affiliation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 86
formulae, of naming Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 86
formulae, short Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 86
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 63
fulfilment Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
galen., on christianity Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
galen., on intellectual independence Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
galen., on the best kind of teaching Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 390, 594
gnosticism, schools of thought Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
gods and humans Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 230
good, and evil Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
gospel of the circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
halakhah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 26
heal/healers/healings Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 386, 594
heracleon Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
heresy, origen opposing Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
hermeneutics, and making communities Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 26
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 390
history Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
holy spirit, as arrabwn Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 86
humans united with god Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 230
ignorance Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
inauguration (of the covenant, temple) Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
inconsistency, in paul Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1
intellectual independence, galen and medical discourse on Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
intellectual independence, in christianity Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
intellectual independence, paul versus valentinians on Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
intellectual independence Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
interpetation of john, spiritual Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
irenaeus Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
jacobs well Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
jesus, and the samaritan woman at the well Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
jesus, as healer/exorcist Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
jesus, atoning/reconciling death of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 144
jesus, law and Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
jesus Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 383, 390
jesus christ Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
jewish practices/torah observance, circumcision Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1
jews (jewish people), as resistors of divine things Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
jews and gentiles, reconciliation of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 144
judaize, judaizing (ioudaïzein) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
law, christ and Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
law, freedom from Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
law, laws, and living to god Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 108
law, laws, death to Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 108
law, letter of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
law, paul on Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
law, the, in clement Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
law Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263; Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 178; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 178
law divine/mosaic/jewish Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 349
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 383, 384, 386, 390, 594
law of moses/torah McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 47
law of nature/natural law, stoic politics Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 63
letters Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 86
libertinism/license Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
life Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
liturgy, of dedication to christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 86
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
living to god (ζῆν τῷ θεῷ), and commandments Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 108
living to god (ζῆν τῷ θεῷ), and death Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 108
living to god (ζῆν τῷ θεῷ), and laws Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 108
living to god (ζῆν τῷ θεῷ), in shepherd from paul Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 108
marriage, heretical contempt for Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
marriage Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 386, 390
marriage analogy Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
marriage law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 390
medicine and medical discourse, intellectual independence and Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
menn, stephen Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
metaphor(ical) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 386, 390
metaphorical language Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 175
miracles/miraculous/miracle-workers Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
moral order McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 47
moses Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 383
mother, motherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 338
new identity Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 223
new testament Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 230
newness Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 349
on the best kind of teaching (galen) Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
origen, spiritual interpretation by Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
origen Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
paganism, heresy assimilated to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 334
parables (genre) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 383
parents Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 338
paul, law in Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
paul, letters of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 86
paul, marriage analogy of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
paul, on intellectual independence Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
paul, pauline soteriology Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
paul, teachings of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 86
paul Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 263, 377; Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 155
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 383, 384, 386, 390, 594
paul of tarsos Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 230
paul pharisee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 390
paul the apostle Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 349
perfection Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
phantasm Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 263, 377
philip Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
philo judeas Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
physical terms, and cognitive ones Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 175
plato/platonic/platonism, theaetetus Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
polemic Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
porneia (zenut, unchastity) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
power Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 155
practice, and body Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 175
qumran Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 26
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 390, 594
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
reconciliation, ethnic deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 144
redemption McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 47
reichert, angelika Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 223
resurrection, of jesus Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 377
resurrection Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 349; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 390
roman, law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 384
rome, churches/christians in Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 384, 390
royal official/βασιλικός Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
rüpke, jörg Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 223
salvation Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 349; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
samaritan woman Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
satan, and heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
scripture, allegory for Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
scripture, as weapon/criterion against heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
scripture, water metaphor for Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
self Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 349
seneca generally Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 63
septuagint Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
sign (σφραγίς, signo) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 86
sin Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 349; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 263
slave, being a, to (the law of) god Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 108
slavery Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 223; Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1, 63
social order McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 47
socrates Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 63
son Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 377
sonship McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 47
specific christian intellectuals, intellectual independence in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
spirit, effects of, power, empowerment Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
spirit, effects of, transformation Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
spirit/spiritual Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 349
spirit Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 263, 377
suffer/suffering Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
suffering Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
suffering of christ Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 377
synoptic, gospels Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
synoptic, tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 386
tannaim (early rabbis), tannaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
tent Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 145
tertullian Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 230
torah deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 144
transfiguration Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 377
transformation' Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 328
valentinian gnosticism Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
valentinus and valentinians Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
value (axia) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 63
vocation, of christ-followers, as sign production Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 223
wisdom Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
women, position of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 383, 384, 386, 594
word Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 263
works, good deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 144
works of law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
zeno Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 63
βλασφημεῖν Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
δικαιοσύνη, sign production for Dürr, Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition (2022) 223
διάφορος Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 334
πορνεία Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352