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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8253
New Testament, Romans, 7.2


ἡ γὰρ ὕπανδρος γυνὴ τῷ ζῶντι ἀνδρὶ δέδεται νόμῳ· ἐὰν δὲ ἀποθάνῃ ὁ ἀνήρ, κατήργηται ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τοῦ ἀνδρός.For the woman that has a husband is bound by law to the husband while he lives, but if the husband dies, she is discharged from the law of the husband.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

28 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 24.1-24.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.1. כִּי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵעֲךָ מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה לֹא־תָבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲבֹט עֲבֹטוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינָיו כִּי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ׃ 24.2. וְיָצְאָה מִבֵּיתוֹ וְהָלְכָה וְהָיְתָה לְאִישׁ־אַחֵר׃ 24.2. כִּי תַחְבֹּט זֵיתְךָ לֹא תְפָאֵר אַחֲרֶיךָ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה׃ 24.3. וּשְׂנֵאָהּ הָאִישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ אוֹ כִי יָמוּת הָאִישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן אֲשֶׁר־לְקָחָהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 24.4. לֹא־יוּכַל בַּעְלָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר־שִׁלְּחָהּ לָשׁוּב לְקַחְתָּהּ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר הֻטַּמָּאָה כִּי־תוֹעֵבָה הִוא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְלֹא תַחֲטִיא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃ 24.1. When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house," 24.2. and she departeth out of his house, and goeth and becometh another man’s wife," 24.3. and the latter husband hateth her, and writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house; or if the latter husband die, who took her to be his wife;" 24.4. her former husband, who sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled; for that is abomination before the LORD; and thou shalt not cause the land to sin, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.3, 1.28, 2.18, 2.22, 3.20, 4.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.3. וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 2.18. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לֹא־טוֹב הֱיוֹת הָאָדָם לְבַדּוֹ אֶעֱשֶׂהּ־לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃ 2.22. וַיִּבֶן יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַח מִן־הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל־הָאָדָם׃ 4.25. וַיֵּדַע אָדָם עוֹד אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֵׁת כִּי שָׁת־לִי אֱלֹהִים זֶרַע אַחֵר תַּחַת הֶבֶל כִּי הֲרָגוֹ קָיִן׃ 1.3. And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 2.18. And the LORD God said: ‘It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him.’" 2.22. And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man." 3.20. And the man called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living." 4.25. And Adam knew his wife again; and she bore a son, and called his name Seth: ‘for God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew him.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 19.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.14. בַּיִת וָהוֹן נַחֲלַת אָבוֹת וּמֵיְהוָה אִשָּׁה מַשְׂכָּלֶת׃ 19.14. House and riches are the inheritance of fathers; But a prudent wife is from the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 44.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.6. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגֹאֲלוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי אַחֲרוֹן וּמִבַּלְעָדַי אֵין אֱלֹהִים׃ 44.6. Thus saith the LORD, the King of Israel, And his Redeemer the LORD of hosts: I am the first, and I am the last, And beside Me there is no God."
5. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 3.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.1. וְגַם־בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־שָׁבָה אֵלַי בָּגוֹדָה אֲחוֹתָהּ יְהוּדָה בְּכָל־לִבָּהּ כִּי אִם־בְּשֶׁקֶר נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 3.1. לֵאמֹר הֵן יְשַׁלַּח אִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָלְכָה מֵאִתּוֹ וְהָיְתָה לְאִישׁ־אַחֵר הֲיָשׁוּב אֵלֶיהָ עוֹד הֲלוֹא חָנוֹף תֶּחֱנַף הָאָרֶץ הַהִיא וְאַתְּ זָנִית רֵעִים רַבִּים וְשׁוֹב אֵלַי נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה׃ 3.1. . . . saying: If a man put away his wife, and she go from him, and become another man’s, may he return unto her again? Will not that land be greatly polluted? But thou hast played the harlot with many lovers; and wouldest thou yet return to Me? Saith the LORD."
6. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 4.20-5.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 4.20-5.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 57.17-57.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Septuagint, Judith, 8.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

8.4. Judith had lived at home as a widow for three years and four months.
10. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 20.200 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Mishnah, Eduyot, 9.3, 9.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

12. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. as free, and not using your freedom for a cloak of wickedness, but as bondservants of God.
13. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.20-1.22, 2.13, 3.18-3.21, 5.4, 7.1, 7.5-7.6, 7.8, 7.10-7.14, 7.17-7.35, 7.39-7.40, 8.1, 9.8, 9.21, 11.24, 12.1, 14.21, 14.34, 14.37, 15.35-15.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.20. Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the lawyerof this world? Hasn't God made foolish the wisdom of this world? 1.21. For seeing that in the wisdom of God, the world through its wisdomdidn't know God, it was God's good pleasure through the foolishness ofthe preaching to save those who believe. 1.22. For Jews ask for signs,Greeks seek after wisdom 2.13. Which things also we speak, not inwords which man's wisdom teaches, but which the Holy Spirit teaches,comparing spiritual things with spiritual things. 3.18. Letno one deceive himself. If anyone thinks that he is wise among you inthis world, let him become a fool, that he may become wise. 3.19. Forthe wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written,"He has taken the wise in their craftiness. 3.20. And again, "TheLord knows the reasoning of the wise, that it is worthless. 3.21. Therefore let no one boast in men. For all things are yours 5.4. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,you being gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our LordJesus Christ 7.1. Now concerning the things about which you wrote to me: it isgood for a man not to touch a woman. 7.5. Don't deprive one another, unless it is by consent for aseason, that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer, and may betogether again, that Satan doesn't tempt you because of your lack ofself-control. 7.6. But this I say by way of concession, not of commandment. 7.8. But I sayto the unmarried and to widows, it is good for them if they remain evenas I am. 7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.11. (but if she departs, let her remain unmarried, or else be reconciled toher husband), and that the husband not leave his wife. 7.12. But to the rest I -- not the Lord -- say, if any brother hasan unbelieving wife, and she is content to live with him, let him notleave her. 7.13. The woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he iscontent to live with her, let her not leave her husband. 7.14. For theunbelieving husband is sanctified in the wife, and the unbelieving wifeis sanctified in the husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean,but now are they holy. 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 7.20. Let eachman stay in that calling in which he was called. 7.21. Were you calledbeing a bondservant? Don't let that bother you, but if you get anopportunity to become free, use it. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 7.24. Brothers, let eachman, in whatever condition he was called, stay in that condition withGod. 7.25. Now concerning virgins, I have no commandment from the Lord,but I give my judgment as one who has obtained mercy from the Lord tobe trustworthy. 7.26. I think that it is good therefore, because ofthe distress that is on us, that it is good for a man to be as he is. 7.27. Are you bound to a wife? Don't seek to be freed. Are you freefrom a wife? Don't seek a wife. 7.28. But if you marry, you have notsinned. If a virgin marries, she has not sinned. Yet such will haveoppression in the flesh, and I want to spare you. 7.29. But I saythis, brothers: the time is short, that from now on, both those whohave wives may be as though they had none; 7.30. and those who weep,as though they didn't weep; and those who rejoice, as though theydidn't rejoice; and those who buy, as though they didn't possess; 7.31. and those who use the world, as not using it to the fullest. Forthe mode of this world passes away. 7.32. But I desire to have you tobe free from cares. He who is unmarried is concerned for the things ofthe Lord, how he may please the Lord; 7.33. but he who is married isconcerned about the things of the world, how he may please his wife. 7.34. There is also a difference between a wife and a virgin. Theunmarried woman cares about the things of the Lord, that she may beholy both in body and in spirit. But she who is married cares about thethings of the world -- how she may please her husband. 7.35. This Isay for your own profit; not that I may ensnare you, but for that whichis appropriate, and that you may attend to the Lord withoutdistraction. 7.39. A wife is bound by law for as long as her husband lives;but if the husband is dead, she is free to be married to whoever shedesires, only in the Lord. 7.40. But she is happier if she stays asshe is, in my judgment, and I think that I also have God's Spirit. 8.1. Now concerning things sacrificed to idols: We know that we allhave knowledge. Knowledge puffs up, but love builds up. 9.8. DoI speak these things according to the ways of men? Or doesn't the lawalso say the same thing? 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 11.24. When he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "Take,eat. This is my body, which is broken for you. Do this in memory ofme. 12.1. Now concerning spiritual gifts, brothers, I don't want you tobe ignorant. 14.21. In the law it is written,"By men of strange languages and by the lips of strangers I will speakto this people. Not even thus will they hear me, says the Lord. 14.34. let your wives keepsilent in the assemblies, for it has not been permitted for them tospeak; but let them be in subjection, as the law also says. 14.37. If any man thinks himself to be a prophet, orspiritual, let him recognize the things which I write to you, that theyare the commandment of the Lord. 15.35. But someone will say, "Howare the dead raised?" and, "With what kind of body do they come? 15.36. You foolish one, that which you yourself sow is not made aliveunless it dies. 15.37. That which you sow, you don't sow the body thatwill be, but a bare grain, maybe of wheat, or of some other kind. 15.38. But God gives it a body even as it pleased him, and to eachseed a body of its own. 15.39. All flesh is not the same flesh, butthere is one flesh of men, another flesh of animals, another of fish,and another of birds. 15.40. There are also celestial bodies, andterrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial differs from that ofthe terrestrial.
14. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.5. You are all sons of light, and sons of the day. We don't belong to the night, nor to darkness
15. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.5, 5.3-5.16, 6.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.5. For it is sanctified through the word of God and prayer. 5.3. Honor widows who are widows indeed. 5.4. But if any widow has children or grandchildren, let them learn first to show piety towards their own family, and to repay their parents, for this is acceptable in the sight of God. 5.5. Now she who is a widow indeed, and desolate, has her hope set on God, and continues in petitions and prayers night and day. 5.6. But she who gives herself to pleasure is dead while she lives. 5.7. Also command these things, that they may be without reproach. 5.8. But if anyone doesn't provide for his own, and especially his own household, he has denied the faith, and is worse than an unbeliever. 5.9. Let no one be enrolled as a widow under sixty years old, having been the wife of one man 5.10. being approved by good works, if she has brought up children, if she has been hospitable to strangers, if she has washed the saints' feet, if she has relieved the afflicted, and if she has diligently followed every good work. 5.11. But refuse younger widows, for when they have grown wanton against Christ, they desire to marry; 5.12. having condemnation, because they have rejected their first pledge. 5.13. Besides, they also learn to be idle, going about from house to house. Not only idle, but also gossips and busybodies, saying things which they ought not. 5.14. I desire therefore that the younger widows marry, bear children, rule the household, and give no occasion to the adversary for reviling. 5.15. For already some have turned aside after Satan. 5.16. If any man or woman who believes has widows, let them relieve them, and don't let the assembly be burdened; that it might relieve those who are widows indeed. 6.20. Timothy, guard that which is committed to you, turning away from the empty chatter and oppositions of the knowledge which is falsely so called;
16. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 5.17, 11.2-11.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17. New Testament, Apocalypse, 20.13-20.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.13. The sea gave up the dead who were in it. Death and Hades gave up the dead who were in them. They were judged, each one according to his works. 20.14. Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. 20.15. If anyone was not found written in the book of life, he was cast into the lake of fire.
18. New Testament, Galatians, 1.19, 4.8-4.10, 5.14, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.19. But of the otherapostles I saw no one, except James, the Lord's brother. 4.8. However at that time, not knowing God, youwere in bondage to those who by nature are not gods. 4.9. But now thatyou have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, why do youturn back again to the weak and miserable elements, to which you desireto be in bondage all over again? 4.10. You observe days, months,seasons, and years. 5.14. For the whole law is fulfilled in one word, in this:"You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 6.2. Bear one another'sburdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ.
19. New Testament, Romans, 1.13, 5.12-5.15, 6.20-6.23, 7.1, 7.3-7.7, 7.12, 7.14, 7.16, 7.21, 8.2, 8.15, 9.4, 9.14-9.15, 9.22-9.23, 11.13, 13.8-13.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. Now I don't desire to have you unaware, brothers, that I often planned to come to you, and was hindered so far, that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among the rest of the Gentiles. 5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 5.13. For until the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 5.15. But the free gift isn't like the trespass. For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. 6.20. For when you were servants of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 6.21. What fruit then did you have at that time in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 6.23. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. 7.1. Or don't you know, brothers (for I speak to men who know the law), that the law has dominion over a man for as long as he lives? 7.3. So then if, while the husband lives, she is joined to another man, she would be called an adulteress. But if the husband dies, she is free from the law, so that she is no adulteress, though she is joined to another man. 7.4. Therefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you would be joined to another, to him who was raised from the dead, that we might bring forth fruit to God. 7.5. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. 7.6. But now we have been discharged from the law, having died to that in which we were held; so that we serve in newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter. 7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet. 7.12. Therefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good. 7.14. For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am fleshly, sold under sin. 7.16. But if what I don't desire, that I do, I consent to the law that it is good. 7.21. I find then the law, that, to me, while I desire to do good, evil is present. 8.2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death. 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father! 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.14. What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? May it never be! 9.15. For he said to Moses, "I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion. 9.22. What if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath made for destruction 9.23. and that he might make known the riches of his glory on vessels of mercy, which he prepared beforehand for glory 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 13.8. Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. 13.9. For the commandments, "You shall not commit adultery," "You shall not murder," "You shall not steal," "You shall not give false testimony," "You shall not covet," and whatever other commandments there are, are all summed up in this saying, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 13.10. Love doesn't harm a neighbor. Love therefore is the fulfillment of the law.
20. New Testament, John, 4.18, 4.28, 4.30, 13.34, 15.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.18. for you have had five husbands; and he whom you now have is not your husband. This you have said truly. 4.28. So the woman left her water pot, and went away into the city, and said to the people 4.30. They went out of the city, and were coming to him. 13.34. A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, just like I have loved you; that you also love one another. 15.12. This is my commandment, that you love one another, even as I have loved you.
21. New Testament, Luke, 2.36, 6.5, 16.18, 22.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.36. There was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was of a great age, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity 6.5. He said to them, "The Son of Man is lord of the Sabbath. 16.18. Everyone who divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery. He who marries one who is divorced from a husband commits adultery. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me.
22. New Testament, Mark, 2.28, 7.2, 10.1-10.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.28. Therefore the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath. 7.2. Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is, unwashed, hands, they found fault. 10.1. He arose from there and came into the borders of Judea and beyond the Jordan. Multitudes came together to him again. As he usually did, he was again teaching them. 10.2. Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? 10.3. He answered, "What did Moses command you? 10.4. They said, "Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her. 10.5. But Jesus said to them, "For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. 10.6. But from the beginning of the creation, 'God made them male and female. 10.7. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will join to his wife 10.8. and the two will become one flesh,' so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. 10.9. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate. 10.10. In the house, his disciples asked him again about the same matter. 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery.
23. New Testament, Matthew, 6.24, 8.12, 12.8, 18.20, 19.1-19.9, 22.13, 25.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.24. No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other; or else he will be devoted to one and despise the other. You can't serve both God and Mammon. 8.12. but the sons of the kingdom will be thrown out into the outer darkness. There will be weeping and the gnashing of teeth. 12.8. For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath. 18.20. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there I am in the midst of them. 19.1. It happened when Jesus had finished these words, he departed from Galilee, and came into the borders of Judea beyond the Jordan. 19.2. Great multitudes followed him, and he healed them there. 19.3. Pharisees came to him, testing him, and saying, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason? 19.4. He answered, "Haven't you read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female 19.5. and said, 'For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall join to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh?' 19.6. So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don't let man tear apart. 19.7. They asked him, "Why then did Moses command us to give her a bill of divorce, and divorce her? 19.8. He said to them, "Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it has not been so. 19.9. I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her when she is divorced commits adultery. 22.13. Then the king said to the servants, 'Bind him hand and foot, take him away, and throw him into the outer darkness; there is where the weeping and grinding of teeth will be.' 25.30. Throw out the unprofitable servant into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.'
24. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

25. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.25.3, 1.28.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

26. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

90a. והלכתא מותרת לשניהם:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בית שמאי אומרים לא יגרש אדם את אשתו אלא אם כן מצא בה דבר ערוה שנאמר (דברים כד, א) כי מצא בה ערות דבר,ובית הלל אומרים אפילו הקדיחה תבשילו שנאמר כי מצא בה ערות דבר,ר' עקיבא אומר אפי' מצא אחרת נאה הימנה שנאמר (דברים כד, א) והיה אם לא תמצא חן בעיניו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא אמרו בית הלל לבית שמאי והלא כבר נאמר דבר אמרו להם ב"ש והלא כבר נאמר ערות,אמרו להם ב"ה אם נאמר ערות ולא נאמר דבר הייתי אומר משום ערוה תצא משום דבר לא תצא לכך נאמר דבר ואילו נאמר דבר ולא נאמר ערות הייתי אומר משום דבר תנשא לאחר ומשום ערוה לא תנשא לאחר לכך נאמר ערות,וב"ש האי דבר מאי עבדי ליה נאמר כאן דבר ונאמר להלן דבר (דברים יט, טו) על פי שני עדים או על פי שלשה עדים יקום דבר מה להלן בשני עדים אף כאן בשני עדים,וב"ה מי כתיב ערוה בדבר וב"ש מי כתיב או ערוה או דבר,וב"ה להכי כתיב ערות דבר דמשמע הכי ומשמע הכי:,ר"ע אומר אפי' מצא אחרת: במאי קא מיפלגי בדר"ל דאמר ריש לקיש כי משמש בד' לשונות אי דלמא אלא דהא,ב"ש סברי [והיה אם לא תמצא חן בעיניו] כי מצא בה ערות דבר דהא מצא בה ערות דבר ור"ע סבר כי מצא בה ערות דבר אי נמי מצא בה ערות דבר,אמר ליה רב פפא לרבא לא מצא בה לא ערוה ולא דבר מהו,א"ל מדגלי רחמנא גבי אונס (דברים כב, יט) לא יוכל לשלחה כל ימיו כל ימיו בעמוד והחזיר קאי התם הוא דגלי רחמנא אבל הכא מאי דעבד עבד,א"ל רב משרשיא לרבא אם לבו לגרשה והיא יושבת תחתיו ומשמשתו מהו קרי עליה (משלי ג, כט) אל תחרש על רעך רעה והוא יושב לבטח אתך,תניא היה רבי מאיר אומר כשם שהדעות במאכל כך דעות בנשים יש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך כוסו וזורקו ואינו שותהו וזו היא מדת פפוס בן יהודה שהיה נועל בפני אשתו ויוצא,ויש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך כוסו וזורקו ושותהו וזו היא מדת כל אדם שמדברת עם אחיה וקרוביה ומניחה,ויש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך תמחוי מוצצו ואוכלו זו היא מדת אדם רע שרואה את אשתו יוצאה וראשה פרוע וטווה בשוק 90a. bAnd the ihalakha /iis that bshe is permitted to both of them. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bBeit Shammai say: A man may not divorce his wife unless he findsout babout herhaving engaged in ba matter of forbidden sexual intercourse [ idevar erva /i],i.e., she committed adultery or is suspected of doing so, bas it is stated: “Because he has found some unseemly matter [ iervat davar /i] in her,and he writes her a scroll of severance” (Deuteronomy 24:1)., bAnd Beit Hillel say:He may divorce her bevendue to a minor issue, e.g., because bshe burnedor over-salted bhis dish, as it is stated: “Because he has found some unseemly matter in her,”meaning that he found any type of shortcoming in her., bRabbi Akiva says:He may divorce her bevenif bhe found another womanwho is bbetter looking than herand wishes to marry her, bas it is statedin that verse: b“And it comes to pass, if she finds no favor in his eyes”(Deuteronomy 24:1)., strongGEMARA: /strong It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bBeit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: But isn’tthe word b“matter” already statedin the verse, indicating that any disadvantageous matter is a legitimate reason for divorce? bBeit Shammai said to them: But isn’tthe word b“unseemly [ iervat /i]” already stated? /b, bBeit Hillel said to them: Ifthe word b“unseemly” had been stated andthe word b“matter” had not been stated, I would have saidthat a wife bshould leaveher husband bdue to forbidden sexual intercourse,but bshe should nothave to bleavehim bdue toany other bmatter. Therefore,the word b“matter” is stated. And ifthe word b“matter” had been stated andthe word b“unseemly” had not been stated, I would have saidthat if he divorced her merely bdue toa disadvantageous bmatter she may marry anotherman, as the Torah continues: “And she departs out of his house, and goes and becomes another man’s wife” (Deuteronomy 24:2). bButif she was divorced bdue toher engaging in bforbidden sexual intercourse, she may not marry anotherman, as she is prohibited from remarrying. bTherefore,the word b“unseemly” is stated,indicating that even a wife who is divorced due to adultery is permitted to remarry.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what do Beit Shammai do with thisword b“matter”?How do they interpret it? It seems superfluous, as in their opinion the verse refers specifically to a wife who engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse. The Gemara answers: The word b“matter” is stated here,with regard to divorce, bandthe word b“matter” is stated there,with regard to testimony: b“At the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, a matter shall be established”(Deuteronomy 19:15). bJust as there,it is stated that a matter is established only bthrough two witnesses, so too here,a matter of forbidden sexual intercourse justifies divorce only if it is established bthrough two witnesses. /b, bAnd Beit Hillelwould respond to this analogy in the following manner: bIs it written:Because he has found something bunseemly in a matter [ ierva bedavar /i],indicating that it was established through the testimony of two witnesses that she engaged in adultery? bAnd Beit Shammaiwould respond to Beit Hillel’s interpretation as follows: bIs it written:Because he has found beithersomething bunseemly oranother bmatter i[o erva o davar /i],in accordance with Beit Hillel’s understanding?, bAnd Beit Hillelwould respond that bfor thisreason the expression b“some unseemly matter [ iervat davar /i]” is written, as it indicates thatinterpretation, i.e., that a husband is not obligated to divorce his wife unless there are two witnesses to her having engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse, band italso bindicates thisinterpretation, i.e., that he may divorce her due to any deficiency, be it adultery or any other shortcoming.,§ It is stated in the mishna that bRabbi Akiva says:He may divorce her bevenif bhe found another womanwho is better looking than her. bWith regard to what do they disagree?They disagree bwith regard tothe application of bReish Lakish’sstatement, bas Reish Lakish saidthat the term iki /iactually bhasat least bfourdistinct bmeanings: If, perhaps, rather,and bbecause. /b, bBeit Shammai holdthat the verse b“And it comes to pass, if she finds no favor in his eyes, because [ iki /i] he has found some unseemly matter in her”means that she did not find favor in his eyes bdue tothe fact that bhe has found some unseemly matter in her. And Rabbi Akiva holdsthat the phrase b“because [ iki /i] he has found some unseemly matter in her”means: bOr if he has found some unseemly matter in her. /b,§ bRav Pappa said to Rava:According to Beit Hillel, if the husband bfound about her neither forbidden sexual intercourse norany other bmatter,but divorced her anyway, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? Is the divorce valid?,Rava bsaid to himthat the answer can be derived bfrom what the Merciful One revealsin the Torah bwith regard to a rapist: “He may not send her away all his days”(Deuteronomy 22:29), indicating that even if he divorces the woman whom he raped and was subsequently commanded to marry, ball his days he standscommanded bto arise and remarryher as his wife. Evidently, bspecifically therethe husband is obligated to remarry his divorcée, bas the Merciful One revealsas much. bBut here, what he did, he did. /b, bRav Mesharshiyya said to Rava: If he intends to divorce her and she is living with him and serving him, what isthe ihalakha /i? Rava breadthe following verse baboutsuch a person: b“Devise not evil against your neighbor, seeing he dwells securely by you”(Proverbs 3:29).,§ It bis taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iSota5:9) that bRabbi Meir would say: Just as there aredifferent battitudes with regard to food, so too, there aredifferent battitudes with regard to women.With regard to food, byou have a person who,when ba fly falls into his cup, he throws outthe wine with the fly band does not drink it. And this iscomparable to bthe demeanor of Pappos ben Yehudawith regard to his wife, bas he would lockthe door bbefore his wife and leaveso that she would not see any other man., bAnd you have a person who,when ba fly falls into his cup, he throws outthe fly band drinksthe wine. bAnd this iscomparable to bthe demeanor of anycommon bman, whosewife bspeaks with her siblings and relatives, and he lets herdo so., bAnd you have a man who,when ba fly falls intohis bserving bowl, he sucksthe fly band eatsthe food. bThis is the demeanor of a bad man, who sees his wife going outinto the street bwith her head uncovered, and spinning in the marketplaceimmodestly
27. Origen, Commentary On John, 10.43, 13.33, 13.38, 13.59 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. Origen, On First Principles, 4.2.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adultery Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 95, 386, 387
agōn, in diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 112
allegory, allegorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 383
analogy Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 26
anti-pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 364
aphrodite Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 297
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 390
apostle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 364
apostolic tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 95, 390, 403
arriano, contra faustum manichaeum Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
authority of ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 386, 403
blasphemy, heresy as Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 353, 356
bultmann, rudolf Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 112
carpocratians Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 361
cassian, julius Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356
christ, church as bride and body of Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
church, as bride and body of christ Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 95, 364
circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 364
clement of alexandria, moral criticism of heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
clement of alexandria, on the technical criterion Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
clement of alexandria, reduction of diverse heresies to common errors Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 353, 356, 361, 362
comparative method Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 26
corinth Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 594
david Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 95
dialogue, in diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 112
diaspora Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 364
diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 112
divorce, law/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 95
divorce Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 26
dualism Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
encratites Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 353, 356, 361
epictetus, use of dialogue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 112
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 403
exorcisms/exorcise/exorcists/exorcistic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
faustus of milevus, augustine against Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
food (dietary) laws, kashrut Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 364
galen., on christianity Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
galen., on intellectual independence Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
galen., on the best kind of teaching Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 364, 387, 390, 594
gnosticism, assimilation of other heresies to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 361, 362
god, justice of Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
gospel of the circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
grace, and law Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
halakhah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 26
heal/healers/healings Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 386, 403, 594
heracleon Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
heresy, origen opposing Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
heresy, reduction/amalgamation of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 361
hermeneutics, and making communities Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 26
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 95, 387, 390, 403
imperative, in diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 112
intellectual independence, galen and medical discourse on Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
intellectual independence, in christianity Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
intellectual independence, paul versus valentinians on Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
intellectual independence Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
interpetation of john, spiritual Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
irenaeus Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
jacobs well Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 364
jesus, and the samaritan woman at the well Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
jesus, as healer/exorcist Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
jesus, law and Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 364, 383, 387, 390, 403
jews (jewish people), as resistors of divine things Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
judaize, judaizing (ioudaïzein) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
justice, divine Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
law, christ and Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
law, christ as fulfillment Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
law, freedom from Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
law, letter of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
law, paul on Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
law, the, and gospel Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356
law, the, gnostic views of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 361
law, the, in clement Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 353, 356, 361, 362
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 364, 383, 386, 387, 390, 403, 594
libertinism/license Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 353, 356, 361
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 95
manichaeans, augustine on Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
manichaeans, dualism Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
manichaeans, on paul the apostle Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
manichaeans, on the new testament Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
marriage, heretical contempt for Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 353, 356, 361, 362
marriage Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 356
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 95, 386, 387, 390, 403
marriage analogy Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
marriage law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 387, 390
medicine and medical discourse, intellectual independence and Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
menn, stephen Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
metaphor(ical) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 386, 387, 390
miracles/miraculous/miracle-workers Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
moses Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 383
mē genoito Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 112
new testament, augustine on Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
observance of law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 364
on the best kind of teaching (galen) Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
origen, spiritual interpretation by Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
origen Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
parables (genre) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 383
paul, law in Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
paul, marriage analogy of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
paul, on intellectual independence Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 95, 364, 383, 386, 387, 390, 403, 594
paul and pauline epistles, manichaeans on Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
paul pharisee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 390
pharisaic-rabbinic (tradition) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 403
physical description, use of diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 112
porneia (zenut, unchastity) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
pride Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 353
prophecy, prophets, prophetic books Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 297
prostitute, prostitution Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 297
qumran Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 26
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 95, 390, 594
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
remaining single, after a spouses death Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 114
remaining single Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 114
remarriage Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 114
resurrection Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 390
rhetoric, questions Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 112
rome, churches/christians in Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 387, 390, 403
royal official/βασιλικός Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
sabbath Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 364
samaritan woman Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
satan, and heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
scripture, allegory for Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
scripture, as weapon/criterion against heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
scripture, water metaphor for Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 79
septuagint Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
sin, sinfulness, of remarriage Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 114
specific christian intellectuals, intellectual independence in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
suffer/suffering Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 232
synoptic, gospels Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
synoptic, tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 386, 403
tannaim (early rabbis), tannaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
tardieu, m. Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 188
tatian Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356, 361, 362
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 364
valentinus and valentinians Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 87
virgin(al), virginity' Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 297
women, position of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 95, 383, 386, 387, 403, 594
works of law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 364, 594
yhwh, yahweh Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 297
βλασφημεῖν Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 353
εὔζωνος Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 362
καταπτύστως Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 353
καταρτισμός Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 362
μυσάττεσθαι Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 353
ξένος Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356
πορνεία Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
ψευδώνυμος Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356
ἀσέλγεια Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 353
ὑποκριτής Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356