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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8253
New Testament, Romans, 5.12-5.14


Διὰ τοῦτο ὥσπερ διʼ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου ἡ ἁμαρτία εἰς τὸν κόσμον εἰσῆλθεν καὶ διὰ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὁ θάνατος, καὶ οὕτως εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους ὁ θάνατος διῆλθεν ἐφʼ ᾧ πάντες ἥμαρτον-.Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned.


ἄχρι γὰρ νόμου ἁμαρτία ἦν ἐν κόσμῳ, ἁμαρτία δὲ οὐκ ἐλλογᾶται μὴ ὄντος νόμουFor until the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law.


ἀλλὰ ἐβασίλευσεν ὁ θάνατος ἀπὸ Ἀδὰμ μέχρι Μωυσέως καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς μὴ ἁμαρτήσαντας ἐπὶ τῷ ὁμοιώματι τῆς παραβάσεως Ἀδάμ, ὅς ἐστιν τύπος τοῦ μέλλοντος.Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

133 results
1. Septuagint, Genesis, 1.26-1.27 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Septuagint, Numbers, 14.10, 14.19 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3. Septuagint, Psalms, 8.6 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 24.14-24.18, 32.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.14. לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁק שָׂכִיר עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן מֵאַחֶיךָ אוֹ מִגֵּרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצְךָ בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 24.15. בְּיוֹמוֹ תִתֵּן שְׂכָרוֹ וְלֹא־תָבוֹא עָלָיו הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ כִּי עָנִי הוּא וְאֵלָיו הוּא נֹשֵׂא אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹ וְלֹא־יִקְרָא עָלֶיךָ אֶל־יְהוָה וְהָיָה בְךָ חֵטְא׃ 24.16. לֹא־יוּמְתוּ אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וּבָנִים לֹא־יוּמְתוּ עַל־אָבוֹת אִיש בְּחֶטְאוֹ יוּמָתוּ׃ 24.17. לֹא תַטֶּה מִשְׁפַּט גֵּר יָתוֹם וְלֹא תַחֲבֹל בֶּגֶד אַלְמָנָה׃ 24.18. וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּמִצְרַיִם וַיִּפְדְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִשָּׁם עַל־כֵּן אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.14. Thou shalt not oppress a hired servant that is poor and needy, whether he be of thy brethren, or of thy strangers that are in thy land within thy gates." 24.15. In the same day thou shalt give him his hire, neither shall the sun go down upon it; for he is poor, and setteth his heart upon it: lest he cry against thee unto the LORD and it be sin in thee." 24.16. The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the fathers; every man shall be put to death for his own sin." 24.17. Thou shalt not pervert the justice due to the stranger, or to the fatherless; nor take the widow’s raiment to pledge." 24.18. But thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in Egypt, and the LORD thy God redeemed thee thence; therefore I command thee to do this thing." 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel."
5. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.5, 20.17, 24.7, 32.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 20.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל־פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 32.3. וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַתֶּם חֲטָאתֶם חֲטָאָה גְדֹלָה וְעַתָּה אֶעֱלֶה אֶל־יְהוָה אוּלַי אֲכַפְּרָה בְּעַד חַטַּאתְכֶם׃ 32.3. וַיִּתְפָּרְקוּ כָּל־הָעָם אֶת־נִזְמֵי הַזָּהָב אֲשֶׁר בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם וַיָּבִיאוּ אֶל־אַהֲרֹן׃ 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;" 20.17. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not.’" 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 32.3. And all the people broke off the golden rings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron."
6. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.28, 2.7, 2.17, 3.6, 3.9, 3.17-3.20, 5.3, 6.1-6.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 2.17. וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃ 3.6. וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה כִּי טוֹב הָעֵץ לְמַאֲכָל וְכִי תַאֲוָה־הוּא לָעֵינַיִם וְנֶחְמָד הָעֵץ לְהַשְׂכִּיל וַתִּקַּח מִפִּרְיוֹ וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּתֵּן גַּם־לְאִישָׁהּ עִמָּהּ וַיֹּאכַל׃ 3.9. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה׃ 3.17. וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.18. וְקוֹץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃ 5.3. וַיְחִי אָדָם שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בִּדְמוּתוֹ כְּצַלְמוֹ וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֵׁת׃ 5.3. וַיְחִי־לֶמֶךְ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־נֹחַ חָמֵשׁ וְתִשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 6.5. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחְשְׁבֹת לִבּוֹ רַק רַע כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃ 6.6. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃ 6.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶמְחֶה אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָאתִי מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה עַד־רֶמֶשׂ וְעַד־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם כִּי נִחַמְתִּי כִּי עֲשִׂיתִם׃ 6.8. וְנֹחַ מָצָא חֵן בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 2.17. but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’" 3.6. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and she gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat." 3.9. And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’" 3.17. And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." 3.18. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field." 3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’" 3.20. And the man called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living." 5.3. And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth." 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 6.5. And the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." 6.6. And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart." 6.7. And the LORD said: ‘I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and creeping thing, and fowl of the air; for it repenteth Me that I have made them.’" 6.8. But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD."
7. Hebrew Bible, Job, 14.1-14.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.1. וְגֶבֶר יָמוּת וַיֶּחֱלָשׁ וַיִּגְוַע אָדָם וְאַיּוֹ׃ 14.1. אָדָם יְלוּד אִשָּׁה קְצַר יָמִים וּשְׂבַע־רֹגֶז׃ 14.4. מִי־יִתֵּן טָהוֹר מִטָּמֵא לֹא אֶחָד׃ 14.5. אִם חֲרוּצִים יָמָיו מִסְפַּר־חֳדָשָׁיו אִתָּךְ חקו [חֻקָּיו] עָשִׂיתָ וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר׃ 14.1. Man that is born of a woman Is of few days, and full of trouble." 14.4. Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? not one." 14.5. Seeing his days are determined, The number of his months is with Thee, And Thou hast appointed his bounds that he cannot pass;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.5-5.7, 12.3-12.4, 12.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.5. וְהָיָה כִי־יֶאְשַׁם לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְהִתְוַדָּה אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עָלֶיהָ׃ 5.6. וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ לַיהוָה עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא נְקֵבָה מִן־הַצֹּאן כִּשְׂבָּה אוֹ־שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ׃ 5.7. וְאִם־לֹא תַגִּיע יָדוֹ דֵּי שֶׂה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ־שְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה לַיהוָה אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְאֶחָד לְעֹלָה׃ 12.3. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִמּוֹל בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ׃ 12.4. וּשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּשֵׁב בִּדְמֵי טָהֳרָה בְּכָל־קֹדֶשׁ לֹא־תִגָּע וְאֶל־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא תָבֹא עַד־מְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ׃ 12.7. וְהִקְרִיבוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ וְטָהֲרָה מִמְּקֹר דָּמֶיהָ זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַיֹּלֶדֶת לַזָּכָר אוֹ לַנְּקֵבָה׃ 5.5. and it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these things, that he shall confess that wherein he hath sinned;" 5.6. and he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat, for a sin-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin." 5.7. And if his means suffice not for a lamb, then he shall bring his forfeit for that wherein he hath sinned, two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, unto the LORD: one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering." 12.3. And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised." 12.4. And she shall continue in the blood of purification three and thirty days; she shall touch no hallowed thing, nor come into the sanctuary, until the days of her purification be fulfilled." 12.7. And he shall offer it before the LORD, and make atonement for her; and she shall be cleansed from the fountain of her blood. This is the law for her that beareth, whether a male or a female."
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 22.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.31. וַיְגַל יְהוָה אֶת־עֵינֵי בִלְעָם וַיַּרְא אֶת־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה נִצָּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלֻפָה בְּיָדוֹ וַיִּקֹּד וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לְאַפָּיו׃ 22.31. Then the LORD opened the eyes of Balaam, and he saw the angel of the LORD standing in the way, with his sword drawn in his hand; and he bowed his head, and fell on his face."
10. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.35. כִּי מֹצְאִי מצאי [מָצָא] חַיִּים וַיָּפֶק רָצוֹן מֵיְהוָה׃ 8.35. For whoso findeth me findeth life, And obtaineth favour of the LORD."
11. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 8.6, 36.8-36.11, 37.23, 51.5, 51.7, 82.6, 106.20, 110.2, 115.3, 115.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 36.8. מַה־יָּקָר חַסְדְּךָ אֱלֹהִים וּבְנֵי אָדָם בְּצֵל כְּנָפֶיךָ יֶחֱסָיוּן׃ 36.9. יִרְוְיֻן מִדֶּשֶׁן בֵּיתֶךָ וְנַחַל עֲדָנֶיךָ תַשְׁקֵם׃ 36.11. מְשֹׁךְ חַסְדְּךָ לְיֹדְעֶיךָ וְצִדְקָתְךָ לְיִשְׁרֵי־לֵב׃ 37.23. מֵיְהוָה מִצְעֲדֵי־גֶבֶר כּוֹנָנוּ וְדַרְכּוֹ יֶחְפָּץ׃ 51.5. כִּי־פְשָׁעַי אֲנִי אֵדָע וְחַטָּאתִי נֶגְדִּי תָמִיד׃ 51.7. הֵן־בְּעָווֹן חוֹלָלְתִּי וּבְחֵטְא יֶחֱמַתְנִי אִמִּי׃ 82.6. אֲ‍נִי־אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהִים אַתֶּם וּבְנֵי עֶלְיוֹן כֻּלְּכֶם׃ 110.2. מַטֵּה־עֻזְּךָ יִשְׁלַח יְהוָה מִצִּיּוֹן רְדֵה בְּקֶרֶב אֹיְבֶיךָ׃ 115.3. וֵאלֹהֵינוּ בַשָּׁמָיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־חָפֵץ עָשָׂה׃ 115.15. בְּרוּכִים אַתֶּם לַיהוָה עֹשֵׂה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃ 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 36.8. How precious is Thy lovingkindness, O God! And the children of men take refuge in the shadow of Thy wings." 36.9. They are abundantly satisfied with the fatness of Thy house; And Thou makest them drink of the river of Thy pleasures." 36.10. For with Thee is the fountain of life; In Thy light do we see light." 36.11. O continue Thy lovingkindness unto them that know Thee; And Thy righteousness to the upright in heart." 37.23. It is of the LORD that a man's goings are established; and He delighted in his way." 51.5. For I know my transgressions; And my sin is ever before me." 51.7. Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me." 82.6. I said: Ye are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High." 106.20. Thus they exchanged their glory For the likeness of an ox that eateth grass." 110.2. The rod of Thy strength the LORD will send out of Zion: 'Rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.'" 115.3. But our God is in the heavens; Whatsoever pleased Him He hath done." 115.15. Blessed be ye of the LORD Who made heaven and earth."
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 11.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.4. וַיְהִי לְעֵת זִקְנַת שְׁלֹמֹה נָשָׁיו הִטּוּ אֶת־לְבָבוֹ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא־הָיָה לְבָבוֹ שָׁלֵם עִם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו כִּלְבַב דָּוִיד אָבִיו׃ 11.4. וַיְבַקֵּשׁ שְׁלֹמֹה לְהָמִית אֶת־יָרָבְעָם וַיָּקָם יָרָבְעָם וַיִּבְרַח מִצְרַיִם אֶל־שִׁישַׁק מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וַיְהִי בְמִצְרַיִם עַד־מוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 11.4. For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods; and his heart was not whole with the LORD his God, as was the heart of David his father."
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 14.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.14. וַתְּהִי הַמַּכָּה הָרִאשֹׁנָה אֲשֶׁר הִכָּה יוֹנָתָן וְנֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו כְּעֶשְׂרִים אִישׁ כְּבַחֲצִי מַעֲנָה צֶמֶד שָׂדֶה׃ 14.14. And that first slaughter, which Yonatan and his armour-bearer made, was about twenty men, within as it were half a furrow, which a yoke of oxen might plough."
14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 19.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.9. וַיָּקָם הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֵּשֶׁב בַּשָּׁעַר וּלְכָל־הָעָם הִגִּידוּ לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ יוֹשֵׁב בַּשַּׁעַר וַיָּבֹא כָל־הָעָם לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְיִשְׂרָאֵל נָס אִישׁ לְאֹהָלָיו׃ 19.9. Then the king arose, and sat in the gate. And they told all the people, saying, Behold, the king sits in the gate. And all the people came before the king: for Yisra᾽el had fled every man to his tent."
15. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 61.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;"
16. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 1.5, 31.31-31.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.5. בְּטֶרֶם אצורך [אֶצָּרְךָ] בַבֶּטֶן יְדַעְתִּיךָ וּבְטֶרֶם תֵּצֵא מֵרֶחֶם הִקְדַּשְׁתִּיךָ נָבִיא לַגּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ׃ 31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 31.32. לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.34. וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃ 1.5. Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee, And before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee; I have appointed thee a prophet unto the nations." 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;" 31.32. not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD." 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;" 31.34. and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more."
17. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.26-1.27, 18.1-18.20, 18.25, 18.30 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.26. וּמִמַּעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם כְּמַרְאֵה אֶבֶן־סַפִּיר דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא וְעַל דְּמוּת הַכִּסֵּא דְּמוּת כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם עָלָיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.27. וָאֵרֶא כְּעֵין חַשְׁמַל כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ בֵּית־לָהּ סָבִיב מִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמָעְלָה וּמִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמַטָּה רָאִיתִי כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב׃ 18.1. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 18.1. וְהוֹלִיד בֵּן־פָּרִיץ שֹׁפֵךְ דָּם וְעָשָׂה אָח מֵאַחַד מֵאֵלֶּה׃ 18.2. הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַחֹטֵאת הִיא תָמוּת בֵּן לֹא־יִשָּׂא בַּעֲוֺן הָאָב וְאָב לֹא יִשָּׂא בַּעֲוֺן הַבֵּן צִדְקַת הַצַּדִּיק עָלָיו תִּהְיֶה וְרִשְׁעַת רשע [הָרָשָׁע] עָלָיו תִּהְיֶה׃ 18.2. מַה־לָּכֶם אַתֶּם מֹשְׁלִים אֶת־הַמָּשָׁל הַזֶּה עַל־אַדְמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אָבוֹת יֹאכְלוּ בֹסֶר וְשִׁנֵּי הַבָּנִים תִּקְהֶינָה׃ 18.3. לָכֵן אִישׁ כִּדְרָכָיו אֶשְׁפֹּט אֶתְכֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה שׁוּבוּ וְהָשִׁיבוּ מִכָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיכֶם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה לָכֶם לְמִכְשׁוֹל עָוֺן׃ 18.3. חַי־אָנִי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אִם־יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עוֹד מְשֹׁל הַמָּשָׁל הַזֶּה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 18.4. הֵן כָּל־הַנְּפָשׁוֹת לִי הֵנָּה כְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָב וּכְנֶפֶשׁ הַבֵּן לִי־הֵנָּה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַחֹטֵאת הִיא תָמוּת׃ 18.5. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִהְיֶה צַדִּיק וְעָשָׂה מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה׃ 18.6. אֶל־הֶהָרִים לֹא אָכָל וְעֵינָיו לֹא נָשָׂא אֶל־גִּלּוּלֵי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ לֹא טִמֵּא וְאֶל־אִשָּׁה נִדָּה לֹא יִקְרָב׃ 18.7. וְאִישׁ לֹא יוֹנֶה חֲבֹלָתוֹ חוֹב יָשִׁיב גְּזֵלָה לֹא יִגְזֹל לַחְמוֹ לְרָעֵב יִתֵּן וְעֵירֹם יְכַסֶּה־בָּגֶד׃ 18.8. בַּנֶּשֶׁךְ לֹא־יִתֵּן וְתַרְבִּית לֹא יִקָּח מֵעָוֶל יָשִׁיב יָדוֹ מִשְׁפַּט אֱמֶת יַעֲשֶׂה בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִישׁ׃ 18.9. בְּחֻקּוֹתַי יְהַלֵּךְ וּמִשְׁפָּטַי שָׁמַר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֱמֶת צַדִּיק הוּא חָיֹה יִחְיֶה נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 18.11. וְהוּא אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה לֹא עָשָׂה כִּי גַם אֶל־הֶהָרִים אָכַל וְאֶת־אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ טִמֵּא׃ 18.12. עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן הוֹנָה גְּזֵלוֹת גָּזָל חֲבֹל לֹא יָשִׁיב וְאֶל־הַגִּלּוּלִים נָשָׂא עֵינָיו תּוֹעֵבָה עָשָׂה׃ 18.13. בַּנֶּשֶׁךְ נָתַן וְתַרְבִּית לָקַח וָחָי לֹא יִחְיֶה אֵת כָּל־הַתּוֹעֵבוֹת הָאֵלֶּה עָשָׂה מוֹת יוּמָת דָּמָיו בּוֹ יִהְיֶה׃ 18.15. עַל־הֶהָרִים לֹא אָכָל וְעֵינָיו לֹא נָשָׂא אֶל־גִּלּוּלֵי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ לֹא טִמֵּא׃ 18.17. מֵעָנִי הֵשִׁיב יָדוֹ נֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית לֹא לָקָח מִשְׁפָּטַי עָשָׂה בְּחֻקּוֹתַי הָלָךְ הוּא לֹא יָמוּת בַּעֲוֺן אָבִיו חָיֹה יִחְיֶה׃ 18.19. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם מַדֻּעַ לֹא־נָשָׂא הַבֵּן בַּעֲוֺן הָאָב וְהַבֵּן מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה עָשָׂה אֵת כָּל־חֻקּוֹתַי שָׁמַר וַיַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם חָיֹה יִחְיֶה׃ 18.25. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם לֹא יִתָּכֵן דֶּרֶךְ אֲדֹנָי שִׁמְעוּ־נָא בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲדַרְכִּי לֹא יִתָּכֵן הֲלֹא דַרְכֵיכֶם לֹא יִתָּכֵנוּ׃ 1.26. And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above." 1.27. And I saw as the colour of electrum, as the appearance of fire round about enclosing it, from the appearance of his loins and upward; and from the appearance of his loins and downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness round about him." 18.1. And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:" 18.2. ’What mean ye, that ye use this proverb in the land of Israel, saying: The fathers have eaten sour grapes, And the children’s teeth are set on edge?" 18.3. As I live, saith the Lord GOD, ye shall not have occasion any more to use this proverb in Israel." 18.4. Behold, all souls are Mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is Mine; the soul that sinneth, it shall die." 18.5. But if a man be just, and do that which is lawful and right," 18.6. and hath not eaten upon the mountains, neither hath lifted up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, neither hath defiled his neighbour’s wife, neither hath come near to a woman in her impurity;" 18.7. and hath not wronged any, but hath restored his pledge for a debt, hath taken nought by robbery, hath given his bread to the hungry, and hath covered the naked with a garment;" 18.8. he that hath not given forth upon interest, neither hath taken any increase, that hath withdrawn his hand from iniquity, hath executed true justice between man and man," 18.9. hath walked in My statutes, and hath kept Mine ordices, to deal truly; he is just, he shall surely live, saith the Lord GOD." 18.10. If he beget a son that is a robber, a shedder of blood, and that doeth to a brother any of these things," 18.11. whereas he himself had not done any of these things, for he hath even eaten upon the mountains, and defiled his neighbour’s wife," 18.12. hath wronged the poor and needy, hath taken by robbery, hath not restored the pledge, and hath lifted up his eyes to the idols, hath committed abomination," 18.13. hath given forth upon interest, and hath taken increase; shall he then live? he shall not live—he hath done all these abominations; he shall surely be put to death, his blood shall be upon him." 18.15. that hath not eaten upon the mountains, neither hath lifted up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, hath not defiled his neighbour’s wife," 18.17. that hath withdrawn his hand from the poor, that hath not received interest nor increase, hath executed Mine ordices, hath walked in My statutes; he shall not die for the iniquity of his father, he shall surely live." 18.19. Yet say ye: Why doth not the son bear the iniquity of the father with him? When the son hath done that which is lawful and right, and hath kept all My statutes, and hath done them, he shall surely live." 18.20. The soul that sinneth, it shall die; the son shall not bear the iniquity of the father with him, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son with him; the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him." 18.25. Yet ye say: The way of the Lord is not equal. Hear now, O house of Israel: Is it My way that is not equal? is it not your ways that are unequal?" 18.30. Therefore I will judge you, O house of Israel, every one according to his ways, saith the Lord GOD. Return ye, and turn yourselves from all your transgressions; so shall they not be a stumblingblock of iniquity unto you."
18. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 24.20-24.22 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.21. וַיִּקְשְׁרוּ עָלָיו וַיִּרְגְּמֻהוּ אֶבֶן בְּמִצְוַת הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֲצַר בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 24.22. וְלֹא־זָכַר יוֹאָשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ הַחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוֹיָדָע אָבִיו עִמּוֹ וַיַּהֲרֹג אֶת־בְּנוֹ וּכְמוֹתוֹ אָמַר יֵרֶא יְהוָה וְיִדְרֹשׁ׃ 24.20. And the spirit of God clothed Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest; and he stood above the people, and said unto them: ‘Thus saith God: Why transgress ye the commandments of the LORD, that ye cannot prosper? because ye have forsaken the LORD, He hath also forsaken you.’" 24.21. And they conspired against him, and stoned him with stones at the commandment of the king in the court of the house of the LORD." 24.22. Thus Joash the king remembered not the kindness which Jehoiada his father had done to him, but slew his son. And when he died, he said: ‘The LORD look upon it, and require it.’"
19. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 12.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12.10. And I will pour upon the house of David, And upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, The spirit of grace and of supplication; And they shall look unto Me because athey have thrust him through; And they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, And shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his first-born."
20. Anon., 1 Enoch, 6.1-6.2, 12.1-12.2, 89.44-89.45, 98.4-98.5, 103.9, 103.11-103.12 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.1. And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto 6.2. them beautiful and comely daughters. And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another: 'Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men 12.1. Before these things Enoch was hidden, and no one of the children of men knew where he wa 12.2. hidden, and where he abode, and what had become of him. And his activities had to do with the Watchers, and his days were with the holy ones. 89.44. boars till he had destroyed them all. And that sheep whose eyes were opened saw that ram, which was amongst the sheep, till it forsook its glory and began to butt those sheep, and trampled upon them, and behaved itself 89.45. unseemly. And the Lord of the sheep sent the lamb to another lamb and raised it to being a ram and leader of the sheep instead of that 98.4. I have sworn unto you, ye sinners, as a mountain has not become a slave, And a hill does not become the handmaid of a woman, Even so sin has not been sent upon the earth, But man of himself has created it, And under a great curse shall they fall who commit it. 98.5. And barrenness has not been given to the woman, But on account of the deeds of her own hands she dies without children. 98.5. the righteous; for ye shall have no hope of life. Woe to you who write down lying and godless words; for they write down their lies that men may hear them and act godlessly towards (their) 103.9. Say not in regard to the righteous and good who are in life: ' In our troubled days we have toiled laboriously and experienced every trouble, And met with much evil and been consumed, And have become few and our spirit small. 103.11. We hoped to be the head and have become the tail: We have toiled laboriously and had no satisfaction in our toil; And we have become the food of the sinners and the unrighteous, And they have laid their yoke heavily upon us. 103.12. They have had dominion over us that hated us and smote us; And to those that hated us we have bowed our necks But they pitied us not. 1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
21. Anon., Jubilees, 4.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.30. And he was taken from amongst the children of men, and we conducted him into the Garden of Eden in majesty and honour
22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 3.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 17.6-17.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 3.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.13-4.26, 4.22, 4.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 4.14-4.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 4.14-4.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 12.43 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.43. He also took up a collection, man by man, to the amount of two thousand drachmas of silver, and sent it to Jerusalem to provide for a sin offering. In doing this he acted very well and honorably, taking account of the resurrection.'
29. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 14.17, 15.14, 15.17, 17.2, 25.24, 33.14-33.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14.17. All living beings become old like a garment,for the decree from of old is, "You must surely die! 15.14. It was he who created man in the beginning,and he left him in the power of his own inclination. 15.17. Before a man are life and death,and whichever he chooses will be given to him. 17.2. He gave to men few days, a limited time,but granted them authority over the things upon the earth. 17.2. Their iniquities are not hidden from him,and all their sins are before the Lord. 25.24. From a woman sin had its beginning,and because of her we all die. 33.14. Good is the opposite of evil,and life the opposite of death;so the sinner is the opposite of the godly. 33.15. Look upon all the works of the Most High;they likewise are in pairs, one the opposite of the other.
30. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.12, 1.16, 2.23-2.24, 3.1, 3.4, 4.16, 6.18, 7.1, 12.10-12.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.12. Do not invite death by the error of your life,nor bring on destruction by the works of your hands; 1.16. But ungodly men by their words and deeds summoned death;considering him a friend, they pined away,and they made a covet with him,because they are fit to belong to his party. 2.23. for God created man for incorruption,and made him in the image of his own eternity 2.24. but through the devils envy death entered the world,and those who belong to his party experience it. 3.1. But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them. 3.4. For though in the sight of men they were punished,their hope is full of immortality. 4.16. The righteous man who had died will condemn the ungodly who are living,and youth that is quickly perfected will condemn the prolonged old age of the unrighteous man. 6.18. and love of her is the keeping of her laws,and giving heed to her laws is assurance of immortality 7.1. I also am mortal, like all men,a descendant of the first-formed child of earth;and in the womb of a mother I was molded into flesh 12.10. But judging them little by little thou gavest them a chance to repent,though thou wast not unaware that their origin was evil and their wickedness inborn,and that their way of thinking would never change. 12.11. For they were an accursed race from the beginning,and it was not through fear of any one that thou didst leave them unpunished for their sins.
31. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.27 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.27. And tireless sun, and full moon and bright stars
32. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. Anon., 2 Baruch, 17.2-17.3, 23.4, 54.13-54.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Anon., Didache, 8.2, 10.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

35. Anon., Testament of Abraham, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 12.1, 21.2, 21.6, 25.3, 39.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

37. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 1.1, 3.4, 7.4, 9.1, 11.2, 14.2, 20.3, 21.1, 30.1, 32.4, 35.5, 38.2, 43.2, 46.7, 47.6, 49.5, 51.3, 55.1, 57.1, 60.4, 63.1-63.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Διὰ τὰς αἰφνιδίους καὶ ἐπαλλήλους γενομένας ἡμῖν συμφορὰς καὶ περιπτώσεις, C reads perista/seit shich L perhaps represente by impedimenta, and Knopf accepts this. βράδιον νομίζομεν ἐπιστροφὴν πεποιῆσθαι περὶ τῶν ἐπιζητουμένων παῤ ὑμῖν πραγμάτων, ἀγαπητοί, τῆς τε ἀλλοτρίας καὶ ξένης τοῖς ἐκλεκτοῖς τοῦ θεοῦ, μιαρᾶς καὶ ἀνοσίου στάσεως ἣν ὀλίγα πρόσωπα προπετῆ καὶ αὐθάδη ὑπάρχοντα εἰς τοσοῦτον ἀπονοίας ἐξέκαυσαν, ὥστε τὸ σεμνὸν καὶ περιβόητον καὶ πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις ἀξιαγάπητον ὄνομα ὑμῶν μεγάλως βλασφημηθῆναι. 3.4. διὰ τοῦτο πόρρω ἄπεστιν ἡ δικαιοσύνη καὶ εἰρήνη, ἐν τῷ ἀπολιπεῖν ἕκαστον τὸν φόβον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἐν τῇ πίστει αὐτοῦ ἀμβλυωπῆσαι, μηδὲ ἐν τοῖς νομίμοις τῶν προσταγμάτων αὐτοῦ πορεύεσθαι, μηδὲ πολιτεύεσθαι κατὰ τὸ καθῆκον τῷ Χριστῷ, ἀλλὰ ἕκαστον βαδίζειν κατὰ τὰς ἐπιθυμίας τῆς καρδίας αὐτοῦ τῆς πονηρᾶς, ζῆλον ἄδικον καὶ ἀσεβῆ ἀνειληφότας, Wisd. 7, 21 δἰ οὖ καὶ θάνατος εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον. 7.4. ἀτενίσωμεν εἰς τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ γνῶμεν, ὡς ἔστιν τίμιον τῷ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ, tw=| qew=| kai\ patri\ au)tou= A, tw=| patri\ au)tou= tw=| qew=| C. The text is found in SLK. ὅτι διὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν σωτηρίαν ἐκχυθὲν παντὶ τῷ κόσμῳ μετανοίας χάριν ὑπήνεγκεν. 9.1. Διὸ ὑπακούσωμεν τῇ μεγαλοπρεπεῖ καὶ ἐνδόξῳ βουλήσει αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἱκέται γενόμενοι τοῦ ἐλέους καὶ τῆς χρηστότητος αὐτοῦ προσπέσωμεν καὶ ἐπιστρέψωμεν ἐπὶ τοὺς οἰκτιρμοὺς αὐτοῦ, ἀπολιπόντες τὴν ματαιοπονίαν τήν τε ἔριν καὶ τὸ εἰς θάνατον ἄγον ζῆλος. 11.2. συνεξελθούσης γὰρ αὐτῷ τῆς γυναικὸς ἑτερογνώμονος ὑπαρχούσης καὶ οὐκ ἐν ὁμονοίᾳ, εἰς τοῦτο σημεῖον ἐτέθη, ὥστε γενέσθαι αὐτὴν στήλην ἁλὸς ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ταύτης, εἰς τὸ γνωστὸν εἶναι πᾶσιν, ὅτι οἱ δίψυχοι καὶ οἱ διστάζοντες περὶ τῆς τοῦ θεοῦ δυνάμεως εἰς κρίμα καὶ εἰς σημείωσιν πάσαις ταῖς γενεαῖς γίνονται. 14.2. βλάβην γὰρ οὐ τὴν τυχοῦσαν, μᾶλλον δὲ κίνδυνον ὑποίσομεν μέγαν, ἐὰν ῥιψοκινδύνως ἐπιδῶμεν ἑαυτοὺς τοῖς θελήμασιν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, οἵτινες ἐξακοντίζουσιν εἰς ἔριν καὶ στάσεις, εἰς τὸ ἀπαλλοτριῶσαι ἡμᾶς τοῦ καλῶς ἔχοντος. 20.3. ἥλιός τε καὶ σελήνη, ἀστέρων τε χοροὶ κατὰ τὴν διαταγὴν αὐτοῦ ἐν ὁμονοίᾳ δίχα πάσης παρεκβάσεως ἐξελίσσουσιν τοὺς ἐπιτεταγμένους αὐτοῖς ὁρισμούς. 21.1. Ὁρᾶτε, ἀγαπητοί, μὴ αἱ εὐεργεσίαι αὐτοῦ αἱ πολλαὶ γένωνται εἰς κρίμα A(C) read kri/ma pa=sin h(mi=n. ἡμῖν, ἐὰν μὴ ἀξίως αὐτοῦ πολιτευόμενοι τὰ καλὰ καὶ εὐάρεστα ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ ποιῶμεν μεθ̓ ὁμονοίας. 30.1. Αγίου A has a(gi/ou ou)=n meri/s: C has a(/gia ou)=n me/rh: LS imply a(gi/a ou)=n meri/s "a holy portion" : K represents a(gi/wn ou)=n mi/ris "portion of saints." οὖν μερὶς ὑπάρχοντες ποιήσωμεν τὰ τοῦ ἁγιασμοῦ πάντα, φεύγοντες καταλαλιάς, μιαράς τε καὶ ἀνάγνους συμπλοκάς, μέθας τε καὶ νεωτερισμοὺς καὶ βδελυκτὰς ἐπιθυμίας, μυσερὰν Prov. 3, 34; James 4, 6; I Pet. 5, 5 μοιχείαν, βδελυκτὴν ὑπερηφανίαν. 32.4. καὶ ἡμεῖς οὖν, διὰ θελήματος αὐτοῦ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ κληθέντες, οὐ δἰ ἑαυτῶν δικαιούμεθα, οὐδὲ διὰ τῆς ἡμετέρας σοφίας ἢ συνέσεως ἢ εὐσεβείας ἢ ἔργων ὦν κατειργασάμεθα ἐν ὁσιότητι καρδίας, ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς πίστεως, δἰ ἦς πάντας τοὺς ἀπ̓ αἰῶνος ʽ??ʼ παντοκράτωρ θεὸς ἐδικαίωσεν: ᾧ ἔστω ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. ἀμήν. 35.5. πῶς δὲ ἔσται τοῦτο, ἀγαπητοί; ἐὰν ἐστηριγμενη ᾖ ἡ διάνοια ἡμῶν πιστῶς πρὸς τὸν θεόν, ἐὰν ἐκζητῶμεν τὰ εὐάρεστα καὶ εὐπρόσδεκτα αὐτῷ, ἐὰν ἐπιτελέσωμεν τὰ ἀνήκοντα τῇ ἀμώμῳ βουλήσει αὐτοῦ, Cf. Rom. I, 29-32 καὶ ἀκολουθήσωμεν τῇ ὁδῷ τῆς ἀληθείας, ἀπορρίψαντες ἀφ̓ ἑαυτῶν πᾶσαν ἀδικίαν καὶ πονηρίαν, πλεονεξίαν, ἔρεις, κακοηθείας τε καὶ δόλους, ψιθυρισμούς τε καὶ καταλαλιάς, θεοστυγίαν, ὑπερηφανίαν τε καὶ ἀλαζονείαν, κενοδοξίαν τε καὶ ἀφιλοξενίαν. The text is doulbtful: \ reads filoceni/an, shich is impossible, CS read a)filoceni/an, but L has inhumilitatem, shich Knopf believes to represent an original filodoci/an. 38.2. ὁ ἰσχυρὸς τημελείτω A has mh thtmmeleitw. This is perhaps a corruption of mh\ a)thmelei/tw "not neglect," shich may be the true reading. τὸν ἀσθενῆ, ὁ δὲ ἀσθενὴς ἐντρεπέσθω τὸν ἰσχυρόν: ὁ πλούσιος ἐπιχορηγείτω τῷ πτωχῷ, ὁ δὲ πτωχὸς εὐχαριστείτω τῷ θεῷ, ὅτι ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ, δἰ οὗ ἀναπληρωθῇ αὐτοῦ τὸ ὑστέρημα: ὁ σοφὸς ἐνδεικνύσθω τὴν σοφίαν αὐτοῦ μὴ ἐν λόγοις, ἀλλ̓ ἐν ἔργοις ἀγαθοῖς: ὁ ταπεινοφρονῶν μὴ ἑαυτῷ μαρτυρείτω, ἀλλ̓ ἐάτω ὑφ̓ ἑτέρου ἑαυτὸν μαρτυρεῖσθαι: ὁ ἁγνὸς ἐν τῇ σαρκὶ A reads (??) mh/ preceded by a lacuna (the vellum has been asay). It is suggested that h)/tw should be supplied, giving the meaning "Let him sho is pure in the flesh, be so, and not," etc. μὴ ἀλαζονευέσθω, γινώσκων ὅτι ἕτερός ἐστιν ὁ ἐπιχορηγῶν αὐτῷ τὴν ἐγκράτειαν. 43.2. ἐκεῖνος γάρ, ζήλου ἐμπεσόντος περὶ τῆς ἱερωσύνης καὶ στασιαζουσῶν τῶν φυλῶν, ὁποία αὐτῶν εἴη τῷ ἐνδόξῳ ὀνόματι κεκοσμημένη, ἐκέλευσεν τοὺς δώδεκα φυλάρχους προσενεγκεῖν αὐτῷ ῥάβδους ἐπιγεγραμμένας ἑκάστης φυλῆς κατ̓ ὄνομα: καὶ λαβὼν αὐτὰς ἔδησεν καὶ ἐσφράγισεν τοῖς δακτυλίοις τῶν φυλάρχων, καὶ ἀπέθετο αὐτὰς εἰς τὴν σκηνὴν τοῦ μαρτυρίου ἐπὶ τὴν τράπεζαν τοῦ θεοῦ. 46.7. ἱνατί διέλκομεν καὶ διασπῶμεν τὰ μέλη τοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ στασιάζομεν πρὸς τὸ σῶμα τὸ ἴδιον, καὶ εἰς τοσαύτην ἀπόνοιαν ἐρχόμεθα, ὥστε ἐπιλαθέσθαι ἡμᾶς, ὅτι μέλη ἐσμὲν ἀλλήλων; μνήσθητε τῶν λόγων τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ. *)ihsou= tou= kuri/ou h(mw=n *a, tou= kuri/ou h(mw=n *)ihsou= *xrittou= CSK, domini Them (tou= kuri/ou *)ihsou=) L. The other readings appear to be serni liturgical expansions of the simple form found in L. 47.6. αἰσχρά, ἀγαπητοί, καὶ λίαν αἰσχρά, καὶ ἀνάξια τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ ἀγωγῆς ἀκούεσθαι, τὴν βεβαιοτάτην καὶ ἀρχαίαν Κορινθίων ἐκκλησίαν δἰ ἓν ἢ δύο πρόσωπα στασιάζειν πρὸς τοὺς πρεσβυτέρους: 49.5. ἀγάπη κολλᾷ ἡμᾶς τῷ θεῷ, ἀγάπη καλύπτει πλῆθος ἁμαρτιῶν, ἀγάπη πάντα I Cor. 13, 4-7 ἀνέχεται, πάντα μακροθυμεῖ: οὐδὲν βάναυσον ἐν ἀγάπῃ, οὐδὲν ὑπερήφανον: ἀγάπη σχίσμα οὐκ ἔχει, ἀγάπη οὐ στασιάζει, ἀγάπη πάντα ποιεῖ ἐν ὁμονοίᾳ: ἐν τῇ ἀγάπῃ ἐτελειώθησαν πάντες οἱ ἐκλεκτοὶ τοῦ θεοῦ, δίχα ἀγάπης οὐδὲν εὐάρεστόν ἐστιν e)sti/n om. L. Clem. τῷ θεῷ. 51.3. καλὸν γὰρ ἀνθρώπῳ ἐξομολογεῖσθαι περὶ τῶν παραπτωμάτων ἢ σκληρῦναι τὴν καρδίαν αὐτοῦ, Num. 16 καθὼς ἐσκληρύνθη ἡ καρδία τῶν στασιαζόντων πρὸς τὸν θεράποντα τοῦ θεοῦ Μωϋσῆν, ὧν τὸ κρίμα Num. 16, 83 Ps. 49, 14 πρόδηλον ἐγενήθη 55.1. Ἵνα δὲ καὶ ὑποδείγματα ἐθνῶν ἐνέγκωμεν. πολλοὶ βασιλεῖς καὶ ἡγούμενοι, λοιμικοῦ τινος ἐνστάντος καιροῦ, χρησμοδοτηθέντες παρέδωκαν ἑαυτοὺς εἰς θάνατον, ἵνα ῥύσωνται διὰ τοῦ ἑαυτῶν αἵματος τοὺς πολίτας: πολλοὶ ἐξεχώρησαν ἰδίων πόλεων, ἵνα μὴ στασιάζωσιν ἐπὶ πλεῖον. 57.1. Ὑμεῖς οὖν οἱ τὴν καταβολὴν τῆς στάσεως ποιήσαντες ὑποτάγητε τοῖς πρεσβυτέροις καὶ παιδεύθητε εἰς μετάνοιαν, κάμψαντες τὰ γόνατα τῆς καρδίας ὑμῶν. 60.4. δὸς ὁμόνοιαν καὶ εἰρήνην ἡμῖν τε καὶ πᾶσιν Exod. 6, 1; Deut. 4. 34; 5, 15: Jer. 32, 21; Ezek. 20, 88, 84 τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν τὴν γῆν, καθὼς ἔδωκας τοῖς πατράσιν ἡμῶν, ἐπικαλουμένων σε αὐτῶν ὁσίως ἐν πίστει καὶ ἀληθείᾳ, ὑπηκόους γινομένους τῷ παντοκράτορι καὶ ἐνδόξῳ ὀνόματί σου, τοῖς τε ἄρχουσιν καὶ ἡγουμένοις ἡμῶν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 63.1. Θεμιτὸν οὖν ἐστὶν τοῖς τοιούτοις καὶ τοσούτοις ὑποδείγμασιν προσελθόντας ὑποθεῖναι τὸν τράχηλον καὶ τὸν τῆς ὑπακοῆς τόπον ἀναπληρῶσαι, ὅπως ἡσυχάσαντες τῆς ματαίας στάσεως ἐπὶ τὸν προκείμενον ἡμῖν ἐν ἀληθείᾳ σκοπὸν δίχα παντὸς μώμου καταντήσωμεν. 63.2. χαρὰν γὰρ καὶ ἀγαλλίασιν ἡμῖν παρέξετε, ἐὰν ὑπήκοοι γενόμενοι τοῖς ὑφ̓ ἡμῶν γεγραμμένοις διὰ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος ἐκκόψητε τὴν ἀθέμιτον τοῦ ζήλους ὑμῶν ὀργὴν κατὰ τὴν ἔντευξιν. ἣν ἐποιησάμεθα περὶ εἰρήνης καὶ ὁμονοίας ἐν τῇδε τῇ ἐπιστολῇ.
38. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.6, 1.6.40-1.6.42, 3.22, 3.22.47, 3.22.49 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

39. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.3. It is monstrous to talk of Jesus Christ and to practise Judaism. For Christianity did not believe in Judaism, but Judaism in Christianity, wherein every tongue believed and was gathered together unto God.
40. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
41. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.8. The sin-offering and the certain guilt-offering effect atonement. Death and Yom HaKippurim effect atonement together with repentance. Repentance effects atonement for light transgressions: [the transgression of] positive commandments and negative commandments. And for severer transgressions [repentance] suspends [the divine punishment], until Yom HaKippurim arrives and effects atonement."
42. New Testament, 1 John, 1.8, 2.2, 2.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 2.2. And he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours only, but also for the whole world. 2.18. Little children, these are the end times, and as you heard that the Antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have arisen. By this we know that it is the end times.
43. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.1-1.2, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as strangers in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia 1.2. according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, that you may obey Jesus Christ and be sprinkled in his blood: Grace to you and peace be multiplied. 4.11. If any man speaks, let it be as it were oracles of God. If any man serves, let it be as of the strength which God supplies, that in all things God may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom belong the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen.
44. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.4, 1.29, 2.12, 2.14, 2.16, 3.1-3.3, 4.7, 7.17, 7.25, 7.36, 9.19-9.23, 10.1-10.6, 10.11, 11.28, 12.7, 12.13, 14.24-14.25, 15.12-15.58 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. I always thank my God concerning you, for the grace of Godwhich was given you in Christ Jesus; 1.29. that noflesh should boast before God. 2.12. But we received, not the spirit of the world, but theSpirit which is from God, that we might know the things that werefreely given to us by God. 2.14. Now thenatural man doesn't receive the things of God's Spirit, for they arefoolishness to him, and he can't know them, because they arespiritually discerned. 2.16. For who has knownthe mind of the Lord, that he should instruct him?" But we haveChrist's mind. 3.1. Brothers, I couldn't speak to you as to spiritual, but as tofleshly, as to babies in Christ. 3.2. I fed you with milk, not withmeat; for you weren't yet ready. Indeed, not even now are you ready 3.3. for you are still fleshly. For insofar as there is jealousy,strife, and factions among you, aren't you fleshly, and don't you walkin the ways of men? 4.7. For who makes you different? And what doyou have that you didn't receive? But if you did receive it, why do youboast as if you had not received it? 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.25. Now concerning virgins, I have no commandment from the Lord,but I give my judgment as one who has obtained mercy from the Lord tobe trustworthy. 7.36. But if any man thinks that he is behavinginappropriately toward his virgin, if she is past the flower of herage, and if need so requires, let him do what he desires. He doesn'tsin. Let them marry. 9.19. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.22. To the weak I became asweak, that I might gain the weak. I have become all things to all men,that I may by all means save some. 9.23. Now I do this for thegospel's sake, that I may be a joint partaker of it. 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 10.3. andall ate the same spiritual food; 10.4. and all drank the samespiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them,and the rock was Christ. 10.5. However with most of them, God was notwell pleased, for they were overthrown in the wilderness. 10.6. Nowthese things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust afterevil things, as they also lusted. 10.11. Now all these thingshappened to them by way of example, and they were written for ouradmonition, on whom the ends of the ages have come. 11.28. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of thebread, and drink of the cup. 12.7. But to each one is given the manifestation of theSpirit for the profit of all. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 14.24. But if all prophesy, and someoneunbelieving or unlearned comes in, he is reproved by all, and he isjudged by all. 14.25. And thus the secrets of his heart are revealed.So he will fall down on his face and worship God, declaring that God isamong you indeed. 15.12. Now if Christ is preached, that he has been raised from thedead, how do some among you say that there is no resurrection of thedead? 15.13. But if there is no resurrection of the dead, neither hasChrist been raised. 15.14. If Christ has not been raised, then ourpreaching is in vain, and your faith also is in vain. 15.15. Yes, weare found false witnesses of God, because we testified about God thathe raised up Christ, whom he didn't raise up, if it is so that the deadare not raised. 15.16. For if the dead aren't raised, neither hasChrist been raised. 15.17. If Christ has not been raised, your faithis vain; you are still in your sins. 15.18. Then they also who arefallen asleep in Christ have perished. 15.19. If we have only hoped inChrist in this life, we are of all men most pitiable. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 15.29. Or else what will they do whoare baptized for the dead? If the dead aren't raised at all, why thenare they baptized for the dead? 15.30. Why do we also stand injeopardy every hour? 15.31. I affirm, by the boasting in you which Ihave in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily. 15.32. If I fought withanimals at Ephesus for human purposes, what does it profit me? If thedead are not raised, then "let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die. 15.33. Don't be deceived! "Evil companionships corrupt good morals. 15.34. Wake up righteously, and don't sin, for some have no knowledgeof God. I say this to your shame. 15.35. But someone will say, "Howare the dead raised?" and, "With what kind of body do they come? 15.36. You foolish one, that which you yourself sow is not made aliveunless it dies. 15.37. That which you sow, you don't sow the body thatwill be, but a bare grain, maybe of wheat, or of some other kind. 15.38. But God gives it a body even as it pleased him, and to eachseed a body of its own. 15.39. All flesh is not the same flesh, butthere is one flesh of men, another flesh of animals, another of fish,and another of birds. 15.40. There are also celestial bodies, andterrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial differs from that ofthe terrestrial. 15.41. There is one glory of the sun, another gloryof the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs fromanother star in glory. 15.42. So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly. 15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption. 15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed 15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory. 15.55. Death, where is your sting?Hades, where is your victory? 15.56. The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 15.57. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our LordJesus Christ. 15.58. Therefore, my beloved brothers, be steadfast,immovable, always abounding in the Lord's work, because you know thatyour labor is not in vain in the Lord.
45. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.20, 4.1, 4.3-4.5, 4.17, 5.9-5.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.20. For you are our glory and our joy. 4.1. Finally then, brothers, we beg and exhort you in the Lord Jesus, that as you received from us how you ought to walk and to please God, that you abound more and more. 4.3. For this is the will of God: your sanctification, that you abstain from sexual immorality 4.4. that each one of you know how to possess himself of his own vessel in sanctification and honor 4.5. not in the passion of lust, even as the Gentiles who don't know God; 4.17. then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. So we will be with the Lord forever. 5.9. For God didn't appoint us to wrath, but to the obtaining of salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ 5.10. who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him.
46. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.8-1.9, 1.15, 2.4, 2.6, 2.14, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. But we know that the law is good, if a man uses it lawfully 1.9. as knowing this, that law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and insubordinate, for the ungodly and sinners, for the unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers 1.15. The saying is faithful and worthy of all acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief. 2.4. who desires all people to be saved and come to full knowledge of the truth. 2.6. who gave himself as a ransom for all; the testimony in its own times; 2.14. Adam wasn't deceived, but the woman, being deceived, has fallen into disobedience; 3.2. The overseer therefore must be without reproach, the husband of one wife, temperate, sensible, modest, hospitable, good at teaching;
47. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.19, 3.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.19. promising them liberty, while they themselves are bondservants of corruption; for by whom a man is overcome, by the same is he also brought into bondage. 3.18. But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and forever. Amen.
48. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.3-3.9, 3.17, 4.1-4.7, 4.16, 5.5, 5.14, 5.17, 5.19-5.21, 6.11, 8.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

49. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Finally, brothers, pray for us, that the word of the Lord may spread rapidly and be glorified, even as also with you;
50. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.10, 1.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. but has now been revealed by the appearing of our Savior, Christ Jesus, who abolished death, and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel. 1.16. May the Lord grant mercy to the house of Onesiphorus, for he often refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain
51. New Testament, Acts, 8.12, 9.3-9.7, 10.35, 14.16, 17.24-17.31, 19.11-19.20, 19.27 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.12. But when they believed Philip preaching good news concerning the Kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women. 9.3. As he traveled, it happened that he got close to Damascus, and suddenly a light from the sky shone around him. 9.4. He fell on the earth, and heard a voice saying to him, "Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? 9.5. He said, "Who are you, Lord?"The Lord said, "I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting. 9.6. But rise up, and enter into the city, and you will be told what you must do. 9.7. The men who traveled with him stood speechless, hearing the voice, but seeing no one. 10.35. but in every nation he who fears him and works righteousness is acceptable to him. 14.16. who in the generations gone by allowed all the nations to walk in their own ways. 17.24. The God who made the world and all things in it, he, being Lord of heaven and earth, dwells not in temples made with hands 17.25. neither is he served by men's hands, as though he needed anything, seeing he himself gives to all life and breath, and all things. 17.26. He made from one blood every nation of men to dwell on all the surface of the earth, having determined appointed seasons, and the bounds of their habitation 17.27. that they should seek the Lord, if perhaps they might reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us. 17.28. 'For in him we live, and move, and have our being.' As some of your own poets have said, 'For we are also his offspring.' 17.29. Being then the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Divine Nature is like gold, or silver, or stone, engraved by art and device of man. 17.30. The times of ignorance therefore God overlooked. But now he commands that all men everywhere should repent 17.31. because he has appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by the man whom he has ordained; whereof he has given assurance to all men, in that he has raised him from the dead. 19.11. God worked special miracles by the hands of Paul 19.12. so that even handkerchiefs or aprons were carried away from his body to the sick, and the evil spirits went out. 19.13. But some of the itinerant Jews, exorcists, took on themselves to name over those who had the evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus, saying, "We adjure you by Jesus whom Paul preaches. 19.14. There were seven sons of one Sceva, a Jewish chief priest, who did this. 19.15. The evil spirit answered, "Jesus I know, and Paul I know, but who are you? 19.16. The man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, and overpowered them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded. 19.17. This became known to all, both Jews and Greeks, who lived at Ephesus. Fear fell on them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified. 19.18. Many also of those who had believed came, confessing, and declaring their deeds. 19.19. Many of those who practiced magical arts brought their books together and burned them in the sight of all. They counted the price of them, and found it fifty thousand pieces of silver. 19.20. So the word of the Lord was growing and becoming mighty. 19.27. Not only is there danger that this our trade come into disrepute, but also that the temple of the great goddess Artemis will be counted as nothing, and her majesty destroyed, whom all Asia and the world worships.
52. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.10, 11.10, 13.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. Because you kept the word of my patience, I also will keep you from the hour of testing, that which is to come on the whole world, to test those who dwell on the earth. 11.10. Those who dwell on the earth rejoice over them, and they will be glad. They will give gifts to one another, because these two prophets tormented those who dwell on the earth. 13.8. All who dwell on the earth will worship him, everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who has been killed.
53. New Testament, James, 1.5-1.6, 3.2, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. But if any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all liberally and without reproach; and it will be given to him. 1.6. But let him ask in faith, without any doubting, for he who doubts is like a wave of the sea, driven by the wind and tossed. 3.2. For in many things we all stumble. If anyone doesn't stumble in word, the same is a perfect man, able to bridle the whole body also. 5.7. Be patient therefore, brothers, until the coming of the Lord. Behold, the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, being patient over it, until it receives the early and late rain.
54. New Testament, Jude, 15, 25, 14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

55. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15-1.20, 2.15, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.17. He is before all things, and in him all things are held together. 1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.19. For all the fullness was pleased to dwell in him; 1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens. 2.15. having stripped the principalities and the powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it. 3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all.
56. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.1, 1.10, 1.21, 2.1-2.10, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, to the saints who are at Ephesus, and the faithful in Christ Jesus: 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.21. far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 2.1. You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.4. But God, being rich in mercy, for his great love with which he loved us 2.5. even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved) 2.6. and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus 2.7. that in the ages to come he might show the exceeding riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus; 2.8. for by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God 2.9. not of works, that no one would boast. 2.10. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared before that we would walk in them. 3.5. which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit;
57. New Testament, Galatians, 1.4, 2.11-2.16, 2.19, 3.1, 3.6-3.29, 4.3-4.7, 4.17, 4.21, 5.2-5.3, 5.6, 5.17, 6.12, 6.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us out of this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father -- 2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 2.15. We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 3.1. Foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you not to obey thetruth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth among you as crucified? 3.6. Even as Abraham "believed God, and it wascounted to him for righteousness. 3.7. Know therefore that those whoare of faith, the same are sons of Abraham. 3.8. The Scripture,foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached thegospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, "In you all the nations will beblessed. 3.9. So then, those who are of faith are blessed with thefaithful Abraham. 3.10. For as many as are of the works of the law areunder a curse. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who doesn'tcontinue in all things that are written in the book of the law, to dothem. 3.11. Now that no man is justified by the law before God isevident, for, "The righteous will live by faith. 3.12. The law is notof faith, but, "The man who does them will live by them. 3.13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become acurse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on atree 3.14. that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentilesthrough Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spiritthrough faith. 3.15. Brothers, I speak like men. Though it is only aman's covet, yet when it has been confirmed, no one makes it void,or adds to it. 3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 3.17. Now I say this. A covetconfirmed beforehand by God in Christ, the law, which came four hundredand thirty years after, does not annul, so as to make the promise of noeffect. 3.18. For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no more ofpromise; but God has granted it to Abraham by promise. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 3.20. Now amediator is not between one, but God is one. 3.21. Is the law thenagainst the promises of God? Certainly not! For if there had been a lawgiven which could make alive, most assuredly righteousness would havebeen of the law. 3.22. But the Scriptures shut up all things undersin, that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to thosewho believe. 3.23. But before faith came, we were kept in custodyunder the law, shut up to the faith which should afterwards berevealed. 3.24. So that the law has become our tutor to bring us toChrist, that we might be justified by faith. 3.25. But now that faithis come, we are no longer under a tutor. 3.26. For you are all sons ofGod, through faith in Christ Jesus. 3.27. For as many of you as werebaptized into Christ have put on Christ. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 3.29. If you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise. 4.3. So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under theelements of the world. 4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. 4.6. And because you are sons, God sent out theSpirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father! 4.7. Soyou are no longer a bondservant, but a son; and if a son, then an heirof God through Christ. 4.17. They zealously seek you in no good way. No, they desire toalienate you, that you may seek them. 4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 5.2. Behold, I, Paul, tell you that if you receive circumcision, Christ willprofit you nothing. 5.3. Yes, I testify again to every man whoreceives circumcision, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 5.17. For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and theSpirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one other, that youmay not do the things that you desire. 6.12. As many as desire to look good in the flesh, they compel you tobe circumcised; only that they may not be persecuted for the cross ofChrist. 6.14. But far be it from me to boast, except inthe cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has beencrucified to me, and I to the world.
58. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.1, 2.5-2.18, 10.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. Therefore we ought to pay greater attention to the things that were heard, lest perhaps we drift away. 2.5. For he didn't subject the world to come, whereof we speak, to angels. 2.6. But one has somewhere testified, saying, "What is man, that you think of him? Or the son of man, that you care for him? 2.7. You made him a little lower than the angels; You crowned him with glory and honor. 2.8. You have put all things in subjection under his feet."For in that he subjected all things to him, he left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we don't see all things subjected to him, yet. 2.9. But we see him who has been made a little lower than the angels, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that by the grace of God he should taste of death for everyone. 2.10. For it became him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the author of their salvation perfect through sufferings. 2.11. For both he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all from one, for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brothers 2.12. saying, "I will declare your name to my brothers. In the midst of the congregation I will sing your praise. 2.13. Again, "I will put my trust in him." Again, "Behold, here am I and the children whom God has given me. 2.14. Since then the children have shared in flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death he might bring to nothing him who had the power of death, that is, the devil 2.15. and might deliver all of them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 2.16. For most assuredly, not to angels does he give help, but he gives help to the seed of Abraham. 2.17. Therefore he was obligated in all things to be made like his brothers, that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make atonement for the sins of the people. 2.18. For in that he himself has suffered being tempted, he is able to help those who are tempted. 10.29. How much worse punishment, do you think, will he be judged worthy of, who has trodden under foot the Son of God, and has counted the blood of the covet with which he was sanctified an unholy thing, and has insulted the Spirit of grace?
59. New Testament, Philippians, 1.23, 2.3-2.11, 2.13, 4.10-4.13, 4.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.23. But I am in a dilemma between the two, having the desire to depart and be with Christ, which is far better. 2.3. doing nothing through rivalry or through conceit, but in humility, each counting others better than himself; 2.4. each of you not just looking to his own things, but each of you also to the things of others. 2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 2.13. For it is God who works in you both to will and to work, for his good pleasure. 4.10. But I rejoice in the Lord greatly, that now at length you have revived your thought for me; in which you did indeed take thought, but you lacked opportunity. 4.11. Not that I speak in respect to lack, for I have learned in whatever state I am, to be content in it. 4.12. I know how to be humbled, and I know also how to abound. In everything and in all things I have learned the secret both to be filled and to be hungry, both to abound and to be in need. 4.13. I can do all things through Christ, who strengthens me. 4.18. But I have all things, and abound. I am filled, having received from Epaphroditus the things that came from you, a sweet-smelling fragrance, an acceptable and well-pleasing sacrifice to God.
60. New Testament, Romans, a b c d\n0 "5.12" "5.12" "5 12" \n1 "5.5" "5.5" "5 5" \n2 1 1 1 None\n3 1.1 1.1 1 1 \n4 1.10 1.10 1 10 \n.. ... ... .. .. \n236 9.29 9.29 9 29 \n237 9.5 9.5 9 5 \n238 9.7 9.7 9 7 \n239 9.8 9.8 9 8 \n240 9.9 9.9 9 9 \n\n[241 rows x 4 columns] (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

61. New Testament, Titus, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all men
62. New Testament, John, 1.9-1.13, 1.16, 2.6, 2.23-2.25, 3.5, 3.8, 6.29, 6.44, 6.51, 6.63-6.65, 8.24, 8.34, 8.36, 14.3, 15.5, 16.11, 17.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 2.6. Now there were six water pots of stone set there after the Jews' manner of purifying, containing two or three metretes apiece. 2.23. Now when he was in Jerusalem at the Passover, during the feast, many believed in his name, observing his signs which he did. 2.24. But Jesus didn't trust himself to them, because he knew everyone 2.25. and because he didn't need for anyone to testify concerning man; for he himself knew what was in man. 3.5. Jesus answered, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless one is born of water and spirit, he can't enter into the Kingdom of God! 3.8. The wind blows where it wants to, and you hear its sound, but don't know where it comes from and where it is going. So is everyone who is born of the Spirit. 6.29. Jesus answered them, "This is the work of God, that you believe in him whom he has sent. 6.44. No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up in the last day. 6.51. I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh. 6.63. It is the spirit who gives life. The flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life. 6.64. But there are some of you who don't believe." For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were who didn't believe, and who it was who would betray him. 6.65. He said, "For this cause have I said to you that no one can come to me, unless it is given to him by my Father. 8.24. I said therefore to you that you will die in your sins; for unless you believe that I am he, you will die in your sins. 8.34. Jesus answered them, "Most assuredly I tell you, everyone who commits sin is the bondservant of sin. 8.36. If therefore the Son makes you free, you will be free indeed. 14.3. If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and will receive you to myself; that where I am, you may be there also. 15.5. I am the vine. You are the branches. He who remains in me, and I in him, the same bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing. 16.11. about judgment, because the prince of this world has been judged. 17.2. even as you gave him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him.
63. New Testament, Luke, 2.14, 4.19, 4.58, 5.31, 10.13, 14.21-14.23, 15.12, 20.37-20.38, 24.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. Glory to God in the highest, On earth peace, good will toward men. 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 5.31. Jesus answered them, "Those who are healthy have no need for a physician, but those who are sick do. 10.13. Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon which were done in you, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 14.21. That servant came, and told his lord these things. Then the master of the house, being angry, said to his servant, 'Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in the poor, maimed, blind, and lame.' 14.22. The servant said, 'Lord, it is done as you commanded, and there is still room.' 14.23. The lord said to the servant, 'Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled. 15.12. The younger of them said to his father, 'Father, give me my share of your property.' He divided his livelihood between them. 20.37. But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord 'The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' 20.38. Now he is not the God of the dead, but of the living, for all are alive to him. 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem.
64. New Testament, Mark, 9.14-9.29, 13.10, 16.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.14. Coming to the disciples, he saw a great multitude around them, and scribes questioning them. 9.15. Immediately all the multitude, when they saw him, were greatly amazed, and running to him greeted him. 9.16. He asked the scribes, "What are you asking them? 9.17. One of the multitude answered, "Teacher, I brought to you my son, who has a mute spirit; 9.18. and wherever it seizes him, it throws him down, and he foams at the mouth, and grinds his teeth, and wastes away. I asked your disciples to cast it out, and they weren't able. 9.19. He answered him, "Unbelieving generation, how long shall I be with you? How long shall I bear with you? Bring him to me. 9.20. They brought him to him, and when he saw him, immediately the spirit convulsed him, and he fell on the ground, wallowing and foaming at the mouth. 9.21. He asked his father, "How long has it been since this has come to him?"He said, "From childhood. 9.22. often it has cast him both into the fire and into the water, to destroy him. But if you can do anything, have compassion on us, and help us. 9.23. Jesus said to him, "If you can believe, all things are possible to him who believes. 9.24. Immediately the father of the child cried out with tears, "I believe. Help my unbelief! 9.25. When Jesus saw that a multitude came running together, he rebuked the unclean spirit, saying to him, "You mute and deaf spirit, I command you, come out of him, and never enter him again! 9.26. Having cried out, and convulsed greatly, it came out of him. The boy became like one dead; so much that most of them said, "He is dead. 9.27. But Jesus took him by the hand, and raised him up; and he arose. 9.28. When he had come into the house, his disciples asked him privately, "Why couldn't we cast it out? 9.29. He said to them, "This kind can come out by nothing, except by prayer and fasting. 13.10. The gospel must first be preached to all the nations. 16.16. He who believes and is baptized will be saved; but he who disbelieves will be condemned.
65. New Testament, Matthew, a b c d\n0 "5.48" "5.48" "5 48"\n1 10.8 10.8 10 8 \n2 11.21 11.21 11 21 \n3 11.22 11.22 11 22 \n4 18.26 18.26 18 26 \n5 19.14 19.14 19 14 \n6 23.35 23.35 23 35 \n7 23.37 23.37 23 37 \n8 24.14 24.14 24 14 \n9 24.22 24.22 24 22 \n10 9.24 9.24 9 24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

66. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 4.1, 13.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

67. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10. And the apostle stood, and began to pray and to speak thus: My Lord and MY God, that travellest with thy servants, that guidest and correctest them that believe in thee, the refuge and rest of the oppressed, the hope of the poor and ransomer of captives, the physician of the souls that lie sick and saviour of all creation, that givest life unto the world and strengthenest souls; thou knowest things to come, and by our means accomplishest them: thou Lord art he that revealeth hidden mysteries and maketh manifest words that are secret: thou Lord art the planter of the good tree, and of thine hands are all good works engendered: thou Lord art he that art in all things and passest through all, and art set in all thy works and manifested in the working of them all. Jesus Christ, Son of compassion and perfect saviour, Christ, Son of the living God, the undaunted power that hast overthrown the enemy, and the voice that was heard of the rulers, and made all their powers to quake, the ambassador that wast sent from the height and camest down even unto hell, who didst open the doors and bring up thence them that for many ages were shut up in the treasury of darkness, and showedst them the way that leadeth up unto the height: l beseech thee, Lord Jesu, and offer unto thee supplication for these young persons, that thou wouldest do for them the things that shall help them and be expedient and profitable for them. And he laid his hands on them and said: The Lord shall be with you, and left them in that place and departed.
68. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 22.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22.3. 3 And I, again, Pionius, wrote it out from the former writings, after searching for it, because the blessed Polycarp showed it me in a vision, as I will explain in what follows, and I gathered it together when it was almost worn out by age, that the Lord Jesus Christ may also gather me together with his elect into his heavenly kingdom, to whom be glory with the Father and the Holy Spirit, for ever and ever, Amen.
69. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 8.1, 9.7, 14.3-14.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ (בראשית א, כו), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַח (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִם זָכָה אָדָם, אוֹכֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, וְאִם לָאו הוּא בָּא לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרָאוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ה, ב): זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, דְּיוּ פַּרְצוּפִים בְּרָאוֹ, וְנִסְּרוֹ וַעֲשָׂאוֹ גַּבִּים, גַּב לְכָאן וְגַב לְכָאן. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית ב, כא): וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו, אֲמַר לְהוֹן מִתְּרֵין סִטְרוֹהִי, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כו, כ): וּלְצֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן, דִּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן וְלִסְטַר מַשְׁכְּנָא וגו'. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָה וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן גֹּלֶם בְּרָאוֹ, וְהָיָה מוּטָל מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, הֲדָא הוא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קלט, טז): גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וגו'. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם בְּרָאוֹ, מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו'. מִצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם. וּמִנַּיִן אַף בַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, טז): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה, כְּמָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (איוב יג, כא): כַּפְּךָ מֵעָלַי הַרְחַק. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן. הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר (בראשית א, כד): תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, דְּאָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ (בראשית א, ב): וְרוּחַ אֱלֹקִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמֵר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', אִם זָכָה אָדָם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אַתָּה קָדַמְתָּ לְמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, וְאִם לָאו אוֹמְרִים לוֹ זְבוּב קְדָמְךָ, יַתּוּשׁ קְדָמְךָ, שִׁלְשׁוּל זֶה קְדָמְךָ. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָחוֹר לְכָל הַמַּעֲשִׂים, וָקֶדֶם לְכָל עֳנָשִׁין. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אַף בְּקִלּוּס אֵינוֹ בָּא אֶלָּא בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קמח, א): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וגו', וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (תהלים קמח, ז): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הָאָרֶץ וגו' וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר (תהלים קמח, יא): מַלְכֵי אֶרֶץ וְכָל לְאֻמִּים (תהלים קמח, יב): בַּחוּרִים וְגַם בְּתוּלוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי כְּשֵׁם שֶׁקִּלּוּסוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף, כָּךְ בְּרִיָּתוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, מַה טַּעְמֵיהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כד): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ וגו', וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וגו'. 8.1. אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן טָעוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ וְאִפַּרְכוֹס שֶׁהָיוּ בְּקָרוּכִין, וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַמְדִינָה מְבַקְּשִׁין לוֹמַר לַמֶּלֶךְ דּוֹמִינוֹ, וְלֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין אֵיזֶהוּ, מֶה עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּחָפוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ חוּץ לַקָּרוּכִין, וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אִפַּרְכוֹס. כָּךְ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, טָעוּ בּוֹ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הִפִּיל עָלָיו תַּרְדֵּמָה וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אָדָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה ב, כב): חִדְלוּ לָכֶם מִן הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר נְשָׁמָה בְּאַפּוֹ כִּי בַּמֶּה נֶחְשָׁב הוּא. 9.7. רַבִּי נַחְמָן בַּר שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשֵׁם רַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר, הִנֵּה טוֹב מְאֹד, זֶה יֵצֶר טוֹב. וְהִנֵּה טוֹב מְאֹד, זֶה יֵצֶר רָע. וְכִי יֵצֶר הָרָע טוֹב מְאֹד, אֶתְמְהָא. אֶלָּא שֶׁאִלּוּלֵי יֵצֶר הָרָע לֹא בָּנָה אָדָם בַּיִת, וְלֹא נָשָׂא אִשָּׁה, וְלֹא הוֹלִיד, וְלֹא נָשָׂא וְנָתַן. וְכֵן שְׁלֹמֹה אוֹמֵר (קהלת ד, ד): כִּי הִיא קִנְאַת אִישׁ מֵרֵעֵהוּ. 14.3. וַיִּיצֶר שְׁתֵּי יְצִירוֹת, יְצִירָה מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים וִיצִירָה מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק וְרַבָּנָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, בָּרָא בוֹ ד' בְּרִיּוֹת מִלְמַעְלָן וְד' מִלְמַטָּן, אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה כִּבְהֵמָה, פָּרָה וְרָבָה כִּבְהֵמָה, מַטִּיל גְּלָלִים כִּבְהֵמָה, וּמֵת כִּבְהֵמָה. מִלְּמַעְלָה, עוֹמֵד כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, מְדַבֵּר, וּמֵבִין, וְרוֹאֶה, כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת. וּבְהֵמָה אֵינָהּ רוֹאָה, אֶתְמְהָא. אֶלָּא זֶה מְצַדֵּד. רַבִּי תַּפְדוּיֵי אָמַר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא, הָעֶלְיוֹנִים נִבְרְאוּ בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת, וְאֵינָן פָּרִין וְרָבִין. וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, פָּרִין וְרָבִין וְלֹא נִבְרְאוּ בְּצֶלֶם וּדְמוּת. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, פָּרָה וְרָבָה מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּפְדוּיֵי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִם אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, הוּא חַי וְאֵינוֹ מֵת, מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, הוּא מֵת וְאֵינוֹ חַי, אֶלָּא הֲרֵינִי בּוֹרְאוֹ מֵאֵלּוּ וּמֵאֵלּוּ, וְאִם יֶחֱטָא יָמוּת, וְאִם לָאו יִחְיֶה. 14.4. וַיִּיצֶר, שְׁנֵי יְצָרִים, יֵצֶר טוֹב וְיֵצֶר הָרָע. שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיָה לִבְהֵמָה ב' יְצָרִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה רוֹאָה סַכִּין בְּיַד אָדָם לְשָׁחֲטָהּ הָיְתָה מְפַחֶדֶת וּמֵתָה, וַהֲרֵי אָדָם יֵשׁ לוֹ ב' יְצָרִים, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר אִידָא (זכריה יב, א): וְיֹצֵר רוּחַ אָדָם בְּקִרְבּוֹ, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם צְרוּרָה בְּקִרְבּוֹ, אִלְּמָלֵא כֵּן כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה הַצָּרָה בָּאָה עָלָיו הָיָה שׁוֹמְטָהּ וּמַשְׁלִיכָהּ. 14.5. וַיִּיצֶר ב' יְצִירוֹת, יְצִירָה בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, וִיצִירָה לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי וּבֵית הִלֵּל, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים לֹא כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיְצִירָתוֹ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה כָּךְ יְצִירָתוֹ לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה מַתְחִיל בְּעוֹר וּבְבָשָׂר וְגוֹמֵר בְּגִידִים וּבַעֲצָמוֹת, אֲבָל לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא מַתְחִיל בְּגִידִים וּבַעֲצָמוֹת וְגוֹמֵר בְּעוֹר וּבְבָשָׂר, שֶׁכָּךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּמֵתֵי יְחֶזְקֵאל (יחזקאל לז, ח): רָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה עֲלֵיהֶם גִּדִים וּבָשָׂר עָלָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן אֵין לְמֵדִין מִמֵּתֵי יְחֶזְקֵאל. וּלְמָה הָיוּ מֵתֵי יְחֶזְקֵאל דּוֹמִים, לְזֶה שֶׁהוּא נִכְנָס לְמֶרְחָץ מַה שֶּׁהוּא פּוֹשֵׁט רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לוֹבֵשׁ אַחֲרוֹן. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיְצִירָתוֹ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶה, כָּךְ יְצִירָתוֹ בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא. בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה מַתְחִיל בְּעוֹר וּבְבָשָׂר וְגוֹמֵר בְּגִידִים וּבַעֲצָמוֹת, כָּךְ אַף לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא מַתְחִיל בְּעוֹר וּבְבָשָׂר וְגוֹמֵר בְּגִידִים וּבַעֲצָמוֹת, שֶׁכֵּן אִיּוֹב אוֹמֵר (איוב י, י): הֲלֹא כֶחָלָב תַּתִּיכֵנִי. הִתַּכְתַּנִי, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא תַּתִּיכֵנִי. וְכַגְּבִנָּה הִקְפֵּאתַנִי, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא תַּקְפִּיאֵנִי. (איוב י, יא): עוֹר וּבָשָׂר הִלְבַּשְׁתַּנִי, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא תַּלְבִּישֵׁנִי. וּבַעֲצָמוֹת וְגִידִים סוֹכַכְתַּנִי, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא תְּשׂכְכֵנִי, לִקְעָרָה שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה חָלָב עַד שֶׁלֹא נָתַן מְסוֹ בְּתוֹכוֹ, הֶחָלָב רוֹפֵף, מִשֶּׁנָּתַן לְתוֹכָהּ מְסוֹ, הֲרֵי הֶחָלָב קָפוּי וְעוֹמֵד, הוּא שֶׁאִיּוֹב אָמַר: הֲלֹא כֶחָלָב תַּתִּיכֵנִי וגו' עוֹר וּבָשָׂר וגו' (איוב י, יב): חַיִּים וָחֶסֶד עָשִׂיתָ עִמָּדִי וּפְקֻדָּתְךָ שָׁמְרָה רוּחִי. 8.1. ... Said R’ Yirmiyah ben Elazar: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created him [as] an androgyne/androginos, as it is said, “male and female He created them”. Said R’ Shmuel bar Nachmani: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created [for] him a double-face/di-prosopon/ du-par’tsufin, and sawed him and made him backs, a back here and a back [t]here, as it is said, “Back/achor and before/qedem You formed me” [Ps 139:5]. They objected to him: But it says, “He took one of his ribs/ts’la`ot . . . ” [Gn 2:21]! He said to them: [It means] “[one] of his sides/sit’rohi”, just as you would say, “And for the side/tsela` of the Tabernacle/ mishkan” [Ex 26:20], which they translate [in Aramaic] “for the side/seter”. R’ Tanchuma in the name of R’ Banayah and R’ B’rakhyah in the name of R’ Elazar said: In the time that the Holy One created Adam Harishon, [as] a golem He created him and he was set up from [one] end of the world and unto its [other] end – that’s what is written: “Your eyes saw my golem” [Ps 139:16]. R’ Yehoshua bar Nechemyah and R’ Yehudah bar Simon in R’ Elazar’s name said: He created him filling the whole world. From where [do we know he extended] from the East to West? That it’s said: “Back/achor (i.e., after, the place of sunset) and before/East/qedem You formed/enclosed me /tsartani” [Ps 139:5]. From where [that he went] from North to South? That it’s said: “and from the edge of the heavens and until the edge of the heavens” [Dt 4:32]. And from where [that he filled] even the world’s hollow-space? That it’s said: “. . . and You laid Your palm upon me” [Ps 139:5]..." 9.7. Rabbi Nahman said in Rabbi Samuel's name: 'Behold, it was good' refers to the Good Desire; 'And behold, it was very good' refers to the Evil Desire. (It only says 'very good' after man was created with both the good and bad inclinations, in all other cases it only says 'and God saw that it was good') Can then the Evil Desire be very good? That would be extraordinary! But without the Evil Desire, however, no man would build a house, take a wife and beget children; and thus said Solomon: 'Again, I considered all labour and all excelling in work, that it is a man's rivalry with his neighbour.' (Ecclesiastes 4:4). \n" 14.3. ... Said the Holy One: If I create him from the upper ones [alone] he lives and won’t die [in this world]; from the lower ones, he dies [in this world] and won’t live [in the coming world]." 14.4. Wayyiyzer: two formations, the good and the evil. For if an animal possessed two [such] formations, it would die of fright on seeing a man holding a knife to kill it. But surely a man does possess these two faculties! Said R. Hanina (rjinena) b. Idi: He bound up the spirit of man within him (Zechariah 12:1); for if that were not so, whenever a trouble came upon him he would remove and cast it from him."
70. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 21 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

21. The Valentinians say that the finest emanation of Wisdom is spoken of in 'He created them in the image of God, male and female created he them.' Now the males from this emanation are the 'election,' but the females are the 'calling' and they call the male beings angelic, and the females themselves, the superior seed. So also, in the case of Adam, the male remained in him but all the female seed was taken from him and became Eve, from whom the females are derived, as the males are from him. Therefore the males are drawn together with the Logos, but the females, becoming men, are united to the angels and pass into the Pleroma. Therefore the woman is said to be changed into a man, and the church hereon earth into angels.
71. Clement of Alexandria, A Discourse Concerning The Salvation of Rich Men, 10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

72. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 2.3-2.4, 4.3.9, 4.11 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

73. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 9.14.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

74. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.10.1, 1.24.1, 1.26.2, 3.11.8, 3.16.6, 3.17.1, 3.18.7, 3.19.1, 3.20.2-3.20.3, 3.21.10, 3.22.3-3.22.4, 3.23.1, 4.14.1, 4.16.1, 4.33.4, 4.37, 4.37.7, 5.1.3, 5.16.2, 5.17.1, 5.18.3, 5.21.1, 5.28.1, 5.36.3, 9.14.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.37. And they make moon and stars appear on the ceiling after this manner. In the central part of the ceiling, having fastened a mirror, placing a dish full of water equally (with the mirror) in the central portion of the floor, and setting in a central place likewise a candle, emitting a faint light from a higher position than the dish - in this way, by reflection, (the magician) causes the moon to appear by the mirror. But frequently, also, they suspend on high from the ceiling, at a distance, a drum, but which, being covered with some garment, is concealed by the accomplice, in order that (the heavenly body) may not appear before the (proper) time. And afterwards placing a candle (within the drum), when the magician gives the signal to the accomplice, he removes so much of the covering as may be sufficient for effecting an imitation representing the figure of the moon as it is at that particular time. He smears, however, the luminous parts of the drum with cinnabar and gum; and having pared around the neck and bottom of a flagon of glass ready behind, he puts a candle in it, and places around it some of the requisite contrivances for making the figures shine, which some one of the accomplices has concealed on high; and on receiving the signal, he throws down from above the contrivances, so to make the moon appear descending from the sky. And the same result is achieved by means of a jar in sylvan localities. For it is by means of a jar that the tricks in a house are performed. For having set up an altar, subsequently is (placed upon it) the jar, having a lighted lamp; when, however, there are a greater number of lamps, no such sight is displayed. After then the enchanter invokes the moon, he orders all the lights to be extinguished, yet that one be left faintly burning; and then the light, that which streams from the jar, is reflected on the ceiling, and furnishes to those present a representation of the moon; the mouth of the jar being kept covered for the time which it would seem to require, in order that the representation of full moon should be exhibited on the ceiling.
75. Irenaeus, Demonstration of The Apostolic Teaching, 32 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

76. Tertullian, To The Heathen, 1.8.9-1.8.10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

77. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 2.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. Now then, you dogs, whom the apostle puts outside, Revelation 22:15 and who yelp at the God of truth, let us come to your various questions. These are the bones of contention, which you are perpetually gnawing! If God is good, and prescient of the future, and able to avert evil, why did He permit man, the very image and likeness of Himself, and, by the origin of his soul, His own substance too, to be deceived by the devil, and fall from obedience of the law into death? For if He had been good, and so unwilling that such a catastrophe should happen, and prescient, so as not to be ignorant of what was to come to pass, and powerful enough to hinder its occurrence, that issue would never have come about, which should be impossible under these three conditions of the divine greatness. Since, however, it has occurred, the contrary proposition is most certainly true, that God must be deemed neither good, nor prescient, nor powerful. For as no such issue could have happened had God been such as He is reputed - good, and prescient, and mighty - so has this issue actually happened, because He is not such a God. In reply, we must first vindicate those attributes in the Creator which are called in question - namely, His goodness and foreknowledge, and power. But I shall not linger long over this point for Christ's own definition John 10:25 comes to our aid at once. From works must proofs be obtained. The Creator's works testify at once to His goodness, since they are good, as we have shown, and to His power, since they are mighty, and spring indeed out of nothing. And even if they were made out of some (previous) matter, as some will have it, they are even thus out of nothing, because they were not what they are. In short, both they are great because they are good; and God is likewise mighty, because all things are His own, whence He is almighty. But what shall I say of His prescience, which has for its witnesses as many prophets as it inspired? After all, what title to prescience do we look for in the Author of the universe, since it was by this very attribute that He foreknew all things when He appointed them their places, and appointed them their places when He foreknew them? There is sin itself. If He had not foreknown this, He would not have proclaimed a caution against it under the penalty of death. Now if there were in God such attributes as must have rendered it both impossible and improper for any evil to have happened to man, and yet evil did occur, let us consider man's condition also - whether it were not, in fact, rather the cause why that came to pass which could not have happened through God. I find, then, that man was by God constituted free, master of his own will and power; indicating the presence of God's image and likeness in him by nothing so well as by this constitution of his nature. For it was not by his face, and by the lineaments of his body, though they were so varied in his human nature, that he expressed his likeness to the form of God; but he showed his stamp in that essence which he derived from God Himself (that is, the spiritual, which answered to the form of God), and in the freedom and power of his will. This his state was confirmed even by the very law which God then imposed upon him. For a law would not be imposed upon one who had it not in his power to render that obedience which is due to law; nor again, would the penalty of death be threatened against sin, if a contempt of the law were impossible to man in the liberty of his will. So in the Creator's subsequent laws also you will find, when He sets before man good and evil, life and death, that the entire course of discipline is arranged in precepts by God's calling men from sin, and threatening and exhorting them; and this on no other ground than that man is free, with a will either for obedience or resistance.
78. Tertullian, Apology, 22 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

22. And we affirm indeed the existence of certain spiritual essences; nor is their name unfamiliar. The philosophers acknowledge there are demons; Socrates himself waiting on a demon's will. Why not? Since it is said an evil spirit attached itself specially to him even from his childhood - turning his mind no doubt from what was good. The poets are all acquainted with demons too; even the ignorant common people make frequent use of them in cursing. In fact, they call upon Satan, the demon-chief, in their execrations, as though from some instinctive soul-knowledge of him. Plato also admits the existence of angels. The dealers in magic, no less, come forward as witnesses to the existence of both kinds of spirits. We are instructed, moreover, by our sacred books how from certain angels, who fell of their own free-will, there sprang a more wicked demon-brood, condemned of God along with the authors of their race, and that chief we have referred to. It will for the present be enough, however, that some account is given of their work. Their great business is the ruin of mankind. So, from the very first, spiritual wickedness sought our destruction. They inflict, accordingly, upon our bodies diseases and other grievous calamities, while by violent assaults they hurry the soul into sudden and extraordinary excesses. Their marvellous subtleness and tenuity give them access to both parts of our nature. As spiritual, they can do no harm; for, invisible and intangible, we are not cognizant of their action save by its effects, as when some inexplicable, unseen poison in the breeze blights the apples and the grain while in the flower, or kills them in the bud, or destroys them when they have reached maturity; as though by the tainted atmosphere in some unknown way spreading abroad its pestilential exhalations. So, too, by an influence equally obscure, demons and angels breathe into the soul, and rouse up its corruptions with furious passions and vile excesses; or with cruel lusts accompanied by various errors, of which the worst is that by which these deities are commended to the favour of deceived and deluded human beings, that they may get their proper food of flesh-fumes and blood when that is offered up to idol-images. What is daintier food to the spirit of evil, than turning men's minds away from the true God by the illusions of a false divination? And here I explain how these illusions are managed. Every spirit is possessed of wings. This is a common property of both angels and demons. So they are everywhere in a single moment; the whole world is as one place to them; all that is done over the whole extent of it, it is as easy for them to know as to report. Their swiftness of motion is taken for divinity, because their nature is unknown. Thus they would have themselves thought sometimes the authors of the things which they announce; and sometimes, no doubt, the bad things are their doing, never the good. The purposes of God, too, they took up of old from the lips of the prophets, even as they spoke them; and they gather them still from their works, when they hear them read aloud. Thus getting, too, from this source some intimations of the future, they set themselves up as rivals of the true God, while they steal His divinations. But the skill with which their responses are shaped to meet events, your Crœsi and Pyrrhi know too well. On the other hand, it was in that way we have explained, the Pythian was able to declare that they were cooking a tortoise with the flesh of a lamb; in a moment he had been to Lydia. From dwelling in the air, and their nearness to the stars, and their commerce with the clouds, they have means of knowing the preparatory processes going on in these upper regions, and thus can give promise of the rains which they already feel. Very kind too, no doubt, they are in regard to the healing of diseases. For, first of all, they make you ill; then, to get a miracle out of it, they command the application of remedies either altogether new, or contrary to those in use, and straightway withdrawing hurtful influence, they are supposed to have wrought a cure. What need, then, to speak of their other artifices, or yet further of the deceptive power which they have as spirits: of these Castor apparitions, of water carried by a sieve, and a ship drawn along by a girdle, and a beard reddened by a touch, all done with the one object of showing that men should believe in the deity of stones, and not seek after the only true God?
79. Tertullian, On The Soul, 27.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

80. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13b. ונמלך ומצאו בן עירו ואמר שמך כשמי ושם אשתך כשם אשתי פסול לגרש בו,הכי השתא התם (דברים כד, א) וכתב לה כתיב בעינן כתיבה לשמה הכא ועשה לה כתיב בעינן עשייה לשמה עשייה דידה מחיקה היא,א"ר אחא בר חנינא גלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שאין בדורו של רבי מאיר כמותו ומפני מה לא קבעו הלכה כמותו שלא יכלו חביריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו שהוא אומר על טמא טהור ומראה לו פנים על טהור טמא ומראה לו פנים,תנא לא ר"מ שמו אלא רבי נהוראי שמו ולמה נקרא שמו ר"מ שהוא מאיר עיני חכמים בהלכה ולא נהוראי שמו אלא רבי נחמיה שמו ואמרי לה רבי אלעזר בן ערך שמו ולמה נקרא שמו נהוראי שמנהיר עיני חכמים בהלכה,אמר רבי האי דמחדדנא מחבראי דחזיתיה לר' מאיר מאחוריה ואילו חזיתיה מקמיה הוה מחדדנא טפי דכתיב (ישעיהו ל, כ) והיו עיניך רואות את מוריך,א"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן תלמיד היה לו לר"מ וסומכוס שמו שהיה אומר על כל דבר ודבר של טומאה ארבעים ושמונה טעמי טומאה ועל כל דבר ודבר של טהרה ארבעים ושמונה טעמי טהרה,תנא תלמיד ותיק היה ביבנה שהיה מטהר את השרץ במאה וחמשים טעמים,אמר רבינא אני אדון ואטהרנו ומה נחש שממית ומרבה טומאה טהור שרץ שאין ממית ומרבה טומאה לא כ"ש,ולא היא מעשה קוץ בעלמא קעביד,א"ר אבא אמר שמואל שלש שנים נחלקו ב"ש וב"ה הללו אומרים הלכה כמותנו והללו אומרים הלכה כמותנו יצאה בת קול ואמרה אלו ואלו דברי אלהים חיים הן והלכה כב"ה,וכי מאחר שאלו ואלו דברי אלהים חיים מפני מה זכו ב"ה לקבוע הלכה כמותן מפני שנוחין ועלובין היו ושונין דבריהן ודברי ב"ש ולא עוד אלא שמקדימין דברי ב"ש לדבריהן,כאותה ששנינו מי שהיה ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושלחנו בתוך הבית בית שמאי פוסלין וב"ה מכשירין אמרו ב"ה לב"ש לא כך היה מעשה שהלכו זקני ב"ש וזקני ב"ה לבקר את ר' יוחנן בן החורנית ומצאוהו יושב ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושלחנו בתוך הבית אמרו להן בית שמאי (אי) משם ראיה אף הן אמרו לו אם כך היית נוהג לא קיימת מצות סוכה מימיך,ללמדך שכל המשפיל עצמו הקב"ה מגביהו וכל המגביה עצמו הקב"ה משפילו כל המחזר על הגדולה גדולה בורחת ממנו וכל הבורח מן הגדולה גדולה מחזרת אחריו וכל הדוחק את השעה שעה דוחקתו וכל הנדחה מפני שעה שעה עומדת לו,ת"ר שתי שנים ומחצה נחלקו ב"ש וב"ה הללו אומרים נוח לו לאדם שלא נברא יותר משנברא והללו אומרים נוח לו לאדם שנברא יותר משלא נברא נמנו וגמרו נוח לו לאדם שלא נברא יותר משנברא עכשיו שנברא יפשפש במעשיו ואמרי לה ימשמש במעשיו, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הקורה שאמרו רחבה כדי לקבל אריח ואריח חצי לבנה של שלשה טפחים דייה לקורה שתהא רחבה טפח כדי לקבל אריח לרחבו,רחבה כדי לקבל אריח ובריאה כדי לקבל אריח רבי יהודה אומר רחבה אף על פי שאין בריאה היתה של קש ושל קנים רואין אותה כאילו היא של מתכת,עקומה רואין אותה כאילו היא פשוטה עגולה רואין אותה כאילו היא מרובעת כל שיש בהיקיפו שלשה טפחים יש בו רוחב טפח: 13b. bbutlater breconsideredand did not divorce her, band a resident of his city found him and said: Your name isthe same bas my name, and your wife’s name isthe same bas my wife’s name,and we reside in the same town; give me the bill of divorce, and I will use it to divorce my wife, then this document bis invalid to divorce with it?Apparently, a man may not divorce his wife with a bill of divorce written for another woman, and the same should apply to the scroll of a isota /i.,The Gemara rejects this argument: bHow can you comparethe two cases? bThere,with regard to a bill of divorce, bit is written: “And he shall write for her”(Deuteronomy 24:1), and therefore bwe require writingit bin her name,specifically for her; whereas bhere,with regard to a isota /i, bit is written: “And he shall perform with herall this ritual” (Numbers 5:30), and therefore bwe require performance in her name.In bhercase, the bperformance is erasure;however, writing of the scroll need not be performed specifically for her.,On the topic of Rabbi Meir and his Torah study, the Gemara cites an additional statement. bRabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina said: It is revealed and known before the One Who spoke and the world came into being that in the generation of Rabbi Meir there was noone of the Sages who is bhis equal. Whythen bdidn’tthe Sages bestablish the ihalakhain accordance with hisopinion? It is bbecause his colleagues were unable to ascertain the profundity of his opinion.He was so brilliant that he could present a cogent argument for any position, even if it was not consistent with the prevalent ihalakha /i. bAs hewould bstate with regard toa ritually bimpureitem that it is bpure, and display justificationfor that ruling, and likewise he would state bwith regard toa ritually bpureitem that it is bimpure, and display justificationfor that ruling. The Sages were unable to distinguish between the statements that were ihalakhaand those that were not., bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Meir was not his name; rather, Rabbi Nehorai was his name. And why was he calledby the bname Rabbi Meir?It was bbecause he illuminates [ imeir /i] the eyes of the Sages inmatters of bthe ihalakha /i. And Rabbi Nehorai was not the nameof the itannaknown by that name; brather, Rabbi Neḥemya was his name, and some say: Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh was his name. And why was he calledby the bname Rabbi Nehorai?It is bbecause he enlightens [ imanhir /i] the eyes of the Sages inmatters of bthe ihalakha /i. /b,The Gemara relates that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid:The fact bthat I ammore bincisive than my colleagues isdue to the fact bthat I saw Rabbi Meir from behind,i.e., I sat behind him when I was his student. bHad I seen him from the front, I would beeven more bincisive, as it is written: “And your eyes shall see your teacher”(Isaiah 30:20). Seeing the face of one’s teacher increases one’s understanding and sharpens one’s mind.,And the Gemara stated that bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Rabbi Meir had a disciple, and his name was Sumakhus, who would state with regard to each and every matter of ritual impurity forty-eight reasonsin support of the ruling of bimpurity, and with regard to each and every matter of ritual purity forty-eight reasonsin support of the ruling of bpurity. /b, bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThere was a distinguished disciple at Yavne who couldwith his incisive intellect bpurify the creeping animal,explicitly deemed ritually impure by the Torah, adducing bone hundred and fifty reasonsin support of his argument., bRavina said: Itoo bwill deliberate and purify itemploying the following reasoning: bAnd just as a snake that killspeople and animals bandthereby bincreases ritual impurityin the world, as a corpse imparts impurity through contact, through being carried, and by means of a tent, bis ritually pureand transmits no impurity, ba creeping animal that does not kill anddoes not bincrease impurityin the world, ball the more soshould it be pure.,The Gemara rejects this: bAnd it is not so;that is not a valid ia fortioriargument, as it can be refuted. A snake bis performing a mere act of a thorn.A thorn causes injury and even death; nevertheless, it is not ritually impure. The same applies to a snake, and therefore this ia fortioriargument is rejected., bRabbi Abba saidthat bShmuel said: For three years Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel disagreed. These said: The ihalakhais in accordance with ouropinion, band these said: The ihalakhais in accordance with ouropinion. Ultimately, ba Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed:Both bthese and those are the words of the living God. However, the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bBeit Hillel. /b,The Gemara asks: bSince both these and those are the words of the living God, why were Beit Hillel privileged tohave bthe ihalakhaestablished in accordance with theiropinion? The reason is bthat they were agreeable and forbearing,showing restraint when affronted, and when they taught the ihalakhathey would bteachboth btheirown bstatements and the statements of Beit Shammai. Moreover,when they formulated their teachings and cited a dispute, bthey prioritized the statements of Beit Shammai to theirown bstatements,in deference to Beit Shammai., bAsin the mishna bthat we learned:In the case of bone whose head and most of his body were in the isukka /i, but his table was in the house, Beit Shammai deemthis isukka binvalid; and Beit Hillel deem it valid. Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: Wasn’t there an incident in which the Elders of Beit Shammai and the Elders of Beit Hillel went to visit Rabbi Yoḥa ben HaḤoranit, and they found him sittingwith bhis head and most of his body in the isukka /i, but his table was in the house? Beit Shammai said to them: From theredo you seek to adduce ba proof?Those visitors, btoo, said to him: If that wasthe manner in which byou were accustomedto perform the mitzva, byou have never fulfilled the mitzva of isukkainall byour days.It is apparent from the phrasing of the mishna that when the Sages of Beit Hillel related that the Elders of Beit Shammai and the Elders of Beit Hillel visited Rabbi Yoḥa ben HaḤoranit, they mentioned the Elders of Beit Shammai before their own Elders.,This is bto teach you that anyone who humbles himself, the Holy One, Blessed be He, exalts him, and anyone who exalts himself, the Holy One, Blessed be He, humbles him. Anyone who seeks greatness, greatness flees from him, and,conversely, banyone who flees from greatness, greatness seeks him. And anyone whoattempts to bforce the momentand expends great effort to achieve an objective precisely when he desires to do so, bthe moment forces himtoo, and he is unsuccessful. bAndconversely, banyone whois patient and byields to the moment, the moment standsby bhisside, and he will ultimately be successful., bThe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i: bFor two and a half years, Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel disagreed. These say: It would have been preferable had man not been created than to have been created. And those said: It is preferable for man to have been created than had he not been created.Ultimately, bthey were counted and concluded: It would have been preferable had man not been created than to have been created.However, bnow that he has been created, he should examine his actionsthat he has performed and seek to correct them. bAnd some say: He should scrutinize hisplanned bactionsand evaluate whether or not and in what manner those actions should be performed, so that he will not sin., strongMISHNA: /strong bThecross bbeam, whichthe Sages bstatedmay be used to render an alleyway fit for one to carry within it, must be bwide enough to receiveand hold ba small brick. Andthis bsmall brickis bhalf a large brick,which measures bthree handbreadths,i.e., a handbreadth and a half. bIt is sufficient that thecross bbeam will be a handbreadth in width,not a handbreadth and a half, benough to hold a small brick across its width. /b,And the cross beam must be bwide enough to hold a small brickand also bsturdy enough to hold a small brickand not collapse. bRabbi Yehuda says:If it is bwideenough to hold the brick, beven though it is not sturdyenough to actually support it, it is sufficient. Therefore, even if the cross beam bismade bof straw or reeds, one considers it as though it weremade bof metal. /b,If the cross beam is bcurved,so that a small brick cannot rest on it, bone considers it as though it were straight;if it is bround, one considers it as though it were square.The following principle was stated with regard to a round cross beam: bAnybeam bwith a circumference of three handbreadths is a handbreadth in width,i.e., in diameter.
81. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. (משלי ז, ד) אמור לחכמה אחותי את וגו' ואומר (משלי ז, ג) קשרם על אצבעותיך כתבם על לוח לבך ואומר (תהלים קכז, ד) כחצים ביד גבור כן בני הנעורים ואומר (תהלים קכ, ד) חצי גבור שנונים ואומר (תהלים מה, ו) חציך שנונים עמים תחתיך יפלו ואומר (תהלים קכז, ה) אשרי הגבר אשר מלא את אשפתו מהם לא יבושו כי ידברו את אויבים בשער,מאי את אויבים בשער אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אפי' האב ובנו הרב ותלמידו שעוסקין בתורה בשער אחד נעשים אויבים זה את זה ואינם זזים משם עד שנעשים אוהבים זה את זה שנאמר (במדבר כא, יד) את והב בסופה אל תקרי בסופה אלא בסופה,ת"ר (דברים יא, יח) ושמתם סם תם נמשלה תורה כסם חיים משל לאדם שהכה את בנו מכה גדולה והניח לו רטיה על מכתו ואמר לו בני כל זמן שהרטיה זו על מכתך אכול מה שהנאתך ושתה מה שהנאתך ורחוץ בין בחמין בין בצונן ואין אתה מתיירא ואם אתה מעבירה הרי היא מעלה נומי,כך הקב"ה אמר להם לישראל בני בראתי יצר הרע ובראתי לו תורה תבלין ואם אתם עוסקים בתורה אין אתם נמסרים בידו שנאמר (בראשית ד, ז) הלא אם תטיב שאת,ואם אין אתם עוסקין בתורה אתם נמסרים בידו שנא' לפתח חטאת רובץ ולא עוד אלא שכל משאו ומתנו בך שנאמר ואליך תשוקתו ואם אתה רוצה אתה מושל בו שנאמר ואתה תמשל בו,ת"ר קשה יצר הרע שאפילו יוצרו קראו רע שנאמר (בראשית ח, כא) כי יצר לב האדם רע מנעוריו אמר רב יצחק יצרו של אדם מתחדש עליו בכל יום שנאמר (בראשית ו, ה) רק רע כל היום,ואמר ר"ש בן לוי יצרו של אדם מתגבר עליו בכל יום ומבקש המיתו שנאמר (תהלים לז, לב) צופה רשע לצדיק ומבקש להמיתו ואלמלא הקב"ה עוזרו אין יכול לו שנאמר אלהים לא יעזבנו בידו,תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל בני אם פגע בך מנוול זה משכהו לבית המדרש אם אבן הוא נימוח ואם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע אם אבן הוא נימוח שנאמר (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים ואומר (איוב יד, יט) אבנים שחקו מים,להשיאו אשה מנלן דכתיב (ירמיהו כט, ו) קחו נשים והולידו בנים ובנות וקחו לבניכם נשים ואת בנותיכם תנו לאנשים,בשלמא בנו בידו אלא בתו בידו היא הכי קאמר להו ניתן לה מידי ולבשייה ונכסייה כי היכי דקפצו עלה אינשי,ללמדו אומנות מנלן אמר חזקיה דאמר קרא (קהלת ט, ט) ראה חיים עם אשה אשר אהבת אם אשה ממש היא כשם שחייב להשיאו אשה כך חייב ללמדו אומנות אם תורה היא כשם שחייב ללמדו תורה כך חייב ללמדו אומנות,ויש אומרים אף להשיטו בנהר מאי טעמא חיותיה הוא,רבי יהודה אומר כל שאינו מלמדו אומנות מלמדו ליסטות ליסטות ס"ד אלא כאילו מלמדו ליסטות,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דאגמריה עיסקא,כל מצות האב על הבן וכו' מאי כל מצות האב על הבן אילימא כל מצותא דמיחייב אבא למיעבד לבריה נשים חייבות והתניא האב חייב בבנו למולו ולפדותו אביו אין אמו לא,אמר רב יהודה הכי קאמר כל מצות האב המוטלת על הבן לעשות לאביו אחד אנשים ואחד נשים חייבין תנינא להא דת"ר איש אין לי אלא איש אשה מנין כשהוא אומר תיראו הרי כאן שנים,א"כ מה ת"ל איש איש סיפק בידו לעשות אשה אין סיפק בידה לעשות מפני שרשות אחרים עליה אמר רב אידי בר אבין אמר רב נתגרשה שניהם שוים,ת"ר נאמר (שמות כ, יב) כבד את אביך ואת אמך ונאמר (משלי ג, ט) כבד את ה' מהונך השוה הכתוב כבוד אב ואם לכבוד המקום,נאמר (ויקרא יט, ג) איש אמו ואביו תיראו ונאמר (דברים ו, יג) את ה' אלהיך תירא ואותו תעבוד השוה הכתוב מוראת אב ואם למוראת המקום,נאמר (שמות כא, יז) מקלל אביו ואמו מות יומת ונאמר (ויקרא כד, טו) איש איש כי יקלל אלהיו ונשא חטאו השוה הכתוב ברכת אב ואם לברכת המקום אבל בהכאה ודאי אי אפשר,וכן בדין ששלשתן שותפין בו ת"ר שלשה שותפין הן באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו בזמן שאדם מכבד את אביו ואת אמו אמר הקב"ה מעלה אני עליהם כאילו דרתי ביניהם וכבדוני,תניא רבי אומר גלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שבן מכבד את אמו יותר מאביו מפני 30b. b“Say to wisdom: You are my sister,and call understanding your kinswoman” (Proverbs 7:4), which indicates that one should be as knowledgeable in the Torah as in the identity of his sister. bAnd it states: “Bind them upon your fingers, you shall write them upon the tablet of your heart”(Proverbs 7:3). bAnd it states: “As arrows in the hand of a mighty man, so are the children of one’s youth”(Psalms 127:4). bAnd it states: “Sharp arrows of the mighty”(Psalms 120:4). bAnd it states: “Your arrows are sharp, the peoples fall under you”(Psalms 45:6). bAnd it states: “Happy is the man who has his quiver full of them; they shall not be put to shame when they speak with their enemies in the gate”(Psalms 127:5).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“enemies in the gate”with regard to Torah study? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says: Even a father and his son,or ba rabbi and his student, who are engaged in Torahtogether bin one gate become enemies with each otherdue to the intensity of their studies. bBut they do not leave there until they love each other, as it is statedin the verse discussing the places the Jewish people engaged in battle in the wilderness: “Therefore it is said in the book of the wars of the Lord, bVahev in Suphah [ ibeSufa /i],and the valleys of Arnon” (Numbers 21:14). The word “ ivahev /i” is interpreted as related to the word for love, iahava /i. Additionally, bdo not readthis as b“in Suphah [ ibeSufa /i]”; rather,read it as b“at its end [ ibesofa /i],”i.e., at the conclusion of their dispute they are beloved to each other., bThe Sages taught: “And you shall place [ ivesamtem /i]these words of Mine in your hearts” (Deuteronomy 11:18). Read this as though it stated isam tam /i, a perfect elixir. The Torah is compared to an elixir of life.There is ba parable thatillustrates this: bA person hit his son with a strong blow and placed a bandage on his wound. And he said to him: My son, as long as this bandage is on your woundand is healing you, beat what you enjoy and drink what you enjoy, and bathe in either hot water or cold water, and you do not need to be afraid,as it will heal your wound. bBut if you take it off,the wound bwill become gangrenous. /b, bSotoo bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Israel: My children, I created an evil inclination,which is the wound, band I created Torah as its antidote. If you are engaged in Torahstudy byou will not be given over into the handof the evil inclination, bas it is stated: “If you do well, shall it not be lifted up?”(Genesis 4:7). One who engages in Torah study lifts himself above the evil inclination., bAnd if you do not engage in Torahstudy, byou are given over to its power, as it is stated: “Sin crouches at the door”(Genesis 4:7). bMoreover, allof the evil inclination’s bdeliberationswill be bconcerning you, as it is statedin the same verse: b“And to you is its desire.” And if you wish you shall rule over it, as it is statedin the conclusion of the verse: b“But you may rule over it”(Genesis 4:7)., bThe Sages taught:So bdifficult is the evil inclination that even its Creator calls it evil, as it is stated: “For the inclination of a man’s heart is evil from his youth”(Genesis 8:21). bRav Yitzḥak says: A person’sevil binclination renews itself to him every day, as it is stated:“And that every inclination of the thoughts in his heart was bonly evil all day [ ikol hayyom /i]”(Genesis 6:5). “ iKol hayyom /i” can also be understood as: Every day., bAnd Rabbi Shimon ben Levi says: A person’s inclination overpowers him every day, and seeks to kill him, as it is stated: “The wicked watches the righteous and seeks to slay him”(Psalms 37:32). bAnd if notfor the fact that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, assistseach person in battling his evil inclination, bhe could notovercome bit, as it is stated: “The Lord will not leave him in his hand”(Psalms 37:33).,A Sage from bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: My son, if this wretched one,the evil inclination, bencounters you, pull it into the study hall,i.e., go and study Torah. bIf it is a stoneit will bmelt, and if it is ironit will bbreak, as it is statedwith regard to the Torah: b“Is not My word like fire, says the Lord, and like a hammer that breaks the rock in pieces?”(Jeremiah 23:29). Just as a stone shatters a hammer, so too one can overcome his evil inclination, which is as strong as iron, through Torah study. With regard to the second part of the statement: bIf it is a stoneit will bmelt,this is bas it is statedwith regard to the Torah: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1), band it states: “The water wears the stones”(Job 14:19), indicating that water is stronger than stone.,§ The ibaraita(29a) teaches that a father is commanded bto marryhis son to ba woman.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this matter? bAs it is written: “Take wives and bear sons and daughters, and take wives for your sons and give your daughters to men”(Jeremiah 29:6).,The Gemara analyzes this verse: bGrantedwith regard to bhis son,this is bin his power,i.e., he can instruct him to marry a woman, as a man is the active agent in a marriage. bButwith regard to bhis daughter, isthis bin his power?She must wait for a man to marry her. The Gemara answers: bThis is whatJeremiah was bsaying to themin the aforementioned verse: Her father should bgive her somethingfor her dowry, band he should dress and cover herwith suitable clothing bso that men will leap tomarry bher. /b,§ The ibaraitafurther states that a father is commanded bto teachhis son ba trade.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bḤizkiyya said: As the verse states: “Enjoy life with the wife whom you love”(Ecclesiastes 9:9). bIfthis verse is interpreted literally, and bitis referring to ban actual woman,then one can derive as follows: bJust asa father bis obligated to marryhis son bto a woman, so too, he is obligated to teach him a trade,as indicated by the term: Life. bAnd ifthe wife mentioned in this verse is allegorical, and bit is the Torah,then one should explain the verse in the following manner: bJust as he is obligated to teach him Torah, so too, he is obligated to teach him a trade. /b,§ The ibaraitaadds: bAnd some saythat a father is balsoobligated bto teachhis son bto swim in a river.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bIt isnecessary for bhis life,i.e., this is potentially a lifesaving skill.,§ The ibaraitafurther teaches that bRabbi Yehuda says: Anyfather bwho does not teachhis son ba trade teaches him banditry.The Gemara asks: Can it benter your mindthat he actually teaches him bbanditry? Rather,the ibaraitameans that it is bas though he taught him banditry. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthe opinion of the first itannaand that of Rabbi Yehuda? Both state that a father must teach his son a trade. The Gemara answers: bThere isa difference bbetween themin a case bwherethe father bteaches himto engage in bbusiness.According to the first itannathis is sufficient, whereas Rabbi Yehuda maintains that he must teach him an actual trade.,§ The mishna teaches: With regard to ball mitzvot of a father with regard to his son,both men and women are obligated to perform them. The Gemara inquires: bWhatis the meaning of the expression: bAll mitzvot of a father with regard to his son? If we saythat this is referring to ball of the mitzvot that a father is required to perform for his son,are bwomen obligatedin these? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA father is obligated with regard to his son to circumcise him, and to redeem him?This indicates that bhis father, yes,he is obligated to do these, but bhis mother, no,she is not obligated to perform these mitzvot for her son., bRav Yehuda saidthat bthis is whatthe mishna bis saying:With regard to beach mitzvafor bthe father that is incumbent upon the son to perform for his father, both men and women are obligatedin them. The Gemara comments: bWealready blearned this, as the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i, with regard to the verse: b“A manshall fear [ itira’u /i] his mother and his father” (Leviticus 19:3). bI havederived bonlythat ba manis obligated in this mitzva; bfrom wheredo I derive that ba womanis also obligated? bWhen it saysin the same verse: b“A man shall fear [ itira’u /i] his mother and his father”(Leviticus 19:3), employing the plural form of the verb, this indicates that bthere are twothat are obligated bhere,both a man and a woman., bIf so,that both of them are obligated, bwhatis the meaning when bthe verse states: “Man”?In the case of ba man,it is bin his power to performthis mitzva; whereas with regard to ba woman,it is bnotalways bin her power to performthis mitzva, bbecause she is under the authority of anotherperson, i.e., her husband. As she is obligated to her husband to maintain her household, she is not always able to find time for her parents. bRav Idi bar Avin saysthat bRav says:Consequently, if a woman bis divorced,then bboth of them,a daughter and a son, are bequalwith regard to honoring and fearing their father and mother., bThe Sages taughtthat bit is stated: “Honor your father and your mother”(Exodus 20:11), band it is stated: “Honor the Lord with your wealth”(Proverbs 3:9). In this manner, bthe verse equates the honor of one’s father and mother to the honor of the Omnipresent,as the term “honor” is used in both cases.,Similarly, bit is stated: “A man shall fear his mother and his father”(Leviticus 19:3), band it is stated: “You shall fear the Lord your God and Him you shall serve”(Deuteronomy 6:13). bThe verse equates the fear of one’s father and mother to the fear of the Omnipresent. /b,Likewise, bit is stated: “He who curses his father or his mother shall be put to death”(Exodus 21:17), band it is stated: “Whoever curses his God shall bear his sin”(Leviticus 24:15). bThe verse equates the blessing,a euphemism for cursing, bofone’s bfather and mother to the blessing of the Omnipresent. But with regard to striking,i.e., with regard to the ihalakhathat one who strikes his father or mother is liable to receive court-imposed capital punishment, bit is certainly not possibleto say the same concerning the Holy One, Blessed be He., bAnd sotoo, the equating of one’s attitude toward his parents to his attitude toward God is ba logical derivation, as the three of them are partners in hiscreation. As bthe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe forming of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He,who provides the soul, band his father and his mother. When a person honors his father and mother, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: I ascribecredit bto them as if I dwelt between them and they honor Meas well., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: It is revealed and known before the One Who spoke and the world came into being that a son honors his mother more thanhe honors bhis father, because /b
82. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20a. תוקפו של בועז ענוותנותו של פלטי בן ליש כדאמרן,אמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כט) רבות בנות עשו חיל ואת עלית על כולנה רבות בנות עשו חיל זה יוסף ובועז ואת עלית על כולנה זה פלטי בן ליש,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמן אמר רבי יונתן מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, ל) שקר החן והבל היופי שקר החן זה יוסף והבל היופי זה בועז יראת ה' היא תתהלל זה פלטי בן ליש,דבר אחר שקר החן זה דורו של משה והבל היופי זה דורו של יהושע יראת ה' היא תתהלל זה דורו של חזקיה,דבר אחר שקר החן זה דורו של משה ויהושע והבל היופי זה דורו של חזקיה יראת ה' היא תתהלל זה דורו של ר' יהודה ברבי אילעאי אמרו עליו על רבי יהודה ברבי אילעאי שהיו ששה תלמידים מתכסין בטלית אחת ועוסקין בתורה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מת לו מת אינו יוצא מפתח פלטרין שלו רבי יהודה אומר אם רוצה לצאת אחר המיטה יוצא שכן מצינו בדוד שיצא אחר מיטתו של אבנר שנאמר (שמואל ב ג, לא) והמלך דוד הולך אחר המיטה א"ל לא היה הדבר אלא לפייס את העם וכשמברין אותו כל העם מסובין על הארץ והוא מיסב על הדרגש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן מקום שנהגו נשים לצאת אחר המיטה יוצאות לפני המיטה יוצאות ר' יהודה אומר לעולם נשים לפני המיטה יוצאות שכן מצינו בדוד שיצא אחר מיטתו של אבנר שנאמר (שמואל ב ג, לא) והמלך דוד הולך אחר המיטה,אמרו לו לא היה הדבר אלא לפייס את העם ונתפייסו שהיה דוד יוצא מבין האנשים ונכנס לבין הנשים ויצא מבין הנשים ונכנס לבין האנשים שנאמר (שמואל ב ג, לז) וידעו כל העם וכל ישראל כי לא היתה מהמלך להמית את אבנר,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב ג, לה) ויבא כל העם להברות את דוד כתיב להכרות וקרינן להברות בתחלה להכרותו ולבסוף להברותו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מפני מה נענש אבנר מפני שהיה לו למחות בשאול ולא מיחה ר' יצחק אמר מיחה ולא נענה ושניהן מקרא אחד דרשו (שמואל ב ג, לג) ויקונן המלך אל אבנר ויאמר הכמות נבל ימות אבנר ידיך לא אסורות ורגליך לא לנחשתים הוגשו,מאן דאמר לא מיחה הכי קאמר ידיך לא אסורות ורגליך לא לנחשתים הוגשו מאי טעמא לא מחית (שמואל ב ג, לד) כנפול לפני בני עולה נפלת ומ"ד מיחה ולא נענה איתמהויי מתמה הכמות נבל ימות ידיך לא אסורות ורגליך לא לנחשתים מכדי מחויי מחית מ"ט כנפול לפני בני עולה נפלת,למאן דאמר מיחה מ"ט איענש א"ר נחמן (ברבי) יצחק ששהא מלכות בית דוד שתי שנים ומחצה:,וכשמברין אותו כו': מאי דרגש אמר עולא ערסא דגדא א"ל רבנן לעולא מי איכא מידי דעד האידנא לא אותביניה והשתא מותבינן ליה,מתקיף לה רבא מאי קושיא דילמא מידי דהוה אאכילה ושתיה דעד האידנא לא אכילניה ולא אשקיניה השתא קא מוכלינן ליה וקא משקינן ליה אלא אי קשיא הא קשיא דרגש אינו צריך לכפותו אלא זוקפו ואי ס"ד ערסא דגדא אמאי אינו צריך לכפותו והתניא הכופה את מטתו לא מטתו בלבד הוא כופה אלא כל מטות שיש לו בתוך ביתו הוא כופה,מאי קושיא דילמא מידי דהוה אמטה מיוחדת לכלים דקתני אם היתה מיוחדת לכלים אינו צריך לכפותה אלא אי קשיא הא קשיא רשב"ג אומר דרגש מתיר קרביטין והוא נופל מאיליו ואי סלקא דעתך ערסא דגדא קרביטין מי אית ליה,אלא כי אתא רבין אמר אמר לי ההוא מרבנן ורב תחליפא שמיה דהוה שכיח בשוקא דגילדאי ואמר ליה מאי דרגש ערסא דצלא א"ר ירמיה א"ר יוחנן דרגש 20a. bBoaz’s poweris the bhumility of Palti, son of Laish, as we said,for he conquered his desire not only for one night, as Boaz did, but for many nights, bRabbi Yoḥa says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Many daughters have done valiantly, but you excel above them all”(Proverbs 31:29)? b“Many daughters have done valiantly”; thisis a reference to bJoseph and Boaz. “But you excel above them all”; thisis a reference to bPalti, son of Laish,who exceeded Joseph and Boaz in restraint, as discussed above., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥman saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain,but a woman who fears the Lord, she shall be praised” (Proverbs 31:30). b“Grace is deceitful”; thisis a reference to bJoseph. “And beauty is vain”; thisis a reference to bBoaz. “Who fears the Lord, she shall be praised”; thisis a reference to bPalti, son of Laish,who did not sin with Michal. Although the behavior of Joseph and Boaz is commendable, it is “deceitful” and “vain” relative to that of Palti ben Laish., bAlternatively: “Grace is deceitful”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Moses. “And beauty is vain”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Joshua. “Who fears the Lord, she shall be praised”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Hezekiah.Although the studying of Torah during the generations of Moses and Joshua was commendable, it was “deceitful” and “vain” relative to that of the generation of Hezekiah, during which the people studied Torah assiduously, despite the suffering caused by of war and foreign rule., bAlternatively: “Grace is deceitful”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Moses and Joshua. “And beauty is vain”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Hezekiah. “Who fears the Lord, she shall be praised”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ilai,who lived after the decrees of Hadrian, when the people were impoverished and oppressed. bIt was said about Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ilai, that sixof his bstudents would cover themselves with one garment,due to their poverty, bandnevertheless they would bengage in Torahstudy. Although the studying of Torah during the generations of Moses, Joshua, and Hezekiah was commendable, it was “deceitful” and “vain” relative to that of the people in the generation of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ilai, who studied Torah despite their hardships., strongMISHNA: /strong If a relative bofthe king bdies, he does not emerge from the entrance of his palace [ ipalterin /i],as it does not befit one of his stature to accompany the deceased. bRabbi Yehuda says: If he wishes to follow the bier, he followsit, bas that is what we foundwith regard btoKing bDavid, who followed the bier of Abner. As it is stated: “And King David followed the bier”(II Samuel 3:31). The Sages bsaid toRabbi Yehuda: bThe matter was only to appease the people,so that they should not suspect David of ordering Abner’s death. bAnd whenthe people bcomfortthe king with the meal of comfort, ball the people recline on the ground, and he reclines on the idargash /i. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In ba place where women were accustomed to follow the bier, they would followit, and the men would walk in front of the bier, and if the women were accustomed to walk bin front of the bier, they would goin front of it. bRabbi Yehuda says: Women always go in front of the bier, as that is what we found with regard toKing bDavid, who followed the bier of Abner, as it is stated: “And King David followed the bier,”and presumably David did not go among the women.,The Sages bsaid to him: The matter was only to appease the people, and they were appeased. As David would go out from among the men and go in among the women, and went out from among the women and went in among the men, as it is stated: “So all the people and all Israel understoodthat day bthat it was not from the king to slay Abner,son of Ner” (II Samuel 3:37)., bRava interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And all the people came to comfort David”(II Samuel 3:35)? bIt is written: “To destroy [ ilehakhrot /i],” and we read: “To comfort [ ilehavrot /i],”meaning, bin the beginningthey wanted bto destroy him,as they suspected him of ordering Abner’s assassination, band ultimately,when they saw that he was truly mourning, they decided bto comfort him. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: For whatreason bwas Abner punishedby being killed? It is bbecause he should have protested to Saulabout the killing of the priests of Nob (see I Samuel 22:17–19), bbut he did not protest. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: He did protest,so that is not the reason for his death, bbut he was not answered. And both ofthese Sages binterpreted one verse: “And the king lamented for Abner, and said: Should Abner die as a churl dies? Your hands were not bound, nor your feet put into fetters;as a man falls before the children of iniquity, so did you fall” (II Samuel 3:33–34).,The Gemara explains how each Sage understands the verse: bThe one who says he did not protestexplains that bthisis what the verse bis saying:As b“your hands were not bound, nor your feet put into fetters,” what is the reason you did not protestagainst Saul? Therefore, since you could have protested but did not, then b“as a man falls before the children of iniquity, so did you fall.” And the one who says he protested and was not answeredexplains that this is what the verse is saying: David bwondered: “ShouldAbner bdie as a churl dies? Your hands were not bound, nor your feet put into fetters,” since you protestedat the right time. Since that is the case, bwhat is the reasonthat b“as a man falls before the children of iniquity, so did you fall”? /b,The Gemara asks: bAccording to the one who saysthat Abner bprotested, what is the reason he was punishedwith this death? bRav Naḥman, son of Rabbi Yitzḥak, says:It is bbecause he delayed the kingdom of the house of David two and a half years,by supporting the kingdom of Ish-bosheth, the son of Saul, for this period of time.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd when they comfortthe king with the meal of comfort, he reclines on the idargash /i. The Gemara asks: bWhatis ba idargash /i? Ulla says: A bed of fortune,which would be designated in houses for decoration and for good fortune, and no one would sit on it. bThe Sages said to Ulla: Is there anythingwhich buntil now we did not authorize one to siton, bbut now,in his time of mourning, bwe seat himon it?, bRava objects to thisquestion: bWhat is the difficultyin this? bPerhapssitting on the idargashis bjust as it is with eating and drinking. As until now, we did not feed him nor give him drink,but bnow,in his time of mourning, bwe feed him and give him drink,in the meal of comfort. bRather, ifit bis difficult, this iswhat is bdifficult,as it is taught in a ibaraita /i: Concerning ba idargash /i,the mourner bis not required to overturn itduring mourning. bRather, he stands it upon its side. bAnd if it enters your mindto say that this is ba bed of fortune, why is he not required to overturn it? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who overturns his bedduring mourning, bnot only does he overturns hisown bbed, but rather he overturns all the beds he has in his house? /b,The Gemara responds: bWhat is the difficultyin this? bPerhapsthe lack of requirement to overturn the idargashis bjust as it is with a bedthat is bdesignated forthe storage of bgarments,and not for sleeping, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIf it was designated forthe storage of bgarmentsand not for people to lie down on, bhe is not required to overturn it. Rather, ifit bis difficult, this iswhat is bdifficult,as it is taught in a ibaraita /i: bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:One is not required to overturn ba idargash /i.Rather, the mourner bloosens the straps [ ikarvitin /i] and it falls on its own. And if it enters your mindto say that this is ba bed of fortune, doessuch a bed bhave straps? /b, bRather, when Ravin came he said: One of the Sages said to me, and Rav Taḥlifais bhis name, that he was often in the market of the leather workers, and he said to him: Whatis the meaning of idargash /i? A leather bed. Rabbi Yirmeya saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:The difference between a bed and a idargashis this: bA idargash/b
83. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52b. רע כל היום אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש יצרו של אדם מתגבר עליו בכל יום ומבקש להמיתו שנאמר (תהלים לז, לב) צופה רשע לצדיק ומבקש להמיתו ואלמלא הקב"ה שעוזר לו אינו יכול לו שנאמ' (תהלים לז, לג) ה' לא יעזבנו בידו ולא ירשיענו בהשפטו,תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אם פגע בך מנוול זה משכהו לבית המדרש אם אבן הוא נימוח אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ אם אבן הוא נימוח דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (איוב יד, יט) אבנים שחקו מים אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ דכתיב (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן יצר הרע מסיתו לאדם בעוה"ז ומעיד עליו לעולם הבא שנאמר (משלי כט, כא) מפנק מנוער עבדו ואחריתו יהיה מנון שכן באטב"ח של ר' חייא קורין לסהדה מנון,רב הונא רמי כתיב (הושע ד, יב) כי רוח זנונים התעה וכתיב (הושע ה, ד) בקרבם בתחלה התעם ולבסוף בקרבם,אמר רבא בתחלה קראו הלך ולבסוף קראו אורח ולבסוף קראו איש שנאמר (שמואל ב יב, ד) ויבא הלך לאיש העשיר ויחמול לקחת מצאנו ומבקרו לעשות לאורח וכתיב ויקח את כבשת האיש הרש ויעשה לאיש הבא אליו,אמר רבי יוחנן אבר קטן יש לו לאדם מרעיבו שבע משביעו רעב שנאמר (הושע יג, ו) כמרעיתם וישבעו וגו',אמר רב חנא בר אחא אמרי בי רב ארבעה מתחרט עליהן הקב"ה שבראם ואלו הן גלות כשדים וישמעאלים ויצר הרע גלות דכתיב (ישעיהו נב, ה) ועתה מה לי פה נאם ה' כי לקח עמי חנם וגו' כשדים דכתיב (ישעיהו כג, יג) הן ארץ כשדים זה העם לא היה,ישמעאלים דכתיב (איוב יב, ו) ישליו אהלים לשודדים ובטוחות למרגיזי אל לאשר הביא אלוה בידו יצר הרע דכתיב (מיכה ד, ו) ואשר הרעתי,אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא שלש מקראות הללו נתמוטטו רגליהם של שונאיהן של ישראל חד דכתיב ואשר הרעתי וחד דכתיב (ירמיהו יח, ו) הנה כחומר ביד היוצר כן אתם וגו' ואידך (יחזקאל לו, כו) והסרתי את לב האבן מבשרכם ונתתי לכם לב בשר,רב פפא אמר אף מהאי נמי (יחזקאל לו, כז) ואת רוחי אתן בקרבכם וגו',(זכריה ב, ג) ויראני ה' ארבעה חרשים מאן נינהו ארבעה חרשים אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא משיח בן דוד ומשיח בן יוסף ואליהו וכהן צדק מתיב רב ששת אי הכי היינו דכתיב (זכריה ב, ד) ויאמר אלי אלה הקרנות אשר זרו את יהודה הני לשובה אתו,א"ל שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ויבואו אלה להחריד אותם לידות את קרנות הגוים הנושאים קרן אל ארץ יהודה לזרותה וגו' א"ל בהדי חנא באגדתא למה לי,(מיכה ה, ד) והיה זה שלום אשור כי יבא בארצנו וכי ידרוך בארמנותינו והקמנו עליו שבעה רועים ושמנה נסיכי אדם מאן נינהו שבעה רועים דוד באמצע אדם שת ומתושלח מימינו אברהם יעקב ומשה בשמאלו ומאן נינהו שמנה נסיכי אדם ישי ושאול ושמואל עמוס וצפניה צדקיה ומשיח ואליהו:,ארבעה סולמות כו': תנא גובהה של מנורה חמשים אמה (כו'): וארבעה ילדים של פרחי כהונה ובידיהם כדי שמן של מאה ועשרים לוג: איבעיא להו מאה ועשרים לוג כולהו או דלמא לכל חד וחד תא שמע ובידיהם כדי שמן של שלשים שלשים לוג שהם כולם מאה ועשרים לוג,תנא והן משובחין היו יותר מבנה של מרתא בת בייתוס אמרו על בנה של מרתא בת בייתוס שהיה נוטל שתי יריכות של שור הגדול שלקוח באלף זוז ומהלך עקב בצד גודל ולא הניחוהו אחיו הכהנים לעשות כן משום (משלי יד, כח) ברב עם הדרת מלך,מאי משובחים אילימא משום יוקרא הני יקירי טפי אלא התם כבש ומרובע ולא זקיף הכא סולמות וזקיף טובא:,ולא היה חצר בירושלים: תנא 52b. bevil all day”(Genesis 6:5). All day long his thoughts and desires are for evil. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: A person’sevil binclination overcomes him each day and seeks to kill him, as it stated: “The wicked watches the righteous and seeks to kill him”(Psalms 37:32); the wicked here is referring to the wickedness inside one’s heart. bAnd if not for the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who assistshim with the good inclination, bhe would not overcome it, as it is stated: “The Lord will not leave him in his hand, nor suffer him to be condemned when he is judged”(Psalms 37:33)., bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: If this scoundrel,the evil inclination, baccosted you,seeking to tempt you to sin, bdrag it to the study halland study Torah. bIf it islike ba stone, it will be dissolvedby the Torah. bIf it islike biron, it will be shattered.The Gemara elaborates: bIf it islike bstone, it will be dissolved, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who is thirsty, come you for the water”(Isaiah 55:1), water in this context meaning Torah; band it is written: “Stones were worn by water”(Job 14:19). bIf it islike biron, it will be shattered, as it is written: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord; and like a hammer that shatters rock”(Jeremiah 23:29)., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The evil inclination incites a personto sin bin this world, andthen btestifies against him in the next world, as it is stated: “He that delicately brings up his servant from a child shall have him become a master [ imanon /i] at the last”(Proverbs 29:21). Initially, in one’s youth, the evil inclination, which should have been enslaved to him, takes control of him and causes him to sin. Then, ultimately, that same evil inclination becomes his imanon /i. iManonmeans witness, bas in Rabbi Ḥiyya’scoded alphabet in which ialef /iand itet /iand ibeit /iand iḥet /i,etc., are interchanged. bWitness[isahada/b] bis called imanon /i.The letters imemand isamekh /i, inunand iheh /i, and ivavand idaletare interchanged with other letters., bRav Huna raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is written: “For the spirit of harlotry causedthem bto err”(Hosea 4:12), indicating that this spirit was a temporary phenomenon and not an integral part of their persona. bAnd it isalso bwritten:“For the spirit of harlotry bis within them”(Hosea 5:4), indicating that it is an integral part of their persona. The Gemara explains: bInitially, it causes them to errfrom without, band ultimately,it is from bwithin them. /b, bRava said: Initially,the verse bcalledthe evil inclination ba travelercoming from afar. bSubsequently,the verse bcalls it a guest,as one welcomes it. bUltimately,the verse bcalls it man,indicating significance, as it became the homeowner. bAs it is statedin the parable of the poor man’s lamb that Nathan the prophet said to David: b“And there came a traveler to the rich man, and he was reluctant to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare for the guest”(II Samuel 12:4). bAnd it is writtenin the same verse: b“And he took the poor man’s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him.”In other words, the evil inclination that began as a traveler gradually rose in prominence., bRabbi Yoḥa said: A man has a small organused in sexual relations. bIf he starvesthe organ, and does not overindulge, it bis satiated;however, bif he satiatesthe organ and overindulges in sexual relations, it bis starving,and desires more, bas it is stated: “When they were fed, they became full,they were filled, and their heart was exalted; therefore have they forgotten Me” (Hosea 13:6)., bRav Ḥana bar Aḥa saidthat the Sages bin the school of Rav say:There are bfourcreations that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,created, yet He, as it were, bregrets that He created them,as they do more harm than good. bAnd these are they: Exile, Chaldeans, and Ishmaelites, and the evil inclination. Exile, as it is written: “Now therefore, for what am I here, says the Lord, seeing that My people is taken away for naught”(Isaiah 52:5). God Himself is asking: For what am I here? bChaldeans, as it is written: “Behold the land of the Chaldeans, this is the people that was not”(Isaiah 23:13), meaning, if only they never were., bIshmaelites, as it is written: “The tents of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure, in whatsoever God brings with His hand”(Job 12:6). God brought upon Himself these Arabs that dwell in the deserts in tents. bThe evil inclination, as it is written:“On that day, says the Lord, will I assemble her that is lame, and I will gather her that is driven away, band her that I corrupted”(Micah 4:6). God is saying that He created the evil inclination that led the people to sin and to be cast into exile., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Were it not for these three versesthat follow that indicate that God controls people’s hearts, bthe legs of the enemies ofthe bJewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, bwould have collapsed,unable to withstand the repercussions of their sins. bOne, as it is written: “And her that I corrupted,”indicating God’s regret for doing so. bAnd one, as it is written: “Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are youin My hand, O house of Israel” (Jeremiah 18:6). bAnd the otherverse: b“And I will take away the heart of stone out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh”(Ezekiel 36:26), indicating that the matter is not solely in human hands, but in the hands of God as well., bRav Pappa said:It is derived bfrom thisverse bas well: “And I will put My spirit within you,and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you shall keep My ordices, and do them” (Ezekiel 36:27).,§ Apropos the end of days, the Gemara cites another verse and interprets it homiletically. It is stated: b“The Lord then showed me four craftsmen”(Zechariah 2:3). bWho are these four craftsmen? Rav Ḥana bar Bizna saidthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida said:They are bMessiah ben David, Messiah ben Yosef, Elijah, and the righteousHigh bPriest,who will serve in the Messianic era. bRav Sheshet raised an objection: If so,if that is the identity of the four craftsmen, then bthat which is writtenin the previous verse: b“And he said to me: These are the horns that scattered Judea”(Zechariah 2:4), is difficult; bthesefour in the first verse bare coming for their enemies,and are not redeemers.,Rav Ḥana bsaid toRav Sheshet: bGo to the end of the verse: “These then are come to frighten them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted uptheir bhorn against the land of Judah to scatter it.”This indicates that the horns refer to the nations that exiled the Jewish people and that the four craftsmen will hurl those horns aside. Rav Sheshet bsaid to him: Whyshould bIdisagree bwithRav bḤana inmatters of iaggada /i,where he is more expert than I, and I cannot prevail?,The Gemara continues homiletically interpreting verses that relate to the end of days. It is stated: b“And this shall be peace: When the Assyrian shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight princes among men”(Micah 5:4). The Gemara asks: bWho are these seven shepherds?The Gemara explains: bDavidis bin the middle; Adam, Seth, and Methuselah are to his right; Abraham, Jacob, and Moses are to his left. And who are the eight princes among men?They are bYishai, Saul, Samuel, Amos, Zephania, Zedekiah, Messiah, and Elijah. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there were four laddersfor each pole. One of the Sages btaught: The height of the candelabrumupon the pole bis fifty cubits. Andthere were bfour children from the priesthood traineesholding band in their hands jugs of oilwith a capacity bof 120 ilog /iof oil. bA dilemma was raised:Was it b120 ilogaltogether, or perhaps each and everychild carried that amount? bComeand bhearproof from this ibaraita /i: bAnd in their handswere bjugs of oil, eachwith a capacity bof thirty ilog /i, that were alltogether b120 ilog /i. /b,One of the Sages btaught: And theseyoung priests who held the pitchers bwere superiorin strength bto the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos,who was a priest renowned for his might. bThey said about the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, that he would take two thighs of a large bullthat was so large bthatit would be bpurchased for one thousand izuz /i, and walkup the ramp in small steps, bheel to toe,without hurrying, due to his strength. However, bhis brethren the priests would not allow him do so, due tothe principle: b“In the multitude of people is the King’s glory”(Proverbs 14:28). The more priests engaged in the Temple service, the greater glory for God. Therefore, it is preferable for the thighs to be carried to the altar by multiple priests.,The Gemara asks: In bwhatsense were these young priests bsuperior? If we say it is due to the weightof the pitchers that they carried, bthesetwo bthighs are heavierthan the thirty ilogof oil. The Gemara answers: bRather,the difference is that bthere,in the case of the son of Marta, he walked on a brampthat was wide, bandwith a moderate gradient of only one cubit every bfourcubits of length, bandit is bnot steep; herethey climbed bladders, andthose are bvery steep. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there was not a courtyard in Jerusalemthat was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawing of the Water. One of the Sages btaught: /b
84. Nag Hammadi, On The Origin of The World, 116.7 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

85. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Philip, 68.22-68.26, 70.13-70.17, 71.16-71.21 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

86. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 22 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

87. Nag Hammadi, The Hypostasis of The Archons, 89.3, 89.16 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

88. Nag Hammadi, The Tripartite Tractate, 105, 104 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

89. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 5.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

90. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 5.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

91. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 5.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

92. Origen, Against Celsus, 7.50 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.50. Celsus has not explained how error accompanies the becoming, or product of generation; nor has he expressed himself with sufficient clearness to enable us to compare his ideas with ours, and to pass judgment on them. But the prophets, who have given some wise suggestions on the subject of things produced by generation, tell us that a sacrifice for sin was offered even for new-born infants, as not being free from sin. They say, I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me; also, They are estranged from the womb; which is followed by the singular expression, They go astray as soon as they are born, speaking lies. Besides, our wise men have such a contempt for all sensible objects, that sometimes they speak of all material things as vanity: thus, For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him that subjected the same in hope; at other times as vanity of vanities, Vanity of vanities, says the Preacher, all is vanity. Who has given so severe an estimate of the life of the human soul here on earth, as he who says: Verily every man at his best estate is altogether vanity? He does not hesitate at all as to the difference between the present life of the soul and that which it is to lead hereafter. He does not say, Who knows if to die is not to live, and if to live is not death But he boldly proclaims the truth, and says, Our soul is bowed down to the dust; and, You have brought me into the dust of death; and similarly, Who will deliver me from the body of this death? also, Who will change the body of our humiliation. It is a prophet also who says, You have brought us down in a place of affliction; meaning by the place of affliction this earthly region, to which Adam, that is to say, man, came after he was driven out of paradise for sin. Observe also how well the different life of the soul here and hereafter has been recognised by him who says, Now we see in a glass, obscurely, but then face to face; and, Whilst we are in our home in the body, we are away from our home in the Lord; wherefore we are well content to go from our home in the body, and to come to our home with the Lord.
93. Origen, On First Principles, 3.1.15, 3.1.18-3.1.21, 3.2.1-3.2.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1.15. Let us now look at those passages of Ezekiel where he says, I will take away from them their stony heart, and I will put in them a heart of flesh, that they may walk in My statutes, and keep Mine ordices. For if God, when He pleases, takes away a heart of stone and bestows a heart of flesh, that His ordices may be observed and His commandments may be obeyed, it will then appear that it is not in our power to put away wickedness. For the taking away of a stony heart seems to be nothing else than the removal of the wickedness by which one is hardened, from whomsoever God pleases to remove it. Nor is the bestowal of a heart of flesh, that the precepts of God may be observed and His commandments obeyed, any other thing than a man becoming obedient, and no longer resisting the truth, but performing works of virtue. If, then, God promises to do this, and if, before He takes away the stony heart, we are unable to remove it from ourselves, it follows that it is not in our power, but in God's only, to cast away wickedness. And again, if it is not our doing to form within us a heart of flesh, but the work of God alone, it will not be in our power to live virtuously, but it will in everything appear to be a work of divine grace. Such are the assertions of those who wish to prove from the authority of Holy Scripture that nothing lies in our own power. Now to these we answer, that these passages are not to be so understood, but in the following manner. Take the case of one who was ignorant and untaught, and who, feeling the disgrace of his ignorance, should, driven either by an exhortation from some person, or incited by a desire to emulate other wise men, hand himself over to one by whom he is assured that he will be carefully trained and competently instructed. If he, then, who had formerly hardened himself in ignorance, yield himself, as we have said, with full purpose of mind to a master, and promise to obey him in all things, the master, on seeing clearly the resolute nature of his determination, will appropriately promise to take away all ignorance, and to implant knowledge within his mind; not that he undertakes to do this if the disciple refuse or resist his efforts, but only on his offering and binding himself to obedience in all things. So also the Word of God promises to those who draw near to Him, that He will take away their stony heart, not indeed from those who do not listen to His word, but from those who receive the precepts of His teaching; as in the Gospels we find the sick approaching the Saviour, asking to receive health, and thus at last be cured. And in order that the blind might be healed and regain their sight, their part consisted in making supplication to the Saviour, and in believing that their cure could be effected by Him; while His part, on the other hand, lay in restoring to them the power of vision. And in this way also does the Word of God promise to bestow instruction by taking away the stony heart, i.e., by the removal of wickedness, that so men may be able to walk in the divine precepts, and observe the commandments of the law. 3.1.15. Let us look also at the declaration in Ezekiel, which says, I shall take away their stony hearts, and will put in them hearts of flesh, that they may walk in My statutes and keep My precepts. For if God, when He wills, takes away the stony hearts, and implants hearts of flesh, so that His precepts are obeyed and His commandments are observed, it is not in our power to put away wickedness. For the taking away of the stony hearts is nothing else than the taking away of the wickedness, according to which one is hardened, from him from whom God wills to take it; and the implanting of a heart of flesh, so that a man may walk in the precepts of God and keep His commandments, what else is it than to become somewhat yielding and unresistent to the truth, and to be capable of practising virtues? And if God promises to do this, and if, before He takes away the stony hearts, we do not lay them aside, it is manifest that it does not depend upon ourselves to put away wickedness; and if it is not we who do anything towards the production within us of the heart of flesh, but if it is God's doing, it will not be our own act to live agreeably to virtue, but altogether (the result of) divine grace. Such will be the statements of him who, from the mere words (of Scripture), annihilates free-will. But we shall answer, saying, that we ought to understand these passages thus: That as a man, e.g., who happened to be ignorant and uneducated, on perceiving his own defects, either in consequence of an exhortation from his teacher, or in some other way, should spontaneously give himself up to him whom he considers able to introduce him to education and virtue; and, on his yielding himself up, his instructor promises that he will take away his ignorance, and implant instruction, not as if it contributed nothing to his training, and to the avoiding of ignorance, that he brought himself to be healed, but because the instructor promised to improve him who desired improvement; so, in the same way, the Word of God promises to take away wickedness, which it calls a stony heart, from those who come to it, not if they are unwilling, but (only) if they submit themselves to the Physician of the sick, as in the Gospels the sick are found coming to the Saviour, and asking to obtain healing, and so are cured. And, let me say, the recovery of sight by the blind is, so far as their request goes, the act of those who believe that they are capable of being healed; but as respects the restoration of sight, it is the work of our Saviour. Thus, then, does the Word of God promise to implant knowledge in those who come to it, by taking away the stony and hard heart, which is wickedness, in order that one may walk in the divine commandments, and keep the divine injunctions. 3.1.18. Let us now look to the expression, It is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For our opponents assert, that if it does not depend upon him that wills, nor on him that runs, but on God that shows mercy, that a man be saved, our salvation is not in our own power. For our nature is such as to admit of our either being saved or not, or else our salvation rests solely on the will of Him who, if He wills it, shows mercy, and confers salvation. Now let us inquire, in the first place, of such persons, whether to desire blessings be a good or evil act; and whether to hasten after good as a final aim be worthy of praise. If they were to answer that such a procedure was deserving of censure, they would evidently be mad; for all holy men both desire blessings and run after them, and certainly are not blameworthy. How, then, is it that he who is not saved, if he be of an evil nature, desires blessing, and runs after them, but does not find them? For they say that a bad tree does not bring forth good fruits, whereas it is a good fruit to desire blessings. And how is the fruit of a bad tree good? And if they assert that to desire blessings, and to run after them, is an act of indifference, i.e., neither good nor bad, we shall reply, that if it be an indifferent act to desire blessings, and to run after them, then the opposite of that will also be an indifferent act, viz., to desire evils, and to run after them; whereas it is certain that it is not an indifferent act to desire evils, and to run after them, but one that is manifestly wicked. It is established, then, that to desire and follow after blessings is not an indifferent, but a virtuous proceeding. 3.1.18. Let us look next at the passage: So, then, it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For they who find fault say: If it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy, salvation does not depend upon ourselves, but upon the arrangement made by Him who has formed us such as we are, or on the purpose of Him who shows mercy when he pleases. Now we must ask these persons the following questions: Whether to desire what is good is virtuous or vicious; and whether the desire to run in order to reach the goal in the pursuit of what is good be worthy of praise or censure? And if they shall say that it is worthy of censure, they will return an absurd answer; since the saints desire and run, and manifestly in so acting do nothing that is blameworthy. But if they shall say that it is virtuous to desire what is good, and to run after what is good, we shall ask them how a perishing nature desires better things; for it is like an evil tree producing good fruit, since it is a virtuous act to desire better things. They will give (perhaps) a third answer, that to desire and run after what is good is one of those things that are indifferent, and neither beautiful nor wicked. Now to this we must say, that if to desire and to run after what is good be a thing of indifference, then the opposite also is a thing of indifference, viz., to desire what is evil, and to run after it. But it is not a thing of indifference to desire what is evil, and to run after it. And therefore also, to desire what is good, and to run after it, is not a thing of indifference. Such, then, is the defense which I think we can offer to the statement, that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. Solomon says in the book of Psalms (for the Song of Degrees is his, from which we shall quote the words): Unless the Lord build the house, they labour in vain that build it; except the Lord keep the city, the watchman wakes in vain: not dissuading us from building, nor teaching us not to keep watch in order to guard the city in our soul, but showing that what is built without God, and does not receive a guard from Him, is built in vain and watched to no purpose, because God might reasonably be entitled the Lord of the building; and the Governor of all things, the Ruler of the guard of the city. As, then, if we were to say that such a building is not the work of the builder, but of God, and that it was not owing to the successful effort of the watcher, but of the God who is over all, that such a city suffered no injury from its enemies, we should not be wrong, it being understood that something also had been done by human means, but the benefit being gratefully referred to God who brought it to pass; so, seeing that the (mere) human desire is not sufficient to attain the end, and that the running of those who are, as it were, athletes, does not enable them to gain the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus — for these things are accomplished with the assistance of God — it is well said that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. As if also it were said with regard to husbandry what also is actually recorded: I planted, Apollos watered; and God gave the increase. So then neither is he that plants anything, neither he that waters; but God that gives the increase. Now we could not piously assert that the production of full crops was the work of the husbandman, or of him that watered, but the work of God. So also our own perfection is brought about, not as if we ourselves did nothing; for it is not completed by us, but God produces the greater part of it. And that this assertion may be more clearly believed, we shall take an illustration from the art of navigation. For in comparison with the effect of the winds, and the mildness of the air, and the light of the stars, all co-operating in the preservation of the crew, what proportion could the art of navigation be said to bear in the bringing of the ship into harbour? — since even the sailors themselves, from piety, do not venture to assert often that they had saved the ship, but refer all to God; not as if they had done nothing, but because what had been done by Providence was infinitely greater than what had been effected by their art. And in the matter of our salvation, what is done by God is infinitely greater than what is done by ourselves; and therefore, I think, is it said that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For if in the manner which they imagine we must explain the statement, that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy, the commandments are superfluous; and it is in vain that Paul himself blames some for having fallen away, and approves of others as having remained upright, and enacts laws for the Churches: it is in vain also that we give ourselves up to desire better things, and in vain also (to attempt) to run. But it is not in vain that Paul gives such advice, censuring some and approving of others; nor in vain that we give ourselves up to the desire of better things, and to the chase after things that are pre-eminent. They have accordingly not well explained the meaning of the passage. 3.1.19. Besides these, there is the passage, Both to will and to do are of God. And some assert that, if to will be of God, and to do be of God, and if, whether we will evil or do evil, these (movements) come to us from God, then, if so, we are not possessed of free-will. But again, on the other hand, when we will better things, and do things that are more excellent, seeing that willing and doing are from God, it is not we who have done the more excellent things, but we only appeared (to perform them), while it was God that bestowed them; so that even in this respect we do not possess free-will. Now to this we have to answer, that the language of the apostle does not assert that to will evil is of God, or to will good is of Him (and similarly with respect to doing better and worse); but that to will in a general way, and to run in a general way, (are from Him). For as we have from God (the property) of being living things and human beings, so also have we that of willing generally, and, so to speak, of motion in general. And as, possessing (the property) of life and of motion, and of moving, e.g., these members, the hands or the feet, we could not rightly say that we had from God this species of motion, whereby we moved to strike, or destroy, or take away another's goods, but that we had received from Him simply the generic power of motion, which we employed to better or worse purposes; so we have obtained from God (the power) of acting, in respect of our being living things, and (the power) to will from the Creator while we employ the power of will, as well as that of action, for the noblest objects, or the opposite. 3.1.20. Still the declaration of the apostle will appear to drag us to the conclusion that we are not possessed of freedom of will, in which, objecting against himself, he says, Therefore has He mercy on whom He will have mercy, and whom He will He hardens. You will say then unto me, Why does He yet find fault? For who has resisted His will? Nay but, O man, who are you that replies against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why have you made me thus? Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour? For it will be said: If the potter of the same lump make some vessels to honour and others to dishonour, and God thus form some men for salvation and others for ruin, then salvation or ruin does not depend upon ourselves, nor are we possessed of free-will. Now we must ask him who deals so with these passages, whether it is possible to conceive of the apostle as contradicting himself. I presume, however, that no one will venture to say so. If, then, the apostle does not utter contradictions, how can he, according to him who so understands him, reasonably find fault, censuring the individual at Corinth who had committed fornication, or those who had fallen away, and had not repented of the licentiousness and impurity of which they had been guilty? And how can he bless those whom he praises as having done well, as he does the house of Onesiphorus in these words: The Lord give mercy to the house of Onesiphorus; for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain: but, when he was in Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found me. The Lord grant to him that he may find mercy of the Lord in that day. It is not consistent for the same apostle to blame the sinner as worthy of censure, and to praise him who had done well as deserving of approval; and again, on the other hand, to say, as if nothing depended on ourselves, that the cause was in the Creator why the one vessel was formed to honour, and the other to dishonour. And how is this statement correct: For we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he has done, whether it be good or bad, since they who have done evil have advanced to this pitch of wickedness because they were created vessels unto dishonour, while they that have lived virtuously have done good because they were created from the beginning for this purpose, and became vessels unto honour? And again, how does not the statement made elsewhere conflict with the view which these persons draw from the words which we have quoted (that it is the fault of the Creator that one vessel is in honour and another in dishonour), viz., that in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and silver, but also of wood and of earth; and some to honour, and some to dishonour. If a man therefore purge himself, he shall be a vessel unto honour, sanctified, and meet for the Master's use, and prepared unto every good work; for if he who purges himself becomes a vessel unto honour, and he who allows himself to remain unpurged becomes a vessel unto dishonour, then, so far as these words are concerned, the Creator is not at all to blame. For the Creator makes vessels of honour and vessels of dishonour, not from the beginning according to His foreknowledge, since He does not condemn or justify beforehand according to it; but (He makes) those into vessels of honour who purged themselves, and those into vessels of dishonour who allowed themselves to remain unpurged: so that it results from older causes (which operated) in the formation of the vessels unto honour and dishonour, that one was created for the former condition, and another for the latter. But if we once admit that there were certain older causes (at work) in the forming of a vessel unto honour, and of one unto dishonour, what absurdity is there in going back to the subject of the soul, and (in supposing) that a more ancient cause for Jacob being loved and for Esau being hated existed with respect to Jacob before his assumption of a body, and with regard to Esau before he was conceived in the womb of Rebecca? 3.1.21. And at the same time, it is clearly shown that, as far as regards the underlying nature, as there is one (piece of) clay which is under the hands of the potter, from which piece vessels are formed unto honour and dishonour; so the one nature of every soul being in the hands of God, and, so to speak, there being (only) one lump of reasonable beings, certain causes of more ancient date led to some being created vessels unto honour, and others vessels unto dishonour. But if the language of the apostle convey a censure when he says, Nay but, O man, who are you that replies against God? it teaches us that he who has confidence before God, and is faithful, and has lived virtuously, would not hear the words, Who are you that replies against God? Such an one, e.g., as Moses was, For Moses spoke, and God answered him with a voice; and as God answers Moses, so does a saint also answer God. But he who does not possess this confidence, manifestly, either because he has lost it, or because he investigates these matters not from a love of knowledge, but from a desire to find fault, and who therefore says, Why does He yet find fault? For who has resisted His will? would merit the language of censure, which says, Nay but, O man, who are you that replies against God? 3.2.1. We have now to notice, agreeably to the statements of Scripture, how the opposing powers, or the devil himself, contends with the human race, inciting and instigating men to sin. And in the first place, in the book of Genesis, the serpent is described as having seduced Eve; regarding whom, in the work entitled The Ascension of Moses (a little treatise, of which the Apostle Jude makes mention in his Epistle), the archangel Michael, when disputing with the devil regarding the body of Moses, says that the serpent, being inspired by the devil, was the cause of Adam and Eve's transgression. This also is made a subject of inquiry by some, viz., who the angel was that, speaking from heaven to Abraham, said, Now I know that you fear God, and on my account hast not spared your beloved son, whom you loved. For he is manifestly described as an angel who said that he knew then that Abraham feared God, and had not spared his beloved son, as the Scripture declares, although he did not say that it was on account of God that Abraham had done this, but on his, that is, the speaker's account. We must also ascertain who that is of whom it is stated in the book of Exodus that he wished to slay Moses, because he was taking his departure for Egypt; and afterwards, also, who he is that is called the destroying angel, as well as he who in the book of Leviticus is called Apopompæus, i.e., Averter, regarding whom Scripture says, One lot for the Lord, and one lot for Apopompæus, i.e., the Averter. In the first book of Kings, also, an evil spirit is said to strangle Saul; and in the third book, Micaiah the prophet says, I saw the Lord of Israel sitting on His throne, and all the host of heaven standing by Him, on His right hand and on His left. And the Lord said, Who will deceive Achab king of Israel, that he may go up and fall at Ramoth-gilead? And one said on this manner, and another said on that manner. And there came forth a spirit, and stood before the Lord, and said, I will deceive him. And the Lord said to him, Wherewith? And he said, I will go forth, and I will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. And He said, You shall deceive him, and prevail also: go forth, and do so quickly. And now therefore the Lord has put a lying spirit in the mouth of all your prophets: the Lord has spoken evil concerning you. Now by this last quotation it is clearly shown that a certain spirit, from his own (free) will and choice, elected to deceive (Achab), and to work a lie, in order that the Lord might mislead the king to his death, for he deserved to suffer. In the first book of Chronicles also it is said, The devil, Satan, stood up against Israel, and provoked David to number the people. In the Psalms, moreover, an evil angel is said to harass certain persons. In the book of Ecclesiastes, too, Solomon says, If the spirit of the ruler rise up against you, leave not your place; for soundness will restrain many transgressions. In Zechariah we read that the devil stood on the right hand of Joshua, and resisted him. Isaiah says that the sword of the Lord arises against the dragon, the crooked serpent. And what shall I say of Ezekiel, who in his second vision prophesies most unmistakeably to the prince of Tyre regarding an opposing power, and who says also that the dragon dwells in the rivers of Egypt? Nay, with what else are the contents of the whole work which is written regarding Job occupied, save with the (doings) of the devil, who asks that power may be given him over all that Job possesses, and over his sons, and even over his person? And yet the devil is defeated through the patience of Job. In that book the Lord has by His answers imparted much information regarding the power of that dragon which opposes us. Such, meanwhile, are the statements made in the Old Testament, so far as we can at present recall them, on the subject of hostile powers being either named in Scripture, or being said to oppose the human race, and to be afterwards subjected to punishment. 3.2.2. We, however, who see the reason (of the thing) more clearly, do not hold this opinion, taking into account those (sins) which manifestly originate as a necessary consequence of our bodily constitution. Must we indeed suppose that the devil is the cause of our feeling hunger or thirst? Nobody, I think, will venture to maintain that. If, then, he is not the cause of our feeling hunger and thirst, wherein lies the difference when each individual has attained the age of puberty, and that period has called forth the incentives of the natural heat? It will undoubtedly follow, that as the devil is not the cause of our feeling hunger and thirst, so neither is he the cause of that appetency which naturally arises at the time of maturity, viz., the desire of sexual intercourse. Now it is certain that this cause is not always so set in motion by the devil that we should be obliged to suppose that bodies would nor possess a desire for intercourse of that kind if the devil did not exist. Let us consider, in the next place, if, as we have already shown, food is desired by human beings, not from a suggestion of the devil, but by a kind of natural instinct, whether, if there were no devil, it were possible for human experience to exhibit such restraint in partaking of food as never to exceed the proper limits; i.e., that no one would either take otherwise than the case required, or more than reason would allow; and so it would result that men, observing due measure and moderation in the matter of eating, would never go wrong. I do not think, indeed, that so great moderation could be observed by men (even if there were no instigation by the devil inciting thereto), as that no individual, in partaking of food, would go beyond due limits and restraint, until he had learned to do so from long usage and experience. What, then, is the state of the case? In the matter of eating and drinking it was possible for us to go wrong, even without any incitement from the devil, if we should happen to be either less temperate or less careful (than we ought); and are we to suppose, then, in our appetite for sexual intercourse, or in the restraint of our natural desires, our condition is not something similar? I am of opinion, indeed, that the same course of reasoning must be understood to apply to other natural movements as those of covetousness, or of anger, or of sorrow, or of all those generally which through the vice of intemperance exceed the natural bounds of moderation. There are therefore manifest reasons for holding the opinion, that as in good things the human will is of itself weak to accomplish any good (for it is by divine help that it is brought to perfection in everything); so also, in things of an opposite nature we receive certain initial elements, and, as it were, seeds of sins, from those things which we use agreeably to nature; but when we have indulged them beyond what is proper, and have not resisted the first movements to intemperance, then the hostile power, seizing the occasion of this first transgression, incites and presses us hard in every way, seeking to extend our sins over a wider field, and furnishing us human beings with occasions and beginnings of sins, which these hostile powers spread far and wide, and, if possible, beyond all limits. Thus, when men at first for a little desire money, covetousness begins to grow as the passion increases, and finally the fall into avarice takes place. And after this, when blindness of mind has succeeded passion, and the hostile powers, by their suggestions, hurry on the mind, money is now no longer desired, but stolen, and acquired by force, or even by shedding human blood. Finally, a confirmatory evidence of the fact that vices of such enormity proceed from demons, may be easily seen in this, that those individuals who are oppressed either by immoderate love, or incontrollable anger, or excessive sorrow, do not suffer less than those who are bodily vexed by devils. For it is recorded in certain histories, that some have fallen into madness from a state of love, others from a state of anger, not a few from a state of sorrow, and even from one of excessive joy; which results, I think, from this, that those opposing powers, i.e., those demons, having gained a lodgment in their minds which has been already laid open to them by intemperance, have taken complete possession of their sensitive nature, especially when no feeling of the glory of virtue has aroused them to resistance.
94. Origen, Homilies On Leviticus, 8.3, 12.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

95. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 3.19-3.22, 17.19 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

96. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitiones (E Pseudocaesario), 1.45-1.47, 1.70-1.71 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

97. Ambrose, De Excesu Fratris Suis Satyri Libri Duo, 2.6 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

98. Ambrose, On Orthodox Faith, 2.11 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

99. Ambrose, On The Mysteries, 1 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

100. Ambrosiaster, Commentary On Romans, 5.12 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

101. Augustine, Confessions, 1.7, 7.5, 7.27, 8.10, 8.19, 8.21-8.22, 9.1-9.2, 9.4, 9.8, 9.10 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.7. 11. Hearken, O God! Alas for the sins of men! Man says this, and You have compassion on him; for You created him, but did not create the sin that is in him. Who brings to my remembrance the sin of my infancy? For before You none is free from sin, not even the infant which has lived but a day upon the earth. Who brings this to my remembrance? Does not each little one, in whom I behold that which I do not remember of myself? In what, then, did I sin? Is it that I cried for the breast? If I should now so cry - not indeed for the breast, but for the food suitable to my years - I should be most justly laughed at and rebuked. What I then did deserved rebuke; but as I could not understand those who rebuked me, neither custom nor reason suffered me to be rebuked. For as we grow we root out and cast from us such habits. I have not seen any one who is wise, when purging John 15:2 anything cast away the good. Or was it good, even for a time, to strive to get by crying that which, if given, would be hurtful - to be bitterly indigt that those who were free and its elders, and those to whom it owed its being, besides many others wiser than it, who would not give way to the nod of its good pleasure, were not subject unto it - to endeavour to harm, by struggling as much as it could, because those commands were not obeyed which only could have been obeyed to its hurt? Then, in the weakness of the infant's limbs, and not in its will, lies its innocency. I myself have seen and known an infant to be jealous though it could not speak. It became pale, and cast bitter looks on its foster-brother. Who is ignorant of this? Mothers and nurses tell us that they appease these things by I know not what remedies; and may this be taken for innocence, that when the fountain of milk is flowing fresh and abundant, one who has need should not be allowed to share it, though needing that nourishment to sustain life? Yet we look leniently on these things, not because they are not faults, nor because the faults are small, but because they will vanish as age increases. For although you may allow these things now, you could not bear them with equanimity if found in an older person. 12. You, therefore, O Lord my God, who gave life to the infant, and a frame which, as we see, You have endowed with senses, compacted with limbs, beautified with form, and, for its general good and safety, hast introduced all vital energies - You command me to praise You for these things, to give thanks unto the Lord, and to sing praise unto Your name, O Most High; for You are a God omnipotent and good, though You had done nought but these things, which none other can do but You, who alone made all things, O You most fair, who made all things fair, and orders all according to Your law. This period, then, of my life, O Lord, of which I have no remembrance, which I believe in the word of others, and which I guess from other infants, it chagrins me - true though the guess be - to reckon in this life of mine which I lead in this world; inasmuch as, in the darkness of my forgetfulness, it is like to that which I passed in my mother's womb. But if I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me, where, I pray you, O my God, where, Lord, or when was I, Your servant, innocent? But behold, I pass by that time, for what have I to do with that, the memories of which I cannot recall? 8.10. 22. Let them perish from Your presence, O God, as vain talkers and deceivers Titus 1:10 of the soul do perish, who, observing that there were two wills in deliberating, affirm that there are two kinds of minds in us - one good, the other evil. They themselves verily are evil when they hold these evil opinions; and they shall become good when they hold the truth, and shall consent unto the truth, that Your apostle may say unto them, You were sometimes darkness, but now are you light in the Lord. Ephesians 5:8 But, they, desiring to be light, not in the Lord, but in themselves, conceiving the nature of the soul to be the same as that which God is, are made more gross darkness; for that through a shocking arrogancy they went farther from You, the true Light, which lights every man that comes into the world. John 1:9 Take heed what you say, and blush for shame; draw near unto Him and be lightened, and your faces shall not be ashamed. I, when I was deliberating upon serving the Lord my God now, as I had long purposed - I it was who willed, I who was unwilling. It was I, even I myself. I neither willed entirely, nor was entirely unwilling. Therefore was I at war with myself, and destroyed by myself. And this destruction overtook me against my will, and yet showed not the presence of another mind, but the punishment of my own. Now, then, it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwells in me, Romans 7:17 - the punishment of a more unconfined sin, in that I was a son of Adam. 23. For if there be as many contrary natures as there are conflicting wills, there will not now be two natures only, but many. If any one deliberate whether he should go to their conventicle, or to the theatre, those men at once cry out, Behold, here are two natures - one good, drawing this way, another bad, drawing back that way; for whence else is this indecision between conflicting wills? But I reply that both are bad - that which draws to them, and that which draws back to the theatre. But they believe not that will to be other than good which draws to them. Supposing, then, one of us should deliberate, and through the conflict of his two wills should waver whether he should go to the theatre or to our church, would not these also waver what to answer? For either they must confess, which they are not willing to do, that the will which leads to our church is good, as well as that of those who have received and are held by the mysteries of theirs, or they must imagine that there are two evil natures and two evil minds in one man, at war one with the other; and that will not be true which they say, that there is one good and another bad; or they must be converted to the truth, and no longer deny that where any one deliberates, there is one soul fluctuating between conflicting wills. 24. Let them no more say, then, when they perceive two wills to be antagonistic to each other in the same man, that the contest is between two opposing minds, of two opposing substances, from two opposing principles, the one good and the other bad. For Thou, O true God, disprove, check, and convince them; like as when both wills are bad, one deliberates whether he should kill a man by poison, or by the sword; whether he should take possession of this or that estate of another's, when he cannot both; whether he should purchase pleasure by prodigality, or retain his money by covetousness; whether he should go to the circus or the theatre, if both are open on the same day; or, thirdly, whether he should rob another man's house, if he have the opportunity; or, fourthly, whether he should commit adultery, if at the same time he have the means of doing so - all these things concurring in the same point of time, and all being equally longed for, although impossible to be enacted at one time. For they rend the mind amid four, or even (among the vast variety of things men desire) more antagonistic wills, nor do they yet affirm that there are so many different substances. Thus also is it in wills which are good. For I ask them, is it a good thing to have delight in reading the apostle, or good to have delight in a sober psalm, or good to discourse on the gospel? To each of these they will answer, It is good. What, then, if all equally delight us, and all at the same time? Do not different wills distract the mind, when a man is deliberating which he should rather choose? Yet are they all good, and are at variance until one be fixed upon, whither the whole united will may be borne, which before was divided into many. Thus, also, when above eternity delights us, and the pleasure of temporal good holds us down below, it is the same soul which wills not that or this with an entire will, and is therefore torn asunder with grievous perplexities, while out of truth it prefers that, but out of custom forbears not this. 9.2. 2. And it seemed good to me, as before You, not tumultuously to snatch away, but gently to withdraw the service of my tongue from the talker's trade; that the young, who thought not on Your law, nor on Your peace, but on mendacious follies and forensic strifes, might no longer purchase at my mouth equipments for their vehemence. And opportunely there wanted but a few days unto the Vacation of the Vintage; and I determined to endure them, in order to leave in the usual way, and, being redeemed by You, no more to return for sale. Our intention then was known to You; but to men - excepting our own friends - was it not known. For we had determined among ourselves not to let it get abroad to any; although You had given to us, ascending from the valley of tears, and singing the song of degrees, sharp arrows, and destroying coals, against the deceitful tongue, which in giving counsel opposes, and in showing love consumes, as it is wont to do with its food. 3. You had penetrated our hearts with Your charity, and we carried Your words fixed, as it were, in our bowels; and the examples of Your servant, whom of black You had made bright, and of dead, alive, crowded in the bosom of our thoughts, burned and consumed our heavy torpor, that we might not topple into the abyss; and they enkindled us exceedingly, that every breath of the deceitful tongue of the gainsayer might inflame us the more, not extinguish us. Nevertheless, because for Your name's sake which You have sanctified throughout the earth, this, our vow and purpose, might also find commenders, it looked like a vaunting of oneself not to wait for the vacation, now so near, but to leave beforehand a public profession, and one, too, under general observation; so that all who looked on this act of mine, and saw how near was the vintage-time I desired to anticipate, would talk of me a great deal as if I were trying to appear to be a great person. And what purpose would it serve that people should consider and dispute about my intention, and that our good should be evil spoken of? Romans 14:16 4. Furthermore, this very summer, from too great literary labour, my lungs began to be weak, and with difficulty to draw deep breaths; showing by the pains in my chest that they were affected, and refusing too loud or prolonged speaking. This had at first been a trial to me, for it compelled me almost of necessity to lay down that burden of teaching; or, if I could be cured and become strong again, at least to leave it off for a while. But when the full desire for leisure, that I might see that You are the Lord, arose, and was confirmed in me, my God, You know I even began to rejoice that I had this excuse ready - and that not a feigned one - which might somewhat temper the offense taken by those who for their sons' good wished me never to have the freedom of sons. Full, therefore, with such joy, I bore it till that period of time had passed - perhaps it was some twenty days - yet they were bravely borne; for the cupidity which was wont to sustain part of this weighty business had departed, and I had remained overwhelmed had not its place been supplied by patience. Some of Your servants, my brethren, may perchance say that I sinned in this, in that having once fully, and from my heart, entered on Your warfare, I permitted myself to sit a single hour in the seat of falsehood. I will not contend. But hast not Thou, O most merciful Lord, pardoned and remitted this sin also, with my others, so horrible and deadly, in the holy water? 9.4. 7. And the day arrived on which, in very deed, I was to be released from the Professorship of Rhetoric, from which in intention I had been already released. And done it was; and Thou delivered my tongue whence You had already delivered my heart; and full of joy I blessed You for it, and retired with all mine to the villa. What I accomplished here in writing, which was now wholly devoted to Your service, though still, in this pause as it were, panting from the school of pride, my books testify, - those in which I disputed with my friends, and those with myself alone before You; and what with the absent Nebridius, my letters testify. And when can I find time to recount all Your great benefits which You bestowed upon us at that time, especially as I am hasting on to still greater mercies? For my memory calls upon me, and pleasant it is to me, O Lord, to confess unto You, by what inward goads You subdued me, and how Thou made me low, bringing down the mountains and hills of my imaginations, and straightened my crookedness, and smooth my rough ways; Luke 3:5 and by what means Thou also subdued that brother of my heart, Alypius, unto the name of Your only-begotten, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, which he at first refused to have inserted in our writings. For he rather desired that they should savour of the cedars of the schools, which the Lord has now broken down, than of the wholesome herbs of the Church, hostile to serpents. 8. What utterances sent I up unto You, my God, when I read the Psalms of David, those faithful songs and sounds of devotion which exclude all swelling of spirit, when new to Your true love, at rest in the villa with Alypius, a catechumen like myself, my mother cleaving unto us - in woman's garb truly, but with a man's faith, with the peacefulness of age, full of motherly love and Christian piety! What utterances used I to send up unto You in those Psalms, and how was I inflamed towards You by them, and burned to rehearse them, if it were possible, throughout the whole world, against the pride of the human race! And yet they are sung throughout the whole world, and none can hide himself from Your heat. With what vehement and bitter sorrow was I indigt at the Manich ans; whom yet again I pitied, for that they were ignorant of those sacraments, those medicaments, and were mad against the antidote which might have made them sane! I wished that they had been somewhere near me then, and, without my being aware of their presence, could have beheld my face, and heard my words, when I read the fourth Psalm in that time of my leisure - how that Psalm wrought upon me. When I called upon You, Thou heard me, O God of my righteousness; You have enlarged me when I was in distress; have mercy upon me, and hear my prayer. Oh that they might have heard what I uttered on these words, without my knowing whether they heard or no, lest they should think that I spoke it because of them! For, of a truth, neither should I have said the same things, nor in the way I said them, if I had perceived that I was heard and seen by them; and had I spoken them, they would not so have received them as when I spoke by and for myself before You, out of the private feelings of my soul. 9. I alternately quaked with fear, and warmed with hope, and with rejoicing in Your mercy, O Father. And all these passed forth, both by my eyes and voice, when Your good Spirit, turning unto us, said, O you sons of men, how long will you be slow of heart? How long will you love vanity, and seek after leasing? For I had loved vanity, and sought after leasing. And You, O Lord, had already magnified Your Holy One, raising Him from the dead, and setting Him at Your right hand, Ephesians 1:20 whence from on high He should send His promise, Luke 24:49 the Paraclete, the Spirit of Truth. John 14:16-17 And He had already sent Him, Acts 2:1-4 but I knew it not; He had sent Him, because He was now magnified, rising again from the dead, and ascending into heaven. For till then the Holy Ghost was not yet given, because that Jesus was not yet glorified. John 7:39 And the prophet cries out, How long will you be slow of heart? How long will you love vanity, and seek after leasing? Know this, that the Lord has magnified His Holy One. He cries out, How long? He cries out, Know this, and I, so long ignorant, loved vanity, and sought after leasing. And therefore I heard and trembled, because these words were spoken unto such as I remembered that I myself had been. For in those phantasms which I once held for truths was there vanity and leasing. And I spoke many things loudly and earnestly, in the sorrow of my remembrance, which, would that they who yet love vanity and seek after leasing had heard! They would perchance have been troubled, and have vomited it forth, and You would hear them when they cried unto You; for by a true death in the flesh He died for us, who now makes intercession for us Romans 8:34 with You. 10. I read further, Be angry, and sin not. Ephesians 4:26 And how was I moved, O my God, who had now learned to be angry with myself for the things past, so that in the future I might not sin! Yea, to be justly angry; for that it was not another nature of the race of darkness which sinned for me, as they affirm it to be who are not angry with themselves, and who treasure up to themselves wrath against the day of wrath, and of the revelation of Your righteous judgment. Romans 2:5 Nor were my good things now without, nor were they sought after with eyes of flesh in that sun; for they that would have joy from without easily sink into oblivion, and are wasted upon those things which are seen and temporal, and in their starving thoughts do lick their very shadows. Oh, if only they were wearied out with their fasting, and said, Who will show us any good? And we would answer, and they hear, O Lord. The light of Your countece is lifted up upon us. For we are not that Light, which lights every man, John 1:9 but we are enlightened by You, that we, who were sometimes darkness, may be light in You. Ephesians 5:8 Oh that they could behold the internal Eternal, which having tasted I gnashed my teeth that I could not show It to them, while they brought me their heart in their eyes, roaming abroad from You, and said, Who will show us any good? But there, where I was angry with myself in my chamber, where I was inwardly pricked, where I had offered my sacrifice, slaying my old man, and beginning the resolution of a new life, putting my trust in You, - there had Thou begun to grow sweet unto me, and to put gladness in my heart. And I cried out as I read this outwardly, and felt it inwardly. Nor would I be increased with worldly goods, wasting time and being wasted by time; whereas I possessed in Your eternal simplicity other grain, and wine, and oil. 11. And with a loud cry from my heart, I called out in the following verse, Oh, in peace! and the self-same! Oh, what said he, I will lay me down and sleep! For who shall hinder us, when shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory? 1 Corinthians 15:54 And You are in the highest degree the self-same, who changest not; and in You is the rest which forgets all labour, for there is no other beside You, nor ought we to seek after those many other things which are not what You are; but Thou, Lord, only makest me to dwell in hope. These things I read, and was inflamed; but discovered not what to do with those deaf and dead, of whom I had been a pestilent member - a bitter and a blind declaimer against the writings be-honied with the honey of heaven and luminous with Your own light; and I was consumed on account of the enemies of this Scripture. 12. When shall I call to mind all that took place in those holidays? Yet neither have I forgotten, nor will I be silent about the severity of Your scourge, and the amazing quickness of Your mercy. Thou at that time tortured me with toothache; and when it had become so exceeding great that I was not able to speak, it came into my heart to urge all my friends who were present to pray for me to You, the God of all manner of health. And I wrote it down on wax, and gave it to them to read. Presently, as with submissive desire we bowed our knees, that pain departed. But what pain? Or how did it depart? I confess to being much afraid, my Lord my God, seeing that from my earliest years I had not experienced such pain. And Your purposes were profoundly impressed upon me; and, rejoicing in faith, I praised Your name. And that faith suffered me not to be at rest in regard to my past sins, which were not yet forgiven me by Your baptism. 9.8. 17. You, who makest men to dwell of one mind in a house, associated with us Evodius also, a young man of our city, who, when serving as an agent for Public Affairs, was converted unto You and baptized prior to us; and relinquishing his secular service, prepared himself for Yours. We were together, and together were we about to dwell with a holy purpose. We sought for some place where we might be most useful in our service to You, and were going back together to Africa. And when we were at the Tiberine Ostia my mother died. Much I omit, having much to hasten. Receive my confessions and thanksgivings, O my God, for innumerable things concerning which I am silent. But I will not omit anything that my soul has brought forth as to that Your handmaid who brought me forth - in her flesh, that I might be born to this temporal light, and in her heart, that I might be born to life eternal. I will speak not of her gifts, but Yours in her; for she neither made herself nor educated herself. You created her, nor did her father nor her mother know what a being was to proceed from them. And it was the rod of Your Christ, the discipline of Your only Son, that trained her in Your fear, in the house of one of Your faithful ones, who was a sound member of Your Church. Yet this good discipline did she not so much attribute to the diligence of her mother, as that of a certain decrepid maid-servant, who had carried about her father when an infant, as little ones are wont to be carried on the backs of elder girls. For which reason, and on account of her extreme age and very good character, was she much respected by the heads of that Christian house. Whence also was committed to her the care of her master's daughters, which she with diligence performed, and was earnest in restraining them when necessary, with a holy severity, and instructing them with a sober sagacity. For, excepting at the hours in which they were very temperately fed at their parents' table, she used not to permit them, though parched with thirst, to drink even water; thereby taking precautions against an evil custom, and adding the wholesome advice, You drink water only because you have not control of wine; but when you have come to be married, and made mistresses of storeroom and cellar, you will despise water, but the habit of drinking will remain. By this method of instruction, and power of command, she restrained the longing of their tender age, and regulated the very thirst of the girls to such a becoming limit, as that what was not seemly they did not long for. 18. And yet - as Your handmaid related to me, her son - there had stolen upon her a love of wine. For when she, as being a sober maiden, was as usual bidden by her parents to draw wine from the cask, the vessel being held under the opening, before she poured the wine into the bottle, she would wet the tips of her lips with a little, for more than that her inclination refused. For this she did not from any craving for drink, but out of the overflowing buoyancy of her time of life, which bubbles up with sportiveness, and is, in youthful spirits, wont to be repressed by the gravity of elders. And so unto that little, adding daily littles (for he that despises small things shall fall little by little), she contracted such a habit as, to drink off eagerly her little cup nearly full of wine. Where, then, was the sagacious old woman with her earnest restraint? Could anything prevail against a secret disease if Your medicine, O Lord, did not watch over us? Father, mother, and nurturers absent, Thou present, who hast created, who callest, who also by those who are set over us work some good for the salvation of our souls, what did Thou do at that time, O my God? How did You heal her? How did You make her whole? Did You not out of another woman's soul evoke a hard and bitter insult, as a surgeon's knife from Your secret store, and with one thrust remove all that putrefaction? For the maidservant who used to accompany her to the cellar, falling out, as it happens, with her little mistress, when she was alone with her, cast in her teeth this vice, with very bitter insult, calling her a wine-bibber. Stung by this taunt, she perceived her foulness, and immediately condemned and renounced it. Even as friends by their flattery pervert, so do enemies by their taunts often correct us. Yet You render not unto them what You do by them, but what was proposed by them. For she, being angry, desired to irritate her young mistress, not to cure her; and did it in secret, either because the time and place of the dispute found them thus, or perhaps lest she herself should be exposed to danger for disclosing it so late. But You, Lord, Governor of heavenly and earthly things, who convertest to Your purposes the deepest torrents, and disposest the turbulent current of the ages, healest one soul by the unsoundness of another; lest any man, when he remarks this, should attribute it unto his own power if another, whom he wishes to be reformed, is so through a word of his. 9.10. 23. As the day now approached on which she was to depart this life (which day Thou knew, we did not), it fell out - Thou, as I believe, by Your secret ways arranging it - that she and I stood alone, leaning in a certain window, from which the garden of the house we occupied at Ostia could be seen; at which place, removed from the crowd, we were resting ourselves for the voyage, after the fatigues of a long journey. We then were conversing alone very pleasantly; and, forgetting those things which are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are before, Philippians 3:13 we were seeking between ourselves in the presence of the Truth, which You are, of what nature the eternal life of the saints would be, which eye has not seen, nor ear heard, neither has entered into the heart of man. But yet we opened wide the mouth of our heart, after those supernal streams of Your fountain, the fountain of life, which is with You; that being sprinkled with it according to our capacity, we might in some measure weigh so high a mystery. 24. And when our conversation had arrived at that point, that the very highest pleasure of the carnal senses, and that in the very brightest material light, seemed by reason of the sweetness of that life not only not worthy of comparison, but not even of mention, we, lifting ourselves with a more ardent affection towards the Selfsame, did gradually pass through all corporeal things, and even the heaven itself, whence sun, and moon, and stars shine upon the earth; yea, we soared higher yet by inward musing, and discoursing, and admiring Your works; and we came to our own minds, and went beyond them, that we might advance as high as that region of unfailing plenty, where You feed Israel for ever with the food of truth, and where life is that Wisdom by whom all these things are made, both which have been, and which are to come; and she is not made, but is as she has been, and so shall ever be; yea, rather, to have been, and to be hereafter, are not in her, but only to be, seeing she is eternal, for to have been and to be hereafter are not eternal. And while we were thus speaking, and straining after her, we slightly touched her with the whole effort of our heart; and we sighed, and there left bound the first-fruits of the Spirit; Romans 8:23 and returned to the noise of our own mouth, where the word uttered has both beginning and end. And what is like Your Word, our Lord, who remains in Himself without becoming old, and makes all things new? Wisdom 7:27 25. We were saying, then, If to any man the tumult of the flesh were silenced - silenced the phantasies of earth, waters, and air - silenced, too, the poles; yea, the very soul be silenced to herself, and go beyond herself by not thinking of herself - silenced fancies and imaginary revelations, every tongue, and every sign, and whatsoever exists by passing away, since, if any could hearken, all these say, We created not ourselves, but were created by Him who abides for ever: If, having uttered this, they now should be silenced, having only quickened our ears to Him who created them, and He alone speak not by them, but by Himself, that we may hear His word, not by fleshly tongue, nor angelic voice, nor sound of thunder, nor the obscurity of a similitude, but might hear Him - Him whom in these we love- without these, like as we two now strained ourselves, and with rapid thought touched on that Eternal Wisdom which remains over all. If this could be sustained, and other visions of a far different kind be withdrawn, and this one ravish, and absorb, and envelope its beholder amid these inward joys, so that his life might be eternally like that one moment of knowledge which we now sighed after, were not this Enter into the joy of Your Lord? Matthew 25:21 And when shall that be? When we shall all rise again; but all shall not be changed. 26. Such things was I saying; and if not after this manner, and in these words, yet, Lord, You know, that in that day when we were talking thus, this world with all its delights grew contemptible to us, even while we spoke. Then said my mother, Son, for myself, I have no longer any pleasure in anything in this life. What I want here further, and why I am here, I know not, now that my hopes in this world are satisfied. There was indeed one thing for which I wished to tarry a little in this life, and that was that I might see you a Catholic Christian before I died. My God has exceeded this abundantly, so that I see you despising all earthly felicity, made His servant - what do I here?
102. Augustine, Contra Duas Epistolas Pelagianorum, 2.15, 2.21, 4.4.7 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

2.15. Since in the case of those two twins we have without a doubt one and the same case, the difficulty of the question why the one died in one way, and the other in another, is solved by the apostle as it were by not solving it; for, when he had proposed something of the same kind about two twins, seeing that it was said (not of works, since they had not as yet done anything either of good or of evil, but of Him that calls), The older shall serve the younger, Romans 9:11 and, Jacob have I loved, and Esau have I hated; Romans 9:11 and he had prolonged the horror of this deep thing even to the point of saying, Therefore has He mercy on whom He will, and whom He will He hardens: Romans 9:18 he perceived at once what the trouble was, and opposed to himself the words of a gainsayer which he was to check by apostolic authority. For he says, You say, then, unto me, Why does He yet find fault? For who has resisted His will? And to him who says this he answered, O man, who are you that repliest against God? Does the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why have you made me thus? Hath not the potter power of the clay of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour and another unto dishonour? Romans 9:19 Then, following on, he opened up this great and hidden secret as far as he judged it fit that it should be disclosed to men, saying, But if God, willing to show His wrath and to demonstrate His power, endured in much patience the vessels of wrath fitted for destruction, even that He might make known the riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy which He has prepared for glory. Romans 9:22-23 This is not only the assistance, but, moreover, the proof of God's grace- the assistance, namely, in the vessels of mercy, but the proof in the vessels of wrath; for in these He shows His anger and makes known His power, because His goodness is so mighty that He even uses the evil well; and in those He makes known the riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy, because what the justice of a punisher requires from the vessels of wrath, the grace of the Deliverer remits to the vessels of mercy. Nor would the kindness which is bestowed on some freely appear, unless to other equally guilty and from the same mass God showed what was really due to both, and condemned them with a righteous judgment. For who makes you to differ? 1 Corinthians 4:7 says the same apostle to a man as it were boasting concerning himself and his own benefits. For who makes you to differ from the vessels of wrath; of course, from the mass of perdition which has sent all by one into damnation? Who makes you to differ? And as if he had answered, My faith makes me to differ - my purpose, my merit, - he says, For what have you which you have not received? But if you have received it, why do you boast as if you received it not?- that is, as if that by which you are made to differ were of your own. Therefore He makes you to differ who bestows that whence you are made to differ, by removing the penalty that is due, by conferring the grace which is not due. He makes to differ, who, when the darkness was upon the face of the abyss, said, Let there be light; and there was light, and divided - that is, made to differ - between the light and the darkness. Genesis 1:2 For when there was only darkness, He did not find what He should make to differ; but by making the light, He made to differ; so that it may be said to the justified wicked, For you were sometime darkness, but now are you light in the Lord. Ephesians 5:8 And thus he who glories must glory not in himself, but in the Lord. He makes to differ who - of those who are not yet born, and who have not yet done any good or evil, that His purpose, according to the election, might stand not of works, but of Himself that calls - said, The older shall serve the younger, and commending that very purpose afterwards by the mouth of the prophet, said, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. Malachi 1:2 Because he said the election, and in this God does not find made by another what He may choose, but Himself makes what He may find; just as it is written of the remt of Israel: There is made a remt by the election of grace; but if by grace, then it is no more of works, otherwise grace is no more grace. Romans 11:5 On which account you are certainly foolish who, when the Truth declares, Not of works, but of Him that calls, it was said, say that Jacob was loved on account of future works which God foreknew that he would do, and thus contradict the apostle when he says, Not of works; as if he could not have said, Not of present, but of future works. But he says, Not of works, that He might commend grace; but if of grace, now is it no more of works, otherwise grace is no more grace. For grace, not due, but free, precedes, that by it good works may be done; but if good works should precede, grace should be repaid, as it were, to works, and thus grace should be no more grace. 2.21. Wherefore God does many good things in man which man does not do; but man does none which God does not cause man to do. Accordingly, there would be no desire of good in man from the Lord if it were not a good; but if it is a good, we have it not save from Him who is supremely and incommunicably good. For what is the desire for good but love, of which John the apostle speaks without any ambiguity, and says, Love is of God? 1 John 4:7 Nor is its beginning of ourselves, and its perfection of God; but if love is of God, we have the whole of it from God. May God by all means turn away this folly of making ourselves first in His gifts, Himself last - because His mercy shall prevent me. And it is He to whom is faithfully and truthfully sung, For You have prevented him with the blessings of sweetness. And what is here more fitly understood than that very desire of good of which we are speaking? For good begins then to be longed for when it has begun to grow sweet. But when good is done by the fear of penalty, not by the love of righteousness, good is not yet well done. Nor is that done in the heart which seems to be done in the act when a man would rather not do it if he could evade it with impunity. Therefore the blessing of sweetness is God's grace, by which is caused in us that what He prescribes to us delights us, and we desire it - that is, we love it; in which if God does not precede us, not only is it not perfected, but it is not even begun, from us. For, if without Him we are able to do nothing actually, we are able neither to begin nor to perfect, - because to begin, it is said His mercy shall prevent me; to finish, it is said, His mercy shall follow me.
103. Augustine, Contra Felicem, 2.8 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

104. Augustine, Against Julian, 1.6, 1.13, 1.24-1.25, 1.27-1.31, 1.33-1.34, 1.60, 1.78-1.79, 1.124, 2.36, 2.52, 2.56, 2.63, 2.104, 3.4, 3.37, 3.154, 3.158, 3.161-3.164, 3.166-3.168, 3.170-3.187, 4.15, 4.35, 4.40, 4.44-4.46, 4.48-4.87, 5.5-5.13, 5.15-5.16, 5.21-5.23, 5.26-5.29, 5.31-5.53, 5.56-5.62, 6.7-6.14, 6.16-6.27, 6.31-6.32, 6.34, 6.39-6.40, 6.48 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

105. Augustine, De Baptismo Contra Donatistas, 4.21.28 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

106. Augustine, De Catechizandis Rudibus, 6, 28 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

107. Augustine, De Correptione Et Gratia, 25 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

108. Augustine, De Diversis Quaestionibus Ad Simplicianum, 1.2, 1.2.12-1.2.13, 1.2.18, 2.6, 2.17, 2.20-2.21, 66.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

109. Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, 3.10 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

110. Augustine, De Dono Perseverantiae, 52 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

111. Augustine, De Libero Arbitrio, 3.47-3.48, 3.51-3.54 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

112. Augustine, De Natura Et Gratia Ad Timasium Et Jacobum Contra Pelagium, 5, 9, 4 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

113. Augustine, De Nuptiis Et Concupiscentia, 1.21, 1.24, 1.28, 2.15, 2.34.57, 2.55, 2.58 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

114. Augustine, De Peccatorum Meritis Et Remissione Et De Baptismo Parvulorum, 1.8-1.10, 1.13-1.15, 1.19, 1.21-1.22, 1.24-1.25, 1.27, 1.29-1.31, 1.34, 1.64, 2.7, 2.9, 2.11, 2.30-2.31, 2.43 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.22. They, therefore, who say that the reason why infants are baptized, is, that they may have the remission of the sin which they have themselves committed in their life, not what they have derived from Adam, may be refuted without much difficulty. For whenever these persons shall have reflected within themselves a little, uninfluenced by any polemical spirit, on the absurdity of their statement, how unworthy it is, in fact, of serious discussion, they will at once change their opinion. But if they will not do this, we shall not so completely despair of men's common sense, as to have any fears that they will induce others to adopt their views. They are themselves driven to adopt their opinion, if I am not mistaken, by their prejudice for some other theory; and it is because they feel themselves obliged to allow that sins are remitted to the baptized, and are unwilling to allow that the sin was derived from Adam which they admit to be remitted to infants, that they have been obliged to charge infancy itself with actual sin; as if by bringing this charge against infancy a man could become the more secure himself, when accused and unable to answer his assailant! However, let us, as I suggested, pass by such opponents as these; indeed, we require neither words nor quotations of Scripture to prove the sinlessness of infants, so far as their conduct in life is concerned; this life they spend, such is the recency of their birth, within their very selves, since it escapes the cognizance of human perception, which has no data or support whereon to sustain any controversy on the subject.
115. Augustine, De Perfectione Justitiae Hominis Liber, 2 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

116. Augustine, De Praedestinatione Sanctorum., 7-8, 11 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

117. Augustine, De Spiritu Et Littera, 54, 59, 22 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

118. Augustine, On The Holy Trinity, 5.12, 13.3-13.5, 13.12 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

119. Augustine, Enarrationes In Psalmos, 85.5, 102.10, 123.1 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

120. Augustine, Enchiridion, 84-86, 26 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

121. Augustine, The City of God, 4.26, 5.10-5.11, 10.29, 13.23, 14.1, 14.3, 14.5, 14.10-14.20, 14.26-14.28, 15.1, 21.24, 22.24 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

4.26. But, says Cicero, Homer invented these things, and transferred things human to the gods: I would rather transfer things divine to us. The poet, by ascribing such crimes to the gods, has justly displeased the grave man. Why, then, are the scenic plays, where these crimes are habitually spoken of, acted, exhibited, in honor of the gods, reckoned among things divine by the most learned men? Cicero should exclaim, not against the inventions of the poets, but against the customs of the ancients. Would not they have exclaimed in reply, What have we done? The gods themselves have loudly demanded that these plays should be exhibited in their honor, have fiercely exacted them, have menaced destruction unless this was performed, have avenged its neglect with great severity, and have manifested pleasure at the reparation of such neglect. Among their virtuous and wonderful deeds the following is related. It was announced in a dream to Titus Latinius, a Roman rustic, that he should go to the senate and tell them to recommence the games of Rome, because on the first day of their celebration a condemned criminal had been led to punishment in sight of the people, an incident so sad as to disturb the gods who were seeking amusement from the games. And when the peasant who had received this intimation was afraid on the following day to deliver it to the senate, it was renewed next night in a severer form: he lost his son, because of his neglect. On the third night he was warned that a yet graver punishment was impending, if he should still refuse obedience. When even thus he did not dare to obey, he fell into a virulent and horrible disease. But then, on the advice of his friends, he gave information to the magistrates, and was carried in a litter into the senate, and having, on declaring his dream, immediately recovered strength, went away on his own feet whole. The senate, amazed at so great a miracle, decreed that the games should be renewed at fourfold cost. What sensible man does not see that men, being put upon by maligt demons, from whose domination nothing save the grace of God through Jesus Christ our Lord sets free, have been compelled by force to exhibit to such gods as these, plays which, if well advised, they should condemn as shameful? Certain it is that in these plays the poetic crimes of the gods are celebrated, yet they are plays which were re-established by decree of the senate, under compulsion of the gods. In these plays the most shameless actors celebrated Jupiter as the corrupter of chastity, and thus gave him pleasure. If that was a fiction, he would have been moved to anger; but if he was delighted with the representation of his crimes, even although fabulous, then, when he happened to be worshipped, who but the devil could be served? Is it so that he could found, extend, and preserve the Roman empire, who was more vile than any Roman man whatever, to whom such things were displeasing? Could he give felicity who was so infelicitously worshipped, and who, unless he should be thus worshipped, was yet more infelicitously provoked to anger? 5.10. Wherefore, neither is that necessity to be feared, for dread of which the Stoics labored to make such distinctions among the causes of things as should enable them to rescue certain things from the dominion of necessity, and to subject others to it. Among those things which they wished not to be subject to necessity they placed our wills, knowing that they would not be free if subjected to necessity. For if that is to be called our necessity which is not in our power, but even though we be unwilling effects what it can effect - as, for instance, the necessity of death - it is manifest that our wills by which we live up-rightly or wickedly are not under such a necessity; for we do many things which, if we were not willing, we should certainly not do. This is primarily true of the act of willing itself - for if we will, it is; if we will not, it is not - for we should not will if we were unwilling. But if we define necessity to be that according to which we say that it is necessary that anything be of such or such a nature, or be done in such and such a manner, I know not why we should have any dread of that necessity taking away the freedom of our will. For we do not put the life of God or the foreknowledge of God under necessity if we should say that it is necessary that God should live forever, and foreknow all things; as neither is His power diminished when we say that He cannot die or fall into error - for this is in such a way impossible to Him, that if it were possible for Him, He would be of less power. But assuredly He is rightly called omnipotent, though He can neither die nor fall into error. For He is called omnipotent on account of His doing what He wills, not on account of His suffering what He wills not; for if that should befall Him, He would by no means be omnipotent. Wherefore, He cannot do some things for the very reason that He is omnipotent. So also, when we say that it is necessary that, when we will, we will by free choice, in so saying we both affirm what is true beyond doubt, and do not still subject our wills thereby to a necessity which destroys liberty. Our wills, therefore, exist as wills, and do themselves whatever we do by willing, and which would not be done if we were unwilling. But when any one suffers anything, being unwilling by the will of another, even in that case will retains its essential validity, - we do not mean the will of the party who inflicts the suffering, for we resolve it into the power of God. For if a will should simply exist, but not be able to do what it wills, it would be overborne by a more powerful will. Nor would this be the case unless there had existed will, and that not the will of the other party, but the will of him who willed, but was not able to accomplish what he willed. Therefore, whatsoever a man suffers contrary to his own will, he ought not to attribute to the will of men, or of angels, or of any created spirit, but rather to His will who gives power to wills. It is not the case, therefore, that because God foreknew what would be in the power of our wills, there is for that reason nothing in the power of our wills. For he who foreknew this did not foreknow nothing. Moreover, if He who foreknew what would be in the power of our wills did not foreknow nothing, but something, assuredly, even though He did foreknow, there is something in the power of our wills. Therefore we are by no means compelled, either, retaining the prescience of God, to take away the freedom of the will, or, retaining the freedom of the will, to deny that He is prescient of future things, which is impious. But we embrace both. We faithfully and sincerely confess both. The former, that we may believe well; the latter, that we may live well. For he lives ill who does not believe well concerning God. Wherefore, be it far from us, in order to maintain our freedom, to deny the prescience of Him by whose help we are or shall be free. Consequently, it is not in vain that laws are enacted, and that reproaches, exhortations, praises, and vituperations are had recourse to; for these also He foreknew, and they are of great avail, even as great as He foreknew that they would be of. Prayers, also, are of avail to procure those things which He foreknew that He would grant to those who offered them; and with justice have rewards been appointed for good deeds, and punishments for sins. For a man does not therefore sin because God foreknew that he would sin. Nay, it cannot be doubted but that it is the man himself who sins when he does sin, because He, whose foreknowledge is infallible, foreknew not that fate, or fortune, or something else would sin, but that the man himself would sin, who, if he wills not, sins not. But if he shall not will to sin, even this did God foreknow. 5.11. Therefore God supreme and true, with His Word and Holy Spirit (which three are one), one God omnipotent, creator and maker of every soul and of every body; by whose gift all are happy who are happy through verity and not through vanity; who made man a rational animal consisting of soul and body, who, when he sinned, neither permitted him to go unpunished, nor left him without mercy; who has given to the good and to the evil, being in common with stones, vegetable life in common with trees, sensuous life in common with brutes, intellectual life in common with angels alone; from whom is every mode, every species, every order; from whom are measure, number, weight; from whom is everything which has an existence in nature, of whatever kind it be, and of whatever value; from whom are the seeds of forms and the forms of seeds, and the motion of seeds and of forms; who gave also to flesh its origin, beauty, health, reproductive fecundity, disposition of members, and the salutary concord of its parts; who also to the irrational soul has given memory, sense, appetite, but to the rational soul, in addition to these, has given intelligence and will; who has not left, not to speak of heaven and earth, angels and men, but not even the entrails of the smallest and most contemptible animal, or the feather of a bird, or the little flower of a plant, or the leaf of a tree, without an harmony, and, as it were, a mutual peace among all its parts - that God can never be believed to have left the kingdoms of men, their dominations and servitudes, outside of the laws of His providence. 10.29. You proclaim the Father and His Son, whom you call the Father's intellect or mind, and between these a third, by whom we suppose you mean the Holy Spirit, and in your own fashion you call these three Gods. In this, though your expressions are inaccurate, you do in some sort, and as through a veil, see what we should strive towards; but the incarnation of the unchangeable Son of God, whereby we are saved, and are enabled to reach the things we believe, or in part understand, this is what you refuse to recognize. You see in a fashion, although at a distance, although with filmy eye, the country in which we should abide; but the way to it you know not. Yet you believe in grace, for you say it is granted to few to reach God by virtue of intelligence. For you do not say, Few have thought fit or have wished, but, It has been granted to few,- distinctly acknowledging God's grace, not man's sufficiency. You also use this word more expressly, when, in accordance with the opinion of Plato, you make no doubt that in this life a man cannot by any means attain to perfect wisdom, but that whatever is lacking is in the future life made up to those who live intellectually, by God's providence and grace. Oh, had you but recognized the grace of God in Jesus Christ our Lord, and that very incarnation of His, wherein He assumed a human soul and body, you might have seemed the brightest example of grace! But what am I doing? I know it is useless to speak to a dead man - useless, at least, so far as regards you, but perhaps not in vain for those who esteem you highly, and love you on account of their love of wisdom or curiosity about those arts which you ought not to have learned; and these persons I address in your name. The grace of God could not have been more graciously commended to us than thus, that the only Son of God, remaining unchangeable in Himself, should assume humanity, and should give us the hope of His love, by means of the mediation of a human nature, through which we, from the condition of men, might come to Him who was so far off - the immortal from the mortal; the unchangeable from the changeable; the just from the unjust; the blessed from the wretched. And, as He had given us a natural instinct to desire blessedness and immortality, He Himself continuing to be blessed; but assuming mortality, by enduring what we fear, taught us to despise it, that what we long for He might bestow upon us. But in order to your acquiescence in this truth, it is lowliness that is requisite, and to this it is extremely difficult to bend you. For what is there incredible, especially to men like you, accustomed to speculation, which might have predisposed you to believe in this - what is there incredible, I say, in the assertion that God assumed a human soul and body? You yourselves ascribe such excellence to the intellectual soul, which is, after all, the human soul, that you maintain that it can become consubstantial with that intelligence of the Father whom you believe in as the Son of God. What incredible thing is it, then, if some one soul be assumed by Him in an ineffable and unique manner for the salvation of many? Moreover, our nature itself testifies that a man is incomplete unless a body be united with the soul. This certainly would be more incredible, were it not of all things the most common; for we should more easily believe in a union between spirit and spirit, or, to use your own terminology, between the incorporeal and the incorporeal, even though the one were human, the other divine, the one changeable and the other unchangeable, than in a union between the corporeal and the incorporeal. But perhaps it is the unprecedented birth of a body from a virgin that staggers you? But, so far from this being a difficulty, it ought rather to assist you to receive our religion, that a miraculous person was born miraculously. Or, do you find a difficulty in the fact that, after His body had been given up to death, and had been changed into a higher kind of body by resurrection, and was now no longer mortal but incorruptible, He carried it up into heavenly places? Perhaps you refuse to believe this, because you remember that Porphyry, in these very books from which I have cited so much, and which treat of the return of the soul, so frequently teaches that a body of every kind is to be escaped from, in order that the soul may dwell in blessedness with God. But here, in place of following Porphyry, you ought rather to have corrected him, especially since you agree with him in believing such incredible things about the soul of this visible world and huge material frame. For, as scholars of Plato, you hold that the world is an animal, and a very happy animal, which you wish to be also everlasting. How, then, is it never to be loosed from a body, and yet never lose its happiness, if, in order to the happiness of the soul, the body must be left behind? The sun, too, and the other stars, you not only acknowledge to be bodies, in which you have the cordial assent of all seeing men, but also, in obedience to what you reckon a profounder insight, you declare that they are very blessed animals, and eternal, together with their bodies. Why is it, then, that when the Christian faith is pressed upon you, you forget, or pretend to ignore, what you habitually discuss or teach? Why is it that you refuse to be Christians, on the ground that you hold opinions which, in fact, you yourselves demolish? Is it not because Christ came in lowliness, and you are proud? The precise nature of the resurrection bodies of the saints may sometimes occasion discussion among those who are best read in the Christian Scriptures; yet there is not among us the smallest doubt that they shall be everlasting, and of a nature exemplified in the instance of Christ's risen body. But whatever be their nature, since we maintain that they shall be absolutely incorruptible and immortal, and shall offer no hindrance to the soul's contemplation, by which it is fixed in God, and as you say that among the celestials the bodies of the eternally blessed are eternal, why do you maintain that, in order to blessedness, every body must be escaped from? Why do you thus seek such a plausible reason for escaping from the Christian faith, if not because, as I again say, Christ is humble and you proud? Are you ashamed to be corrected? This is the vice of the proud. It is, forsooth, a degradation for learned men to pass from the school of Plato to the discipleship of Christ, who by His Spirit taught a fisherman to think and to say, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him; and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was life; and the life was the light of men. And the light shines in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not. John 1:1-5 The old saint Simplicianus, afterwards bishop of Milan, used to tell me that a certain Platonist was in the habit of saying that this opening passage of the holy gospel, entitled, According to John, should be written in letters of gold, and hung up in all churches in the most conspicuous place. But the proud scorn to take God for their Master, because the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us. John 1:14 So that, with these miserable creatures, it is not enough that they are sick, but they boast of their sickness, and are ashamed of the medicine which could heal them. And, doing so, they secure not elevation, but a more disastrous fall. 14.1. We have already stated in the preceding books that God, desiring not only that the human race might be able by their similarity of nature to associate with one another, but also that they might be bound together in harmony and peace by the ties of relationship, was pleased to derive all men from one individual, and created man with such a nature that the members of the race should not have died, had not the two first (of whom the one was created out of nothing, and the other out of him) merited this by their disobedience; for by them so great a sin was committed, that by it the human nature was altered for the worse, and was transmitted also to their posterity, liable to sin and subject to death. And the kingdom of death so reigned over men, that the deserved penalty of sin would have hurled all headlong even into the second death, of which there is no end, had not the undeserved grace of God saved some therefrom. And thus it has come to pass, that though there are very many and great nations all over the earth, whose rites and customs, speech, arms, and dress, are distinguished by marked differences, yet there are no more than two kinds of human society, which we may justly call two cities, according to the language of our Scriptures. The one consists of those who wish to live after the flesh, the other of those who wish to live after the spirit; and when they severally achieve what they wish, they live in peace, each after their kind. 14.3. But if any one says that the flesh is the cause of all vices and ill conduct, inasmuch as the soul lives wickedly only because it is moved by the flesh, it is certain he has not carefully considered the whole nature of man. For the corruptible body, indeed, weighs down the soul. Wisdom 9:15 Whence, too, the apostle, speaking of this corruptible body, of which he had shortly before said, though our outward man perish, 2 Corinthians 4:16 says, We know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. For in this we groan, earnestly desiring to be clothed upon with our house which is from heaven: if so be that being clothed we shall not be found naked. For we that are in this tabernacle do groan, being burdened: not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that mortality might be swallowed up in life. 2 Corinthians 5:1-4 We are then burdened with this corruptible body; but knowing that the cause of this burdensomeness is not the nature and substance of the body, but its corruption, we do not desire to be deprived of the body, but to be clothed with its immortality. For then, also, there will be a body, but it shall no longer be a burden, being no longer corruptible. At present, then, the corruptible body presses down the soul, and the earthly tabernacle weighs down the mind that muses upon many things, nevertheless they are in error who suppose that all the evils of the soul proceed from the body. Virgil, indeed, seems to express the sentiments of Plato in the beautiful lines, where he says - A fiery strength inspires their lives, An essence that from heaven derives, Though clogged in part by limbs of clay And the dull 'vesture of decay;' but though he goes on to mention the four most common mental emotions - desire, fear, joy, sorrow - with the intention of showing that the body is the origin of all sins and vices, saying - Hence wild desires and grovelling fears, And human laughter, human tears, Immured in dungeon-seeming nights They look abroad, yet see no light, yet we believe quite otherwise. For the corruption of the body, which weighs down the soul, is not the cause but the punishment of the first sin; and it was not the corruptible flesh that made the soul sinful, but the sinful soul that made the flesh corruptible. And though from this corruption of the flesh there arise certain incitements to vice, and indeed vicious desires, yet we must not attribute to the flesh all the vices of a wicked life, in case we thereby clear the devil of all these, for he has no flesh. For though we cannot call the devil a fornicator or drunkard, or ascribe to him any sensual indulgence (though he is the secret instigator and prompter of those who sin in these ways), yet he is exceedingly proud and envious. And this viciousness has so possessed him, that on account of it he is reserved in chains of darkness to everlasting punishment. Now these vices, which have dominion over the devil, the apostle attributes to the flesh, which certainly the devil has not. For he says hatred, variance, emulations, strife, envying are the works of the flesh; and of all these evils pride is the origin and head, and it rules in the devil though he has no flesh. For who shows more hatred to the saints? Who is more at variance with them? Who more envious, bitter, and jealous? And since he exhibits all these works, though he has no flesh, how are they works of the flesh, unless because they are the works of man, who is, as I said, spoken of under the name of flesh? For it is not by having flesh, which the devil has not, but by living according to himself - that is, according to man - that man became like the devil. For the devil too, wished to live according to himself when he did not abide in the truth; so that when he lied, this was not of God, but of himself, who is not only a liar, but the father of lies, he being the first who lied, and the originator of lying as of sin. 14.10. But it is a fair question, whether our first parent or first parents (for there was a marriage of two), before they sinned, experienced in their animal body such emotions as we shall not experience in the spiritual body when sin has been purged and finally abolished. For if they did, then how were they blessed in that boasted place of bliss, Paradise? For who that is affected by fear or grief can be called absolutely blessed? And what could those persons fear or suffer in such affluence of blessings, where neither death nor ill-health was feared, and where nothing was wanting which a good will could desire, and nothing present which could interrupt man's mental or bodily enjoyment? Their love to God was unclouded, and their mutual affection was that of faithful and sincere marriage; and from this love flowed a wonderful delight, because they always enjoyed what was loved. Their avoidance of sin was tranquil; and, so long as it was maintained, no other ill at all could invade them and bring sorrow. Or did they perhaps desire to touch and eat the forbidden fruit, yet feared to die; and thus both fear and desire already, even in that blissful place, preyed upon those first of mankind? Away with the thought that such could be the case where there was no sin! And, indeed, this is already sin, to desire those things which the law of God forbids, and to abstain from them through fear of punishment, not through love of righteousness. Away, I say, with the thought, that before there was any sin, there should already have been committed regarding that fruit the very sin which our Lord warns us against regarding a woman: Whosoever looks on a woman to lust after her, has committed adultery with her already in his heart. Matthew 5:28 As happy, then, as were these our first parents, who were agitated by no mental perturbations, and annoyed by no bodily discomforts, so happy should the whole human race have been, had they not introduced that evil which they have transmitted to their posterity, and had none of their descendants committed iniquity worthy of damnation; but this original blessedness continuing until, in virtue of that benediction which said, Increase and multiply, Genesis 1:28 the number of the predestined saints should have been completed, there would then have been bestowed that higher felicity which is enjoyed by the most blessed angels - a blessedness in which there should have been a secure assurance that no one would sin, and no one die; and so should the saints have lived, after no taste of labor, pain, or death, as now they shall live in the resurrection, after they have endured all these things. 14.11. But because God foresaw all things, and was therefore not ignorant that man also would fall, we ought to consider this holy city in connection with what God foresaw and ordained, and not according to our own ideas, which do not embrace God's ordination. For man, by his sin, could not disturb the divine counsel, nor compel God to change what He had decreed; for God's foreknowledge had anticipated both - that is to say, both how evil the man whom He had created good should become, and what good He Himself should even thus derive from him. For though God is said to change His determinations (so that in a tropical sense the Holy Scripture says even that God repented ), this is said with reference to man's expectation, or the order of natural causes, and not with reference to that which the Almighty had foreknown that He would do. Accordingly God, as it is written, made man upright, Ecclesiastes 7:29 and consequently with a good will. For if he had not had a good will, he could not have been upright. The good will, then, is the work of God; for God created him with it. But the first evil will, which preceded all man's evil acts, was rather a kind of falling away from the work of God to its own works than any positive work. And therefore the acts resulting were evil, not having God, but the will itself for their end; so that the will or the man himself, so far as his will is bad, was as it were the evil tree bringing forth evil fruit. Moreover, the bad will, though it be not in harmony with, but opposed to nature, inasmuch as it is a vice or blemish, yet it is true of it as of all vice, that it cannot exist except in a nature, and only in a nature created out of nothing, and not in that which the Creator has begotten of Himself, as He begot the Word, by whom all things were made. For though God formed man of the dust of the earth, yet the earth itself, and every earthly material, is absolutely created out of nothing; and man's soul, too, God created out of nothing, and joined to the body, when He made man. But evils are so thoroughly overcome by good, that though they are permitted to exist, for the sake of demonstrating how the most righteous foresight of God can make a good use even of them, yet good can exist without evil, as in the true and supreme God Himself, and as in every invisible and visible celestial creature that exists above this murky atmosphere; but evil cannot exist without good, because the natures in which evil exists, in so far as they are natures, are good. And evil is removed, not by removing any nature, or part of a nature, which had been introduced by the evil, but by healing and correcting that which had been vitiated and depraved. The will, therefore, is then truly free, when it is not the slave of vices and sins. Such was it given us by God; and this being lost by its own fault, can only be restored by Him who was able at first to give it. And therefore the truth says, If the Son shall make you free, you shall be free indeed; 1 John 8:36 which is equivalent to saying, If the Son shall save you, you shall be saved indeed. For He is our Liberator, inasmuch as He is our Saviour. Man then lived with God for his rule in a paradise at once physical and spiritual. For neither was it a paradise only physical for the advantage of the body, and not also spiritual for the advantage of the mind; nor was it only spiritual to afford enjoyment to man by his internal sensations, and not also physical to afford him enjoyment through his external senses. But obviously it was both for both ends. But after that proud and therefore envious angel (of whose fall I have said as much as I was able in the eleventh and twelfth books of this work, as well as that of his fellows, who, from being God's angels, became his angels), preferring to rule with a kind of pomp of empire rather than to be another's subject, fell from the spiritual Paradise, and essaying to insinuate his persuasive guile into the mind of man, whose unfallen condition provoked him to envy now that himself was fallen, he chose the serpent as his mouthpiece in that bodily Paradise in which it and all the other earthly animals were living with those two human beings, the man and his wife, subject to them, and harmless; and he chose the serpent because, being slippery, and moving in tortuous windings, it was suitable for his purpose. And this animal being subdued to his wicked ends by the presence and superior force of his angelic nature, he abused as his instrument, and first tried his deceit upon the woman, making his assault upon the weaker part of that human alliance, that he might gradually gain the whole, and not supposing that the man would readily give ear to him, or be deceived, but that he might yield to the error of the woman. For as Aaron was not induced to agree with the people when they blindly wished him to make an idol, and yet yielded to constraint; and as it is not credible that Solomon was so blind as to suppose that idols should be worshipped, but was drawn over to such sacrilege by the blandishments of women; so we cannot believe that Adam was deceived, and supposed the devil's word to be truth, and therefore transgressed God's law, but that he by the drawings of kindred yielded to the woman, the husband to the wife, the one human being to the only other human being. For not without significance did the apostle say, And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression; 1 Timothy 2:14 but he speaks thus, because the woman accepted as true what the serpent told her, but the man could not bear to be severed from his only companion, even though this involved a partnership in sin. He was not on this account less culpable, but sinned with his eyes open. And so the apostle does not say, He did not sin, but He was not deceived. For he shows that he sinned when he says, By one man sin entered into the world, Romans 5:12 and immediately after more distinctly, In the likeness of Adam's transgression. But he meant that those are deceived who do not judge that which they do to be sin; but he knew. Otherwise how were it true Adam was not deceived? But having as yet no experience of the divine severity, he was possibly deceived in so far as he thought his sin venial. And consequently he was not deceived as the woman was deceived, but he was deceived as to the judgment which would be passed on his apology: The woman whom you gave to be with me, she gave me, and I did eat. Genesis 3:12 What need of saying more? Although they were not both deceived by credulity, yet both were entangled in the snares of the devil, and taken by sin. 14.13. Our first parents fell into open disobedience because already they were secretly corrupted; for the evil act had never been done had not an evil will preceded it. And what is the origin of our evil will but pride? For pride is the beginning of sin. Sirach 10:13 And what is pride but the craving for undue exaltation? And this is undue exaltation, when the soul abandons Him to whom it ought to cleave as its end, and becomes a kind of end to itself. This happens when it becomes its own satisfaction. And it does so when it falls away from that unchangeable good which ought to satisfy it more than itself. This falling away is spontaneous; for if the will had remained steadfast in the love of that higher and changeless good by which it was illumined to intelligence and kindled into love, it would not have turned away to find satisfaction in itself, and so become frigid and benighted; the woman would not have believed the serpent spoke the truth, nor would the man have preferred the request of his wife to the command of God, nor have supposed that it was a venial trangression to cleave to the partner of his life even in a partnership of sin. The wicked deed, then - that is to say, the trangression of eating the forbidden fruit - was committed by persons who were already wicked. That evil fruit Matthew 7:18 could be brought forth only by a corrupt tree. But that the tree was evil was not the result of nature; for certainly it could become so only by the vice of the will, and vice is contrary to nature. Now, nature could not have been depraved by vice had it not been made out of nothing. Consequently, that it is a nature, this is because it is made by God; but that it falls away from Him, this is because it is made out of nothing. But man did not so fall away as to become absolutely nothing; but being turned towards himself, his being became more contracted than it was when he clave to Him who supremely is. Accordingly, to exist in himself, that is, to be his own satisfaction after abandoning God, is not quite to become a nonentity, but to approximate to that. And therefore the holy Scriptures designate the proud by another name, self-pleasers. For it is good to have the heart lifted up, yet not to one's self, for this is proud, but to the Lord, for this is obedient, and can be the act only of the humble. There is, therefore, something in humility which, strangely enough, exalts the heart, and something in pride which debases it. This seems, indeed, to be contradictory, that loftiness should debase and lowliness exalt. But pious humility enables us to submit to what is above us; and nothing is more exalted above us than God; and therefore humility, by making us subject to God, exalts us. But pride, being a defect of nature, by the very act of refusing subjection and revolting from Him who is supreme, falls to a low condition; and then comes to pass what is written: You cast them down when they lifted up themselves. For he does not say, when they had been lifted up, as if first they were exalted, and then afterwards cast down; but when they lifted up themselves even then they were cast down - that is to say, the very lifting up was already a fall. And therefore it is that humility is specially recommended to the city of God as it sojourns in this world, and is specially exhibited in the city of God, and in the person of Christ its King; while the contrary vice of pride, according to the testimony of the sacred writings, specially rules his adversary the devil. And certainly this is the great difference which distinguishes the two cities of which we speak, the one being the society of the godly men, the other of the ungodly, each associated with the angels that adhere to their party, and the one guided and fashioned by love of self, the other by love of God. The devil, then, would not have ensnared man in the open and manifest sin of doing what God had forbidden, had man not already begun to live for himself. It was this that made him listen with pleasure to the words, You shall be as gods, Genesis 3:5 which they would much more readily have accomplished by obediently adhering to their supreme and true end than by proudly living to themselves. For created gods are gods not by virtue of what is in themselves, but by a participation of the true God. By craving to be more, man becomes less; and by aspiring to be self-sufficing, he fell away from Him who truly suffices him. Accordingly, this wicked desire which prompts man to please himself as if he were himself light, and which thus turns him away from that light by which, had he followed it, he would himself have become light - this wicked desire, I say, already secretly existed in him, and the open sin was but its consequence. For that is true which is written, Pride goes before destruction, and before honor is humility; Proverbs 18:12 that is to say, secret ruin precedes open ruin, while the former is not counted ruin. For who counts exaltation ruin, though no sooner is the Highest forsaken than a fall is begun? But who does not recognize it as ruin, when there occurs an evident and indubitable transgression of the commandment? And consequently, God's prohibition had reference to such an act as, when committed, could not be defended on any pretense of doing what was righteous. And I make bold to say that it is useful for the proud to fall into an open and indisputable transgression, and so displease themselves, as already, by pleasing themselves, they had fallen. For Peter was in a healthier condition when he wept and was dissatisfied with himself, than when he boldly presumed and satisfied himself. And this is averred by the sacred Psalmist when he says, Fill their faces with shame, that they may seek Your name, O Lord; that is, that they who have pleased themselves in seeking their own glory may be pleased and satisfied with You in seeking Your glory. 14.15. Therefore, because the sin was a despising of the authority of God - who had created man; who had made him in His own image; who had set him above the other animals; who had placed him in Paradise; who had enriched him with abundance of every kind and of safety; who had laid upon him neither many, nor great, nor difficult commandments, but, in order to make a wholesome obedience easy to him, had given him a single very brief and very light precept by which He reminded that creature whose service was to be free that He was Lord, - it was just that condemnation followed, and condemnation such that man, who by keeping the commandments should have been spiritual even in his flesh, became fleshly even in his spirit; and as in his pride he had sought to be his own satisfaction, God in His justice abandoned him to himself, not to live in the absolute independence he affected, but instead of the liberty he desired, to live dissatisfied with himself in a hard and miserable bondage to him to whom by sinning he had yielded himself, doomed in spite of himself to die in body as he had willingly become dead in spirit, condemned even to eternal death (had not the grace of God delivered him) because he had forsaken eternal life. Whoever thinks such punishment either excessive or unjust shows his inability to measure the great iniquity of sinning where sin might so easily have been avoided. For as Abraham's obedience is with justice pronounced to be great, because the thing commanded, to kill his son, was very difficult, so in Paradise the disobedience was the greater, because the difficulty of that which was commanded was imperceptible. And as the obedience of the second Man was the more laudable because He became obedient even unto death, Philippians 2:8 so the disobedience of the first man was the more detestable because he became disobedient even unto death. For where the penalty annexed to disobedience is great, and the thing commanded by the Creator is easy, who can sufficiently estimate how great a wickedness it is, in a matter so easy, not to obey the authority of so great a power, even when that power deters with so terrible a penalty? In short, to say all in a word, what but disobedience was the punishment of disobedience in that sin? For what else is man's misery but his own disobedience to himself, so that in consequence of his not being willing to do what he could do, he now wills to do what he cannot? For though he could not do all things in Paradise before he sinned, yet he wished to do only what he could do, and therefore he could do all things he wished. But now, as we recognize in his offspring, and as divine Scripture testifies, Man is like to vanity. For who can count how many things he wishes which he cannot do, so long as he is disobedient to himself, that is, so long as his mind and his flesh do not obey his will? For in spite of himself his mind is both frequently disturbed, and his flesh suffers, and grows old, and dies; and in spite of ourselves we suffer whatever else we suffer, and which we would not suffer if our nature absolutely and in all its parts obeyed our will. But is it not the infirmities of the flesh which hamper it in its service? Yet what does it matter how its service is hampered, so long as the fact remains, that by the just retribution of the sovereign God whom we refused to be subject to and serve, our flesh, which was subjected to us, now torments us by insubordination, although our disobedience brought trouble on ourselves, not upon God? For He is not in need of our service as we of our body's; and therefore what we did was no punishment to Him, but what we receive is so to us. And the pains which are called bodily are pains of the soul in and from the body. For what pain or desire can the flesh feel by itself and without the soul? But when the flesh is said to desire or to suffer, it is meant, as we have explained, that the man does so, or some part of the soul which is affected by the sensation of the flesh, whether a harsh sensation causing pain, or gentle, causing pleasure. But pain in the flesh is only a discomfort of the soul arising from the flesh, and a kind of shrinking from its suffering, as the pain of the soul which is called sadness is a shrinking from those things which have happened to us in spite of ourselves. But sadness is frequently preceded by fear, which is itself in the soul, not in the flesh; while bodily pain is not preceded by any kind of fear of the flesh, which can be felt in the flesh before the pain. But pleasure is preceded by a certain appetite which is felt in the flesh like a craving, as hunger and thirst and that generative appetite which is most commonly identified with the name lust, though this is the generic word for all desires. For anger itself was defined by the ancients as nothing else than the lust of revenge; although sometimes a man is angry even at iimate objects which cannot feel his vengeance, as when one breaks a pen, or crushes a quill that writes badly. Yet even this, though less reasonable, is in its way a lust of revenge, and is, so to speak, a mysterious kind of shadow of [the great law of] retribution, that they who do evil should suffer evil. There is therefore a lust for revenge, which is called anger; there is a lust of money, which goes by the name of avarice; there is a lust of conquering, no matter by what means, which is called opinionativeness; there is a lust of applause, which is named boasting. There are many and various lusts, of which some have names of their own, while others have not. For who could readily give a name to the lust of ruling, which yet has a powerful influence in the soul of tyrants, as civil wars bear witness? 14.16. Although, therefore, lust may have many objects, yet when no object is specified, the word lust usually suggests to the mind the lustful excitement of the organs of generation. And this lust not only takes possession of the whole body and outward members, but also makes itself felt within, and moves the whole man with a passion in which mental emotion is mingled with bodily appetite, so that the pleasure which results is the greatest of all bodily pleasures. So possessing indeed is this pleasure, that at the moment of time in which it is consummated, all mental activity is suspended. What friend of wisdom and holy joys, who, being married, but knowing, as the apostle says, how to possess his vessel in santification and honor, not in the disease of desire, as the Gentiles who know not God, 1 Thessalonians 4:4 would not prefer, if this were possible, to beget children without this lust, so that in this function of begetting offspring the members created for this purpose should not be stimulated by the heat of lust, but should be actuated by his volition, in the same way as his other members serve him for their respective ends? But even those who delight in this pleasure are not moved to it at their own will, whether they confine themselves to lawful or transgress to unlawful pleasures; but sometimes this lust importunes them in spite of themselves, and sometimes fails them when they desire to feel it, so that though lust rages in the mind, it stirs not in the body. Thus, strangely enough, this emotion not only fails to obey the legitimate desire to beget offspring, but also refuses to serve lascivious lust; and though it often opposes its whole combined energy to the soul that resists it, sometimes also it is divided against itself, and while it moves the soul, leaves the body unmoved. 14.17. Justly is shame very specially connected with this lust; justly, too, these members themselves, being moved and restrained not at our will, but by a certain independent autocracy, so to speak, are called shameful. Their condition was different before sin. For as it is written, They were naked and were not ashamed, Genesis 2:25 - not that their nakedness was unknown to them, but because nakedness was not yet shameful, because not yet did lust move those members without the will's consent; not yet did the flesh by its disobedience testify against the disobedience of man. For they were not created blind, as the unenlightened vulgar fancy; for Adam saw the animals to whom he gave names, and of Eve we read, The woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes. Genesis 3:6 Their eyes, therefore were open, but were not open to this, that is to say, were not observant so as to recognize what was conferred upon them by the garment of grace, for they had no consciousness of their members warring against their will. But when they were stripped of this grace, that their disobedience might be punished by fit retribution, there began in the movement of their bodily members a shameless novelty which made nakedness indecent: it at once made them observant and made them ashamed. And therefore, after they violated God's command by open transgression, it is written: And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons. Genesis 3:7 The eyes of them both were opened, not to see, for already they saw, but to discern between the good they had lost and the evil into which they had fallen. And therefore also the tree itself which they were forbidden to touch was called the tree of the knowledge of good and evil from this circumstance, that if they ate of it it would impart to them this knowledge. For the discomfort of sickness reveals the pleasure of health. They knew, therefore, that they were naked,- naked of that grace which prevented them from being ashamed of bodily nakedness while the law of sin offered no resistance to their mind. And thus they obtained a knowledge which they would have lived in blissful ignorance of, had they, in trustful obedience to God, declined to commit that offense which involved them in the experience of the hurtful effects of unfaithfulness and disobedience. And therefore, being ashamed of the disobedience of their own flesh, which witnessed to their disobedience while it punished it, they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons, that is, cinctures for their privy parts; for some interpreters have rendered the word by succinctoria. Campestria is, indeed, a Latin word, but it is used of the drawers or aprons used for a similar purpose by the young men who stripped for exercise in the campus; hence those who were so girt were commonly called campestrati. Shame modestly covered that which lust disobediently moved in opposition to the will, which was thus punished for its own disobedience. Consequently all nations, being propagated from that one stock, have so strong an instinct to cover the shameful parts, that some barbarians do not uncover them even in the bath, but wash with their drawers on. In the dark solitudes of India also, though some philosophers go naked, and are therefore called gymnosophists, yet they make an exception in the case of these members and cover them. 14.18. Lust requires for its consummation darkness and secrecy; and this not only when un lawful intercourse is desired, but even such fornication as the earthly city has legalized. Where there is no fear of punishment, these permitted pleasures still shrink from the public eye. Even where provision is made for this lust, secrecy also is provided; and while lust found it easy to remove the prohibitions of law, shamelessness found it impossible to lay aside the veil of retirement. For even shameless men call this shameful; and though they love the pleasure, dare not display it. What! Does not even conjugal intercourse, sanctioned as it is by law for the propagation of children, legitimate and honorable though it be, does it not seek retirement from every eye? Before the bridegroom fondles his bride, does he not exclude the attendants, and even the paranymphs, and such friends as the closest ties have admitted to the bridal chamber? The greatest master of Roman eloquence says, that all right actions wish to be set in the light, i.e., desire to be known. This right action, however, has such a desire to be known, that yet it blushes to be seen. Who does not know what passes between husband and wife that children may be born? Is it not for this purpose that wives are married with such ceremony? And yet, when this well-understood act is gone about for the procreation of children, not even the children themselves, who may already have been born to them, are suffered to be witnesses. This right action seeks the light, in so far as it seeks to be known, but yet dreads being seen. And why so, if not because that which is by nature fitting and decent is so done as to be accompanied with a shame-begetting penalty of sin? 14.19. Hence it is that even the philosophers who have approximated to the truth have avowed that anger and lust are vicious mental emotions, because, even when exercised towards objects which wisdom does not prohibit, they are moved in an ungoverned and inordinate manner, and consequently need the regulation of mind and reason. And they assert that this third part of the mind is posted as it were in a kind of citadel, to give rule to these other parts, so that, while it rules and they serve, man's righteousness is preserved without a breach. These parts, then, which they acknowledge to be vicious even in a wise and temperate man, so that the mind, by its composing and restraining influence, must bridle and recall them from those objects towards which they are unlawfully moved, and give them access to those which the law of wisdom sanctions - that anger, e.g., may be allowed for the enforcement of a just authority, and lust for the duty of propagating offspring - these parts, I say, were not vicious in Paradise before sin, for they were never moved in opposition to a holy will towards any object from which it was necessary that they should be withheld by the restraining bridle of reason. For though now they are moved in this way, and are regulated by a bridling and restraining power, which those who live temperately, justly, and godly exercise, sometimes with ease, and sometimes with greater difficulty, this is not the sound health of nature, but the weakness which results from sin. And how is it that shame does not hide the acts and words dictated by anger or other emotions, as it covers the motions of lust, unless because the members of the body which we employ for accomplishing them are moved, not by the emotions themselves, but by the authority of the consenting will? For he who in his anger rails at or even strikes some one, could not do so were not his tongue and hand moved by the authority of the will, as also they are moved when there is no anger. But the organs of generation are so subjected to the rule of lust, that they have no motion but what it communicates. It is this we are ashamed of; it is this which blushingly hides from the eyes of onlookers. And rather will a man endure a crowd of witnesses when he is unjustly venting his anger on some one, than the eye of one man when he innocently copulates with his wife. 14.20. It is this which those canine or cynic philosophers have overlooked, when they have, in violation of the modest instincts of men, boastfully proclaimed their unclean and shameless opinion, worthy indeed of dogs, viz., that as the matrimonial act is legitimate, no one should be ashamed to perform it openly, in the street or in any public place. Instinctive shame has overborne this wild fancy. For though it is related that Diogenes once dared to put his opinion in practice, under the impression that his sect would be all the more famous if his egregious shamelessness were deeply graven in the memory of mankind, yet this example was not afterwards followed. Shame had more influence with them, to make them blush before men, than error to make them affect a resemblance to dogs. And possibly, even in the case of Diogenes, and those who did imitate him, there was but an appearance and pretence of copulation, and not the reality. Even at this day there are still Cynic philosophers to be seen; for these are Cynics who are not content with being clad in the pallium, but also carry a club; yet no one of them dares to do this that we speak of. If they did, they would be spat upon, not to say stoned, by the mob. Human nature, then, is without doubt ashamed of this lust; and justly so, for the insubordination of these members, and their defiance of the will, are the clear testimony of the punishment of man's first sin. And it was fitting that this should appear specially in those parts by which is generated that nature which has been altered for the worse by that first and great sin - that sin from whose evil connection no one can escape, unless God's grace expiate in him individually that which was perpetrated to the destruction of all in common, when all were in one man, and which was avenged by God's justice. 14.26. In Paradise, then, man lived as he desired so long as he desired what God had commanded. He lived in the enjoyment of God, and was good by God's goodness; he lived without any want, and had it in his power so to live eternally. He had food that he might not hunger, drink that he might not thirst, the tree of life that old age might not waste him. There was in his body no corruption, nor seed of corruption, which could produce in him any unpleasant sensation. He feared no inward disease, no outward accident. Soundest health blessed his body, absolute tranquillity his soul. As in Paradise there was no excessive heat or cold, so its inhabitants were exempt from the vicissitudes of fear and desire. No sadness of any kind was there, nor any foolish joy; true gladness ceaselessly flowed from the presence of God, who was loved out of a pure heart, and a good conscience, and faith unfeigned. 1 Timothy 1:5 The honest love of husband and wife made a sure harmony between them. Body and spirit worked harmoniously together, and the commandment was kept without labor. No languor made their leisure wearisome; no sleepiness interrupted their desire to labor. In tanta facilitate rerum et felicitate hominum, absit ut suspicemur, non potuisse prolem seri sine libidinis morbo: sed eo voluntatis nutu moverentur illa membra qua c tera, et sine ardoris illecebroso stimulo cum tranquillitate animi et corporis nulla corruptione integritatis infunderetur gremio maritus uxoris. Neque enim quia experientia probari non potest, ideo credendum non est; quando illas corporis partes non ageret turbidus calor, sed spontanea potestas, sicut opus esset, adhiberet; ita tunc potuisse utero conjugis salva integritate feminei genitalis virile semen immitti, sicut nunc potest eadem integritate salva ex utero virginis fluxus menstrui cruoris emitti. Eadem quippe via posset illud injici, qua hoc potest ejici. Ut enim ad pariendum non doloris gemitus, sed maturitatis impulsus feminea viscera relaxaret: sic ad fœtandum et concipiendum non libidinis appetitus, sed voluntarius usus naturam utramque conjungeret. We speak of things which are now shameful, and although we try, as well as we are able, to conceive them as they were before they became shameful, yet necessity compels us rather to limit our discussion to the bounds set by modesty than to extend it as our moderate faculty of discourse might suggest. For since that which I have been speaking of was not experienced even by those who might have experienced it - I mean our first parents (for sin and its merited banishment from Paradise anticipated this passionless generation on their part) - when sexual intercourse is spoken of now, it suggests to men's thoughts not such a placid obedience to the will as is conceivable in our first parents, but such violent acting of lust as they themselves have experienced. And therefore modesty shuts my mouth, although my mind conceives the matter clearly. But Almighty God, the supreme and supremely good Creator of all natures, who aids and rewards good wills, while He abandons and condemns the bad, and rules both, was not destitute of a plan by which He might people His city with the fixed number of citizens which His wisdom had foreordained even out of the condemned human race, discriminating them not now by merits, since the whole mass was condemned as if in a vitiated root, but by grace, and showing, not only in the case of the redeemed, but also in those who were not delivered, how much grace He has bestowed upon them. For every one acknowledges that he has been rescued from evil, not by deserved, but by gratuitous goodness, when he is singled out from the company of those with whom he might justly have borne a common punishment, and is allowed to go scathless. Why, then, should God not have created those whom He foresaw would sin, since He was able to show in and by them both what their guilt merited, and what His grace bestowed, and since, under His creating and disposing hand, even the perverse disorder of the wicked could not pervert the right order of things? 14.28. Accordingly, two cities have been formed by two loves: the earthly by the love of self, even to the contempt of God; the heavenly by the love of God, even to the contempt of self. The former, in a word, glories in itself, the latter in the Lord. For the one seeks glory from men; but the greatest glory of the other is God, the witness of conscience. The one lifts up its head in its own glory; the other says to its God, You are my glory, and the lifter up of mine head. In the one, the princes and the nations it subdues are ruled by the love of ruling; in the other, the princes and the subjects serve one another in love, the latter obeying, while the former take thought for all. The one delights in its own strength, represented in the persons of its rulers; the other says to its God, I will love You, O Lord, my strength. And therefore the wise men of the one city, living according to man, have sought for profit to their own bodies or souls, or both, and those who have known God glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful, but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened; professing themselves to be wise,- that is, glorying in their own wisdom, and being possessed by pride -they became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things. For they were either leaders or followers of the people in adoring images, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Romans 1:21-25 But in the other city there is no human wisdom, but only godliness, which offers due worship to the true God, and looks for its reward in the society of the saints, of holy angels as well as holy men, that God may be all in all. 1 Corinthians 15:28 15.1. of the bliss of Paradise, of Paradise itself, and of the life of our first parents there, and of their sin and punishment, many have thought much, spoken much, written much. We ourselves, too, have spoken of these things in the foregoing books, and have written either what we read in the Holy Scriptures, or what we could reasonably deduce from them. And were we to enter into a more detailed investigation of these matters, an endless number of endless questions would arise, which would involve us in a larger work than the present occasion admits. We cannot be expected to find room for replying to every question that may be started by unoccupied and captious men, who are ever more ready to ask questions than capable of understanding the answer. Yet I trust we have already done justice to these great and difficult questions regarding the beginning of the world, or of the soul, or of the human race itself. This race we have distributed into two parts, the one consisting of those who live according to man, the other of those who live according to God. And these we also mystically call the two cities, or the two communities of men, of which the one is predestined to reign eternally with God, and the other to suffer eternal punishment with the devil. This, however, is their end, and of it we are to speak afterwards. At present, as we have said enough about their origin, whether among the angels, whose numbers we know not, or in the two first human beings, it seems suitable to attempt an account of their career, from the time when our two first parents began to propagate the race until all human generation shall cease. For this whole time or world-age, in which the dying give place and those who are born succeed, is the career of these two cities concerning which we treat. of these two first parents of the human race, then, Cain was the first-born, and he belonged to the city of men; after him was born Abel, who belonged to the city of God. For as in the individual the truth of the apostle's statement is discerned, that is not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural, and afterward that which is spiritual, 1 Corinthians 15:46 whence it comes to pass that each man, being derived from a condemned stock, is first of all born of Adam evil and carnal, and becomes good and spiritual only afterwards, when he is grafted into Christ by regeneration: so was it in the human race as a whole. When these two cities began to run their course by a series of deaths and births, the citizen of this world was the first-born, and after him the stranger in this world, the citizen of the city of God, predestinated by grace, elected by grace, by grace a stranger below, and by grace a citizen above. By grace - for so far as regards himself he is sprung from the same mass, all of which is condemned in its origin; but God, like a potter (for this comparison is introduced by the apostle judiciously, and not without thought), of the same lump made one vessel to honor, another to dishonor. Romans 9:21 But first the vessel to dishonor was made, and after it another to honor. For in each individual, as I have already said, there is first of all that which is reprobate, that from which we must begin, but in which we need not necessarily remain; afterwards is that which is well-approved, to which we may by advancing attain, and in which, when we have reached it we may abide. Not, indeed, that every wicked man shall be good, but that no one will be good who was not first of all wicked; but the sooner any one becomes a good man, the more speedily does he receive this title, and abolish the old name in the new. Accordingly, it is recorded of Cain that he built a city, Genesis 4:17 but Abel, being a sojourner, built none. For the city of the saints is above, although here below it begets citizens, in whom it sojourns till the time of its reign arrives, when it shall gather together all in the day of the resurrection; and then shall the promised kingdom be given to them, in which they shall reign with their Prince, the King of the ages, time without end. 21.24. And this reasoning is equally conclusive against those who, in their own interest, but under the guise of a greater tenderness of spirit, attempt to invalidate the words of God, and who assert that these words are true, not because men shall suffer those things which are threatened by God, but because they deserve to suffer them. For God, they say, will yield them to the prayers of His saints, who will then the more earnestly pray for their enemies, as they shall be more perfect in holiness, and whose prayers will be the more efficacious and the more worthy of God's ear, because now purged from all sin whatsoever. Why, then, if in that perfected holiness their prayers be so pure and all-availing, will they not use them in behalf of the angels for whom eternal fire is prepared, that God may mitigate His sentence and alter it, and extricate them from that fire? Or will there, perhaps, be some one hardy enough to affirm that even the holy angels will make common cause with holy men (then become the equals of God's angels), and will intercede for the guilty, both men and angels, that mercy may spare them the punishment which truth has pronounced them to deserve? But this has been asserted by no one sound in the faith; nor will be. Otherwise there is no reason why the Church should not even now pray for the devil and his angels, since God her Master has ordered her to pray for her enemies. The reason, then, which prevents the Church from now praying for the wicked angels, whom she knows to be her enemies, is the identical reason which shall prevent her, however perfected in holiness, from praying at the last judgment for those men who are to be punished in eternal fire. At present she prays for her enemies among men, because they have yet opportunity for fruitful repentance. For what does she especially beg for them but that God would grant them repentance, as the apostle says, that they may return to soberness out of the snare of the devil, by whom they are held captive according to his will? 2 Timothy 2:25-26 But if the Church were certified who those are, who, though they are still abiding in this life, are yet predestinated to go with the devil into eternal fire, then for them she could no more pray than for him. But since she has this certainty regarding no man, she prays for all her enemies who yet live in this world; and yet she is not heard in behalf of all. But she is heard in the case of those only who, though they oppose the Church, are yet predestinated to become her sons through her intercession. But if any retain an impenitent heart until death, and are not converted from enemies into sons, does the Church continue to pray for them, for the spirits, i.e., of such persons deceased? And why does she cease to pray for them, unless because the man who was not translated into Christ's kingdom while he was in the body, is now judged to be of Satan's following? It is then, I say, the same reason which prevents the Church at any time from praying for the wicked angels, which prevents her from praying hereafter for those men who are to be punished in eternal fire; and this also is the reason why, though she prays even for the wicked so long as they live, she yet does not even in this world pray for the unbelieving and godless who are dead. For some of the dead, indeed, the prayer of the Church or of pious individuals is heard; but it is for those who, having been regenerated in Christ, did not spend their life so wickedly that they can be judged unworthy of such compassion, nor so well that they can be considered to have no need of it. As also, after the resurrection, there will be some of the dead to whom, after they have endured the pains proper to the spirits of the dead, mercy shall be accorded, and acquittal from the punishment of the eternal fire. For were there not some whose sins, though not remitted in this life, shall be remitted in that which is to come, it could not be truly said, They shall not be forgiven, neither in this world, neither in that which is to come. Matthew 12:32 But when the Judge of quick and dead has said, Come, you blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world, and to those on the other side, Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire, which is prepared for the devil and his angels, and These shall go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life, it were excessively presumptuous to say that the punishment of any of those whom God has said shall go away into eternal punishment shall not be eternal, and so bring either despair or doubt upon the corresponding promise of life eternal. Let no man then so understand the words of the Psalmist, Shall God forget to be gracious? Shall He shut up in His anger His tender mercies as if the sentence of God were true of good men, false of bad men, or true of good men and wicked angels, but false of bad men. For the Psalmist's words refer to the vessels of mercy and the children of the promise, of whom the prophet himself was one; for when he had said, Shall God forget to be gracious? Shall He shut up in His anger His tender mercies? and then immediately subjoins, And I said, Now I begin: this is the change wrought by the right hand of the Most High, he manifestly explained what he meant by the words, Shall he shut up in His anger His tender mercies? For God's anger is this mortal life, in which man is made like to vanity, and his days pass as a shadow. Yet in this anger God does not forget to be gracious, causing His sun to shine and His rain to descend on the just and the unjust; Matthew 5:45 and thus He does not in His anger cut short His tender mercies, and especially in what the Psalmist speaks of in the words, Now I begin: this change is from the right hand of the Most High; for He changes for the better the vessels of mercy, even while they are still in this most wretched life, which is God's anger, and even while His anger is manifesting itself in this miserable corruption; for in His anger He does not shut up His tender mercies. And since the truth of this divine canticle is quite satisfied by this application of it, there is no need to give it a reference to that place in which those who do not belong to the city of God are punished in eternal fire. But if any persist in extending its application to the torments of the wicked, let them at least understand it so that the anger of God, which has threatened the wicked with eternal punishment, shall abide, but shall be mixed with mercy to the extent of alleviating the torments which might justly be inflicted; so that the wicked shall neither wholly escape, nor only for a time endure these threatened pains, but that they shall be less severe and more endurable than they deserve. Thus the anger of God shall continue, and at the same time He will not in this anger shut up His tender mercies. But even this hypothesis I am not to be supposed to affirm because I do not positively oppose it. As for those who find an empty threat rather than a truth in such passages as these: Depart from me, you cursed, into everlasting fire; and These shall go away into eternal punishment; Matthew 25:41, 46 and They shall be tormented for ever and ever; Revelation 20:10 and Their worm shall not die, and their fire shall not be quenched, Isaiah 66:24 - such persons, I say, are most emphatically and abundantly refuted, not by me so much as by the divine Scripture itself. For the men of Nineveh repented in this life, and therefore their repentance was fruitful, inasmuch as they sowed in that field which the Lord meant to be sown in tears that it might afterwards be reaped in joy. And yet who will deny that God's prediction was fulfilled in their case, if at least he observes that God destroys sinners not only in anger but also in compassion? For sinners are destroyed in two ways - either, like the Sodomites, the men themselves are punished for their sins, or, like the Ninevites, the men's sins are destroyed by repentance. God's prediction, therefore, was fulfilled - the wicked Nineveh was overthrown, and a good Nineveh built up. For its walls and houses remained standing; the city was overthrown in its depraved manners. And thus, though the prophet was provoked that the destruction which the inhabitants dreaded, because of his prediction, did not take place, yet that which God's foreknowledge had predicted did take place, for He who foretold the destruction knew how it should be fulfilled in a less calamitous sense. But that these perversely compassionate persons may see what is the purport of these words, How great is the abundance of Your sweetness, Lord, which You have hidden for them that fear You, let them read what follows: And You have perfected it for them that hope in You. For what means, You have hidden it for them that fear You, You have perfected it for them that hope in You, unless this, that to those who through fear of punishment seek to establish their own righteousness by the law, the righteousness of God is not sweet, because they are ignorant of it? They have not tasted it. For they hope in themselves, not in Him; and therefore God's abundant sweetness is hidden from them. They fear God, indeed, but it is with that servile fear which is not in love; for perfect love casts out fear. 1 John 4:18 Therefore to them that hope in Him He perfects His sweetness, inspiring them with His own love, so that with a holy fear, which love does not cast out, but which endures for ever, they may, when they glory, glory in the Lord. For the righteousness of God is Christ, who is of God made unto us, as the apostle says, wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption: as it is written, He that glories, let him glory in the Lord. 1 Corinthians 1:30-31 This righteousness of God, which is the gift of grace without merits, is not known by those who go about to establish their own righteousness, and are therefore not subject to the righteousness of God, which is Christ. Romans 10:3 But it is in this righteousness that we find the great abundance of God's sweetness, of which the psalm says, Taste and see how sweet the Lord is. And this we rather taste than partake of to satiety in this our pilgrimage. We hunger and thirst for it now, that hereafter we may be satisfied with it when we see Him as He is, and that is fulfilled which is written, I shall be satisfied when Your glory shall be manifested. It is thus that Christ perfects the great abundance of His sweetness to them that hope in Him. But if God conceals His sweetness from them that fear Him in the sense that these our objectors fancy, so that men's ignorance of His purpose of mercy towards the wicked may lead them to fear Him and live better, and so that there may be prayer made for those who are not living as they ought, how then does He perfect His sweetness to them that hope in Him, since, if their dreams be true, it is this very sweetness which will prevent Him from punishing those who do not hope in Him? Let us then seek that sweetness of His, which He perfects to them that hope in Him, not that which He is supposed to perfect to those who despise and blaspheme Him; for in vain, after this life, does a man seek for what he has neglected to provide while in this life. Then, as to that saying of the apostle, For God has concluded all in unbelief, that He may have mercy upon all, Romans 11:32 it does not mean that He will condemn no one; but the foregoing context shows what is meant. The apostle composed the epistle for the Gentiles who were already believers; and when he was speaking to them of the Jews who were yet to believe, he says, For as you in times past believed not God, yet have now obtained mercy through their unbelief; even so have these also now not believed, that through your mercy they also may obtain mercy. Then he added the words in question with which these persons beguile themselves: For God concluded all in unbelief, that He might have mercy upon all. All whom, if not all those of whom he was speaking, just as if he had said, Both you and them? God then concluded all those in unbelief, both Jews and Gentiles, whom He foreknew and predestinated to be conformed to the image of His Son, in order that they might be confounded by the bitterness of unbelief, and might repent and believingly turn to the sweetness of God's mercy, and might take up that exclamation of the psalm, How great is the abundance of Your sweetness, O Lord, which You have hidden for them that fear You, but have perfected to them that hope, not in themselves, but in You. He has mercy, then, on all the vessels of mercy. And what means all? Both those of the Gentiles and those of the Jews whom He predestinated, called, justified, glorified: none of these will be condemned by Him; but we cannot say none of all men whatever.
122. Augustine, Retractiones, 1.9.2, 1.9.4, 1.9.6, 1.11, 2.1.1, 2.15, 2.31.1, 2.36, 2.45, 2.62 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

123. Augustine, Sermons, None (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

124. Epiphanius, Panarion, 30.16.8 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

125. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitions, 1.45-1.47, 1.70-1.71 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.45. Then Peter began to instruct me in this manner: When God had made the world, as Lord of the universe, He appointed chiefs over the several creatures, over the trees even, and the mountains, and the fountains, and the rivers, and all things which He had made, as we have told you; for it were too long to mention them one by one. He set, therefore, an angel as chief over the angels, a spirit over the spirits, a star over the stars, a demon over the demons, a bird over the birds, a beast over the beasts, a serpent over the serpents, a fish over the fishes, a man over men, who is Christ Jesus. But He is called Christ by a certain excellent rite of religion; for as there are certain names common to kings, as Arsaces among the Persians, C sar among the Romans, Pharaoh among the Egyptians, so among the Jews a king is called Christ. And the reason of this appellation is this: Although indeed He was the Son of God, and the beginning of all things, He became man; Him first God anointed with oil which was taken from the wood of the tree of life: from that anointing therefore He is called Christ. Thence, moreover, He Himself also, according to the appointment of His Father, anoints with similar oil every one of the pious when they come to His kingdom, for their refreshment after their labours, as having got over the difficulties of the way; so that their light may shine, and being filled with the Holy Spirit, they may be endowed with immortality. But it occurs to me that I have sufficiently explained to you the whole nature of that branch from which that ointment is taken. 1.46. But now also I shall, by a very short representation, recall you to the recollection of all these things. In the present life, Aaron, the first high priest, was anointed with a composition of chrism, which was made after the pattern of that spiritual ointment of which we have spoken before. He was prince of the people, and as a king received first-fruits and tribute from the people, man by man; and having undertaken the office of judging the people, he judged of things clean and things unclean. But if any one else was anointed with the same ointment, as deriving virtue from it, he became either king, or prophet, or priest. If, then, this temporal grace, compounded by men, had such efficacy, consider now how potent was that ointment extracted by God from a branch of the tree of life, when that which was made by men could confer so excellent dignities among men. For what in the present age is more glorious than a prophet, more illustrious than a priest, more exalted than a king? 1.47. To this, I replied: I remember, Peter, that you told me of the first man that he was a prophet; but you did not say that he was anointed. If then there be no prophet without anointing, how could the first man be a prophet, since he was not anointed? Then Peter, smiling, said: If the first man prophesied, it is certain that he was also anointed. For although he who has recorded the law in his pages is silent as to his anointing, yet he has evidently left us to understand these things. For as, if he had said that he was anointed, it would not be doubted that he was also a prophet, although it were not written in the law; so, since it is certain that he was a prophet, it is in like manner certain that he was also anointed, because without anointing he could not be a prophet. But you should rather have said, If the chrism was compounded by Aaron, by the perfumer's art, how could the first man be anointed before Aaron's time, the arts of composition not yet having been discovered? Then I answered, Do not misunderstand me, Peter; for I do not speak of that compounded ointment and temporal oil, but of that simple and eternal ointment, which you told me was made by God, after whose likeness you say that that other was compounded by men. 1.70. And when matters were at that point that they should come and be baptized, some one of our enemies, entering the temple with a few men, began to cry out, and to say, 'What mean ye, O men of Israel? Why are you so easily hurried on? Why are you led headlong by most miserable men, who are deceived by Simon, a magician.' While he was thus speaking, and adding more to the same effect, and while James the bishop was refuting him, he began to excite the people and to raise a tumult, so that the people might not be able to hear what was said. Therefore he began to drive all into confusion with shouting, and to undo what had been arranged with much labour, and at the same time to reproach the priests, and to enrage them with revilings and abuse, and, like a madman, to excite every one to murder, saying, 'What are you doing? Why do you hesitate? Oh sluggish and inert, why do we not lay hands upon them, and pull all these fellows to pieces?' When he had said this, he first, seizing a strong brand from the altar, set the example of smiting. Then others also, seeing him, were carried away with like readiness. Then ensued a tumult on either side, of the beating and the beaten. Much blood is shed; there is a confused flight, in the midst of which that enemy attacked James, and threw him headlong from the top of the steps; and supposing him to be dead, he cared not to inflict further violence upon him. 1.71. But our friends lifted him up, for they were both more numerous and more powerful than the others; but, from their fear of God, they rather suffered themselves to be killed by an inferior force, than they would kill others. But when the evening came the priests shut up the temple, and we returned to the house of James, and spent the night there in prayer. Then before daylight we went down to Jericho, to the number of 5000 men. Then after three days one of the brethren came to us from Gamaliel, whom we mentioned before, bringing to us secret tidings that that enemy had received a commission from Caiaphas, the chief priest, that he should arrest all who believed in Jesus, and should go to Damascus with his letters, and that there also, employing the help of the unbelievers, he should make havoc among the faithful; and that he was hastening to Damascus chiefly on this account, because he believed that Peter had fled there. And about thirty days thereafter he stopped on his way while passing through Jericho going to Damascus. At that time we were absent, having gone out to the sepulchres of two brethren which were whitened of themselves every year, by which miracle the fury of many against us was restrained, because they saw that our brethren were had in remembrance before God.
126. Jerome, Apologetici Adversus Rufinum (Apologia Adversus Libros Rufini.), 3.28 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

127. Jerome, Dialogi Contra Pelagianos (Dialogus Adversus Pelagianos.), 1.3 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

128. Jerome, Letters, 66.8, 71.5 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

129. Jerome, Letters, 66.8, 71.5 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

130. Jerome, Letters, 66.8, 71.5 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

131. Augustine, Letters, 28.6, 137.9-137.12, 140.26, 140.64, 140.85, 186.12, 194.5 (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)

132. Anon., 2 Enoch, 30.11, 30.13, 30.16

133. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.14-3.22, 3.25-3.26, 4.21, 4.30, 7.11-7.12, 7.116-7.124, 7.129

3.14. and thou didst love him, and to him only didst thou reveal the end of the times, secretly by night. 3.15. Thou didst make with him an everlasting covet, and promise him that thou wouldst never forsake his descendants; and thou gavest to him Isaac, and to Isaac thou gavest Jacob and Esau. 3.16. And thou didst set apart Jacob for thyself, but Esau thou didst reject; and Jacob became a great multitude. 3.17. And when thou didst lead his descendants out of Egypt, thou didst bring them to Mount Sinai. 3.18. Thou didst bend down the heavens and shake the earth, and move the world, and make the depths to tremble, and trouble the times. 3.19. And thy glory passed through the four gates of fire and earthquake and wind and ice, to give the law to the descendants of Jacob, and thy commandment to the posterity of Israel. 3.20. Yet thou didst not take away from them their evil heart, so that thy law might bring forth fruit in them. 3.21. For the first Adam, burdened with an evil heart, transgressed and was overcome, as were also all who were descended from him. 3.22. Thus the disease became permanent; the law was in the people's heart along with the evil root, but what was good departed, and the evil remained. 3.25. This was done for many years; but the inhabitants of the city transgressed 3.26. in everything doing as Adam and all his descendants had done, for they also had the evil heart. 4.21. For as the land is assigned to the forest and the sea to its waves, so also those who dwell upon earth can understand only what is on the earth, and he who is above the heavens can understand what is above the height of the heavens. 4.30. For a grain of evil seed was sown in Adam's heart from the beginning, and how much ungodliness it has produced until now, and will produce until the time of threshing comes! 7.11. For I made the world for their sake, and when Adam transgressed my statutes, what had been made was judged. 7.12. And so the entrances of this world were made narrow and sorrowful and toilsome; they are few and evil, full of dangers and involved in great hardships.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
god (pauline), involvement in human affairs Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 169
moral formation, discernment in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 169
moral formation, frank criticism in' ... Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 169
typology, greek terms for Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 22
typology, in the new testament' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 22
typology, latin terms for Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 22