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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8253
New Testament, Romans, 4.1-4.4


Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν Ἀβραὰμ τὸν προπάτορα ἡμῶν κατὰ σάρκα;What then will we say that Abraham, our forefather, has found according to the flesh?


εἰ γὰρ Ἀβραὰμ ἐξ ἔργων ἐδικαιώθη, ἔχει καύχημα· ἀλλʼ οὐ πρὸς θεόν, τί γὰρ ἡ γραφὴ λέγει;For if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not toward God.


Ἐπίστευσεν δὲ Ἀβραὰμ τῷ θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην.For what does the Scripture say? "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.


τῷ δὲ ἐργαζομένῳ ὁ μισθὸς οὐ λογίζεται κατὰ χάριν ἀλλὰ κατὰ ὀφείλημα·Now to him who works, the reward is not accounted as of grace, but as of debt.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15, 14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.2, 2.6-2.7, 3.6, 5.6, 8.1-8.21, 12.1, 15.6, 22.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 2.6. וְאֵד יַעֲלֶה מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת־כָּל־פְּנֵי־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 3.6. וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה כִּי טוֹב הָעֵץ לְמַאֲכָל וְכִי תַאֲוָה־הוּא לָעֵינַיִם וְנֶחְמָד הָעֵץ לְהַשְׂכִּיל וַתִּקַּח מִפִּרְיוֹ וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּתֵּן גַּם־לְאִישָׁהּ עִמָּהּ וַיֹּאכַל׃ 5.6. וַיְחִי־שֵׁת חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אֱנוֹשׁ׃ 8.1. וַיָּחֶל עוֹד שִׁבְעַת יָמִים אֲחֵרִים וַיֹּסֶף שַׁלַּח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָה מִן־הַתֵּבָה׃ 8.1. וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וְאֵת כָּל־הַחַיָּה וְאֶת־כָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ בַּתֵּבָה וַיַּעֲבֵר אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיָּשֹׁכּוּ הַמָּיִם׃ 8.2. וַיִּבֶן נֹחַ מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה וַיִּקַּח מִכֹּל הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּהוֹרָה וּמִכֹּל הָעוֹף הַטָּהֹר וַיַּעַל עֹלֹת בַּמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 8.2. וַיִּסָּכְרוּ מַעְיְנֹת תְּהוֹם וַאֲרֻבֹּת הַשָּׁמָיִם וַיִּכָּלֵא הַגֶּשֶׁם מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 8.3. וַיָּשֻׁבוּ הַמַּיִם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הָלוֹךְ וָשׁוֹב וַיַּחְסְרוּ הַמַּיִם מִקְצֵה חֲמִשִּׁים וּמְאַת יוֹם׃ 8.4. וַתָּנַח הַתֵּבָה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּשִׁבְעָה־עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ עַל הָרֵי אֲרָרָט׃ 8.5. וְהַמַּיִם הָיוּ הָלוֹךְ וְחָסוֹר עַד הַחֹדֶשׁ הָעֲשִׂירִי בָּעֲשִׂירִי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ נִרְאוּ רָאשֵׁי הֶהָרִים׃ 8.6. וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וַיִּפְתַּח נֹחַ אֶת־חַלּוֹן הַתֵּבָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה׃ 8.7. וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת־הָעֹרֵב וַיֵּצֵא יָצוֹא וָשׁוֹב עַד־יְבֹשֶׁת הַמַּיִם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ׃ 8.8. וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָה מֵאִתּוֹ לִרְאוֹת הֲקַלּוּ הַמַּיִם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 8.9. וְלֹא־מָצְאָה הַיּוֹנָה מָנוֹחַ לְכַף־רַגְלָהּ וַתָּשָׁב אֵלָיו אֶל־הַתֵּבָה כִּי־מַיִם עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וַיִּשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וַיִּקָּחֶהָ וַיָּבֵא אֹתָהּ אֵלָיו אֶל־הַתֵּבָה׃ 8.11. וַתָּבֹא אֵלָיו הַיּוֹנָה לְעֵת עֶרֶב וְהִנֵּה עֲלֵה־זַיִת טָרָף בְּפִיהָ וַיֵּדַע נֹחַ כִּי־קַלּוּ הַמַּיִם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ׃ 8.12. וַיִּיָּחֶל עוֹד שִׁבְעַת יָמִים אֲחֵרִים וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָה וְלֹא־יָסְפָה שׁוּב־אֵלָיו עוֹד׃ 8.13. וַיְהִי בְּאַחַת וְשֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה בָּרִאשׁוֹן בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ חָרְבוּ הַמַּיִם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ וַיָּסַר נֹחַ אֶת־מִכְסֵה הַתֵּבָה וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה חָרְבוּ פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 8.14. וּבַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בְּשִׁבְעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ יָבְשָׁה הָאָרֶץ׃ 8.15. וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־נֹחַ לֵאמֹר׃ 8.16. צֵא מִן־הַתֵּבָה אַתָּה וְאִשְׁתְּךָ וּבָנֶיךָ וּנְשֵׁי־בָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ׃ 8.17. כָּל־הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר־אִתְּךָ מִכָּל־בָּשָׂר בָּעוֹף וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ הוצא [הַיְצֵא] אִתָּךְ וְשָׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ וּפָרוּ וְרָבוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 8.18. וַיֵּצֵא־נֹחַ וּבָנָיו וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וּנְשֵׁי־בָנָיו אִתּוֹ׃ 8.19. כָּל־הַחַיָּה כָּל־הָרֶמֶשׂ וְכָל־הָעוֹף כֹּל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתֵיהֶם יָצְאוּ מִן־הַתֵּבָה׃ 8.21. וַיָּרַח יְהוָה אֶת־רֵיחַ הַנִּיחֹחַ וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־לִבּוֹ לֹא־אֹסִף לְקַלֵּל עוֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּר הָאָדָם כִּי יֵצֶר לֵב הָאָדָם רַע מִנְּעֻרָיו וְלֹא־אֹסִף עוֹד לְהַכּוֹת אֶת־כָּל־חַי כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי׃ 12.1. וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וַיֵּרֶד אַבְרָם מִצְרַיְמָה לָגוּר שָׁם כִּי־כָבֵד הָרָעָב בָּאָרֶץ׃ 12.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם לֶךְ־לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ וּמִבֵּית אָבִיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ׃ 15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 22.9. וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אָמַר־לוֹ הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּבֶן שָׁם אַבְרָהָם אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיַּעֲרֹךְ אֶת־הָעֵצִים וַיַּעֲקֹד אֶת־יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ וַיָּשֶׂם אֹתוֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִמַּעַל לָעֵצִים׃ 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 2.6. but there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 3.6. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and she gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat." 5.6. And Seth lived a hundred and five years, and begot Enosh." 8.1. And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that were with him in the ark; and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters assuaged;" 8.2. the fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained." 8.3. And the waters returned from off the earth continually; and after the end of a hundred and fifty days the waters decreased." 8.4. And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat." 8.5. And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month; in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen." 8.6. And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made." 8.7. And he sent forth a raven, and it went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth." 8.8. And he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground." 8.9. But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him to the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth; and he put forth his hand, and took her, and brought her in unto him into the ark." 8.10. And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark." 8.11. And the dove came in to him at eventide; and lo in her mouth an olive-leaf freshly plucked; so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth." 8.12. And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the dove; and she returned not again unto him any more." 8.13. And it came to pass in the six hundred and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth; and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and behold, the face of the ground was dried." 8.14. And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dry." 8.15. And God spoke unto Noah, saying:" 8.16. ’Go forth from the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons’wives with thee." 8.17. Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee of all flesh, both fowl, and cattle, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may swarm in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth.’" 8.18. And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons’wives with him;" 8.19. every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, whatsoever moveth upon the earth, after their families; went forth out of the ark." 8.20. And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt-offerings on the altar." 8.21. And the LORD smelled the sweet savour; and the LORD said in His heart: ‘I will not again curse the ground any more for man’s sake; for the imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done." 12.1. Now the LORD said unto Abram: ‘Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto the land that I will show thee." 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness." 22.9. And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Abraham built the altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar, upon the wood."
3. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 2.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.5. אָז תָּבִין יִרְאַת יְהוָה וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים תִּמְצָא׃ 2.5. Then shalt thou understand the fear of the LORD, And find the knowledge of God."
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 33.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

33.9. כִּי הוּא אָמַר וַיֶּהִי הוּא־צִוָּה וַיַּעֲמֹד׃ 33.9. For He spoke, and it was; He commanded, and it stood."
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 11.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.6. וְגָר זְאֵב עִם־כֶּבֶשׂ וְנָמֵר עִם־גְּדִי יִרְבָּץ וְעֵגֶל וּכְפִיר וּמְרִיא יַחְדָּו וְנַעַר קָטֹן נֹהֵג בָּם׃ 11.6. And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, And the leopard shall lie down with the kid; And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them."
6. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 5.9, 6.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַיּוֹם גַּלּוֹתִי אֶת־חֶרְפַּת מִצְרַיִם מֵעֲלֵיכֶם וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא גִּלְגָּל עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 6.9. וְהֶחָלוּץ הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים תקעו [תֹּקְעֵי] הַשּׁוֹפָרוֹת וְהַמְאַסֵּף הֹלֵךְ אַחֲרֵי הָאָרוֹן הָלוֹךְ וְתָקוֹעַ בַּשּׁוֹפָרוֹת׃ 5.9. And the LORD said unto Joshua: ‘This day have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt from off you.’ Wherefore the name of that place was called Gilgal, unto this day." 6.9. And the armed men went before the priests that blew the horns, and the rearward went after the ark, [the priests] blowing with the horns continually."
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 134 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 44, 43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

43. And Moses speaks very cautiously, inasmuch as he defines not the present time but the future in the promise which he records, when he says, "Not that which I do show you, but that which I will show You;" as a testimony to the faith with which the soul believed in God, showing its gratitude not by what had been already done, but by its expectation of the future;
9. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 91-94, 90 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

90. Therefore it is a necessary addition which is subjoined, "Abraham believed in God," to the praise of him who did thus believe. And yet, perhaps, some one may say, "Do you judge this worthy of praise? who would not give his attention to God when saying or promising anything, even if he were the most wicked and impious of all men?
10. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. For the appropriate progeny of God are the perfect virtues, but that offspring which is akin to the wicked, is unregulated wickedness. But learn thou, if thou wilt, O my mind, not to bear children to thyself, after the example of that perfect man Abraham, who offered up to God "The beloved and only legitimate offspring of his soul,"2 the most conspicuous image of self-taught wisdom, by name Isaac; and who gave him up with all cheerfulness to be a necessary and fitting offering to God. "Having bound,"3 as the scripture says, this new kind of victim, either because he, having once tasted of the divine inspiration, did not condescend any longer to tread on any mortal truth, or because he saw that the creature was unstable and moveable, while he recognised the unhesitating firmness existing in the living God, on whom he is said to have believed.4 II.
11. Epictetus, Discourses, 2.8.2, 2.22.19-2.22.20, 3.7.4, 3.24.64 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.65-18.85, 20.195 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.65. 4. About the same time also another sad calamity put the Jews into disorder, and certain shameful practices happened about the temple of Isis that was at Rome. I will now first take notice of the wicked attempt about the temple of Isis, and will then give an account of the Jewish affairs. 18.66. There was at Rome a woman whose name was Paulina; one who, on account of the dignity of her ancestors, and by the regular conduct of a virtuous life, had a great reputation: she was also very rich; and although she was of a beautiful countece, and in that flower of her age wherein women are the most gay, yet did she lead a life of great modesty. She was married to Saturninus, one that was every way answerable to her in an excellent character. 18.67. Decius Mundus fell in love with this woman, who was a man very high in the equestrian order; and as she was of too great dignity to be caught by presents, and had already rejected them, though they had been sent in great abundance, he was still more inflamed with love to her, insomuch that he promised to give her two hundred thousand Attic drachmae for one night’s lodging; 18.68. and when this would not prevail upon her, and he was not able to bear this misfortune in his amours, he thought it the best way to famish himself to death for want of food, on account of Paulina’s sad refusal; and he determined with himself to die after such a manner, and he went on with his purpose accordingly. 18.69. Now Mundus had a freed-woman, who had been made free by his father, whose name was Ide, one skillful in all sorts of mischief. This woman was very much grieved at the young man’s resolution to kill himself, (for he did not conceal his intentions to destroy himself from others,) and came to him, and encouraged him by her discourse, and made him to hope, by some promises she gave him, that he might obtain a night’s lodging with Paulina; 18.71. She went to some of Isis’s priests, and upon the strongest assurances [of concealment], she persuaded them by words, but chiefly by the offer of money, of twenty-five thousand drachmae in hand, and as much more when the thing had taken effect; and told them the passion of the young man, and persuaded them to use all means possible to beguile the woman. 18.72. So they were drawn in to promise so to do, by that large sum of gold they were to have. Accordingly, the oldest of them went immediately to Paulina; and upon his admittance, he desired to speak with her by herself. When that was granted him, he told her that he was sent by the god Anubis, who was fallen in love with her, and enjoined her to come to him. 18.73. Upon this she took the message very kindly, and valued herself greatly upon this condescension of Anubis, and told her husband that she had a message sent her, and was to sup and lie with Anubis; so he agreed to her acceptance of the offer, as fully satisfied with the chastity of his wife. 18.74. Accordingly, she went to the temple, and after she had supped there, and it was the hour to go to sleep, the priest shut the doors of the temple, when, in the holy part of it, the lights were also put out. Then did Mundus leap out, (for he was hidden therein,) and did not fail of enjoying her, who was at his service all the night long, as supposing he was the god; 18.75. and when he was gone away, which was before those priests who knew nothing of this stratagem were stirring, Paulina came early to her husband, and told him how the god Anubis had appeared to her. Among her friends, also, she declared how great a value she put upon this favor 18.76. who partly disbelieved the thing, when they reflected on its nature, and partly were amazed at it, as having no pretense for not believing it, when they considered the modesty and the dignity of the person. 18.77. But now, on the third day after what had been done, Mundus met Paulina, and said, “Nay, Paulina, thou hast saved me two hundred thousand drachmae, which sum thou sightest have added to thy own family; yet hast thou not failed to be at my service in the manner I invited thee. As for the reproaches thou hast laid upon Mundus, I value not the business of names; but I rejoice in the pleasure I reaped by what I did, while I took to myself the name of Anubis.” 18.78. When he had said this, he went his way. But now she began to come to the sense of the grossness of what she had done, and rent her garments, and told her husband of the horrid nature of this wicked contrivance, and prayed him not to neglect to assist her in this case. So he discovered the fact to the emperor; 18.79. whereupon Tiberius inquired into the matter thoroughly by examining the priests about it, and ordered them to be crucified, as well as Ide, who was the occasion of their perdition, and who had contrived the whole matter, which was so injurious to the woman. He also demolished the temple of Isis, and gave order that her statue should be thrown into the river Tiber; 18.81. 5. There was a man who was a Jew, but had been driven away from his own country by an accusation laid against him for transgressing their laws, and by the fear he was under of punishment for the same; but in all respects a wicked man. He, then living at Rome, professed to instruct men in the wisdom of the laws of Moses. 18.82. He procured also three other men, entirely of the same character with himself, to be his partners. These men persuaded Fulvia, a woman of great dignity, and one that had embraced the Jewish religion, to send purple and gold to the temple at Jerusalem; and when they had gotten them, they employed them for their own uses, and spent the money themselves, on which account it was that they at first required it of her. 18.83. Whereupon Tiberius, who had been informed of the thing by Saturninus, the husband of Fulvia, who desired inquiry might be made about it, ordered all the Jews to be banished out of Rome; 18.84. at which time the consuls listed four thousand men out of them, and sent them to the island Sardinia; but punished a greater number of them, who were unwilling to become soldiers, on account of keeping the laws of their forefathers. Thus were these Jews banished out of the city by the wickedness of four men. 18.85. 1. But the nation of the Samaritans did not escape without tumults. The man who excited them to it was one who thought lying a thing of little consequence, and who contrived every thing so that the multitude might be pleased; so he bid them to get together upon Mount Gerizzim, which is by them looked upon as the most holy of all mountains, and assured them, that when they were come thither, he would show them those sacred vessels which were laid under that place, because Moses put them there. 20.195. And when Nero had heard what they had to say, he not only forgave them what they had already done, but also gave them leave to let the wall they had built stand. This was granted them in order to gratify Poppea, Nero’s wife, who was a religious woman, and had requested these favors of Nero, and who gave order to the ten ambassadors to go their way home; but retained Helcias and Ismael as hostages with herself.
13. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.10, 2.39 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.39. And what occasion is there to speak of others, when those of us Jews that dwell at Antioch are named Antiochians, because Seleucus the founder of that city gave them the privileges belonging thereto? After the like manner do those Jews that inhabit Ephesus and the other cities of Ionia enjoy the same name with those that were originally born there, by the grant of the succeeding princes;
14. Juvenal, Satires, 14.96-14.106 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.15, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. but just as he who called you is holy, you yourselves also be holy in all of your behavior; 5.13. She who is in Babylon, elect together with you, greets you; and so does Mark, my son.
16. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.19-9.23, 10.6, 11.20-11.34, 12.2, 12.14-12.31, 15.2, 15.20-15.56 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.19. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.22. To the weak I became asweak, that I might gain the weak. I have become all things to all men,that I may by all means save some. 9.23. Now I do this for thegospel's sake, that I may be a joint partaker of it. 10.6. Nowthese things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust afterevil things, as they also lusted. 11.20. When therefore you assemble yourselves together, itis not possible to eat the Lord's supper. 11.21. For in your eatingeach one takes his own supper before others. One is hungry, and anotheris drunken. 11.22. What, don't you have houses to eat and to drink in?Or do you despise God's assembly, and put them to shame who don't have?What shall I tell you? Shall I praise you? In this I don't praise you. 11.23. For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered toyou, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed tookbread. 11.24. When he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "Take,eat. This is my body, which is broken for you. Do this in memory ofme. 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me. 11.26. For as often as you eat this breadand drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes. 11.27. Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks the Lord's cup i unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and the blood of theLord. 11.28. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of thebread, and drink of the cup. 11.29. For he who eats and drinks in anunworthy manner eats and drinks judgment to himself, if he doesn'tdiscern the Lord's body. 11.30. For this cause many among you are weakand sickly, and not a few sleep. 11.31. For if we discerned ourselves,we wouldn't be judged. 11.32. But when we are judged, we are punishedby the Lord, that we may not be condemned with the world. 11.33. Therefore, my brothers, when you come together to eat, wait one foranother. 11.34. But if anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, lestyour coming together be for judgment. The rest I will set in orderwhenever I come. 12.2. You know that when you were heathen, you were ledaway to those mute idols, however you might be led. 12.14. For the body is not one member, but many. 12.15. If the foot would say, "Because I'm not the hand, I'm not part of thebody," it is not therefore not part of the body. 12.16. If the earwould say, "Because I'm not the eye, I'm not part of the body," it'snot therefore not part of the body. 12.17. If the whole body were aneye, where would the hearing be? If the whole were hearing, where wouldthe smelling be? 12.18. But now God has set the members, each one ofthem, in the body, just as he desired. 12.19. If they were all onemember, where would the body be? 12.20. But now they are many members,but one body. 12.21. The eye can't tell the hand, "I have no need foryou," or again the head to the feet, "I have no need for you. 12.22. No, much rather, those members of the body which seem to be weaker arenecessary. 12.23. Those parts of the body which we think to be lesshonorable, on those we bestow more abundant honor; and ourunpresentable parts have more abundant propriety; 12.24. whereas ourpresentable parts have no such need. But God composed the bodytogether, giving more abundant honor to the inferior part 12.25. thatthere should be no division in the body, but that the members shouldhave the same care for one another. 12.26. When one member suffers,all the members suffer with it. Or when one member is honored, all themembers rejoice with it. 12.27. Now you are the body of Christ, and members individually. 12.28. God has set some in the assembly: first apostles, secondprophets, third teachers, then miracle workers, then gifts of healings,helps, governments, and various kinds of languages. 12.29. Are allapostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Are all miracle workers? 12.30. Do all have gifts of healings? Do all speak with variouslanguages? Do all interpret? 12.31. But earnestly desire the bestgifts. Moreover, I show a most excellent way to you. 15.2. bywhich also you are saved, if you hold firmly the word which I preachedto you -- unless you believed in vain. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 15.29. Or else what will they do whoare baptized for the dead? If the dead aren't raised at all, why thenare they baptized for the dead? 15.30. Why do we also stand injeopardy every hour? 15.31. I affirm, by the boasting in you which Ihave in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily. 15.32. If I fought withanimals at Ephesus for human purposes, what does it profit me? If thedead are not raised, then "let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die. 15.33. Don't be deceived! "Evil companionships corrupt good morals. 15.34. Wake up righteously, and don't sin, for some have no knowledgeof God. I say this to your shame. 15.35. But someone will say, "Howare the dead raised?" and, "With what kind of body do they come? 15.36. You foolish one, that which you yourself sow is not made aliveunless it dies. 15.37. That which you sow, you don't sow the body thatwill be, but a bare grain, maybe of wheat, or of some other kind. 15.38. But God gives it a body even as it pleased him, and to eachseed a body of its own. 15.39. All flesh is not the same flesh, butthere is one flesh of men, another flesh of animals, another of fish,and another of birds. 15.40. There are also celestial bodies, andterrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial differs from that ofthe terrestrial. 15.41. There is one glory of the sun, another gloryof the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs fromanother star in glory. 15.42. So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly. 15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption. 15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed 15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory. 15.55. Death, where is your sting?Hades, where is your victory? 15.56. The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law.
17. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 6.3-6.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.3. If anyone teaches a different doctrine, and doesn't consent to sound words, the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the doctrine which is according to godliness 6.4. he is conceited, knowing nothing, but obsessed with arguments, disputes, and word battles, from which come envy, strife, reviling, evil suspicions 6.5. constant friction of men of corrupt minds and destitute of the truth, who suppose that godliness is a means of gain. Withdraw yourself from such.
18. New Testament, 2 Peter, 1.1, 1.17-1.18, 3.15-3.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, to those who have obtained a like precious faith with us in the righteousness of our God and Savior, Jesus Christ: 1.17. For he received from God the Father honor and glory, when the voice came to him from the Majestic Glory, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 1.18. This voice we heard come out of heaven when we were with him in the holy mountain. 3.15. Regard the patience of our Lord as salvation; even as our beloved brother Paul also, according to the wisdom given to him, wrote to you; 3.16. as also in all of his letters, speaking in them of these things. In those are some things hard to be understood, which the ignorant and unsettled twist, as they also do to the other Scriptures, to their own destruction.
19. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.18, 5.16-5.19, 11.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. who saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given to us in Christ Jesus before times eternal
21. New Testament, Acts, 15.1-15.21, 16.14, 17.2, 17.12, 17.27, 18.6-18.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15.1. Some men came down from Judea and taught the brothers, "Unless you are circumcised after the custom of Moses, you can't be saved. 15.2. Therefore when Paul and Barnabas had no small discord and discussion with them, they appointed Paul and Barnabas, and some others of them, to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. 15.3. They, being sent on their way by the assembly, passed through both Phoenicia and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles. They caused great joy to all the brothers. 15.4. When they had come to Jerusalem, they were received by the assembly and the apostles and the elders, and they reported all things that God had done with them. 15.5. But some of the sect of the Pharisees who believed rose up, saying, "It is necessary to circumcise them, and to charge them to keep the law of Moses. 15.6. The apostles and the elders were gathered together to see about this matter. 15.7. When there had been much discussion, Peter rose up and said to them, "Brothers, you know that a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. 15.8. God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us. 15.9. He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith. 15.10. Now therefore why do you tempt God, that you should put a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? 15.11. But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they are. 15.12. All the multitude kept silence, and they listened to Barnabas and Paul reporting what signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. 15.13. After they were silent, James answered, "Brothers, listen to me. 15.14. Simeon has reported how God first visited the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15.15. This agrees with the words of the prophets. As it is written 15.16. 'After these things I will return. I will again build the tent of David, which has fallen. I will again build its ruins. I will set it up 15.17. That the rest of men may seek after the Lord; All the Gentiles who are called by my name, Says the Lord, who does all these things. 15.18. All his works are known to God from eternity.' 15.19. Therefore my judgment is that we don't trouble those from among the Gentiles who turn to God 15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath. 16.14. A certain woman named Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of Thyatira, one who worshiped God, heard us; whose heart the Lord opened to listen to the things which were spoken by Paul. 17.2. Paul, as was his custom, went in to them, and for three Sabbath days reasoned with them from the Scriptures 17.12. Many of them therefore believed; also of the Greek women of honorable estate, and not a few men. 17.27. that they should seek the Lord, if perhaps they might reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us. 18.6. When they opposed him and blasphemed, he shook out his clothing and said to them, "Your blood be on your own heads! I am clean. From now on, I will go to the Gentiles! 18.7. He departed there, and went into the house of a certain man named Justus, one who worshiped God, whose house was next door to the synagogue.
22. New Testament, Apocalypse, 5.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.8. Now when he had taken the book, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints.
23. New Testament, Jude, 11-18, 4-10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. New Testament, Colossians, 1.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.22. yet now he has reconciled in the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and without blemish and blameless before him
25. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.18, 2.11-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope of his calling, and what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition
26. New Testament, Galatians, 1.7, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 4, 4.21-5.1, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. and there isn'tanother gospel. Only there are some who trouble you, and want topervert the gospel of Christ.
27. New Testament, Hebrews, 5.14, 8.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.14. But solid food is for those who are full grown, who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern good and evil. 8.5. who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, even as Moses was warned by God when he was about to make the tabernacle, for he said, "See, you shall make everything according to the pattern that was shown to you on the mountain.
28. New Testament, Romans, 1, 1.3, 1.16, 1.16-2.29, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.30, 1.31, 1.32, 2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.28, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.20, 3.23, 3.27, 3.28, 4, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 5, 5.2, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.6, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.19, 7, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 8, 8.3, 8.10, 8.11, 8.23, 9, 9.1, 10, 10.5, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.32, 12, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 13, 14, 14.1-15.6, 15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

29. New Testament, Titus, 2.11-2.12, 3.1-3.2, 3.5-3.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all men 2.12. instructing us to the intent that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we would live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world; 3.1. Remind them to be in subjection to rulers and to authorities, to be obedient, to be ready for every good work 3.2. to speak evil of no one, not to be contentious, to be gentle, showing all humility toward all men. 3.5. not by works of righteousness, which we did ourselves, but according to his mercy, he saved us, through the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit 3.6. which he poured out on us richly, through Jesus Christ our Savior; 3.7. that, being justified by his grace, we might be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life.
30. New Testament, Mark, 11.1-11.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.1. When they drew near to Jerusalem, to Bethsphage and Bethany, at the Mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples 11.2. and said to them, "Go your way into the village that is opposite you. Immediately as you enter into it, you will find a colt tied, on which no one has sat. Untie him, and bring him. 11.3. If anyone asks you, 'Why are you doing this?' say, 'The Lord needs him;' and immediately he will send him back here. 11.4. They went away, and found a colt tied at the door outside in the open street, and they untied him. 11.5. Some of those who stood there asked them, "What are you doing, untying the colt? 11.6. They said to them just as Jesus had said, and they let them go. 11.7. They brought the colt to Jesus, and threw their garments on it, and Jesus sat on it. 11.8. Many spread their garments on the way, and others were cutting down branches from the trees, and spreading them on the road. 11.9. Those who went in front, and those who followed, cried out, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! 11.10. Blessed is the kingdom of our father David that is coming in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest! 11.11. Jesus entered into the temple in Jerusalem. When he had looked around at everything, it being now evening, he went out to Bethany with the twelve.
31. New Testament, Matthew, 12.38-12.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.38. Then certain of the scribes and Pharisees answered, saying, "Teacher, we want to see a sign from you. 12.39. But he answered them, "An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign, but no sign will be given it but the sign of Jonah the prophet. 12.40. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
32. Tertullian, To The Heathen, 1.13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.13. Others, with greater regard to good manners, it must be confessed, suppose that the sun is the god of the Christians, because it is a well-known fact that we pray towards the east, or because we make Sunday a day of festivity. What then? Do you do less than this? Do not many among you, with an affectation of sometimes worshipping the heavenly bodies likewise, move your lips in the direction of the sunrise? It is you, at all events, who have even admitted the sun into the calendar of the week; and you have selected its day, in preference to the preceding day as the most suitable in the week for either an entire abstinence from the bath, or for its postponement until the evening, or for taking rest and for banqueting. By resorting to these customs, you deliberately deviate from your own religious rites to those of strangers. For the Jewish feasts on the Sabbath and the Purification, and Jewish also are the ceremonies of the lamps, and the fasts of unleavened bread, and the littoral prayers, all which institutions and practices are of course foreign from your gods. Wherefore, that I may return from this digression, you who reproach us with the sun and Sunday should consider your proximity to us. We are not far off from your Saturn and your days of rest.
33. Origen, Against Celsus, 1.48 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.48. Although the Jew, then, may offer no defense for himself in the instances of Ezekiel and Isaiah, when we compare the opening of the heavens to Jesus, and the voice that was heard by Him, to the similar cases which we find recorded in Ezekiel and Isaiah, or any other of the prophets, we nevertheless, so far as we can, shall support our position, maintaining that, as it is a matter of belief that in a dream impressions have been brought before the minds of many, some relating to divine things, and others to future events of this life, and this either with clearness or in an enigmatic manner - a fact which is manifest to all who accept the doctrine of providence; so how is it absurd to say that the mind which could receive impressions in a dream should be impressed also in a waking vision, for the benefit either of him on whom the impressions are made, or of those who are to hear the account of them from him? And as in a dream we fancy that we hear, and that the organs of hearing are actually impressed, and that we see with our eyes - although neither the bodily organs of sight nor hearing are affected, but it is the mind alone which has these sensations - so there is no absurdity in believing that similar things occurred to the prophets, when it is recorded that they witnessed occurrences of a rather wonderful kind, as when they either heard the words of the Lord or beheld the heavens opened. For I do not suppose that the visible heaven was actually opened, and its physical structure divided, in order that Ezekiel might be able to record such an occurrence. Should not, therefore, the same be believed of the Saviour by every intelligent hearer of the Gospels?- although such an occurrence may be a stumbling-block to the simple, who in their simplicity would set the whole world in movement, and split in sunder the compact and mighty body of the whole heavens. But he who examines such matters more profoundly will say, that there being, as the Scripture calls it, a kind of general divine perception which the blessed man alone knows how to discover, according to the saying of Solomon, You shall find the knowledge of God; and as there are various forms of this perceptive power, such as a faculty of vision which can naturally see things that are better than bodies, among which are ranked the cherubim and seraphim; and a faculty of hearing which can perceive voices which have not their being in the air; and a sense of taste which can make use of living bread that has come down from heaven, and that gives life unto the world; and so also a sense of smelling, which scents such things as leads Paul to say that he is a sweet savour of Christ unto God; and a sense of touch, by which John says that he handled with his hands of the Word of life; - the blessed prophets having discovered this divine perception, and seeing and hearing in this divine manner, and tasting likewise, and smelling, so to speak, with no sensible organs of perception, and laying hold on the Logos by faith, so that a healing effluence from it comes upon them, saw in this manner what they record as having seen, and heard what they say they heard, and were affected in a similar manner to what they describe when eating the roll of a book that was given them. And so also Isaac smelled the savour of his son's divine garments, and added to the spiritual blessing these words: See, the savour of my son is as the savour of a full field which the Lord blessed. And similarly to this, and more as a matter to be understood by the mind than to be perceived by the senses, Jesus touched the leper, to cleanse him, as I think, in a twofold sense - freeing him not only, as the multitude heard, from the visible leprosy by visible contact, but also from that other leprosy, by His truly divine touch. It is in this way, accordingly, that John testifies when he says, I beheld the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon Him. And I knew Him not; but He that sent me to baptize with water, the same said to me, Upon whom you will see the Spirit descending, and abiding on Him, the same is He that baptizes with the Holy Ghost. And I saw, and bear witness, that this is the Son of God. Now it was to Jesus that the heavens were opened; and on that occasion no one except John is recorded to have seen them opened. But with respect to this opening of the heavens, the Saviour, foretelling to His disciples that it would happen, and that they would see it, says, Verily, verily, I say unto you, You shall see the heavens opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man. And so Paul was carried away into the third heaven, having previously seen it opened, since he was a disciple of Jesus. It does not, however, belong to our present object to explain why Paul says, Whether in the body, I know not; or whether out of the body, I know not: God knows. But I shall add to my argument even those very points which Celsus imagines, viz., that Jesus Himself related the account of the opening of the heavens, and the descent of the Holy Spirit upon Him at the Jordan in the form of a dove, although the Scripture does not assert that He said that He saw it. For this great man did not perceive that it was not in keeping with Him who commanded His disciples on the occasion of the vision on the mount, Tell what you have seen to no man, until the Son of man be risen from the dead, to have related to His disciples what was seen and heard by John at the Jordan. For it may be observed as a trait of the character of Jesus, that He on all occasions avoided unnecessary talk about Himself; and on that account said, If I speak of Myself, My witness is not true. And since He avoided unnecessary talk about Himself, and preferred to show by acts rather than words that He was the Christ, the Jews for that reason said to Him, If You are the Christ, tell us plainly. And as it is a Jew who, in the work of Celsus, uses the language to Jesus regarding the appearance of the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove, This is your own testimony, unsupported save by one of those who were sharers of your punishment, whom you adduce, it is necessary for us to show him that such a statement is not appropriately placed in the mouth of a Jew. For the Jews do not connect John with Jesus, nor the punishment of John with that of Christ. And by this instance, this man who boasts of universal knowledge is convicted of not knowing what words he ought to ascribe to a Jew engaged in a disputation with Jesus.
34. Epigraphy, Cij, 5



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, encomia on Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
abraham, faith of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
abraham, lot contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
abraham, praise of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
abraham Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191; Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82, 363
abraham (abram), circumcision Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 93
adam, judgement of Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 93
adiaphora/indistinguishable/neutral Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 194
antitheses (marcion) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
argument Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
authority Papaioannou et al., Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 172; Papaioannou, Serafim and Demetriou, Rhetoric and Religion in Ancient Greece and Rome (2021) 172
baptism, biblical narratives as types for Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 326
baptism Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
bible, baptism, biblical types for Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 326
bible, biblical narratives Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 326
bible, ekphrasis, use of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 326
bion of borysthenes Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
boast Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 334
body Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
boethius, de consolatione philosophiaenan Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 23, 24
boundaries, traditional Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82, 363
bultmann, rudolf Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
christianity, early history Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 149
circumcision Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82, 363
coakley, sarah Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 24
corinthians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
cosmos Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 363
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 149
death Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
dialogue, traditions Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 93
diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
dio chrysostom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
diogenes, the cynic Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 453
ekphrasis, inscriptions disseminating biblical narratives Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 326
elchasaites Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
embodiment Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
encomia, on abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
epictetus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 453, 734; Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 194
epistle, pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 453
ethnicity Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
ethnos/ethne, as gentiles Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
ethnos/ethne, in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
exhortation Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 453
external goods, faith vs. Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
faith, external goods contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
faith, pistis Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181
faith Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82, 363
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 334
forms of dialogue Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 93
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 157
gamble, harry Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181
gavrilyuk, paul Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 24
gentile christians Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 72
gentiles, as contrast with jews Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
gentiles, jews and Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181
glory Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 334
gnostics and gnosticism, hermeneutics of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
gnostics and gnosticism, secret or oral tradition, belief in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
gnostics and gnosticism Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
god, trust in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
gomorrah, goods, kinds of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
hebrews/israelites, and paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
homeric commentary Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 93
idolatry, in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
jesus christ Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82, 363
jewett, robert Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181
jewish christians Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 72
jews, jewish Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 72
jews, judaism, gentiles and Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181
jews, judaism, roman empire, and Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and ethnic vocabulary in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and idolatry Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
koester, helmut Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181
law, as salvific Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 453
laws, particular Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
laws, virtue underlying Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
letter, diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
life Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
limit Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
lineage and genealogy as identity marker, in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
lot, abraham contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
luke, gospel of, as pauline gospel Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
mani and manichaeans Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
marcion and marcionites, antitheses (marcion) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
marcion and marcionites, canon of new testament and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
marcion and marcionites, hermeneutics of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
maximus of tyre Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
messianic time Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181
metzger, bruce m. Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181
mother, motherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 334
musonius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
nature/nature Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 194
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 194
non-jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82, 363
order Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
origen, commentary on psalms Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 23, 24
origen, contra celsum Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 23
origen, on spiritual senses Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 23, 24
parents Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 334
particular laws Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
pastoral epistles Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 453
pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 453
paul, apostle, gospel Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181
paul Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191; Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 72
pauline epistles, luke as pauline gospel Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
pauline epistles, marcion's collection" Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
peter, first and second letters Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 149
philosopher, moral Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 453
philosopher Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
philosophy, christianity treated by gnostics as Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
pistis, faith Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181
plutarch Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
power Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181
preaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
rahner, karl Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 23
resurrection' Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 334
resurrection Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
rewards of abraham, faith as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
roman empire, jews and Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181
romans, letter to Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 181
salvation, in pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 453
sebomenoi Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 72
slaves, slavery Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 72
sodom and gomorrah Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 93
soteriology, in pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 453
space v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
spiritual senses, modern discussions of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 23, 24
spiritual senses, origen on Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 23, 24
spiritual senses Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 23, 24
teles Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
telos Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 157
traditions or schools of exegesis, valentinus and valentinian school Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
transmogrification Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 82
tree, of knowledge of good and evil Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 93
trust in god vs. external goods Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
valentinus and valentinian school Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
value (axia) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 157
values/character as identity marker, for paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
vegetables Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 72
virtue, law and, interconnectedness of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
worship/ritual/cult as identity markers, for jews in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 191
zeus, diogenes, servant of Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 453
ἐγκώμιον Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399
ἔπαινος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 399