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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8253
New Testament, Romans, 3.4


μὴ γένοιτο· γινέσθω δὲ ὁ θεὸς ἀληθής,πᾶς δὲ ἄνθρωπος ψεύστης,καθάπερ γέγραπταιMay it never be! Yes, let God be found true, but every man a liar. As it is written, "That you might be justified in your words, And might prevail when you come into judgment.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

45 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 24.16, 30.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.16. לֹא־יוּמְתוּ אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וּבָנִים לֹא־יוּמְתוּ עַל־אָבוֹת אִיש בְּחֶטְאוֹ יוּמָתוּ׃ 30.14. כִּי־קָרוֹב אֵלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּפִיךָ וּבִלְבָבְךָ לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ׃ 24.16. The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the fathers; every man shall be put to death for his own sin." 30.14. But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 16.10, 23.20, 24.16, 33.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.16. וַיִּשְׁכֹּן כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי וַיְכַסֵּהוּ הֶעָנָן שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִתּוֹךְ הֶעָנָן׃ 33.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אַעֲבִיר כָּל־טוּבִי עַל־פָּנֶיךָ וְקָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם יְהוָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם׃ 16.10. And it came to pass, as Aaron spoke unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud." 23.20. Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee by the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared." 24.16. And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days; and the seventh day He called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud." 33.19. And He said: ‘I will make all My goodness pass before thee, and will proclaim the name of the LORD before thee; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 11.5-11.6, 18.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה לִרְאֹת אֶת־הָעִיר וְאֶת־הַמִּגְדָּל אֲשֶׁר בָּנוּ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם׃ 11.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה הֵן עַם אֶחָד וְשָׂפָה אַחַת לְכֻלָּם וְזֶה הַחִלָּם לַעֲשׂוֹת וְעַתָּה לֹא־יִבָּצֵר מֵהֶם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יָזְמוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 18.25. חָלִלָה לְּךָ מֵעֲשֹׂת כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְהָמִית צַדִּיק עִם־רָשָׁע וְהָיָה כַצַּדִּיק כָּרָשָׁע חָלִלָה לָּךְ הֲשֹׁפֵט כָּל־הָאָרֶץ לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט׃ 11.5. And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded." 11.6. And the LORD said: ‘Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language; and this is what they begin to do; and now nothing will be withholden from them, which they purpose to do." 18.25. That be far from Thee to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked, that so the righteous should be as the wicked; that be far from Thee; shall not the judge of all the earth do justly?’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. הָבִיאוּ אֶת־כָּל־הַמַּעֲשֵׂר אֶל־בֵּית הָאוֹצָר וִיהִי טֶרֶף בְּבֵיתִי וּבְחָנוּנִי נָא בָּזֹאת אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אִם־לֹא אֶפְתַּח לָכֶם אֵת אֲרֻבּוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וַהֲרִיקֹתִי לָכֶם בְּרָכָה עַד־בְּלִי־דָי׃ 3.1. הִנְנִי שֹׁלֵחַ מַלְאָכִי וּפִנָּה־דֶרֶךְ לְפָנָי וּפִתְאֹם יָבוֹא אֶל־הֵיכָלוֹ הָאָדוֹן אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם מְבַקְשִׁים וּמַלְאַךְ הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם חֲפֵצִים הִנֵּה־בָא אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 3.1. Behold, I send My messenger, and he shall clear the way before Me; and the Lord, whom ye seek, will suddenly come to His temple, and the messenger of the covet, Whom ye delight in, Behold, he cometh, Saith the LORD of hosts."
5. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 1.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.7. טוֹב יְהוָה לְמָעוֹז בְּיוֹם צָרָה וְיֹדֵעַ חֹסֵי בוֹ׃ 1.7. The LORD is good, A stronghold in the day of trouble; And He knoweth them that take refuge in Him."
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.3, 7.3, 21.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.3. אַל־תרוב [תָּרִיב] עִם־אָדָם חִנָּם אִם־לֹא גְמָלְךָ רָעָה׃ 3.3. חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת אַל־יַעַזְבֻךָ קָשְׁרֵם עַל־גַּרְגְּרוֹתֶיךָ כָּתְבֵם עַל־לוּחַ לִבֶּךָ׃ 7.3. קָשְׁרֵם עַל־אֶצְבְּעֹתֶיךָ כָּתְבֵם עַל־לוּחַ לִבֶּךָ׃ 21.1. פַּלְגֵי־מַיִם לֶב־מֶלֶךְ בְּיַד־יְהוָה עַל־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יַחְפֹּץ יַטֶּנּוּ׃ 21.1. נֶפֶשׁ רָשָׁע אִוְּתָה־רָע לֹא־יֻחַן בְּעֵינָיו רֵעֵהוּ׃ 3.3. Let not kindness and truth forsake thee; Bind them about thy neck, write them upon the table of thy heart;" 7.3. Bind them upon thy fingers, Write them upon the table of thy heart." 21.1. The king’s heart is in the hand of the LORD, as the watercourses: He turneth it whithersoever He will."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 68.18, 95.5, 106.1, 135.3, 136.5-136.9, 145.17, 147.5, 148.2-148.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

68.18. רֶכֶב אֱלֹהִים רִבֹּתַיִם אַלְפֵי שִׁנְאָן אֲדֹנָי בָם סִינַי בַּקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 95.5. אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ הַיָּם וְהוּא עָשָׂהוּ וְיַבֶּשֶׁת יָדָיו יָצָרוּ׃ 106.1. וַיּוֹשִׁיעֵם מִיַּד שׂוֹנֵא וַיִּגְאָלֵם מִיַּד אוֹיֵב׃ 106.1. הַלְלוּיָהּ הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה כִּי־טוֹב כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 135.3. הַלְלוּ־יָהּ כִּי־טוֹב יְהוָה זַמְּרוּ לִשְׁמוֹ כִּי נָעִים׃ 136.5. לְעֹשֵׂה הַשָּׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 136.6. לְרֹקַע הָאָרֶץ עַל־הַמָּיִם כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 136.7. לְעֹשֵׂה אוֹרִים גְּדֹלִים כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 136.8. אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת בַּיּוֹם כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 136.9. אֶת־הַיָּרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים לְמֶמְשְׁלוֹת בַּלָּיְלָה כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 145.17. צַדִּיק יְהוָה בְּכָל־דְּרָכָיו וְחָסִיד בְּכָל־מַעֲשָׂיו׃ 147.5. גָּדוֹל אֲדוֹנֵינוּ וְרַב־כֹּחַ לִתְבוּנָתוֹ אֵין מִסְפָּר׃ 148.2. הַלְלוּהוּ כָל־מַלְאָכָיו הַלְלוּהוּ כָּל־צבאו [צְבָאָיו׃] 148.3. הַלְלוּהוּ שֶׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ הַלְלוּהוּ כָּל־כּוֹכְבֵי אוֹר׃ 148.4. הַלְלוּהוּ שְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם וְהַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 148.5. יְהַלְלוּ אֶת־שֵׁם יְהוָה כִּי הוּא צִוָּה וְנִבְרָאוּ׃ 148.6. וַיַּעֲמִידֵם לָעַד לְעוֹלָם חָק־נָתַן וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר׃ 68.18. The chariots of God are myriads, even thousands upon thousands; The Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in holiness." 95.5. The sea is His, and He made it; And His hands formed the dry land." 106.1. Hallelujah. O give thanks unto the LORD; for He is good; for His mercy endureth for ever." 135.3. Praise ye the LORD, for the LORD is good; Sing praises unto His name, for it is pleasant." 136.5. To Him that by understanding made the heavens, for His mercy endureth for ever." 136.6. To Him that spread forth the earth above the waters, For His mercy endureth for ever." 136.7. To Him that made great lights, For His mercy endureth for ever;" 136.8. The sun to rule by day, For His mercy endureth for ever;" 136.9. The moon and stars to rule by night, For His mercy endureth for ever." 145.17. The LORD is righteous in all His ways, And gracious in all His works." 147.5. Great is our Lord, and mighty in power; His understanding is infinite." 148.2. Praise ye Him, all His angels; Praise ye Him, all His hosts." 148.3. Praise ye Him, sun and moon; Praise Him, all ye stars of light." 148.4. Praise Him, ye heavens of heavens, And ye waters that are above the heavens." 148.5. Let them praise the name of the LORD; For He commanded, and they were created." 148.6. He hath also established them for ever and ever; He hath made a decree which shall not be transgressed."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 14.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.6. וְאֶת־בְּנֵי הַמַּכִּים לֹא הֵמִית כַּכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת־מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לֵאמֹר לֹא־יוּמְתוּ אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וּבָנִים לֹא־יוּמְתוּ עַל־אָבוֹת כִּי אִם־אִישׁ בְּחֶטְאוֹ ימות [יוּמָת׃] 14.6. but the children of the murderers he put not to death; according to that which is written in the book of the law of Moses, as the LORD commanded saying: ‘The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, nor the children be put to death for the fathers; but every man shall be put to death for his own sin.’"
9. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 2.4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

2.4. הִנֵּה עֻפְּלָה לֹא־יָשְׁרָה נַפְשׁוֹ בּוֹ וְצַדִּיק בֶּאֱמוּנָתוֹ יִחְיֶה׃ 2.4. Behold, his soul is puffed up, it is not upright in him; But the righteous shall live by his faith."
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3, 25.1, 28.11, 42.6, 42.21, 45.8-45.18, 46.10, 49.6-49.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 25.1. כִּי־תָנוּחַ יַד־יְהוָה בָּהָר הַזֶּה וְנָדוֹשׁ מוֹאָב תַּחְתָּיו כְּהִדּוּשׁ מַתְבֵּן במי [בְּמוֹ] מַדְמֵנָה׃ 25.1. יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי אַתָּה אֲרוֹמִמְךָ אוֹדֶה שִׁמְךָ כִּי עָשִׂיתָ פֶּלֶא עֵצוֹת מֵרָחוֹק אֱמוּנָה אֹמֶן׃ 28.11. כִּי בְּלַעֲגֵי שָׂפָה וּבְלָשׁוֹן אַחֶרֶת יְדַבֵּר אֶל־הָעָם הַזֶּה׃ 42.6. אֲנִי יְהוָה קְרָאתִיךָ בְצֶדֶק וְאַחְזֵק בְּיָדֶךָ וְאֶצָּרְךָ וְאֶתֶּנְךָ לִבְרִית עָם לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם׃ 42.21. יְהוָה חָפֵץ לְמַעַן צִדְקוֹ יַגְדִּיל תּוֹרָה וְיַאְדִּיר׃ 45.8. הַרְעִיפוּ שָׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וּשְׁחָקִים יִזְּלוּ־צֶדֶק תִּפְתַּח־אֶרֶץ וְיִפְרוּ־יֶשַׁע וּצְדָקָה תַצְמִיחַ יַחַד אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּרָאתִיו׃ 45.9. הוֹי רָב אֶת־יֹצְרוֹ חֶרֶשׂ אֶת־חַרְשֵׂי אֲדָמָה הֲיֹאמַר חֹמֶר לְיֹצְרוֹ מַה־תַּעֲשֶׂה וּפָעָלְךָ אֵין־יָדַיִם לוֹ׃ 45.11. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיֹצְרוֹ הָאֹתִיּוֹת שְׁאָלוּנִי עַל־בָּנַי וְעַל־פֹּעַל יָדַי תְּצַוֻּנִי׃ 45.12. אָנֹכִי עָשִׂיתִי אֶרֶץ וְאָדָם עָלֶיהָ בָרָאתִי אֲנִי יָדַי נָטוּ שָׁמַיִם וְכָל־צְבָאָם צִוֵּיתִי׃ 45.13. אָנֹכִי הַעִירֹתִהוּ בְצֶדֶק וְכָל־דְּרָכָיו אֲיַשֵּׁר הוּא־יִבְנֶה עִירִי וְגָלוּתִי יְשַׁלֵּחַ לֹא בִמְחִיר וְלֹא בְשֹׁחַד אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 45.14. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה יְגִיעַ מִצְרַיִם וּסְחַר־כּוּשׁ וּסְבָאִים אַנְשֵׁי מִדָּה עָלַיִךְ יַעֲבֹרוּ וְלָךְ יִהְיוּ אַחֲרַיִךְ יֵלֵכוּ בַּזִּקִּים יַעֲבֹרוּ וְאֵלַיִךְ יִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ אֵלַיִךְ יִתְפַּלָּלוּ אַךְ בָּךְ אֵל וְאֵין עוֹד אֶפֶס אֱלֹהִים׃ 45.15. אָכֵן אַתָּה אֵל מִסְתַּתֵּר אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 45.16. בּוֹשׁוּ וְגַם־נִכְלְמוּ כֻּלָּם יַחְדָּו הָלְכוּ בַכְּלִמָּה חָרָשֵׁי צִירִים׃ 45.17. יִשְׂרָאֵל נוֹשַׁע בַּיהוָה תְּשׁוּעַת עוֹלָמִים לֹא־תֵבֹשׁוּ וְלֹא־תִכָּלְמוּ עַד־עוֹלְמֵי עַד׃ 45.18. כִּי כֹה אָמַר־יְהוָה בּוֹרֵא הַשָּׁמַיִם הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים יֹצֵר הָאָרֶץ וְעֹשָׂהּ הוּא כוֹנְנָהּ לֹא־תֹהוּ בְרָאָהּ לָשֶׁבֶת יְצָרָהּ אֲנִי יְהוָה וְאֵין עוֹד׃ 49.6. וַיֹּאמֶר נָקֵל מִהְיוֹתְךָ לִי עֶבֶד לְהָקִים אֶת־שִׁבְטֵי יַעֲקֹב ונצירי [וּנְצוּרֵי] יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהָשִׁיב וּנְתַתִּיךָ לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם לִהְיוֹת יְשׁוּעָתִי עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ׃ 49.7. כֹּה אָמַר־יְהוָה גֹּאֵל יִשְׂרָאֵל קְדוֹשׁוֹ לִבְזֹה־נֶפֶשׁ לִמְתָעֵב גּוֹי לְעֶבֶד מֹשְׁלִים מְלָכִים יִרְאוּ וָקָמוּ שָׂרִים וְיִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְמַעַן יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר נֶאֱמָן קְדֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּבְחָרֶךָּ׃ 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory." 25.1. O LORD, Thou art my God, I will exalt Thee, I will praise Thy name, For Thou hast done wonderful things; Even counsels of old, in faithfulness and truth." 28.11. For with stammering lips and with a strange tongue Shall it be spoken to this people;" 42.6. I the LORD have called thee in righteousness, And have taken hold of thy hand, And kept thee, and set thee for a covet of the people, For a light of the nations;" 42.21. The LORD was pleased, for His righteousness’sake, To make the teaching great and glorious." 45.8. Drop down, ye heavens, from above, and let the skies pour down righteousness; let the earth open, that they may bring forth salvation, and let her cause righteousness to spring up together; I the LORD have created it." 45.9. Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker, as a potsherd with the potsherds of the earth! Shall the clay say to him that fashioned it: ‘What makest thou?’ Or: ‘Thy work, it hath no hands’?" 45.10. Woe unto him that saith unto his father. 'Wherefore begettest thou?’ Or to a woman: ‘Wherefore travailest thou?’" 45.11. Thus saith the LORD, The Holy One of Israel, and his Maker: Ask Me of the things that are to come; Concerning My sons, and concerning the work of My hands, command ye Me." 45.12. I, even I, have made the earth, And created man upon it; I, even My hands, have stretched out the heavens, And all their host have I commanded." 45.13. I have roused him up in victory, And I make level all his ways; He shall build My city, And he shall let Mine exiles go free, Not for price nor reward, Saith the LORD of hosts." 45.14. Thus saith the LORD: The labour of Egypt, and the merchandise of Ethiopia, And of the Sabeans, men of stature, Shall come over unto thee, and they shall be thine; They shall go after thee, in chains they shall come over; And they shall fall down unto thee, They shall make supplication unto thee: Surely God is in thee, and there is none else, There is no other God." 45.15. Verily Thou art a God that hidest Thyself, O God of Israel, the Saviour." 45.16. They shall be ashamed, yea, confounded, all of them; They shall go in confusion together that are makers of idols." 45.17. O Israel, that art saved by the LORD with an everlasting salvation; Ye shall not be ashamed nor confounded world without end." 45.18. For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens, He is God; That formed the earth and made it, He established it, He created it not to be empty or chaotic, He established it to be settled and inhabited: I am the LORD, and there is none else." 46.10. Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times things that are not yet done; Saying: ‘My counsel shall stand, and all My pleasure will I do’;" 49.6. Yea, He saith: ‘It is too light a thing that thou shouldest be My servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the offspring of Israel; I will also give thee for a light of the nations, That My salvation may be unto the end of the earth.’" 49.7. Thus saith the LORD, The Redeemer of Israel, his Holy One, To him who is despised of men, To him who is abhorred of nations, To a servant of rulers: Kings shall see and arise, Princes, and they shall prostrate themselves; Because of the LORD that is faithful, Even the Holy One of Israel, who hath chosen thee."
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 25.4 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.4. וְאֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם לֹא הֵמִית כִּי כַכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה בְּסֵפֶר מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לֵאמֹר לֹא־יָמוּתוּ אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וּבָנִים לֹא־יָמוּתוּ עַל־אָבוֹת כִּי אִישׁ בְּחֶטְאוֹ יָמוּתוּ׃ 25.4. But he put not their children to death, but did according to that which is written in the law in the book of Moses, as the LORD commanded, saying: ‘The fathers shall not die for the children, neither shall the children die for the fathers; but every man shall die for his own sin.’"
12. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 4.35 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 2.6, 2.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.6. Trust in him, and he will help you;make your ways straight, and hope in him.
15. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 6.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.18. Then the most glorious, almighty, and true God revealed his holy face and opened the heavenly gates, from which two glorious angels of fearful aspect descended, visible to all but the Jews.
16. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 5.499 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

5.499. Much war shall come to men, and blood shall flow
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.192 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.192. In addition the following ought to be said. These festal and holiday rests have in the past often opened up countless avenues to sins. For unmixed beverage and luxurious diets with excessive drinking arouse the insatiable desires of the stomach and also kindle the desires of the parts beneath the stomach. As these desires both flow and stream out in every way, they produce a surge of unspeakable evils using the fearless stimulant of the feast as a refuge to avoid suffering anything.
18. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 26.6 (1st cent. CE

19. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.1.13, 1.2.35, 1.6.13, 1.9.32, 1.10.7, 1.11.17, 1.11.22-1.11.23, 1.12.10, 1.19.7, 1.26.6, 1.28.19, 1.29.9, 2.8.2, 2.10.15, 2.10.21-2.10.23, 2.23.23, 3.1.42, 3.7.4, 3.22.37, 3.22.77, 3.24.22-3.24.23, 3.24.35-3.24.36, 3.24.53, 3.24.58, 4.4.1-4.4.2, 4.7.26, 4.8.2, 4.9.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.209-4.210 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.209. 12. When the multitude are assembled together unto the holy city for sacrificing every seventh year, at the feast of tabernacles, let the high priest stand upon a high desk, whence he may be heard, and let him read the laws to all the people; and let neither the women nor the children be hindered from hearing, no, nor the servants neither;
21. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.190, 2.204 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.204. Nay, indeed, the law does not permit us to make festivals at the births of our children, and thereby afford occasion of drinking to excess; but it ordains that the very beginning of our education should be immediately directed to sobriety. It also commands us to bring those children up in learning and to exercise them in the laws, and make them acquainted with the acts of their predecessors, in order to their imitation of them, and that they might be nourished up in the laws from their infancy, and might neither transgress them, nor have any pretense for their ignorance of them. /p
22. New Testament, 1 John, 3.23, 5.13, 5.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.23. This is his commandment, that we should believe in the name of his Son, Jesus Christ, and love one another, even as he commanded. 5.13. These things I have written to you who believe in the name of the Son of God, that you may know that you have eternal life, and that you may continue to believe in the name of the Son of God. 5.20. We know that the Son of God has come, and has given us an understanding, that we know him who is true, and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life.
23. New Testament, 1 Peter, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.11. If any man speaks, let it be as it were oracles of God. If any man serves, let it be as of the strength which God supplies, that in all things God may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom belong the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen.
24. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.7, 1.19, 1.21-1.23, 1.31, 2.9, 3.19, 4.1-4.2, 7.18, 9.9-9.10, 9.17, 10.7, 12.7, 14.21, 15.3-15.8, 15.24-15.28, 15.33, 15.54 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. o that you come behindin no gift; waiting for the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ; 1.19. For it is written,"I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,I will bring the discernment of the discerning to nothing. 1.21. For seeing that in the wisdom of God, the world through its wisdomdidn't know God, it was God's good pleasure through the foolishness ofthe preaching to save those who believe. 1.22. For Jews ask for signs,Greeks seek after wisdom 1.23. but we preach Christ crucified; astumbling block to Jews, and foolishness to Greeks 1.31. that, according as it iswritten, "He who boasts, let him boast in the Lord. 2.9. But as it is written,"Things which an eye didn't see, and an ear didn't hear,Which didn't enter into the heart of man,These God has prepared for those who love him. 3.19. Forthe wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written,"He has taken the wise in their craftiness. 4.1. So let a man think of us as Christ's servants, and stewards ofGod's mysteries. 4.2. Here, moreover, it is required of stewards, thatthey be found faithful. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 9.9. For it is written in the law of Moses,"You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain." Is it forthe oxen that God cares 9.10. or does he say it assuredly for oursake? Yes, it was written for our sake, because he who plows ought toplow in hope, and he who threshes in hope should partake of his hope. 9.17. For if I do this of my own will, Ihave a reward. But if not of my own will, I have a stewardshipentrusted to me. 10.7. Neither be idolaters, as someof them were. As it is written, "The people sat down to eat and drink,and rose up to play. 12.7. But to each one is given the manifestation of theSpirit for the profit of all. 14.21. In the law it is written,"By men of strange languages and by the lips of strangers I will speakto this people. Not even thus will they hear me, says the Lord. 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.4. that he was buried, that he wasraised on the third day according to the Scriptures 15.5. and that heappeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 15.6. Then he appeared to overfive hundred brothers at once, most of whom remain until now, but somehave also fallen asleep. 15.7. Then he appeared to James, then to allthe apostles 15.8. and last of all, as to the child born at the wrongtime, he appeared to me also. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 15.33. Don't be deceived! "Evil companionships corrupt good morals. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory.
25. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.9-1.10, 2.4, 2.14-2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come. 2.4. But even as we have been approved by God to be entrusted with the gospel, so we speak; not as pleasing men, but God, who tests our hearts. 2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews; 2.15. who killed both the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and drove us out, and didn't please God, and are contrary to all men; 2.16. forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they may be saved; to fill up their sins always. But wrath has come on them to the uttermost.
26. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 5.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.18. For the Scripture says, "You shall not muzzle the ox when it treads out the grain." And, "The laborer is worthy of his wages.
27. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.6, 8.15, 9.9, 12.1, 12.4, 12.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

28. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.12-1.13, 2.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. For this cause I suffer also these things. Yet I am not ashamed, for I know him whom I have believed, and I am persuaded that he is able to guard that which I have committed to him against that day. 1.13. Hold the pattern of sound words which you have heard from me, in faith and love which is in Christ Jesus. 2.19. However God's firm foundation stands, having this seal, "The Lord knows those who are his," and, "Let every one who names the name of the Lord depart from unrighteousness.
29. New Testament, Acts, 2.4, 2.17, 2.23, 7.38, 13.47, 15.7, 15.9-15.11, 18.24-18.25, 19.2, 19.4-19.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.4. They were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other languages, as the Spirit gave them the ability to speak. 2.17. 'It will be in the last days, says God, I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh. Your sons and your daughters will prophesy. Your young men will see visions. Your old men will dream dreams. 2.23. him, being delivered up by the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by the hand of lawless men, crucified and killed; 7.38. This is he who was in the assembly in the wilderness with the angel that spoke to him on Mount Sinai, and with our fathers, who received living oracles to give to us 13.47. For so has the Lord commanded us, saying, 'I have set you as a light of the Gentiles, That you should be for salvation to the uttermost parts of the earth.' 15.7. When there had been much discussion, Peter rose up and said to them, "Brothers, you know that a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. 15.9. He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith. 15.10. Now therefore why do you tempt God, that you should put a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? 15.11. But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they are. 18.24. Now a certain Jew named Apollos, an Alexandrian by race, an eloquent man, came to Ephesus. He was mighty in the Scriptures. 18.25. This man had been instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in spirit, he spoke and taught accurately the things concerning Jesus, although he knew only the baptism of John. 19.2. He said to them, "Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?"They said to him, "No, we haven't even heard that there is a Holy Spirit. 19.4. Paul said, "John indeed baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying to the people that they should believe in the one who would come after him, that is, on Jesus. 19.5. When they heard this, they were baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. 19.6. When Paul had laid his hands on them, the Holy Spirit came on them, and they spoke with other languages, and prophesied. 19.7. They were about twelve men in all.
30. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.7. To the angel of the assembly in Philadelphia write: "He who is holy, he who is true, he who has the key of David, he who opens and no one can shut, and that shuts and no one opens, says these things:
31. New Testament, James, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.6. But he gives more grace. Therefore it says, "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble.
32. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.1-2.10, 3.7, 4.8, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.4. But God, being rich in mercy, for his great love with which he loved us 2.5. even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved) 2.6. and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus 2.7. that in the ages to come he might show the exceeding riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus; 2.8. for by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God 2.9. not of works, that no one would boast. 2.10. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared before that we would walk in them. 3.7. whereof I was made a servant, according to the gift of that grace of God which was given me according to the working of his power. 4.8. Therefore he says, "When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men. 5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you.
33. New Testament, Galatians, 1.6-1.9, 1.13-1.16, 2.2-2.10, 2.15-2.18, 2.20, 3.2, 3.10-3.11, 3.13, 4.22, 5.6, 6.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. I marvel that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ to a different gospel; 1.7. and there isn'tanother gospel. Only there are some who trouble you, and want topervert the gospel of Christ. 1.8. But even though we, or an angelfrom heaven, should preach to you any gospel other than that which wepreached to you, let him be cursed. 1.9. As we have said before, so Inow say again: if any man preaches to you any gospel other than thatwhich you received, let him be cursed. 1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. 1.15. Butwhen it was the good pleasure of God, who separated me from my mother'swomb, and called me through his grace 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain. 2.3. But not even Titus, whowas with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 2.4. Thiswas because of the false brothers secretly brought in, who stole in tospy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they mightbring us into bondage; 2.5. to whom we gave no place in the way ofsubjection, not for an hour, that the truth of the gospel mightcontinue with you. 2.6. But from those who were reputed to beimportant (whatever they were, it makes no difference to me; Goddoesn't show partiality to man) -- they, I say, who were respectedimparted nothing to me 2.7. but to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 2.15. We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 2.17. But if, while we sought to be justified in Christ, we ourselvesalso were found sinners, is Christ a servant of sin? Certainly not! 2.18. For if I build up again those things which I destroyed, I provemyself a law-breaker. 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 3.2. I just want to learn this from you. Did you receivethe Spirit by the works of the law, or by hearing of faith? 3.10. For as many as are of the works of the law areunder a curse. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who doesn'tcontinue in all things that are written in the book of the law, to dothem. 3.11. Now that no man is justified by the law before God isevident, for, "The righteous will live by faith. 3.13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become acurse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on atree 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 6.14. But far be it from me to boast, except inthe cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has beencrucified to me, and I to the world.
34. New Testament, Hebrews, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. For when by reason of the time you ought to be teachers, you again need to have someone teach you the rudiments of the first principles of the oracles of God. You have come to need milk, and not solid food.
35. New Testament, Philippians, 3.3, 3.6-3.7, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.3. For we are the circumcision, who worship God in the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.7. However, what things were gain to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. 3.19. whose end is destruction, whose god is the belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who think about earthly things.
36. New Testament, Romans, 1.16-1.23, 1.25, 2.5, 2.10-2.12, 2.20-2.22, 2.24, 2.29, 3.1-3.3, 3.5-3.26, 3.31, 4.1-4.12, 4.17, 5.20, 6.1-6.5, 6.7-6.8, 6.10, 6.15-6.19, 7.7-7.25, 8.29, 8.36-8.39, 9.1-9.8, 9.11, 9.13-9.24, 9.30-9.33, 10.1-10.4, 10.6-10.12, 10.15, 10.17, 11.1-11.3, 11.8, 11.11, 11.17, 11.19, 11.26, 11.36, 12.19, 15.3, 15.9, 15.21, 16.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. 1.17. For in it is revealed God's righteousness from faith to faith. As it is written, "But the righteous shall live by faith. 1.18. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness 1.19. because that which is known of God is revealed in them, for God revealed it to them. 1.20. For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity; that they may be without excuse. 1.21. Because, knowing God, they didn't glorify him as God, neither gave thanks, but became vain in their reasoning, and their senseless heart was darkened. 1.22. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools 1.23. and traded the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 1.25. who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. 2.5. But according to your hardness and unrepentant heart you are treasuring up for yourself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God; 2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 2.11. For there is no partiality with God. 2.12. For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without the law. As many as have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. 2.20. a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of babies, having in the law the form of knowledge and of the truth. 2.21. You therefore who teach another, don't you teach yourself? You who preach that a man shouldn't steal, do you steal? 2.22. You who say a man shouldn't commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 2.24. For "the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you," just as it is written. 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 3.2. Much in every way! Because first of all, they were entrusted with the oracles of God. 3.3. For what if some were without faith? Will their lack of faith nullify the faithfulness of God? 3.5. But if our unrighteousness commends the righteousness of God, what will we say? Is God unrighteous who inflicts wrath? I speak like men do. 3.6. May it never be! For then how will God judge the world? 3.7. For if the truth of God through my lie abounded to his glory, why am I also still judged as a sinner? 3.8. Why not (as we are slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say), "Let us do evil, that good may come?" Those who say so are justly condemned. 3.9. What then? Are we better than they? No, in no way. For we previously charged both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin. 3.10. As it is written, "There is no one righteous. No, not one. 3.11. There is no one who understands. There is no one who seeks after God. 3.12. They have all turned aside. They have together become unprofitable. There is no one who does good, No, not, so much as one. 3.13. Their throat is an open tomb. With their tongues they have used deceit." "The poison of vipers is under their lips; 3.14. Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness. 3.15. Their feet are swift to shed blood. 3.16. Destruction and misery are in their ways. 3.17. The way of peace, they haven't known. 3.18. There is no fear of God before their eyes. 3.19. Now we know that whatever things the law says, it speaks to those who are under the law, that every mouth may be closed, and all the world may be brought under the judgment of God. 3.20. Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. 3.21. But now apart from the law, a righteousness of God has been revealed, being testified by the law and the prophets; 3.22. even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ to all and on all those who believe. For there is no distinction 3.23. for all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God; 3.24. being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; 3.25. whom God set forth to be an atoning sacrifice, through faith in his blood, for a demonstration of his righteousness through the passing over of prior sins, in God's forbearance; 3.26. to demonstrate his righteousness at this present time; that he might himself be just, and the justifier of him who has faith in Jesus. 3.31. Do we then nullify the law through faith? May it never be! No, we establish the law. 4.1. What then will we say that Abraham, our forefather, has found according to the flesh? 4.2. For if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not toward God. 4.3. For what does the Scripture say? "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness. 4.4. Now to him who works, the reward is not accounted as of grace, but as of debt. 4.5. But to him who doesn't work, but believes in him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is accounted for righteousness. 4.6. Even as David also pronounces blessing on the man to whom God counts righteousness apart from works 4.7. Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, Whose sins are covered. 4.8. Blessed is the man whom the Lord will by no means charge with sin. 4.9. Is this blessing then pronounced on the circumcised, or on the uncircumcised also? For we say that faith was accounted to Abraham for righteousness. 4.10. How then was it counted? When he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. 4.11. He received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while he was in uncircumcision, that he might be the father of all those who believe, though they be in uncircumcision, that righteousness might also be accounted to them. 4.12. The father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had in uncircumcision. 4.17. As it is written, "I have made you a father of many nations." This is in the presence of him whom he believed: God, who gives life to the dead, and calls the things that are not, as though they were. 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 6.1. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 6.2. May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer? 6.3. Or don't you know that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.5. For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will also be part of his resurrection; 6.7. For he who has died has been freed from sin. 6.8. But if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him; 6.10. For the death that he died, he died to sin one time; but the life that he lives, he lives to God. 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet. 7.8. But sin, finding occasion through the commandment, produced in me all kinds of coveting. For apart from the law, sin is dead. 7.9. I was alive apart from the law once, but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. 7.10. The commandment, which was for life, this I found to be for death; 7.11. for sin, finding occasion through the commandment, deceived me, and through it killed me. 7.12. Therefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good. 7.13. Did then that which is good become death to me? May it never be! But sin, that it might be shown to be sin, by working death to me through that which is good; that through the commandment sin might become exceeding sinful. 7.14. For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am fleshly, sold under sin. 7.15. For I don't know what I am doing. For I don't practice what I desire to do; but what I hate, that I do. 7.16. But if what I don't desire, that I do, I consent to the law that it is good. 7.17. So now it is no more I that do it, but sin which dwells in me. 7.18. For I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwells no good thing. For desire is present with me, but I don't find it doing that which is good. 7.19. For the good which I desire, I don't do; but the evil which I don't desire, that I practice. 7.20. But if what I don't desire, that I do, it is no more I that do it, but sin which dwells in me. 7.21. I find then the law, that, to me, while I desire to do good, evil is present. 7.22. For I delight in God's law after the inward man 7.23. but I see a different law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity under the law of sin which is in my members. 7.24. What a wretched man I am! Who will deliver me out of the body of this death? 7.25. I thank God through Jesus Christ, our Lord! So then with the mind, I myself serve God's law, but with the flesh, the sin's law. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 8.36. Even as it is written, "For your sake we are killed all day long. We were accounted as sheep for the slaughter. 8.37. No, in all these things, we are more than conquerors through him who loved us. 8.38. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers 8.39. nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. 9.1. I tell the truth in Christ. I am not lying, my conscience testifying with me in the Holy Spirit 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart. 9.3. For I could wish that I myself were accursed from Christ for my brothers' sake, my relatives according to the flesh 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.5. of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen. 9.6. But it is not as though the word of God has come to nothing. For they are not all Israel, that are of Israel. 9.7. Neither, because they are Abraham's seed, are they all children. But, "In Isaac will your seed be called. 9.8. That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed. 9.11. For being not yet born, neither having done anything good or bad, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him who calls 9.13. Even as it is written, "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated. 9.14. What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? May it never be! 9.15. For he said to Moses, "I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion. 9.16. So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who has mercy. 9.17. For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, "For this very purpose I caused you to be raised up, that I might show in you my power, and that my name might be published abroad in all the earth. 9.18. So then, he has mercy on whom he desires, and he hardens whom he desires. 9.19. You will say then to me, "Why does he still find fault? For who withstands his will? 9.20. But indeed, O man, who are you to reply against God? Will the thing formed ask him who formed it, "Why did you make me like this? 9.21. Or hasn't the potter a right over the clay, from the same lump to make one part a vessel for honor, and another for dishonor? 9.22. What if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath made for destruction 9.23. and that he might make known the riches of his glory on vessels of mercy, which he prepared beforehand for glory 9.24. us, whom he also called, not from the Jews only, but also from the Gentiles? 9.30. What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, who didn't follow after righteousness, attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith; 9.31. but Israel, following after a law of righteousness, didn't arrive at the law of righteousness. 9.32. Why? Because they didn't seek it by faith, but as it were by works of the law. They stumbled over the stumbling stone; 9.33. even as it is written, "Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and a rock of offense; And no one who believes in him will be put to shame. 10.1. Brothers, my heart's desire and my prayer to God is for Israel, that they may be saved. 10.2. For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge. 10.3. For being ignorant of God's righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, they didn't subject themselves to the righteousness of God. 10.4. For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes. 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 10.9. that if you will confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10.10. For with the heart, one believes unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 10.11. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame. 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 10.15. And how will they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: "How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring glad tidings of good things! 10.17. So faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. 11.1. I ask then, Did God reject his people? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 11.2. God didn't reject his people, which he foreknew. Or don't you know what the Scripture says about Elijah? How he pleads with God against Israel: 11.3. Lord, they have killed your prophets, they have broken down your altars; and I am left alone, and they seek my life. 11.8. According as it is written, "God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day. 11.11. I ask then, did they stumble that they might fall? May it never be! But by their fall salvation has come to the Gentiles, to provoke them to jealousy. 11.17. But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive, were grafted in among them, and became partaker with them of the root and of the richness of the olive tree; 11.19. You will say then, "Branches were broken off, that I might be grafted in. 11.26. and so all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, "There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob. 11.36. For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things. To him be the glory for ever! Amen. 12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 15.3. For even Christ didn't please himself. But, as it is written, "The reproaches of those who reproached you fell on me. 15.9. and that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written, "Therefore will I give praise to you among the Gentiles, And sing to your name. 15.21. But, as it is written, "They will see, to whom no news of him came. They who haven't heard will understand. 16.18. For those who are such don't serve our Lord, Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by their smooth and flattering speech, they deceive the hearts of the innocent.
37. New Testament, John, 3.33, 17.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.33. He who has received his witness has set his seal to this, that God is true. 17.3. This is eternal life, that they should know you, the only true God, and him whom you sent, Jesus Christ.
38. New Testament, Luke, 12.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.20. But God said to him, 'You foolish one, tonight your soul is required of you. The things which you have prepared -- whose will they be?'
39. New Testament, Mark, 1.12-1.13, 7.6, 8.31-8.33, 9.30-9.32, 10.18, 10.32-10.34, 14.61-14.62, 15.26, 16.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. Immediately the Spirit drove him out into the wilderness. 1.13. He was there in the wilderness forty days tempted by Satan. He was with the wild animals; and the angels ministered to him. 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 8.31. He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. 8.32. He spoke to them openly. Peter took him, and began to rebuke him. 8.33. But he, turning around, and seeing his disciples, rebuked Peter, and said, "Get behind me, Satan! For you have in mind not the things of God, but the things of men. 9.30. They went out from there, and passed through Galilee. He didn't want anyone to know it. 9.31. For he was teaching his disciples, and said to them, "The Son of Man is being handed over to the hands of men, and they will kill him; and when he is killed, on the third day he will rise again. 9.32. But they didn't understand the saying, and were afraid to ask him. 10.18. Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good except one -- God. 10.32. They were on the way, going up to Jerusalem; and Jesus was going in front of them, and they were amazed; and those who followed were afraid. He again took the twelve, and began to tell them the things that were going to happen to him. 10.33. Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem. The Son of Man will be delivered to the chief priests and the scribes. They will condemn him to death, and will deliver him to the Gentiles. 10.34. They will mock him, spit on him, scourge him, and kill him. On the third day he will rise again. 14.61. But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky. 15.26. The superscription of his accusation was written over him, "THE KING OF THE JEWS. 16.6. He said to them, "Don't be amazed. You seek Jesus, the Nazarene, who has been crucified. He has risen. He is not here. Behold, the place where they laid him!
40. New Testament, Matthew, 4.7, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.7. Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, 'You shall not test the Lord, your God.' 5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill.
41. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 60.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

42. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 28.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

28.3. וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶמְחֶה אֶת הָאָדָם, רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ אִסְטְרוֹבִּלִּין שֶׁל רֵחַיִּים נִמְחֶה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ עֲפָרוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן נִמְחֶה. כַּד דָּרְשָׁה רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּצִפּוֹרִי בְּצִבּוּרָא וְלֹא קִבְּלוּ מִינֵיהּ. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יְהוֹצָדָק אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ לוּז שֶׁל שִׁדְרָה, שֶׁמִּמֶּנוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֵצִיץ אֶת הָאָדָם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, נִמְחָה. אַדְרִיָּאנוֹס שְׁחִיק עֲצָמוֹת שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן חֲנַנְיָא אָמַר לוֹ מֵהֵיכָן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֵצִיץ אֶת הָאָדָם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, אָמַר לוֹ מִלּוּז שֶׁל שִׁדְרָה, אָמַר לוֹ מִנַּיִן אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַיְתִיתֵיהּ לְיָדִי וַאֲנָא מוֹדַע לָךְ, טָחֲנוֹ בָּרֵחַיִם וְלֹא נִטְחַן, שְׂרָפוֹ בָּאֵשׁ וְלֹא נִשְׂרַף, נְתָנוֹ בְּמַיִם וְלֹא נִמְחֶה, נְתָנוֹ עַל הַסַּדָּן וְהִתְחִיל מַכֶּה עָלָיו בְּפַטִּישׁ, נֶחְלַק הַסַּדָּן וְנִבְקַע הַפַּטִּישׁ וְלֹא חָסַר כְּלוּם.
43. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 18.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

18.1. דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ וגו' (ויקרא טו, ב), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (קהלת יב, א): וּזְכֹר אֶת בּוֹרְאֶיךָ בִּימֵי בְּחוּרֹתֶיךָ, תְּנַן (משנה אבות ג-א): עֲקַבְיָא בֶּן מַהַלַּלְאֵל אוֹמֵר הִסְתַּכֵּל בִּשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים וְאֵין אַתָּה בָּא לִידֵי עֲבֵרָה, דַּע מֵאַיִן בָּאתָ מִטִּפָּה סְרוּחָה, וּלְאָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ, לֶעָפָר רִמָּה וְתוֹלֵעָה, וְלִפְנֵי מִי אַתָּה עָתִיד לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וכו', רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר בְּשֵׁם רַב פַּפֵּי וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי שְׁלָשְׁתָּן דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא מִתּוֹךְ פָּסוּק אֶחָד, וּזְכֹר אֶת בּוֹרְאֶךָ, בְּאֵרְךָ זוֹ לֵיחָה סְרוּחָה, בּוֹרְךָ זוֹ רִמָּה וְתוֹלֵעָה, בּוֹרְאֶךָ זֶה מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁעָתִיד לִתֵּן לְפָנָיו דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן. בִּימֵי בְּחוּרֹתֶיךָ, בְּיוֹמֵי טַלְיוּתָךְ עַד דְּחֵילָךְ עֲלָךְ. (קהלת יב, א): עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָבֹאוּ יְמֵי הָרָעָה, אֵלּוּ יְמֵי זִקְנָה, (קהלת יב, א): וְהִגִּיעוּ שָׁנִים אֲשֶׁר תֹּאמַר אֵין לִי בָהֶם חֵפֶץ, אֵלּוּ יְמֵי הַמָּשִׁיחַ, שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם לֹא זְכוּת וְלֹא חוֹבָה, (קהלת יב, ב): עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֶחְשַׁךְ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְהָאוֹר וגו', הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ זֶה קְלַסְתֵּר פָּנִים, וְהָאוֹר זֶה הַמֵּצַח, וְהַיָּרֵחַ זֶה הַחוֹטֶם, וְהַכּוֹכָבִים אֵלּוּ רָאשֵׁי לְסָתוֹת, (קהלת יב, ב): וְשָׁבוּ הֶעָבִים אַחַר הַגָּשֶׁם, רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר תַּרְתֵּי חָדָא לְחַבְרַיָיא וְחָדָא לְבוּרַיָא. חָדָא לְחַבְרַיָא, בָּא לִבְכּוֹת זָלְגוּ עֵינָיו דְּמָעוֹת. חָדָא לְבוּרַיָא, בָּא לְהַטִּיל מַיִם הַגְּלָלִין מְקַדְּמִין אוֹתוֹ. (קהלת יב, ג): בַּיּוֹם שֶׁיָּזֻעוּ שֹׁמְרֵי הַבַּיִת וגו', בַּיּוֹם שֶׁיָּזֻעוּ שֹׁמְרֵי הַבַּיִת אֵלּוּ אַרְכֻּבּוֹתָיו, (קהלת יב, ג): וְהִתְעַוְתוּ אַנְשֵׁי הֶחָיִל אֵלּוּ צְלָעוֹתָיו. רַבִּי חִיָא בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר אֵלּוּ זְרוֹעוֹתָיו, (קהלת יב, ג): וּבָטְלוּ הַטֹּחֲנוֹת זֶה הַמַּסָּס, (קהלת יב, ג): כִּי מִעֵטוּ אֵלּוּ הַשִּׁנַּיִם, (קהלת יב, ג): וְחָשְׁכוּ הָרֹאוֹת בָּאֲרֻבּוֹת אֵלּוּ הָעֵינַיִם. רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר אֵלּוּ כַּנְפֵי הָרֵאָה, שֶׁמִּשָּׁם יוֹצֵא הַקּוֹל, (קהלת יב, ד): וְסֻגְּרוּ דְלָתַיִם בַּשּׁוּק אֵלּוּ נְקָבָיו שֶׁל אָדָם, שֶׁהֵן כְּמוֹ דֶּלֶת הַפּוֹתֵחַ וְהַסּוֹגֵר, (קהלת יב, ד): בִּשְׁפַל קוֹל הַטַּחֲנָה בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁאֵין הַמַּסָּס טוֹחֵן, (קהלת יב, ד): וְיָקוּם לְקוֹל הַצִּפּוֹר, הָדֵין סָבָא כַּד שָׁמַע קוֹל צִפֳּרִין מְצַיְצִין אֲמַר בְּלִיבֵּיהּ לִיסְטִין אָתָאן לִמְקַפְּחָא יָתִי, (קהלת יב, ד): וְיִשַּׁחוּ כָּל בְּנוֹת הַשִּׁיר אֵלּוּ שִׂפְתוֹתָיו, רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר אֵלּוּ הַכְּלָיוֹת, שֶׁהֵן חוֹשְׁבוֹת וְהַלֵּב גּוֹמֵר, (קהלת יב, ה): גַּם מִגָּבֹהַּ יִרָאוּ וגו', גַּם מִגָּבֹהַּ יִרָאוּ הָדֵין סָבָא דְּצָוְחִין לֵיהּ זִיל לַאֲתַר פְּלַן וְהוּא שָׁאֵיל וַאֲמַר אִית תַּמָּן מַסְּקִין, אִית תַּמָּן מַחֲתִין, (קהלת יב, ה): וְחַתְחַתִּים בַּדֶּרֶךְ, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא וְרַבִּי לֵוִי, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא חִתִּיתָא שֶׁל דֶּרֶךְ נוֹפֵל עָלָיו, וָחֳרָנָא אֲמַר הִתְחִיל מַתְוֶוה תְּוָואִים, אֲמַר עַד אֲתַר פְּלַן אִית לִי מַהֲלַךְ בַּאֲתַר פְּלַן לֵית לִי מַהֲלַךְ. (קהלת יב, ה): וְיָנֵאץ הַשָּׁקֵד אִילֵּין קַרְסוּלוֹת, (קהלת יב, ה): וְיִסְתַּבֵּל הֶחָגָב זֶה לוּז שֶׁל שִׁדְרָה. אַדְרִיָּנוּס שְׁחִיק עֲצָמוֹת שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר חֲנַנְיָא אָמַר לוֹ מֵהֵיכָן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֵצִיץ אֶת הָאָדָם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, אָמַר לוֹ מִלּוּז שֶׁל שִׁדְרָה, אָמַר לוֹ מִן הֵן אַתְּ מוֹדַע לִי, אַיְיתֵי יָתֵיהּ קוֹמוֹי נְתָנוֹ בַּמַּיִם וְלֹא נִמְחָה, טְחָנוֹ בָּרֵיחַיִם וְלֹא נִטְחַן, נְתָנוֹ בָּאֵשׁ וְלֹא נִשְׂרַף, נְתָנוֹ עַל הַסַּדָּן הִתְחִיל מַכֶּה עָלָיו בַּפַּטִּישׁ, נֶחְלַק הַסַּדָּן וְנִבְקַע הַפַּטִּישׁ וְלֹא הוֹעִיל מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלוּם. (קהלת יב, ה): וְתָפֵר הָאֲבִיּוֹנָה זוֹ הַתַּאֲוָה שֶׁהִיא מַטִּילָה שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא הֲוָה סָלֵיק שָׁאֵיל בִּשְׁלָמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי בְּכָל יֶרַח וְיֶרַח, כֵּיוָן דְּסָב יָתֵיב לֵיהּ וְלָא יָכוֹל לְמֵיסַק, יוֹם חַד סָלֵיק אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָה עִסְקָךְ דְּלֵית אַתְּ סָלֵיק לְגַבִּי הֵיךְ דַּהֲוֵית יָלֵיף, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רְחוֹקוֹת נַעֲשׂוּ קְרוֹבוֹת, קְרוֹבוֹת נַעֲשׂוּ רְחוֹקוֹת, שְׁתַּיִם נַעֲשׂוּ שָׁלשׁ, וּמֵטִיל שָׁלוֹם בַּבַּיִת בָּטֵל, [ופרושו: רחוקות נעשו קרובות, אילין עיניא דהוו חמיין מרחוק כדו אפלו מקרוב לית אינון חמיין. קרובות נעשו רחוקות, אילין אודני דהוו שמעין בחד זמן בתרי זמני, כדו אפלו במאה זימנין לית אינון שמעין. שתים נעשו שלש, חוטרא ותרתין ריגלי. ומטיל שלום בבית בטל, זו התאוה שמטיל שלום בין איש לאשתו]. (קהלת יב, ה): כִּי הֹלֵךְ הָאָדָם אֶל בֵּית עוֹלָמוֹ, בֵּית הָעוֹלָם לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא בֵּית עוֹלָמוֹ, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכָּל צַדִּיק וְצַדִּיק יֵשׁ לוֹ עוֹלָם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁנִּכְנַס לַמְּדִינָה וְעִמּוֹ דֻּכָּסִין וְאִפַּרְכִין וְאִיסְטְרַטְיוֹטִין, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַכֹּל נִכְנָסִין בְּפוֹלִין אֶחָד, כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד שָׁרוּי לְפִי כְבוֹדוֹ, כָּךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַכֹּל טוֹעֲמִין טַעַם מִיתָה, כָּל צַדִּיק וְצַדִּיק יֵשׁ לוֹ עוֹלָם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. (קהלת יב, ה): וְסָבְבוּ בַשּׁוּק הַסּוֹפְדִים אֵלּוּ הַתּוֹלָעִים, (קהלת יב, ו): עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא יֵרָתֵק חֶבֶל הַכֶּסֶף זֶה חוּט הַשִּׁדְרָה, (קהלת יב, ו): וְתָרֻץ גֻּלַּת הַזָּהָב זוֹ גֻּלְגֹּלֶת. רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר נְחֶמְיָא אָמַר זוֹ גַּרְגֶּרֶת שֶׁמְכַלָּה אֶת הַזָּהָב וּמֵרִיקָה אֶת הַכָּסֶף. (קהלת יב, ו): וְתִשָּׁבֶר כַּד עַל הַמַּבּוּעַ זוֹ כָּרֵס. רַבִּי חִיָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי פַּפֵּי וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי לְאַחַר שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים כְּרֵיסוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם נִבְקַעַת וּמוֹסֶרֶת לַפֶּה וְאוֹמֶרֶת לוֹ הֵילָךְ מַה שֶּׁגָּזַלְתָּ וְחָמַסְתָּ וְנָתַתָּ לִי. רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק מַיְיתֵי לָהּ מִן הָדֵין קְרָיָא (מלאכי ב, ג): וְזֵרִיתִי פֶרֶשׁ עַל פְּנֵיכֶם פֶּרֶשׁ חֲגֵיכֶם. רַבִּי אַבָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב פַּפֵּי וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי כָּל תְּלָתָא יוֹמִין נַפְשָׁא טָיְיסָא עַל גּוּפָה סָבְרָה דְּהִיא חָזְרָה לֵיהּ, וְכֵיוָן דְּהִיא חָמְיָא לֵיהּ דְּאִישְׁתַּנֵּי זִיוְהוֹן דְּאַפּוֹי, הִיא אָזְלַת לָהּ, דִּכְתִיב (איוב יד, כב): אַךְ בְּשָׂרוֹ וגו'. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר עַד שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים תָּקְפּוֹ שֶׁל אֵבֶל קַיָּם, לָמָּה שֶׁצּוּרַת הַפָּנִים נִכֶּרֶת, דִּתְנַן אֵין מְעִידִין אֶלָּא עַל פַּרְצוּף פָּנִים עִם הַחֹטֶם, וְאֵין מְעִידִין לְאַחַר שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים. (קהלת יב, ו): וְנָרֹץ הַגַּלְגַּל אֶל הַבּוֹר, תְּרֵין אֲמוֹרָאִין, חַד אָמַר כְּאִילֵּין גַּלְגְּלַיָא דְצִפּוֹרִי, וְחוֹרָנָא אֲמַר כְּאִילֵּין רִגְבַיָּיא דִּטְבֶרְיָא, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (איוב כא, לג): מָתְקוּ לוֹ רִגְבֵי נָחַל. (קהלת יב, ז): וְיָשֹׁב הֶעָפָר עַל הָאָרֶץ כְּשֶׁהָיָה וגו', רַבִּי פִּנְחָס וְרַבִּי חִלְקִיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי סִימוֹן אֵימָתַי הָרוּחַ תָּשׁוּב אֶל הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר נְתָנָהּ, כְּשֶׁשָּׁב הֶעָפָר אֶל הָאָרֶץ כְּשֶׁהָיָה, וְאִם לָאו (שמואל א כה, כט): וְאֶת נֶפֶשׁ אֹיְבֶיךָ יְקַלְּעֶנָּה וגו'. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בַּר נַחְמָן מַתְנֵי לָהּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַבְדִּימֵי דְמִן חֵיפָא לְכֹהֵן חָבֵר שֶׁמָּסַר לְכֹהֵן עַם הָאָרֶץ כִּכָּר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה, אָמַר לוֹ רְאֵה שֶׁאֲנִי טָהוֹר וּבֵיתִי טָהוֹר וְכִכָּר שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לְךָ טָהוֹר, אִם אַתָּה נוֹתְנָהּ לִי כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאֲנִי נָתַתִּי לְךָ מוּטָב, וְאִם לָאו הֲרֵינִי זוֹרְקָהּ לְפָנֶיךָ. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאָדָם זֶה, רְאֵה שֶׁאֲנִי טָהוֹר וּמְעוֹנִי טָהוֹר וּמְשָׁרְתַי טְהוֹרִים וּנְשָׁמָה שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לְךָ טְהוֹרָה, אִם אַתָּה מַחֲזִירָהּ לִי כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאֲנִי נוֹתְנָהּ לְךָ, מוּטָב, וְאִם לָאו הֲרֵינִי טוֹרְפָהּ לְפָנֶיךָ, כָּל אֵלּוּ בִּימֵי זִקְנוּתוֹ אֲבָל בִּימֵי בַּחֲרוּתוֹ אִם חָטָא לוֹקֶה בְּזִיבוּת וּבְצָרַעַת, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם: אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ.
44. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

90b. וכתיב (מלכים ב ז, כ) ויהי לו כן וירמסו אותו העם בשער וימות ודילמא קללת אלישע גרמה ליה דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב קללת חכם אפי' על חנם היא באה אם כן לכתוב קרא וירמסוהו וימות מאי בשער על עסקי שער,(אמר ר' יוחנן) מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (במדבר יח, כח) ונתתם ממנו [את] תרומת ה' לאהרן הכהן וכי אהרן לעולם קיים והלא לא נכנס לארץ ישראל שנותנין לו תרומה אלא מלמד שעתיד לחיות וישראל נותנין לו תרומה מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה,דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא לאהרן כאהרן מה אהרן חבר אף בניו חברים,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מניין שאין נותנין תרומה לכהן עם הארץ שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לא, ד) ויאמר לעם ליושבי ירושלים לתת מנת (לכהנים ולוים) למען יחזקו בתורת ה' כל המחזיק בתורת ה' יש לו מנת ושאינו מחזיק בתורת ה' אין לו מנת,אמר רב אחא בר אדא אמר רב יהודה כל הנותן תרומה לכהן עם הארץ כאילו נותנה לפני ארי מה ארי ספק דורס ואוכל ספק אינו דורס ואוכל אף כהן עם הארץ ספק אוכלה בטהרה ספק אוכלה בטומאה,ר' יוחנן אמר אף גורם לו מיתה שנאמר (ויקרא כב, ט) ומתו בו כי יחללוהו דבי ר"א בן יעקב תנא אף משיאו עון אשמה שנאמר (ויקרא כב, טז) והשיאו אותם עון אשמה באכלם את קדשיהם,תניא ר' סימאי אומר מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (שמות ו, ד) וגם הקימותי את בריתי אתם לתת להם את ארץ כנען לכם לא נאמר אלא להם מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה:,(צד"ק ג"ם גש"ם ק"ם סימן): שאלו מינין את רבן גמליאל מניין שהקדוש ברוך הוא מחיה מתים אמר להם מן התורה ומן הנביאים ומן הכתובים ולא קיבלו ממנו,מן התורה דכתיב (דברים לא, טז) ויאמר ה' אל משה הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם אמרו לו ודילמא וקם העם הזה וזנה,מן הנביאים דכתיב (ישעיהו כו, יט) יחיו מתיך נבלתי יקומון הקיצו ורננו שוכני עפר כי טל אורות טלך וארץ רפאים תפיל ודילמא מתים שהחיה יחזקאל,מן הכתובים דכתיב (שיר השירים ז, י) וחכך כיין הטוב הולך לדודי למישרים דובב שפתי ישנים ודילמא רחושי מרחשן שפוותיה בעלמא כר' יוחנן דאמר ר' יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יהוצדק כל מי שנאמרה הלכה בשמו בעולם הזה שפתותיו דובבות בקבר שנאמר דובב שפתי ישנים,עד שאמר להם מקרא זה (דברים יא, כא) אשר נשבע ה' לאבותיכם לתת להם לכם לא נאמר אלא להם מיכן לתחיית המתים מן התורה,וי"א מן המקרא הזה אמר להם (דברים ד, ד) ואתם הדבקים בה' אלהיכם חיים כלכם היום (פשיטא דחיים כולכם היום אלא אפילו ביום שכל העולם כולם מתים אתם חיים) מה היום כולכם קיימין אף לעוה"ב כולכם קיימין,שאלו רומיים את רבי יהושע בן חנניה מניין שהקב"ה מחיה מתים ויודע מה שעתיד להיות אמר להו תרווייהו מן המקרא הזה שנאמר (דברים לא, טז) ויאמר ה' אל משה הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם העם הזה וזנה,ודילמא וקם העם הזה וזנה אמר להו נקוטו מיהא פלגא בידייכו דיודע מה שעתיד להיות איתמר נמי א"ר יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחאי מניין שהקדוש ברוך הוא מחיה מתים ויודע מה שעתיד להיות שנאמר הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם וגו',תניא א"ר אליעזר בר' יוסי בדבר זה זייפתי ספרי מינים שהיו אומרים אין תחיית המתים מן התורה אמרתי להן זייפתם תורתכם ולא העליתם בידכם כלום שאתם אומרים אין תחיית המתים מן התורה הרי הוא אומר (במדבר טו, לא) הכרת תכרת הנפש ההיא עונה בה הכרת תכרת בעולם הזה עונה בה לאימת לאו לעולם הבא,א"ל רב פפא לאביי ולימא להו תרוייהו מהכרת תכרת אינהו הוו אמרי ליה דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,כתנאי הכרת תכרת הכרת בעולם הזה תכרת לעולם הבא דברי ר"ע אמר לו ר' ישמעאל והלא כבר נאמר (במדבר טו, ל) את ה' הוא מגדף ונכרתה וכי שלשה עולמים יש אלא ונכרתה בעולם הזה הכרת לעולם הבא הכרת תכרת דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,בין ר' ישמעאל ובין ר"ע עונה בה מאי עבדי ביה לכדתניא יכול אפילו עשה תשובה ת"ל עונה בה לא אמרתי אלא בזמן שעונה בה,שאלה קליאופטרא מלכתא את ר"מ אמרה ידענא דחיי שכבי דכתיב (תהלים עב, טז) ויציצו מעיר כעשב הארץ אלא כשהן עומדין עומדין ערומין או בלבושיהן עומדין אמר לה ק"ו מחיטה ומה חיטה שנקברה ערומה יוצאה בכמה לבושין צדיקים שנקברים בלבושיהן על אחת כמה וכמה,א"ל קיסר לרבן גמליאל אמריתו דשכבי חיי הא הוו עפרא ועפרא מי קא חיי 90b. bAnd it is written: “And it was for him so, and the people trampled him in the gate, and he died”(II Kings 7:20). The Gemara challenges: bPerhapsit was bthe curse of Elishathat bcausedthe officer to die in that manner, not the principle of punishment measure for measure for his lack of belief, bas Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The curse of a Sage, evenif bbaseless, comesto be fulfilled? This is all the more so true concerning the curse of Elisha, which was warranted. The Gemara answers: bIf so, let the verse write: And they trampled him and he died. Whatdoes the term b“in the gate”serve to teach? It teaches that he died bover mattersrelating bto the gate [ isha’ar /i].It was for the cynical dismissal of the prophecy of Elisha that the officer voiced at the city gate that he was punished measure for measure and was trampled at the city gate.,§ bRabbi Yoḥa says: From whereis the bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from this verse, bas it is statedwith regard to iterumaof the tithe: b“And you shall give the iterumaof the Lord to Aaron the priest”(Numbers 18:28). bAnd does Aaron exist foreverso that one can fulfill the mitzva by giving him the iterumaof the tithe? bBut is it notso that Aaron bdid not enter Eretz Yisrael,the only place bwherethe people would bgive him iteruma /i? Rather,the verse bteaches thatAaron is destined bto live in the future and the Jewish peoplewill bgive him iteruma /i. From hereit is derived that bthe resurrection of the dead is from the Torah. /b, bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughta different derivation from this verse. From the term b“to Aaron”one derives that iterumamust be given to a priest blike Aaron; just as Aaron is one devoted to the meticulous observance of mitzvot, particularly those relating to ritual purity, iteruma /i, and tithes [ iḥaver /i], so tooone gives iterumato bhis descendantswho are iḥaverim /i. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: From whereis it derived bthat one does not give iterumato a priestwho is ban iam ha’aretz /i?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “And he commanded the people who dwelled in Jerusalem to give the portion of the priests and of the Levites, so that they may firmly adhere to the Torah of the Lord”(II Chronicles 31:4). bEveryone who firmly adheres to the Torah of the Lord has a portion, and anyone who does not firmly adhere to the Torah of the Lord does not have a portion. /b, bRav Aḥa bar Adda saysthat bRav Yehuda says:With regard to banyone who gives iterumato a priestwho is ban iam ha’aretz /i, it is as though he placedthe iteruma bbefore a lion. Just aswith regard to ba lion,there is buncertaintywhether it will bmaulits prey band eatit, and buncertaintywhether it will bnot maulits prey bandinstead beatit alive, bso too,with regard to ba priestwho is ban iam ha’aretz /ito whom one gives iteruma /i, there is buncertaintywhether he will beat it in purity,and there is buncertaintywhether he will beat it in impurity,thereby violating a prohibition by Torah law., bRabbi Yoḥa says:One who gives iterumato a priest who is an iam ha’aretz beven causesthe priest’s bdeath, as it is statedwith regard to iteruma /i: b“And die therefore if they profane it”(Leviticus 22:9). Priests who partake of iterumain a state of ritual impurity profane it and are liable to be punished with death at the hand of Heaven. bThe school of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov taught:By giving iterumato a priest who is an iam ha’aretz /i, bone also brings upon him a sin of guilt,i.e., a sin that will lead to additional sins, bas it is stated: “And so bring upon them a sin of guilt when they eat their sacred items”(Leviticus 22:16).,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Simai says: From whereis bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from a verse, bas it is statedwith regard to the Patriarchs: b“I have also established My covet with them to give to them the land of Canaan”(Exodus 6:4). The phrase: To give bto youthe land of Canaan, bis not stated,as the meaning of the verse is not that God fulfilled the covet with the Patriarchs when he gave the land of Canaan to the children of Israel; brather,it is stated: “To give bto themthe land of Canaan,” meaning to the Patriarchs themselves. bFrom hereis it derived that bthe resurrection of the dead is from the Torah,as in the future the Patriarchs will come to life and inherit the land.,The Gemara records a mnemonic for those cited in the upcoming discussion: iTzadi /i, idalet /i, ikuf /i; igimmel /i, imem /i; igimmel /i, ishin /i, imem /i; ikuf /i, imem /i.Heretics asked Rabban Gamliel: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead?Rabban Gamliel bsaid to themthat this matter can be proven bfrom the Torah, from the Prophets, and from Writings, but they did not acceptthe proofs bfrom him. /b,The proof bfrom the Torahis bas it is written: “And the Lord said to Moses, behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise”(Deuteronomy 31:16). The heretics bsaid to him: But perhapsthe verse should be divided in a different manner, and it should be read: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers, band this people will arise and strayafter the foreign gods of the land.”,The proof bfrom the Prophetsis bas it is written: “Your dead shall live, my corpse shall arise. Awake and sing, you that dwell in the dust, for your dew is as the dew of vegetation, and the land shall cast out the dead”(Isaiah 26:19). The heretics said to him: bBut perhapsthe prophecy was fulfilled with bthe dead that Ezekiel revived.No proof may be cited from that verse with regard to any future resurrection.,The proof bfrom Writingsis bas it is written: “And your palate is like the best wine that glides down smoothly for my beloved, moving gently the lips of those that sleep”(Song of Songs 7:10), indicating that the dead will ultimately rise and speak. The heretics said to him: bBut perhaps merely their lips will move, in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: Anyone in whose name a ihalakhais stated in this world, his lips move in the graveas if repeating the statement cited in his name, bas it is stated: “Moving gently the lips of those that sleep.”No proof may be cited from that verse, as it is unrelated to resurrection.,This exchange continued buntilRabban Gamliel bstated to them this verse:“That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land bthat the Lord took an oath to your forefathers to give them”(Deuteronomy 11:21). The phrase: bTogive byou, is not stated; rather,it is stated: b“Togive bthem,”to the Patriarchs themselves, as in the future the Patriarchs will come to life and inherit the land. bFrom here resurrection of the deadis derived bfrom the Torah. /b, bAnd there are those who saythat it is bfrom thisfollowing bversethat bhe said to themhis ultimate proof: b“But you who cleave to the Lord your God every one of you is alive this day”(Deuteronomy 4:4). Wasn’t it bobviouswith regard to the children of Israel whom God was addressing, that b“every one of you is alive this day”? Rather,the meaning of the verse is: bEven on the day when everyone is dead you will live; just as today every one of you is alive, so too, in the World-to-Come every one of youwill be balive. /b, bThe Romans asked Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead, andfrom where is it derived that bHe knows what is destined to be?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to them: Both of thosematters are derived bfrom this verse, as it is stated: “And the Lord said to Moses, Behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise; this people will go astray”(Deuteronomy 31:16). This indicates that Moses will die and then arise from the dead and that the Holy One, Blessed be He, knows what the children of Israel are destined to do.,The Romans asked: bBut perhapsthe verse should be divided in a different manner, and it should be read: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers band this people will arise and go astrayafter the foreign gods of the land.” Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to them: Take at leasta response to bhalfof your question bin your handsfrom that verse, bthatGod bknows what is destined to be.The Gemara comments: bIt was also statedon a similar note by an iamoraciting a itanna /i, as bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead, andfrom where is it derived that bHe knows what is destined to be?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise.” /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: With thisfollowing bmatter, I refuted the books of the Samaritans, as they would saythat bthere is nosource for bthe resurrection of the dead from the Torah. I said to them: You falsified your torah and you accomplished nothing, as you say there is nosource for bthe resurrection of the dead from the Torah,and the Torah bstates: “That soul shall be excised; his iniquity shall be upon him”(Numbers 15:31). You interpret the phrase “that soul bshall be excised”to mean that a sinner will be punished with death bin this world.If so, with regard to the phrase b“his iniquity shall be upon him,” for whenis that destined to be? Is it bnot for the World-to-Come,i.e., the world as it will exist after the resurrection of the dead? Apparently, there is a World-to-Come and there is an allusion to it in the Torah., bRav Pappa said to Abaye: And letRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsay tothe Samaritans that bboth of thosematters can be derived bfromthe phrase b“shall be excised [ ihikkaret tikkaret /i].”“ iHikkaret /i” indicates that the sinner is excised from this world, and “ itikkaret /i” indicates that the sinner is excised from the World-to-Come. Abaye answered: Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, preferred not to cite proof from the compound verb, because the Samaritans bwould say: The Torah spoke in the language of people,and the compound verb is merely a stylistic flourish.,The Gemara notes: These derivations of Rabbi Eliezer and Rav Pappa are bparallelto a dispute between itanna’im /iwith regard to b“ ihikkaret tikkaret /i,”as follows: b“ iHikkaret /i”indicates that the sinner is excised bin this world,and b“ itikkaret /i”indicates that the sinner is excised bin the World-to-Come;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yishmael said to him: Isn’t it already statedin the previous verse: b“That person that blasphemes the Lord, that soul shall be excised [ ivenikhreta /i]”(Numbers 15:30), band are there three worldsfrom which the sinner is excised? bRather,from the term b“ ivenikhreta /i”it is derived that the sinner is excised bin this world,from b“ ihikkaret /i”it is derived that the sinner is excised bin the World-to-Come,and from the compound verb b“ ihikkaret tikkaret /i”nothing is derived, as bthe Torah spoke in the language of people. /b,The Gemara asks: According to bboth Rabbi Yishmael and Rabbi Akiva, what do they do with,i.e., what do they derive from, the phrase b“His iniquity shall be upon him”?The Gemara answers: That phrase is necessary bfor thatderivation bwhich is taughtin a ibaraita /i: One bmighthave thought that the sinner is excised bevenafter bhe repented.Therefore, bthe verse states: “His iniquity shall be upon him.”God states: bI saidthat the sinner will be excised bonly when his iniquityremains bupon him. /b,§ The Gemara relates: bQueen Cleopatra asked Rabbi Meira question. bShe said: I know that the dead will live, as it is written: “And may they blossom out of the city like grass of the earth”(Psalms 72:16). Just as grass grows, so too, the dead will come to life. bBut when they arise,will they barise naked orwill bthey arise with their garments?Rabbi Meir bsaid to her:It is derived ia fortiorifrom wheat. If wheat, which is buried naked,meaning that the kernel is sown without the chaff, bemerges with several garmentsof chaff, ball the more sowill bthe righteous, who are buried with their garments,arise with their garments.,The Roman bemperor said to Rabban Gamliel: You say that the dead will live. Aren’t they dust? And does dust come to life? /b
45. Plotinus, Enneads, 1.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(un)faithful(ness) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254
abraham, gods promise to Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 47, 48
agōn, in diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 108, 112
apistia, apistos, of israelites Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 44
apistia, apistos Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 151
appropriation Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
argument Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
banquets Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 57
baptism Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103
belial Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
beliefs, basic and non-basic Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 64
bion of borysthenes Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107, 734
body, christian understanding of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
body, platonisms attitude toward Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
body, views of Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 57
boldness James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 238
bultmann, rudolf Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107, 108, 112, 734
care, of god or christ for creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 44, 64
caspary, gerald e. Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
christianity, and gnosticism Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
circumcision, origen on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
citation Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 254
corinth/corinthians Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255, 259
courage Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 212
covenant Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 255, 258, 259
covenant and creation, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 45, 47, 48, 64
daniélou, cardinal jean Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
darkness Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 254
death Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 259
deification, of discourse James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 238
devil/satan Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 254
dialogue, in diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 112
diatribe, literature Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107
diatribe, style Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107
diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107, 108, 112, 734
differentiation Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 254
dio chrysostom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107, 734
easter Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103
elijah Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 175
entrustedness, of israel Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 47, 48
ephesians, author/authorship Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 254
epictetus, use of dialogue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 108, 112
epictetus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107, 734
epistemology, pauls Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92
epistemology, stoic Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92
esau Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106
faithfulness, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 64
faithfulness, of israel Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 43, 44
foreign languages Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
frei, on letter and spirit Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
frei, philos influence on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
glory, doxa (δόξα) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 255
glory, hope of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 43
glory, of god Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254
glory, of moses Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
glossolalia Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
gnosticism, christianitys polemic against Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
gods, paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 44, 151
greco, roman Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258
hellenistic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103
hellenistic world Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 175
heteroglossia Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
historical books Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103
historical jesus Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103
hope Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 259; Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 47
immigrants Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
imperative, in diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 112
incarnation, enables reciprocity between god and humanity James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 238
inerrancy James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 238
inspiration Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254
interlocutor, in diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107, 108
interpretation Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 108
introductory formulae Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 254
jacob Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106
jesus christ Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 255, 259
jesus tradition Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103
jewish practices/torah observance, circumcision Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92
jewish scriptures Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 254
john, the baptist Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103
josephus Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258
joshua Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 175
justice Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 212
knowledge, divine Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 64
law Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258, 259
letter, diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
letter (γράµµα) James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 238
letter and spirit, origen on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
life Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258
light Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 254
love, loyal protest, tradition of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 64
love of money (φιλοχρηματία) Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 212
love of pleasure (φιληδονία) Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 212
lucian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107
maximus of tyre Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107, 734
messianic, qualifications Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 383
messianic, secrecy of jesus Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 383
moses Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 255, 258, 259
musonius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107, 734
mē genoito Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107, 108, 112
nation Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92
new creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 45
origen of alexandria, on circumcision Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
paideia Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258
parallels (between books) Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103
parrhesia (παρρησία), in commanding god James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 238
paul, on god Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106
paul, on human responsibility Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106
paul, on predestination/predetermination (προόρισις) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106
paul Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 255; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107, 108
philo judeas Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 255, 258, 259
philo of alexandria, influence on origen Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
philosopher Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
philosophy Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 57
physical description, use of diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107, 108, 112
pilate Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 383
platonism, and the body Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
plutarch Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107, 734
practical wisdom Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 212
pre-election Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 47, 48
preaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
predestination (προόρισις), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106
priest; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258
promises of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 64
prophetic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103
qumran Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
quotations in q Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103
rabbinic literature Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
reciprocity, between god and human beings James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 238
reference, quotation Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 254
revelation Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 255
rhetoric, questions Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 112
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 130
sayings source (q) Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103
scriptures, interpretation of, as basis for pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 64
scriptures, jewish, as source of new testament ideas about pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 47
self-control/prudence Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 212
self-trust, negative Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 151
septuagint Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103; James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 238; Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
service to god or christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 44, 47, 48
shame Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 212
sinai Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
slavery and freedom, metaphoric Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 57
soul, desiderative (appetitive) part of Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 212
soul, rational Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 212
soul, spirited part Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 212
soul; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258
spirit, characterizations as, revealer Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254
spirit, characterizations as, seal/pledge Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254
spirit, characterizations as, spirit of the lord Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 259
spirit, effects of, freedom/liberty Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 259
spirit, effects of, unveiling of faces Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 259
spirit, effects of Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254
spirit, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 151
tabernacle, feast of Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258
teles Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 107, 734
telos of law, christ as Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 48
temple, (in)justice Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 259
temptation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103
textual criticism, and boldness James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 238
theology Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103
torah Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
transmission Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 103
trigg, joseph wilson Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
truth, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 45, 47
value (axia) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92
vice Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 212; Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92
virtue, cardinal Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 212
virtue Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92
vision, visionary' Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
vision, visionary Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 259
witness, as basis of belief or trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 45
xenolalia Tupamahu, Contesting Languages: Heteroglossia and the Politics of Language in the Early Church (2022) 87
zeus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92