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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8253
New Testament, Romans, 3.1-3.18


Τί οὖν τὸ περισσὸν τοῦ Ἰουδαίου, ἢ τίς ἡ ὠφελία τῆς περιτομῆς;Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision?


καθὼς γέγραπται ὅτιAs it is written, "There is no one righteous. No, not one.


οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκζητῶν τὸν θεόν·There is no one who understands. There is no one who seeks after God.


nanThey have all turned aside. They have together become unprofitable. There is no one who does good, No, not, so much as one.


nanTheir throat is an open tomb. With their tongues they have used deceit." "The poison of vipers is under their lips;


nanWhose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness.


nanTheir feet are swift to shed blood.


nanDestruction and misery are in their ways.


nanThe way of peace, they haven't known.


nanThere is no fear of God before their eyes.


πολὺ κατὰ πάντα τρόπον. πρῶτον μὲν [γὰρ] ὅτι ἐπιστεύθησαν τὰ λόγια τοῦ θεοῦ.Much in every way! Because first of all, they were entrusted with the oracles of God.


τί γάρ; εἰ ἠπίστησάν τινες, μὴ ἡ ἀπιστία αὐτῶν τὴν πίστιν τοῦ θεοῦ καταργήσει;For what if some were without faith? Will their lack of faith nullify the faithfulness of God?


μὴ γένοιτο· γινέσθω δὲ ὁ θεὸς ἀληθής,πᾶς δὲ ἄνθρωπος ψεύστης,καθάπερ γέγραπταιMay it never be! Yes, let God be found true, but every man a liar. As it is written, "That you might be justified in your words, And might prevail when you come into judgment.


εἰ δὲ ἡ ἀδικία ἡμῶν θεοῦ δικαιοσύνην συνίστησιν, τί ἐροῦμεν; μὴ ἄδικος ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἐπιφέρων τὴν ὀργήν; κατὰ ἄνθρωπον λέγω.But if our unrighteousness commends the righteousness of God, what will we say? Is God unrighteous who inflicts wrath? I speak like men do.


μὴ γένοιτο· ἐπεὶ πῶς κρινεῖ ὁ θεὸς τὸν κόσμον;May it never be! For then how will God judge the world?


εἰ δὲ ἡ ἀλήθεια τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν τῷ ἐμῷ ψεύσματι ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, τί ἔτι κἀγὼ ὡς ἁμαρτωλὸς κρίνομαιFor if the truth of God through my lie abounded to his glory, why am I also still judged as a sinner?


καὶ μὴ καθὼς βλασφημούμεθα [καὶ] καθώς φασίν τινες ἡμᾶς λέγειν ὅτι Ποιήσωμεν τὰ κακὰ ἵνα ἔλθῃ τὰ ἀγαθά; ὧν τὸ κρίμα ἔνδικόν ἐστιν.Why not (as we are slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say), "Let us do evil, that good may come?" Those who say so are justly condemned.


Τί οὖν; προεχόμεθα; οὐ πάντως, προῃτιασάμεθα γὰρ Ἰουδαίους τε καὶ Ἕλληνας πάντας ὑφʼ ἁμαρτίαν εἶναιWhat then? Are we better than they? No, in no way. For we previously charged both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

48 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.10 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.10. When she heard these things she was deeply grieved, even to the thought of hanging herself. But she said, "I am the only child of my father; if I do this, it will be a disgrace to him, and I shall bring his old age down in sorrow to the grave.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 10.16, 23.4, 30.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.16. וּמַלְתֶּם אֵת עָרְלַת לְבַבְכֶם וְעָרְפְּכֶם לֹא תַקְשׁוּ עוֹד׃ 23.4. לֹא־יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 30.6. וּמָל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶת־לְבָבְךָ וְאֶת־לְבַב זַרְעֶךָ לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ לְמַעַן חַיֶּיךָ׃ 10.16. Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and be no more stiffnecked." 23.4. An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the assembly of the LORD for ever;" 30.6. And the LORD thy God will circumcise thy heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.27, 2.18-2.22, 5.1, 37.26-37.27, 42.38, 44.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 2.18. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לֹא־טוֹב הֱיוֹת הָאָדָם לְבַדּוֹ אֶעֱשֶׂהּ־לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃ 2.19. וַיִּצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיָּבֵא אֶל־הָאָדָם לִרְאוֹת מַה־יִּקְרָא־לוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָא־לוֹ הָאָדָם נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה הוּא שְׁמוֹ׃ 2.21. וַיַּפֵּל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל־הָאָדָם וַיִּישָׁן וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו וַיִּסְגֹּר בָּשָׂר תַּחְתֶּנָּה׃ 2.22. וַיִּבֶן יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַח מִן־הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל־הָאָדָם׃ 5.1. זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֹתוֹ׃ 5.1. וַיְחִי אֱנוֹשׁ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־קֵינָן חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 37.26. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה אֶל־אֶחָיו מַה־בֶּצַע כִּי נַהֲרֹג אֶת־אָחִינוּ וְכִסִּינוּ אֶת־דָּמוֹ׃ 37.27. לְכוּ וְנִמְכְּרֶנּוּ לַיִּשְׁמְעֵאלִים וְיָדֵנוּ אַל־תְּהִי־בוֹ כִּי־אָחִינוּ בְשָׂרֵנוּ הוּא וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶחָיו׃ 42.38. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא־יֵרֵד בְּנִי עִמָּכֶם כִּי־אָחִיו מֵת וְהוּא לְבַדּוֹ נִשְׁאָר וּקְרָאָהוּ אָסוֹן בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר תֵּלְכוּ־בָהּ וְהוֹרַדְתֶּם אֶת־שֵׂיבָתִי בְּיָגוֹן שְׁאוֹלָה׃ 44.29. וּלְקַחְתֶּם גַּם־אֶת־זֶה מֵעִם פָּנַי וְקָרָהוּ אָסוֹן וְהוֹרַדְתֶּם אֶת־שֵׂיבָתִי בְּרָעָה שְׁאֹלָה׃ 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 2.18. And the LORD God said: ‘It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him.’" 2.19. And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof." 2.20. And the man gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him." 2.21. And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the place with flesh instead thereof." 2.22. And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man." 5.1. This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;" 37.26. And Judah said unto his brethren: ‘What profit is it if we slay our brother and conceal his blood?" 37.27. Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he is our brother, our flesh.’ And his brethren hearkened unto him." 42.38. And he said: ‘My son shall not go down with you; for his brother is dead, and he only is left; if harm befall him by the way in which ye go, then will ye bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave." 44.29. and if ye take this one also from me, and harm befall him, ye will bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 26.41 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.41. אַף־אֲנִי אֵלֵךְ עִמָּם בְּקֶרִי וְהֵבֵאתִי אֹתָם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיהֶם אוֹ־אָז יִכָּנַע לְבָבָם הֶעָרֵל וְאָז יִרְצוּ אֶת־עֲוֺנָם׃ 26.41. I also will walk contrary unto them, and bring them into the land of their enemies; if then perchance their uncircumcised heart be humbled, and they then be paid the punishment of their iniquity;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.3, 7.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.3. אַל־תרוב [תָּרִיב] עִם־אָדָם חִנָּם אִם־לֹא גְמָלְךָ רָעָה׃ 3.3. חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת אַל־יַעַזְבֻךָ קָשְׁרֵם עַל־גַּרְגְּרוֹתֶיךָ כָּתְבֵם עַל־לוּחַ לִבֶּךָ׃ 7.3. קָשְׁרֵם עַל־אֶצְבְּעֹתֶיךָ כָּתְבֵם עַל־לוּחַ לִבֶּךָ׃ 3.3. Let not kindness and truth forsake thee; Bind them about thy neck, write them upon the table of thy heart;" 7.3. Bind them upon thy fingers, Write them upon the table of thy heart."
7. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 2.4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

2.4. הִנֵּה עֻפְּלָה לֹא־יָשְׁרָה נַפְשׁוֹ בּוֹ וְצַדִּיק בֶּאֱמוּנָתוֹ יִחְיֶה׃ 2.4. Behold, his soul is puffed up, it is not upright in him; But the righteous shall live by his faith."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 42.6, 49.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

42.6. אֲנִי יְהוָה קְרָאתִיךָ בְצֶדֶק וְאַחְזֵק בְּיָדֶךָ וְאֶצָּרְךָ וְאֶתֶּנְךָ לִבְרִית עָם לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם׃ 49.6. וַיֹּאמֶר נָקֵל מִהְיוֹתְךָ לִי עֶבֶד לְהָקִים אֶת־שִׁבְטֵי יַעֲקֹב ונצירי [וּנְצוּרֵי] יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהָשִׁיב וּנְתַתִּיךָ לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם לִהְיוֹת יְשׁוּעָתִי עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ׃ 42.6. I the LORD have called thee in righteousness, And have taken hold of thy hand, And kept thee, and set thee for a covet of the people, For a light of the nations;" 49.6. Yea, He saith: ‘It is too light a thing that thou shouldest be My servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the offspring of Israel; I will also give thee for a light of the nations, That My salvation may be unto the end of the earth.’"
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 4.4, 9.24-9.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.4. הִמֹּלוּ לַיהֹוָה וְהָסִרוּ עָרְלוֹת לְבַבְכֶם אִישׁ יְהוּדָה וְיֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם פֶּן־תֵּצֵא כָאֵשׁ חֲמָתִי וּבָעֲרָה וְאֵין מְכַבֶּה מִפְּנֵי רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם׃ 9.24. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וּפָקַדְתִּי עַל־כָּל־מוּל בְּעָרְלָה׃ 9.25. עַל־מִצְרַיִם וְעַל־יְהוּדָה וְעַל־אֱדוֹם וְעַל־בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וְעַל־מוֹאָב וְעַל כָּל־קְצוּצֵי פֵאָה הַיֹּשְׁבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּי כָל־הַגּוֹיִם עֲרֵלִים וְכָל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל עַרְלֵי־לֵב׃ 4.4. Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and take away the foreskins of your heart, ye men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem; lest My fury go forth like fire, and burn that none can quench it, Because of the evil of your doings." 9.24. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will punish all them that are circumcised in their uncircumcision:" 9.25. Egypt, and Judah, and Edom, and the children of Ammon, and Moab, and all that have the corners of their hair polled, that dwell in the wilderness; For all the nations are uncircumcised, But all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 44.7, 44.9 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.7. בַּהֲבִיאֲכֶם בְּנֵי־נֵכָר עַרְלֵי־לֵב וְעַרְלֵי בָשָׂר לִהְיוֹת בְּמִקְדָּשִׁי לְחַלְּלוֹ אֶת־בֵּיתִי בְּהַקְרִיבְכֶם אֶת־לַחְמִי חֵלֶב וָדָם וַיָּפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אֶל כָּל־תּוֹעֲבוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 44.9. כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה כָּל־בֶּן־נֵכָר עֶרֶל לֵב וְעֶרֶל בָּשָׂר לֹא יָבוֹא אֶל־מִקְדָּשִׁי לְכָל־בֶּן־נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 44.7. in that ye have brought in aliens, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, to be in My sanctuary, to profane it, even My house, when ye offer My bread, the fat and the blood, and they have broken My covet, to add unto all your abominations." 44.9. Thus saith the Lord GOD: No alien, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter into My sanctuary, even any alien that is among the children of Israel."
11. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.19-3.20, 5.17, 6.8, 9.2 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.19. כִּי מִקְרֶה בְנֵי־הָאָדָם וּמִקְרֶה הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִקְרֶה אֶחָד לָהֶם כְּמוֹת זֶה כֵּן מוֹת זֶה וְרוּחַ אֶחָד לַכֹּל וּמוֹתַר הָאָדָם מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אָיִן כִּי הַכֹּל הָבֶל׃ 5.17. הִנֵּה אֲשֶׁר־רָאִיתִי אָנִי טוֹב אֲשֶׁר־יָפֶה לֶאֶכוֹל־וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וְלִרְאוֹת טוֹבָה בְּכָל־עֲמָלוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲמֹל תַּחַת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מִסְפַּר יְמֵי־חיו [חַיָּיו] אֲשֶׁר־נָתַן־לוֹ הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי־הוּא חֶלְקוֹ׃ 6.8. כִּי מַה־יּוֹתֵר לֶחָכָם מִן־הַכְּסִיל מַה־לֶּעָנִי יוֹדֵעַ לַהֲלֹךְ נֶגֶד הַחַיִּים׃ 9.2. הַכֹּל כַּאֲשֶׁר לַכֹּל מִקְרֶה אֶחָד לַצַּדִּיק וְלָרָשָׁע לַטּוֹב וְלַטָּהוֹר וְלַטָּמֵא וְלַזֹּבֵחַ וְלַאֲשֶׁר אֵינֶנּוּ זֹבֵחַ כַּטּוֹב כַּחֹטֶא הַנִּשְׁבָּע כַּאֲשֶׁר שְׁבוּעָה יָרֵא׃ 3.19. For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them; as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that man hath no pre-eminence above a beast; for all is vanity." 3.20. All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all return to dust." 5.17. Behold that which I have seen: it is good, yea, it is comely for one to eat and to drink, and to enjoy pleasure for all his labour, wherein he laboureth under the sun, all the days of his life which God hath given him; for this is his portion." 6.8. For what advantage hath the wise more than the fool? or the poor man that hath understanding, in walking before the living?" 9.2. All things come alike to all; there is one event to the righteous and to the wicked; to the good and to the clean and to the unclean; to him that sacrificeth and to him that sacrificeth not; as is the good, so is the sinner, and he that sweareth, as he that feareth an oath."
12. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.10 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.10. When she heard these things she was deeply grieved, even to the thought of hanging herself. But she said, "I am the only child of my father; if I do this, it will be a disgrace to him, and I shall bring his old age down in sorrow to the grave.
13. Anon., 1 Enoch, 102.5-102.7, 108.11 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

102.5. And grieve not if your soul into Sheol has descended in grief, And that in your life your body fared not according to your goodness, But wait for the day of the judgement of sinners And for the day of cursing and chastisement. 102.6. And yet when ye die the sinners speak over you: ' As we die, so die the righteous, And what benefit do they reap for their deed 102.7. Behold, even as we, so do they die in grief and darkness, And what have they more than we From henceforth we are equal. 108.11. yet they blessed Me. And now I will summon the spirits of the good who belong to the generation of light, and I will transform those who were born in darkness, who in the flesh were not recompensed
14. Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Rule, 2.4-2.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.192 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.192. In addition the following ought to be said. These festal and holiday rests have in the past often opened up countless avenues to sins. For unmixed beverage and luxurious diets with excessive drinking arouse the insatiable desires of the stomach and also kindle the desires of the parts beneath the stomach. As these desires both flow and stream out in every way, they produce a surge of unspeakable evils using the fearless stimulant of the feast as a refuge to avoid suffering anything.
16. Epictetus, Discourses, 2.10.15, 2.10.21-2.10.23, 3.7.4, 3.22.37, 3.24.22-3.24.23, 3.24.35-3.24.36, 3.24.53, 4.4.1-4.4.2, 4.9.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.209-4.210 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.209. 12. When the multitude are assembled together unto the holy city for sacrificing every seventh year, at the feast of tabernacles, let the high priest stand upon a high desk, whence he may be heard, and let him read the laws to all the people; and let neither the women nor the children be hindered from hearing, no, nor the servants neither;
18. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.204 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.204. Nay, indeed, the law does not permit us to make festivals at the births of our children, and thereby afford occasion of drinking to excess; but it ordains that the very beginning of our education should be immediately directed to sobriety. It also commands us to bring those children up in learning and to exercise them in the laws, and make them acquainted with the acts of their predecessors, in order to their imitation of them, and that they might be nourished up in the laws from their infancy, and might neither transgress them, nor have any pretense for their ignorance of them. /p
19. Mishnah, Berachot, 3.4-3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. One who has had a seminal emission utters the words [of the Shema] in his heart and he doesn’t say a blessing, neither before nor after. Over food he says a blessing afterwards, but not the blessing before. Rabbi Judah says: he blesses both before them and after them." 3.5. If a man was standing saying the tefillah and he remembers that he is one who has had a seminal emission, he should not stop but he should abbreviate [the blessings]. If he went down to immerse, if he is able to come up and cover himself and recite the Shema before the rising of the sun, he should go up and cover himself and recite, but if not he should cover himself with the water and recite. He should not cover himself either with foul water or with steeping water until he pours fresh water into it. How far should he remove himself from it and from excrement? Four cubits." 3.6. A zav who has had a seminal emission and a niddah from whom semen escapes and a woman who becomes niddah during intercourse require a mikveh. Rabbi Judah exempts them."
20. Mishnah, Yevamot, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.3. An Ammonite and a Moabite are forbidden [to enter into the congregation of the Lord] and their prohibition is for ever. However, their women are permitted at once. An Egyptian and an Edomite are forbidden only until the third generation, whether they are males or females. Rabbi Shimon permits their women immediately. Said Rabbi Shimon: This is a kal vehomer: if where the males are forbidden for all time the females are permitted immediately, where the males are forbidden only until the third generation how much more should the females be permitted immediately. They said to him: If this is a halakhah, we shall accept it; but if it is only a logical reference, there is a refutation. He replied: This is not so, I am in fact saying a halakhah. Mamzerim and nethinim are forbidden, and their prohibition is forever, whether they be males or females."
21. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.4. On that day Judah, an Ammonite convert, came and stood before them in the house of study. He said to them: Do I have the right to enter into the assembly? Rabban Gamaliel said to him: you are forbidden. Rabbi Joshua said to him: you are permitted. Rabban Gamaliel said to him: the verse says, \"An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the Lord: even to the tenth generation\" (Deuteronomy 23:4). R. Joshua said to him: But are the Ammonites and Moabites still in their own territory? Sanheriv, the king of Assyria, has long since come up and mingled all the nations, as it is said: \"In that I have removed the bounds of the peoples, and have robbed their treasures, and have brought down as one mighty the inhabitants\" (Isaiah 10:1. Rabban Gamaliel said to him: the verse says, \"But afterward I will bring back the captivity of the children of Ammon,\" (Jeremiah 49:6) they have already returned. Rabbi Joshua said to him: [another] verse says, \"I will return the captivity of my people Israel and Judah\" (Amos 9:14). Yet they have not yet returned. So they permitted him to enter the assembly."
22. New Testament, 1 Peter, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.11. If any man speaks, let it be as it were oracles of God. If any man serves, let it be as of the strength which God supplies, that in all things God may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom belong the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen.
23. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.2, 4.1-4.2, 5.9, 6.12, 7.17-7.23, 9.1-9.27, 10.19-10.20, 10.32, 11.3, 11.6, 11.9, 11.16, 11.22, 15.9, 16.1-16.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. to the assembly of God whichis at Corinth; those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to besaints, with all who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in everyplace, both theirs and ours: 4.1. So let a man think of us as Christ's servants, and stewards ofGod's mysteries. 4.2. Here, moreover, it is required of stewards, thatthey be found faithful. 5.9. I wrote to you in my letter to have no company with sexual sinners; 6.12. All things are lawful for me," but not all thingsare expedient. "All things are lawful for me," but I will not bebrought under the power of anything. 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 7.20. Let eachman stay in that calling in which he was called. 7.21. Were you calledbeing a bondservant? Don't let that bother you, but if you get anopportunity to become free, use it. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 9.1. Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Haven't I seen JesusChrist, our Lord? Aren't you my work in the Lord? 9.2. If to others Iam not an apostle, yet at least I am to you; for you are the seal of myapostleship in the Lord. 9.3. My defense to those who examine me isthis. 9.4. Have we no right to eat and to drink? 9.5. Have we noright to take along a wife who is a believer, even as the rest of theapostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas? 9.6. Or have onlyBarnabas and I no right to not work? 9.7. What soldier ever serves athis own expense? Who plants a vineyard, and doesn't eat of its fruit?Or who feeds a flock, and doesn't drink from the flock's milk? 9.8. DoI speak these things according to the ways of men? Or doesn't the lawalso say the same thing? 9.9. For it is written in the law of Moses,"You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain." Is it forthe oxen that God cares 9.10. or does he say it assuredly for oursake? Yes, it was written for our sake, because he who plows ought toplow in hope, and he who threshes in hope should partake of his hope. 9.11. If we sowed to you spiritual things, is it a great thing if wereap your fleshly things? 9.12. If others partake of this right overyou, don't we yet more? Nevertheless we did not use this right, but webear all things, that we may cause no hindrance to the gospel ofChrist. 9.13. Don't you know that those who serve around sacred thingseat from the things of the temple, and those who wait on the altar havetheir portion with the altar? 9.14. Even so the Lord ordained thatthose who proclaim the gospel should live from the gospel. 9.15. But Ihave used none of these things, and I don't write these things that itmay be done so in my case; for I would rather die, than that anyoneshould make my boasting void. 9.16. For if I preach the gospel, I havenothing to boast about; for necessity is laid on me; but woe is to me,if I don't preach the gospel. 9.17. For if I do this of my own will, Ihave a reward. But if not of my own will, I have a stewardshipentrusted to me. 9.18. What then is my reward? That, when I preach thegospel, I may present the gospel of Christ without charge, so as not toabuse my authority in the gospel. 9.19. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.22. To the weak I became asweak, that I might gain the weak. I have become all things to all men,that I may by all means save some. 9.23. Now I do this for thegospel's sake, that I may be a joint partaker of it. 9.24. Don't youknow that those who run in a race all run, but one receives the prize?Run like that, that you may win. 9.25. Every man who strives in thegames exercises self-control in all things. Now they do it to receive acorruptible crown, but we an incorruptible. 9.26. I therefore run likethat, as not uncertainly. I fight like that, as not beating the air 9.27. but I beat my body and bring it into submission, lest by anymeans, after I have preached to others, I myself should be rejected. 10.19. What am I saying then? That a thing sacrificed to idols isanything, or that an idol is anything? 10.20. But I say that thethings which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and notto God, and I don't desire that you would have communion with demons. 10.32. Give no occasions for stumbling, either to Jews, or to Greeks,or to the assembly of God; 11.3. But I wouldhave you know that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of thewoman is the man, and the head of Christ is God. 11.6. For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn.But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her becovered. 11.9. for neither was man created for the woman, but woman for the man. 11.16. But if any man seems to be contentious, we have nosuch custom, neither do God's assemblies. 11.22. What, don't you have houses to eat and to drink in?Or do you despise God's assembly, and put them to shame who don't have?What shall I tell you? Shall I praise you? In this I don't praise you. 15.9. For I am the least of theapostles, who is not worthy to be called an apostle, because Ipersecuted the assembly of God. 16.1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commandedthe assemblies of Galatia, you do likewise. 16.2. On the first day ofthe week, let each one of you save, as he may prosper, that nocollections be made when I come. 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem. 16.4. If it is appropriate for me to go also, they will gowith me.
24. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.9, 2.4, 2.14-2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 2.4. But even as we have been approved by God to be entrusted with the gospel, so we speak; not as pleasing men, but God, who tests our hearts. 2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews; 2.15. who killed both the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and drove us out, and didn't please God, and are contrary to all men; 2.16. forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they may be saved; to fill up their sins always. But wrath has come on them to the uttermost.
25. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.1, 5.18, 5.19, 6.14-7.1, 12.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. so that we ourselves boast about you in the assemblies of God for your patience and faith in all your persecutions and in the afflictions which you endure.
27. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.5, 3.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. having been reminded of the unfeigned faith that is in you; which lived first in your grandmother Lois, and your mother Eunice, and, I am persuaded, in you also. 3.15. From infancy, you have known the sacred writings which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith, which is in Christ Jesus.
28. New Testament, Acts, 7.38, 13.47, 15.7, 15.9-15.11, 16.1-16.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.38. This is he who was in the assembly in the wilderness with the angel that spoke to him on Mount Sinai, and with our fathers, who received living oracles to give to us 13.47. For so has the Lord commanded us, saying, 'I have set you as a light of the Gentiles, That you should be for salvation to the uttermost parts of the earth.' 15.7. When there had been much discussion, Peter rose up and said to them, "Brothers, you know that a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. 15.9. He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith. 15.10. Now therefore why do you tempt God, that you should put a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? 15.11. But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they are. 16.1. He came to Derbe and Lystra: and behold, a certain disciple was there, named Timothy, the son of a Jewess who believed; but his father was a Greek. 16.2. The brothers who were at Lystra and Iconium gave a good testimony about him. 16.3. Paul wanted to have him go out with him, and he took and circumcised him because of the Jews who were in those parts; for they all knew that his father was a Greek.
29. New Testament, Apocalypse, 21.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21.21. The twelve gates were twelve pearls. Each one of the gates was made of one pearl. The street of the city was pure gold, like transparent glass.
30. New Testament, James, 2.21-2.23, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.21. Wasn't Abraham our father justified by works, in that he offered up Isaac his son on the altar? 2.22. You see that faith worked with his works, and by works faith was perfected; 2.23. and the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him as righteousness;" and he was called the friend of God. 4.11. Don't speak against one another, brothers. He who speaks against a brother and judges his brother, speaks against the law and judges the law. But if you judge the law, you are not a doer of the law, but a judge.
31. New Testament, Colossians, 1.20-1.22, 2.11, 3.11, 3.18, 3.22, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens. 1.21. You, being in past times alienated and enemies in your mind in your evil works 1.22. yet now he has reconciled in the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and without blemish and blameless before him 2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all. 3.18. Wives, be in subjection to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord. 3.22. Servants, obey in all things those who are your masters according to the flesh, not just when they are looking, as men-pleasers, but in singleness of heart, fearing God. 4.11. and Jesus who is called Justus, who are of the circumcision. These are my only fellow workers for the Kingdom of God, men who have been a comfort to me.
32. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.3, 2.11-2.22, 3.10, 6.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 3.10. to the intent that now through the assembly the manifold wisdom of God might be made known to the principalities and the powers in the heavenly places 6.5. Servants, be obedient to those who according to the flesh are your masters, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as to Christ;
33. New Testament, Galatians, 1.13-1.16, 1.21-1.24, 2.1-2.21, 3.1, 3.10-3.14, 3.19, 3.21, 4.3-4.5, 4.21-4.31, 5.2-5.3, 5.6, 5.11, 6.1, 6.11-6.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. 1.15. Butwhen it was the good pleasure of God, who separated me from my mother'swomb, and called me through his grace 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 1.21. Then I came to the regions of Syria and Cilicia. 1.22. Iwas still unknown by face to the assemblies of Judea which were inChrist 1.23. but they only heard: "He who once persecuted us nowpreaches the faith that he once tried to destroy. 1.24. And theyglorified God in me. 2.1. Then after a period of fourteen years I went up again toJerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me. 2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain. 2.3. But not even Titus, whowas with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 2.4. Thiswas because of the false brothers secretly brought in, who stole in tospy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they mightbring us into bondage; 2.5. to whom we gave no place in the way ofsubjection, not for an hour, that the truth of the gospel mightcontinue with you. 2.6. But from those who were reputed to beimportant (whatever they were, it makes no difference to me; Goddoesn't show partiality to man) -- they, I say, who were respectedimparted nothing to me 2.7. but to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 2.15. We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 2.17. But if, while we sought to be justified in Christ, we ourselvesalso were found sinners, is Christ a servant of sin? Certainly not! 2.18. For if I build up again those things which I destroyed, I provemyself a law-breaker. 2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 2.21. I don't make void the grace of God.For if righteousness is through the law, then Christ died for nothing! 3.1. Foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you not to obey thetruth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth among you as crucified? 3.10. For as many as are of the works of the law areunder a curse. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who doesn'tcontinue in all things that are written in the book of the law, to dothem. 3.11. Now that no man is justified by the law before God isevident, for, "The righteous will live by faith. 3.12. The law is notof faith, but, "The man who does them will live by them. 3.13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become acurse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on atree 3.14. that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentilesthrough Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spiritthrough faith. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 3.21. Is the law thenagainst the promises of God? Certainly not! For if there had been a lawgiven which could make alive, most assuredly righteousness would havebeen of the law. 4.3. So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under theelements of the world. 4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. 4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27. For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear. Break forth and shout, you that don't travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband. 4.28. Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman. 4.31. So then, brothers, we are not children of ahandmaid, but of the free woman. 5.2. Behold, I, Paul, tell you that if you receive circumcision, Christ willprofit you nothing. 5.3. Yes, I testify again to every man whoreceives circumcision, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 5.11. But I, brothers, if I still preach circumcision, why am Istill persecuted? Then the stumbling-block of the cross has beenremoved. 6.1. Brothers, even if a man is caught in some fault, you who arespiritual must restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness; looking toyourself so that you also aren't tempted. 6.11. See with what large letters I write to you with my own hand. 6.12. As many as desire to look good in the flesh, they compel you tobe circumcised; only that they may not be persecuted for the cross ofChrist. 6.13. For even they who receive circumcision don't keep thelaw themselves, but they desire to have you circumcised, that they mayboast in your flesh. 6.14. But far be it from me to boast, except inthe cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has beencrucified to me, and I to the world. 6.15. For in Christ Jesus neitheris circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation. 6.16. As many as walk by this rule, peace and mercy be on them, and onGod's Israel. 6.17. From now on, let no one cause me any trouble, forI bear the marks of the Lord Jesus branded on my body. 6.18. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit,brothers. Amen.
34. New Testament, Hebrews, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. For when by reason of the time you ought to be teachers, you again need to have someone teach you the rudiments of the first principles of the oracles of God. You have come to need milk, and not solid food.
35. New Testament, Philippians, 3.3-3.9, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.3. For we are the circumcision, who worship God in the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh; 3.4. though I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. If any other man thinks that he has confidence in the flesh, I yet more: 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.7. However, what things were gain to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith; 3.19. whose end is destruction, whose god is the belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who think about earthly things.
36. New Testament, Romans, 1.5, 1.13, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 2.24, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29, 3, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.28, 3.30, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 5.5, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.15, 6.16, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 8.6, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.23, 8.27, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.30, 9.32, 10, 11, 11.1, 11.13, 11.17, 11.19, 11.32, 13.11, 14, 14.1-15.13, 14.10, 14.15, 14.21, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.16, 15.20, 15.23, 15.24, 15.31, 15.45, 16, 16.4, 16.16, 16.18, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. Now I don't desire to have you unaware, brothers, that I often planned to come to you, and was hindered so far, that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among the rest of the Gentiles.
37. New Testament, Titus, 1.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. For there are also many unruly men, vain talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision
38. New Testament, Luke, 10.27, 12.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.27. He answered, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself. 12.20. But God said to him, 'You foolish one, tonight your soul is required of you. The things which you have prepared -- whose will they be?'
39. New Testament, Mark, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.
40. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.12-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.12. Zavim, Zavot, Niddot, and women who gave birth are permitted to read the Torah and to learn Mishna, Midrash, laws, and Aggadot. And men who had a seminal emission (Baalei Keraim) are forbidden in all of them. Rebbi Yossi says, “He can learn the laws that he is familiar with, as long as he does not arrange the Mishna.”" 2.13. “A man who had a seminal emission (Baal Keri) who does not have water to dip in may read the Shema, but he may not [read it loud enough so that he can] hear [himself talking] with his own ear, and does not say the Beracha (blessing) not before it and not after it.” [These are] the words of Rebbi Meir. And the Chachamim (Sages) say, ”He may read the Shema and he may [read it loud enough so that he can] hear [himself talking] with his own ear, and he says the Beracha [both] before it and after it.” Rebbi Meir said, “One time we were sitting in the Bet Midrash (Study Hall) in front of Rebbi Akiva and we were reading the Shema, but we were not saying it loud enough to be able to hear ourselves, because of one inquisitor who was standing by the door.” They (i.e. Chachamim) said [back] to him, “The time of danger is not a proof.”" 2.14. One that was standing in the field naked or that was doing his work naked should cover himself with straw and with stubble or anything [else for that matter] and may read [the Shema]. Even though they (i.e. the Rabbis) said that it is not praiseworthy for a person to be sitting naked, because the Holy One Blessed Be He did not create man naked as it says, “I clothed him in a cloud and [made] mist his shroud.” (Job 38:9) “Clothed him in a cloud” that [refers to] the sack of the fetus, “and [made] mist his shroud” that [refers to] the placenta. [If] there was a wrap of cloth or of skin wrapped around his loins he may read [the Shema]. Either way he should not pray [Shmoneh Esreh] until he covers his heart."
41. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 28.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

28.3. וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶמְחֶה אֶת הָאָדָם, רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ אִסְטְרוֹבִּלִּין שֶׁל רֵחַיִּים נִמְחֶה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ עֲפָרוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן נִמְחֶה. כַּד דָּרְשָׁה רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּצִפּוֹרִי בְּצִבּוּרָא וְלֹא קִבְּלוּ מִינֵיהּ. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יְהוֹצָדָק אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ לוּז שֶׁל שִׁדְרָה, שֶׁמִּמֶּנוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֵצִיץ אֶת הָאָדָם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, נִמְחָה. אַדְרִיָּאנוֹס שְׁחִיק עֲצָמוֹת שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן חֲנַנְיָא אָמַר לוֹ מֵהֵיכָן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֵצִיץ אֶת הָאָדָם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, אָמַר לוֹ מִלּוּז שֶׁל שִׁדְרָה, אָמַר לוֹ מִנַּיִן אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַיְתִיתֵיהּ לְיָדִי וַאֲנָא מוֹדַע לָךְ, טָחֲנוֹ בָּרֵחַיִם וְלֹא נִטְחַן, שְׂרָפוֹ בָּאֵשׁ וְלֹא נִשְׂרַף, נְתָנוֹ בְּמַיִם וְלֹא נִמְחֶה, נְתָנוֹ עַל הַסַּדָּן וְהִתְחִיל מַכֶּה עָלָיו בְּפַטִּישׁ, נֶחְלַק הַסַּדָּן וְנִבְקַע הַפַּטִּישׁ וְלֹא חָסַר כְּלוּם.
42. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 18.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

18.1. דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ וגו' (ויקרא טו, ב), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (קהלת יב, א): וּזְכֹר אֶת בּוֹרְאֶיךָ בִּימֵי בְּחוּרֹתֶיךָ, תְּנַן (משנה אבות ג-א): עֲקַבְיָא בֶּן מַהַלַּלְאֵל אוֹמֵר הִסְתַּכֵּל בִּשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים וְאֵין אַתָּה בָּא לִידֵי עֲבֵרָה, דַּע מֵאַיִן בָּאתָ מִטִּפָּה סְרוּחָה, וּלְאָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ, לֶעָפָר רִמָּה וְתוֹלֵעָה, וְלִפְנֵי מִי אַתָּה עָתִיד לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וכו', רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר בְּשֵׁם רַב פַּפֵּי וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי שְׁלָשְׁתָּן דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא מִתּוֹךְ פָּסוּק אֶחָד, וּזְכֹר אֶת בּוֹרְאֶךָ, בְּאֵרְךָ זוֹ לֵיחָה סְרוּחָה, בּוֹרְךָ זוֹ רִמָּה וְתוֹלֵעָה, בּוֹרְאֶךָ זֶה מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁעָתִיד לִתֵּן לְפָנָיו דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן. בִּימֵי בְּחוּרֹתֶיךָ, בְּיוֹמֵי טַלְיוּתָךְ עַד דְּחֵילָךְ עֲלָךְ. (קהלת יב, א): עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָבֹאוּ יְמֵי הָרָעָה, אֵלּוּ יְמֵי זִקְנָה, (קהלת יב, א): וְהִגִּיעוּ שָׁנִים אֲשֶׁר תֹּאמַר אֵין לִי בָהֶם חֵפֶץ, אֵלּוּ יְמֵי הַמָּשִׁיחַ, שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם לֹא זְכוּת וְלֹא חוֹבָה, (קהלת יב, ב): עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֶחְשַׁךְ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְהָאוֹר וגו', הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ זֶה קְלַסְתֵּר פָּנִים, וְהָאוֹר זֶה הַמֵּצַח, וְהַיָּרֵחַ זֶה הַחוֹטֶם, וְהַכּוֹכָבִים אֵלּוּ רָאשֵׁי לְסָתוֹת, (קהלת יב, ב): וְשָׁבוּ הֶעָבִים אַחַר הַגָּשֶׁם, רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר תַּרְתֵּי חָדָא לְחַבְרַיָיא וְחָדָא לְבוּרַיָא. חָדָא לְחַבְרַיָא, בָּא לִבְכּוֹת זָלְגוּ עֵינָיו דְּמָעוֹת. חָדָא לְבוּרַיָא, בָּא לְהַטִּיל מַיִם הַגְּלָלִין מְקַדְּמִין אוֹתוֹ. (קהלת יב, ג): בַּיּוֹם שֶׁיָּזֻעוּ שֹׁמְרֵי הַבַּיִת וגו', בַּיּוֹם שֶׁיָּזֻעוּ שֹׁמְרֵי הַבַּיִת אֵלּוּ אַרְכֻּבּוֹתָיו, (קהלת יב, ג): וְהִתְעַוְתוּ אַנְשֵׁי הֶחָיִל אֵלּוּ צְלָעוֹתָיו. רַבִּי חִיָא בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר אֵלּוּ זְרוֹעוֹתָיו, (קהלת יב, ג): וּבָטְלוּ הַטֹּחֲנוֹת זֶה הַמַּסָּס, (קהלת יב, ג): כִּי מִעֵטוּ אֵלּוּ הַשִּׁנַּיִם, (קהלת יב, ג): וְחָשְׁכוּ הָרֹאוֹת בָּאֲרֻבּוֹת אֵלּוּ הָעֵינַיִם. רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר אֵלּוּ כַּנְפֵי הָרֵאָה, שֶׁמִּשָּׁם יוֹצֵא הַקּוֹל, (קהלת יב, ד): וְסֻגְּרוּ דְלָתַיִם בַּשּׁוּק אֵלּוּ נְקָבָיו שֶׁל אָדָם, שֶׁהֵן כְּמוֹ דֶּלֶת הַפּוֹתֵחַ וְהַסּוֹגֵר, (קהלת יב, ד): בִּשְׁפַל קוֹל הַטַּחֲנָה בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁאֵין הַמַּסָּס טוֹחֵן, (קהלת יב, ד): וְיָקוּם לְקוֹל הַצִּפּוֹר, הָדֵין סָבָא כַּד שָׁמַע קוֹל צִפֳּרִין מְצַיְצִין אֲמַר בְּלִיבֵּיהּ לִיסְטִין אָתָאן לִמְקַפְּחָא יָתִי, (קהלת יב, ד): וְיִשַּׁחוּ כָּל בְּנוֹת הַשִּׁיר אֵלּוּ שִׂפְתוֹתָיו, רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר אֵלּוּ הַכְּלָיוֹת, שֶׁהֵן חוֹשְׁבוֹת וְהַלֵּב גּוֹמֵר, (קהלת יב, ה): גַּם מִגָּבֹהַּ יִרָאוּ וגו', גַּם מִגָּבֹהַּ יִרָאוּ הָדֵין סָבָא דְּצָוְחִין לֵיהּ זִיל לַאֲתַר פְּלַן וְהוּא שָׁאֵיל וַאֲמַר אִית תַּמָּן מַסְּקִין, אִית תַּמָּן מַחֲתִין, (קהלת יב, ה): וְחַתְחַתִּים בַּדֶּרֶךְ, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא וְרַבִּי לֵוִי, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא חִתִּיתָא שֶׁל דֶּרֶךְ נוֹפֵל עָלָיו, וָחֳרָנָא אֲמַר הִתְחִיל מַתְוֶוה תְּוָואִים, אֲמַר עַד אֲתַר פְּלַן אִית לִי מַהֲלַךְ בַּאֲתַר פְּלַן לֵית לִי מַהֲלַךְ. (קהלת יב, ה): וְיָנֵאץ הַשָּׁקֵד אִילֵּין קַרְסוּלוֹת, (קהלת יב, ה): וְיִסְתַּבֵּל הֶחָגָב זֶה לוּז שֶׁל שִׁדְרָה. אַדְרִיָּנוּס שְׁחִיק עֲצָמוֹת שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר חֲנַנְיָא אָמַר לוֹ מֵהֵיכָן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֵצִיץ אֶת הָאָדָם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, אָמַר לוֹ מִלּוּז שֶׁל שִׁדְרָה, אָמַר לוֹ מִן הֵן אַתְּ מוֹדַע לִי, אַיְיתֵי יָתֵיהּ קוֹמוֹי נְתָנוֹ בַּמַּיִם וְלֹא נִמְחָה, טְחָנוֹ בָּרֵיחַיִם וְלֹא נִטְחַן, נְתָנוֹ בָּאֵשׁ וְלֹא נִשְׂרַף, נְתָנוֹ עַל הַסַּדָּן הִתְחִיל מַכֶּה עָלָיו בַּפַּטִּישׁ, נֶחְלַק הַסַּדָּן וְנִבְקַע הַפַּטִּישׁ וְלֹא הוֹעִיל מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלוּם. (קהלת יב, ה): וְתָפֵר הָאֲבִיּוֹנָה זוֹ הַתַּאֲוָה שֶׁהִיא מַטִּילָה שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא הֲוָה סָלֵיק שָׁאֵיל בִּשְׁלָמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי בְּכָל יֶרַח וְיֶרַח, כֵּיוָן דְּסָב יָתֵיב לֵיהּ וְלָא יָכוֹל לְמֵיסַק, יוֹם חַד סָלֵיק אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָה עִסְקָךְ דְּלֵית אַתְּ סָלֵיק לְגַבִּי הֵיךְ דַּהֲוֵית יָלֵיף, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רְחוֹקוֹת נַעֲשׂוּ קְרוֹבוֹת, קְרוֹבוֹת נַעֲשׂוּ רְחוֹקוֹת, שְׁתַּיִם נַעֲשׂוּ שָׁלשׁ, וּמֵטִיל שָׁלוֹם בַּבַּיִת בָּטֵל, [ופרושו: רחוקות נעשו קרובות, אילין עיניא דהוו חמיין מרחוק כדו אפלו מקרוב לית אינון חמיין. קרובות נעשו רחוקות, אילין אודני דהוו שמעין בחד זמן בתרי זמני, כדו אפלו במאה זימנין לית אינון שמעין. שתים נעשו שלש, חוטרא ותרתין ריגלי. ומטיל שלום בבית בטל, זו התאוה שמטיל שלום בין איש לאשתו]. (קהלת יב, ה): כִּי הֹלֵךְ הָאָדָם אֶל בֵּית עוֹלָמוֹ, בֵּית הָעוֹלָם לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא בֵּית עוֹלָמוֹ, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכָּל צַדִּיק וְצַדִּיק יֵשׁ לוֹ עוֹלָם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁנִּכְנַס לַמְּדִינָה וְעִמּוֹ דֻּכָּסִין וְאִפַּרְכִין וְאִיסְטְרַטְיוֹטִין, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַכֹּל נִכְנָסִין בְּפוֹלִין אֶחָד, כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד שָׁרוּי לְפִי כְבוֹדוֹ, כָּךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַכֹּל טוֹעֲמִין טַעַם מִיתָה, כָּל צַדִּיק וְצַדִּיק יֵשׁ לוֹ עוֹלָם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. (קהלת יב, ה): וְסָבְבוּ בַשּׁוּק הַסּוֹפְדִים אֵלּוּ הַתּוֹלָעִים, (קהלת יב, ו): עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא יֵרָתֵק חֶבֶל הַכֶּסֶף זֶה חוּט הַשִּׁדְרָה, (קהלת יב, ו): וְתָרֻץ גֻּלַּת הַזָּהָב זוֹ גֻּלְגֹּלֶת. רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר נְחֶמְיָא אָמַר זוֹ גַּרְגֶּרֶת שֶׁמְכַלָּה אֶת הַזָּהָב וּמֵרִיקָה אֶת הַכָּסֶף. (קהלת יב, ו): וְתִשָּׁבֶר כַּד עַל הַמַּבּוּעַ זוֹ כָּרֵס. רַבִּי חִיָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי פַּפֵּי וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי לְאַחַר שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים כְּרֵיסוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם נִבְקַעַת וּמוֹסֶרֶת לַפֶּה וְאוֹמֶרֶת לוֹ הֵילָךְ מַה שֶּׁגָּזַלְתָּ וְחָמַסְתָּ וְנָתַתָּ לִי. רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק מַיְיתֵי לָהּ מִן הָדֵין קְרָיָא (מלאכי ב, ג): וְזֵרִיתִי פֶרֶשׁ עַל פְּנֵיכֶם פֶּרֶשׁ חֲגֵיכֶם. רַבִּי אַבָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב פַּפֵּי וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי כָּל תְּלָתָא יוֹמִין נַפְשָׁא טָיְיסָא עַל גּוּפָה סָבְרָה דְּהִיא חָזְרָה לֵיהּ, וְכֵיוָן דְּהִיא חָמְיָא לֵיהּ דְּאִישְׁתַּנֵּי זִיוְהוֹן דְּאַפּוֹי, הִיא אָזְלַת לָהּ, דִּכְתִיב (איוב יד, כב): אַךְ בְּשָׂרוֹ וגו'. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר עַד שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים תָּקְפּוֹ שֶׁל אֵבֶל קַיָּם, לָמָּה שֶׁצּוּרַת הַפָּנִים נִכֶּרֶת, דִּתְנַן אֵין מְעִידִין אֶלָּא עַל פַּרְצוּף פָּנִים עִם הַחֹטֶם, וְאֵין מְעִידִין לְאַחַר שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים. (קהלת יב, ו): וְנָרֹץ הַגַּלְגַּל אֶל הַבּוֹר, תְּרֵין אֲמוֹרָאִין, חַד אָמַר כְּאִילֵּין גַּלְגְּלַיָא דְצִפּוֹרִי, וְחוֹרָנָא אֲמַר כְּאִילֵּין רִגְבַיָּיא דִּטְבֶרְיָא, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (איוב כא, לג): מָתְקוּ לוֹ רִגְבֵי נָחַל. (קהלת יב, ז): וְיָשֹׁב הֶעָפָר עַל הָאָרֶץ כְּשֶׁהָיָה וגו', רַבִּי פִּנְחָס וְרַבִּי חִלְקִיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי סִימוֹן אֵימָתַי הָרוּחַ תָּשׁוּב אֶל הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר נְתָנָהּ, כְּשֶׁשָּׁב הֶעָפָר אֶל הָאָרֶץ כְּשֶׁהָיָה, וְאִם לָאו (שמואל א כה, כט): וְאֶת נֶפֶשׁ אֹיְבֶיךָ יְקַלְּעֶנָּה וגו'. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בַּר נַחְמָן מַתְנֵי לָהּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַבְדִּימֵי דְמִן חֵיפָא לְכֹהֵן חָבֵר שֶׁמָּסַר לְכֹהֵן עַם הָאָרֶץ כִּכָּר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה, אָמַר לוֹ רְאֵה שֶׁאֲנִי טָהוֹר וּבֵיתִי טָהוֹר וְכִכָּר שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לְךָ טָהוֹר, אִם אַתָּה נוֹתְנָהּ לִי כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאֲנִי נָתַתִּי לְךָ מוּטָב, וְאִם לָאו הֲרֵינִי זוֹרְקָהּ לְפָנֶיךָ. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאָדָם זֶה, רְאֵה שֶׁאֲנִי טָהוֹר וּמְעוֹנִי טָהוֹר וּמְשָׁרְתַי טְהוֹרִים וּנְשָׁמָה שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לְךָ טְהוֹרָה, אִם אַתָּה מַחֲזִירָהּ לִי כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאֲנִי נוֹתְנָהּ לְךָ, מוּטָב, וְאִם לָאו הֲרֵינִי טוֹרְפָהּ לְפָנֶיךָ, כָּל אֵלּוּ בִּימֵי זִקְנוּתוֹ אֲבָל בִּימֵי בַּחֲרוּתוֹ אִם חָטָא לוֹקֶה בְּזִיבוּת וּבְצָרַעַת, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם: אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ.
43. Anon., Tchacos 3 Gospel of Judas, 35.23-35.25, 37.3, 37.5, 37.8, 43.9, 45.14-45.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

44. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 1.25.1, 1.52.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

45. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

90b. וכתיב (מלכים ב ז, כ) ויהי לו כן וירמסו אותו העם בשער וימות ודילמא קללת אלישע גרמה ליה דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב קללת חכם אפי' על חנם היא באה אם כן לכתוב קרא וירמסוהו וימות מאי בשער על עסקי שער,(אמר ר' יוחנן) מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (במדבר יח, כח) ונתתם ממנו [את] תרומת ה' לאהרן הכהן וכי אהרן לעולם קיים והלא לא נכנס לארץ ישראל שנותנין לו תרומה אלא מלמד שעתיד לחיות וישראל נותנין לו תרומה מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה,דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא לאהרן כאהרן מה אהרן חבר אף בניו חברים,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מניין שאין נותנין תרומה לכהן עם הארץ שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לא, ד) ויאמר לעם ליושבי ירושלים לתת מנת (לכהנים ולוים) למען יחזקו בתורת ה' כל המחזיק בתורת ה' יש לו מנת ושאינו מחזיק בתורת ה' אין לו מנת,אמר רב אחא בר אדא אמר רב יהודה כל הנותן תרומה לכהן עם הארץ כאילו נותנה לפני ארי מה ארי ספק דורס ואוכל ספק אינו דורס ואוכל אף כהן עם הארץ ספק אוכלה בטהרה ספק אוכלה בטומאה,ר' יוחנן אמר אף גורם לו מיתה שנאמר (ויקרא כב, ט) ומתו בו כי יחללוהו דבי ר"א בן יעקב תנא אף משיאו עון אשמה שנאמר (ויקרא כב, טז) והשיאו אותם עון אשמה באכלם את קדשיהם,תניא ר' סימאי אומר מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (שמות ו, ד) וגם הקימותי את בריתי אתם לתת להם את ארץ כנען לכם לא נאמר אלא להם מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה:,(צד"ק ג"ם גש"ם ק"ם סימן): שאלו מינין את רבן גמליאל מניין שהקדוש ברוך הוא מחיה מתים אמר להם מן התורה ומן הנביאים ומן הכתובים ולא קיבלו ממנו,מן התורה דכתיב (דברים לא, טז) ויאמר ה' אל משה הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם אמרו לו ודילמא וקם העם הזה וזנה,מן הנביאים דכתיב (ישעיהו כו, יט) יחיו מתיך נבלתי יקומון הקיצו ורננו שוכני עפר כי טל אורות טלך וארץ רפאים תפיל ודילמא מתים שהחיה יחזקאל,מן הכתובים דכתיב (שיר השירים ז, י) וחכך כיין הטוב הולך לדודי למישרים דובב שפתי ישנים ודילמא רחושי מרחשן שפוותיה בעלמא כר' יוחנן דאמר ר' יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יהוצדק כל מי שנאמרה הלכה בשמו בעולם הזה שפתותיו דובבות בקבר שנאמר דובב שפתי ישנים,עד שאמר להם מקרא זה (דברים יא, כא) אשר נשבע ה' לאבותיכם לתת להם לכם לא נאמר אלא להם מיכן לתחיית המתים מן התורה,וי"א מן המקרא הזה אמר להם (דברים ד, ד) ואתם הדבקים בה' אלהיכם חיים כלכם היום (פשיטא דחיים כולכם היום אלא אפילו ביום שכל העולם כולם מתים אתם חיים) מה היום כולכם קיימין אף לעוה"ב כולכם קיימין,שאלו רומיים את רבי יהושע בן חנניה מניין שהקב"ה מחיה מתים ויודע מה שעתיד להיות אמר להו תרווייהו מן המקרא הזה שנאמר (דברים לא, טז) ויאמר ה' אל משה הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם העם הזה וזנה,ודילמא וקם העם הזה וזנה אמר להו נקוטו מיהא פלגא בידייכו דיודע מה שעתיד להיות איתמר נמי א"ר יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחאי מניין שהקדוש ברוך הוא מחיה מתים ויודע מה שעתיד להיות שנאמר הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם וגו',תניא א"ר אליעזר בר' יוסי בדבר זה זייפתי ספרי מינים שהיו אומרים אין תחיית המתים מן התורה אמרתי להן זייפתם תורתכם ולא העליתם בידכם כלום שאתם אומרים אין תחיית המתים מן התורה הרי הוא אומר (במדבר טו, לא) הכרת תכרת הנפש ההיא עונה בה הכרת תכרת בעולם הזה עונה בה לאימת לאו לעולם הבא,א"ל רב פפא לאביי ולימא להו תרוייהו מהכרת תכרת אינהו הוו אמרי ליה דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,כתנאי הכרת תכרת הכרת בעולם הזה תכרת לעולם הבא דברי ר"ע אמר לו ר' ישמעאל והלא כבר נאמר (במדבר טו, ל) את ה' הוא מגדף ונכרתה וכי שלשה עולמים יש אלא ונכרתה בעולם הזה הכרת לעולם הבא הכרת תכרת דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,בין ר' ישמעאל ובין ר"ע עונה בה מאי עבדי ביה לכדתניא יכול אפילו עשה תשובה ת"ל עונה בה לא אמרתי אלא בזמן שעונה בה,שאלה קליאופטרא מלכתא את ר"מ אמרה ידענא דחיי שכבי דכתיב (תהלים עב, טז) ויציצו מעיר כעשב הארץ אלא כשהן עומדין עומדין ערומין או בלבושיהן עומדין אמר לה ק"ו מחיטה ומה חיטה שנקברה ערומה יוצאה בכמה לבושין צדיקים שנקברים בלבושיהן על אחת כמה וכמה,א"ל קיסר לרבן גמליאל אמריתו דשכבי חיי הא הוו עפרא ועפרא מי קא חיי 90b. bAnd it is written: “And it was for him so, and the people trampled him in the gate, and he died”(II Kings 7:20). The Gemara challenges: bPerhapsit was bthe curse of Elishathat bcausedthe officer to die in that manner, not the principle of punishment measure for measure for his lack of belief, bas Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The curse of a Sage, evenif bbaseless, comesto be fulfilled? This is all the more so true concerning the curse of Elisha, which was warranted. The Gemara answers: bIf so, let the verse write: And they trampled him and he died. Whatdoes the term b“in the gate”serve to teach? It teaches that he died bover mattersrelating bto the gate [ isha’ar /i].It was for the cynical dismissal of the prophecy of Elisha that the officer voiced at the city gate that he was punished measure for measure and was trampled at the city gate.,§ bRabbi Yoḥa says: From whereis the bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from this verse, bas it is statedwith regard to iterumaof the tithe: b“And you shall give the iterumaof the Lord to Aaron the priest”(Numbers 18:28). bAnd does Aaron exist foreverso that one can fulfill the mitzva by giving him the iterumaof the tithe? bBut is it notso that Aaron bdid not enter Eretz Yisrael,the only place bwherethe people would bgive him iteruma /i? Rather,the verse bteaches thatAaron is destined bto live in the future and the Jewish peoplewill bgive him iteruma /i. From hereit is derived that bthe resurrection of the dead is from the Torah. /b, bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughta different derivation from this verse. From the term b“to Aaron”one derives that iterumamust be given to a priest blike Aaron; just as Aaron is one devoted to the meticulous observance of mitzvot, particularly those relating to ritual purity, iteruma /i, and tithes [ iḥaver /i], so tooone gives iterumato bhis descendantswho are iḥaverim /i. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: From whereis it derived bthat one does not give iterumato a priestwho is ban iam ha’aretz /i?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “And he commanded the people who dwelled in Jerusalem to give the portion of the priests and of the Levites, so that they may firmly adhere to the Torah of the Lord”(II Chronicles 31:4). bEveryone who firmly adheres to the Torah of the Lord has a portion, and anyone who does not firmly adhere to the Torah of the Lord does not have a portion. /b, bRav Aḥa bar Adda saysthat bRav Yehuda says:With regard to banyone who gives iterumato a priestwho is ban iam ha’aretz /i, it is as though he placedthe iteruma bbefore a lion. Just aswith regard to ba lion,there is buncertaintywhether it will bmaulits prey band eatit, and buncertaintywhether it will bnot maulits prey bandinstead beatit alive, bso too,with regard to ba priestwho is ban iam ha’aretz /ito whom one gives iteruma /i, there is buncertaintywhether he will beat it in purity,and there is buncertaintywhether he will beat it in impurity,thereby violating a prohibition by Torah law., bRabbi Yoḥa says:One who gives iterumato a priest who is an iam ha’aretz beven causesthe priest’s bdeath, as it is statedwith regard to iteruma /i: b“And die therefore if they profane it”(Leviticus 22:9). Priests who partake of iterumain a state of ritual impurity profane it and are liable to be punished with death at the hand of Heaven. bThe school of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov taught:By giving iterumato a priest who is an iam ha’aretz /i, bone also brings upon him a sin of guilt,i.e., a sin that will lead to additional sins, bas it is stated: “And so bring upon them a sin of guilt when they eat their sacred items”(Leviticus 22:16).,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Simai says: From whereis bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from a verse, bas it is statedwith regard to the Patriarchs: b“I have also established My covet with them to give to them the land of Canaan”(Exodus 6:4). The phrase: To give bto youthe land of Canaan, bis not stated,as the meaning of the verse is not that God fulfilled the covet with the Patriarchs when he gave the land of Canaan to the children of Israel; brather,it is stated: “To give bto themthe land of Canaan,” meaning to the Patriarchs themselves. bFrom hereis it derived that bthe resurrection of the dead is from the Torah,as in the future the Patriarchs will come to life and inherit the land.,The Gemara records a mnemonic for those cited in the upcoming discussion: iTzadi /i, idalet /i, ikuf /i; igimmel /i, imem /i; igimmel /i, ishin /i, imem /i; ikuf /i, imem /i.Heretics asked Rabban Gamliel: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead?Rabban Gamliel bsaid to themthat this matter can be proven bfrom the Torah, from the Prophets, and from Writings, but they did not acceptthe proofs bfrom him. /b,The proof bfrom the Torahis bas it is written: “And the Lord said to Moses, behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise”(Deuteronomy 31:16). The heretics bsaid to him: But perhapsthe verse should be divided in a different manner, and it should be read: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers, band this people will arise and strayafter the foreign gods of the land.”,The proof bfrom the Prophetsis bas it is written: “Your dead shall live, my corpse shall arise. Awake and sing, you that dwell in the dust, for your dew is as the dew of vegetation, and the land shall cast out the dead”(Isaiah 26:19). The heretics said to him: bBut perhapsthe prophecy was fulfilled with bthe dead that Ezekiel revived.No proof may be cited from that verse with regard to any future resurrection.,The proof bfrom Writingsis bas it is written: “And your palate is like the best wine that glides down smoothly for my beloved, moving gently the lips of those that sleep”(Song of Songs 7:10), indicating that the dead will ultimately rise and speak. The heretics said to him: bBut perhaps merely their lips will move, in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: Anyone in whose name a ihalakhais stated in this world, his lips move in the graveas if repeating the statement cited in his name, bas it is stated: “Moving gently the lips of those that sleep.”No proof may be cited from that verse, as it is unrelated to resurrection.,This exchange continued buntilRabban Gamliel bstated to them this verse:“That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land bthat the Lord took an oath to your forefathers to give them”(Deuteronomy 11:21). The phrase: bTogive byou, is not stated; rather,it is stated: b“Togive bthem,”to the Patriarchs themselves, as in the future the Patriarchs will come to life and inherit the land. bFrom here resurrection of the deadis derived bfrom the Torah. /b, bAnd there are those who saythat it is bfrom thisfollowing bversethat bhe said to themhis ultimate proof: b“But you who cleave to the Lord your God every one of you is alive this day”(Deuteronomy 4:4). Wasn’t it bobviouswith regard to the children of Israel whom God was addressing, that b“every one of you is alive this day”? Rather,the meaning of the verse is: bEven on the day when everyone is dead you will live; just as today every one of you is alive, so too, in the World-to-Come every one of youwill be balive. /b, bThe Romans asked Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead, andfrom where is it derived that bHe knows what is destined to be?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to them: Both of thosematters are derived bfrom this verse, as it is stated: “And the Lord said to Moses, Behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise; this people will go astray”(Deuteronomy 31:16). This indicates that Moses will die and then arise from the dead and that the Holy One, Blessed be He, knows what the children of Israel are destined to do.,The Romans asked: bBut perhapsthe verse should be divided in a different manner, and it should be read: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers band this people will arise and go astrayafter the foreign gods of the land.” Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to them: Take at leasta response to bhalfof your question bin your handsfrom that verse, bthatGod bknows what is destined to be.The Gemara comments: bIt was also statedon a similar note by an iamoraciting a itanna /i, as bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead, andfrom where is it derived that bHe knows what is destined to be?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise.” /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: With thisfollowing bmatter, I refuted the books of the Samaritans, as they would saythat bthere is nosource for bthe resurrection of the dead from the Torah. I said to them: You falsified your torah and you accomplished nothing, as you say there is nosource for bthe resurrection of the dead from the Torah,and the Torah bstates: “That soul shall be excised; his iniquity shall be upon him”(Numbers 15:31). You interpret the phrase “that soul bshall be excised”to mean that a sinner will be punished with death bin this world.If so, with regard to the phrase b“his iniquity shall be upon him,” for whenis that destined to be? Is it bnot for the World-to-Come,i.e., the world as it will exist after the resurrection of the dead? Apparently, there is a World-to-Come and there is an allusion to it in the Torah., bRav Pappa said to Abaye: And letRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsay tothe Samaritans that bboth of thosematters can be derived bfromthe phrase b“shall be excised [ ihikkaret tikkaret /i].”“ iHikkaret /i” indicates that the sinner is excised from this world, and “ itikkaret /i” indicates that the sinner is excised from the World-to-Come. Abaye answered: Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, preferred not to cite proof from the compound verb, because the Samaritans bwould say: The Torah spoke in the language of people,and the compound verb is merely a stylistic flourish.,The Gemara notes: These derivations of Rabbi Eliezer and Rav Pappa are bparallelto a dispute between itanna’im /iwith regard to b“ ihikkaret tikkaret /i,”as follows: b“ iHikkaret /i”indicates that the sinner is excised bin this world,and b“ itikkaret /i”indicates that the sinner is excised bin the World-to-Come;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yishmael said to him: Isn’t it already statedin the previous verse: b“That person that blasphemes the Lord, that soul shall be excised [ ivenikhreta /i]”(Numbers 15:30), band are there three worldsfrom which the sinner is excised? bRather,from the term b“ ivenikhreta /i”it is derived that the sinner is excised bin this world,from b“ ihikkaret /i”it is derived that the sinner is excised bin the World-to-Come,and from the compound verb b“ ihikkaret tikkaret /i”nothing is derived, as bthe Torah spoke in the language of people. /b,The Gemara asks: According to bboth Rabbi Yishmael and Rabbi Akiva, what do they do with,i.e., what do they derive from, the phrase b“His iniquity shall be upon him”?The Gemara answers: That phrase is necessary bfor thatderivation bwhich is taughtin a ibaraita /i: One bmighthave thought that the sinner is excised bevenafter bhe repented.Therefore, bthe verse states: “His iniquity shall be upon him.”God states: bI saidthat the sinner will be excised bonly when his iniquityremains bupon him. /b,§ The Gemara relates: bQueen Cleopatra asked Rabbi Meira question. bShe said: I know that the dead will live, as it is written: “And may they blossom out of the city like grass of the earth”(Psalms 72:16). Just as grass grows, so too, the dead will come to life. bBut when they arise,will they barise naked orwill bthey arise with their garments?Rabbi Meir bsaid to her:It is derived ia fortiorifrom wheat. If wheat, which is buried naked,meaning that the kernel is sown without the chaff, bemerges with several garmentsof chaff, ball the more sowill bthe righteous, who are buried with their garments,arise with their garments.,The Roman bemperor said to Rabban Gamliel: You say that the dead will live. Aren’t they dust? And does dust come to life? /b
46. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

76b. הא לא צריכא ליה,[ותיפוק ליה] דהא מצרית ראשונה היא וכי תימא הנך אזלי לעלמא והני אחריני נינהו,והא תניא א"ר יהודה מנימין גר מצרי היה לי חבר מתלמידי ר"ע אמר אני מצרי ראשון ונשאתי מצרית ראשונה אשיא לבני מצרית שניה כדי שיהא בן בני ראוי לבא בקהל,אמר רב פפא אנן משלמה ליקו ונתיב שלמה לא נסיב מידי דכתיב ביה (מלכים א יא, ב) מן הגוים אשר אמר ה' אל בני ישראל לא תבואו בהם והם לא יבואו בכם אכן יטו את לבבכם אחרי אלהיהם בהם דבק שלמה לאהבה אלא קשיא ויתחתן,מתוך אהבה יתירה שאהבה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו נתחתן בה,א"ל רבינא לרב אשי והא אנן תנן פצוע דכא וכרות שפכה מותרים בגיורת ומשוחררת הא בנתינה אסירי,א"ל וליטעמיך אימא סיפא ואינן אסורין אלא מלבא בקהל הא בנתינה שרו אלא מהא ליכא למשמע מינה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big עמוני ומואבי אסורים ואיסורן איסור עולם אבל נקבותיהם מותרות מיד,מצרי ואדומי אינם אסורים אלא עד שלשה דורות אחד זכרים ואחד נקבות ר"ש מתיר את הנקבות מיד א"ר שמעון ק"ו הדברים ומה אם במקום שאסר את הזכרים איסור עולם התיר את הנקבות מיד מקום שלא אסר את הזכרים אלא עד שלשה דורות אינו דין שנתיר את הנקבות מיד,אמרו לו אם הלכה נקבל ואם לדין יש תשובה אמר להם לא כי הלכה אני אומר:, big strongגמ' /strong /big מנא ה"מ א"ר יוחנן דאמר קרא (שמואל א יז, נה) וכראות שאול את דוד יוצא לקראת הפלשתי אמר אל אבנר שר הצבא בן מי זה הנער אבנר ויאמר אבנר חי נפשך המלך אם ידעתי ולא ידע ליה והכתיב (שמואל א טז, כא) ויאהבהו מאד ויהי לו נושא כלים אלא אאבוה קא משאיל,ואביו לא ידע ליה והכתיב (שמואל א יז, יב) והאיש בימי שאול זקן בא באנשים ואמר רב ואיתימא רבי אבא זה ישי אבי דוד שנכנס באוכלוסא ויצא באוכלוסא,ה"ק שאול אי מפרץ אתי אי מזרח אתי אי מפרץ אתי מלכא הוי שהמלך פורץ לעשות דרך ואין ממחין בידו אי מזרח אתי חשיבא בעלמא הוי,מ"ט אמר ליה שאל עליה דכתיב (שמואל א יז, לח) וילבש שאול את דוד מדיו כמדתו וכתיב ביה בשאול (שמואל א ט, ב) משכמו ומעלה גבוה מכל העם א"ל דואג האדומי עד שאתה משאיל עליו אם הגון הוא למלכות אם לאו שאל עליו אם ראוי לבא בקהל אם לאו מ"ט דקאתי מרות המואביה,א"ל אבנר תנינא עמוני ולא עמונית מואבי ולא מואבית אלא מעתה ממזר ולא ממזרת ממזר כתיב מום זר,מצרי ולא מצרית שאני הכא דמפרש טעמא דקרא (דברים כג, ה) על אשר לא קדמו אתכם בלחם ובמים דרכו של איש לקדם ולא דרכה של אשה לקדם היה להם לקדם אנשים לקראת אנשים ונשים לקראת נשים אישתיק,מיד ויאמר המלך שאל אתה בן מי זה העלם התם קרי ליה נער הכא קרי ליה עלם הכי קא אמר ליה הלכה נתעלמה ממך צא ושאל בבית המדרש שאל אמרו ליה עמוני ולא עמונית מואבי ולא מואבית 76b. But bthis one,Pharaoh’s daughter, bdid not require suchthings, as she herself was the daughter of royalty, and therefore there would have been no reason to doubt the sincerity of her conversion.,The Gemara asks: bBut let him derivethat Pharaoh’s daughter was forbidden to Solomon for a different reason, bas shewas ba first- /bgeneration bEgyptianconvert. Even if she converted, she would still have been an Egyptian convert of the first generation, and as such neither she nor her children would have been permitted to marry a Jew by birth (Deuteronomy 23:8–9). bAnd if you would saythat bthosewhom the Torah rendered forbidden have already bleftEgypt and are now living elsewhere bin the world, and thosecurrently living in Egypt bare others,there is a difficulty.,As, bisn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda said: Minyamin, an Egyptian convert, was a friend of mine from among the students of Rabbi Akiva,and bhe said:After I converted bIwas ba first- /bgeneration bEgyptianconvert, bandso bI marriedanother bfirst- /bgeneration bEgyptianconvert. bI will marry off my son,who is a second-generation Egyptian convert, btoanother bsecond- /bgeneration bEgyptianconvert, bso that my grandson will be fit to enter into the congregation.This indicates that first- and second-generation converts of Egyptian extraction were prohibited from entering into the congregation even during the period of the Mishna., bRav Pappa said: Shall we stand up and raise an objection from Solomon? Solomon did not marry anyone, as it is written in his regard: “of the nations concerning which the Lord said to the children of Israel, You shall not go among them, neither shall they come among you; for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods; Solomon cleaved to these in love”(I Kings 11:2). Solomon cleaved to these women in love, but was not legally married to them. As Solomon had other forbidden wives, the case of Pharaoh’s daughter presents no special difficulty. In fact, none of these marriages were valid at all. bButthe phrase b“andSolomon bmarried”(I Kings 3:1) that appears in connection with Pharaoh’s daughter is bdifficult,as it indicates that this marriage was in fact valid.,The Gemara answers: bDue to the extraordinary love that he had for her, the verse relates to him as if he had married herthrough a legally valid marriage, even though this was not the case., bRavina said to Rav Ashi: But didn’t we learnin the mishna that ba man with crushed testicles and one whose penis has been severed are permitted tomarry a female bconvert and an emancipatedmaidservant? That indicates that it is only these women whom they are permitted to marry, bbut they are prohibited frommarrying ba Gibeonite woman.This appears to contradict the ibaraitathat permits a man with crushed testicles to marry a Gibeonite.,Rav Ashi bsaid toRavina: bAnd according to yourline of breasoning, say the latter clauseof the mishna as follows: bAnd they are prohibited only from entering into the congregation,and infer just the opposite, that it is only a woman who was born Jewish whom they are prohibited from marrying, bbut they are permitted tomarry ba Gibeonite woman,as she is not part of the congregation of the Lord. bRather, noinference is bto be learned from thismishna, as the possible inferences are contradictory, and one must therefore rely on the ihalakhathat was expressly taught.,mishna bAmmonite and Moabiteconverts bare prohibitedfrom entering into the congregation and marrying a woman who was born Jewish, band their prohibition is eternal,for all generations. bHowever, their femalecounterparts, even the convert herself, bare permitted immediately. /b, bEgyptian and Edomiteconverts bare prohibitedfrom entering into the congregation bonly for three generations, both males and females. Rabbi Shimon renders permittedEgyptian and Edomite bfemales immediately. Rabbi Shimon said: The mattermay be derived by way of ban ia fortiori /iinference: bIf in a place wherethe Torah rendered bprohibited the males with an eternal prohibition,i.e., Ammonites and Moabites, it brendered permitted the females immediately,then in ba place where it rendered prohibited the males for only three generations,i.e., Egyptians and Edomites, bis it not right that we should render permitted the females immediately? /b,Rabbi Shimon’s colleagues bsaid to him: Ifyou are reporting a ihalakha /ithat you received from your teachers, bwe will acceptit from you. bBut ifyou merely wish to prove your case with an ia fortiori binferencebased on your own reasoning, bthere is a refutationof your argument. Rabbi Shimon bsaid to them:That is bnot so.I disagree with your claim that the ia fortioriinference can be refuted, but in any case bI am stating a ihalakha /ihanded down to me by my teachers.,gemara The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived that female Ammonites and Moabites are permitted immediately? bRabbi Yoḥa said: As the verse states: “And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said to Abner, the captain of the host: Abner, whose son is this youth? And Abner said: As your soul lives, O king, I cannot tell”(I Samuel 17:55). This verse is puzzling: bDidSaul really bnot recognize him? But isn’t itpreviously bwritten:“And David came to Saul, and stood before him; band he loved him greatly; and he became his armor-bearer”(I Samuel 16:21)? bRather,it must be that bhe was asking aboutDavid’s bfather. /b,The Gemara is still puzzled by this verse: bAnd didSaul bnot recognizeDavid’s bfather? But isn’t it writtenwith regard to Jesse, David’s father: b“And the man in the days of Saul was old, and came among men”(I Samuel 17:12), band Rav, and some say Rabbi Abba, said: Thisis referring to bJesse, father of David, whoalways bentered with multitudes [ iukhlusa /i] and left with multitudes.As he was clearly a man of importance, everyone must have known who he was.,Rather, bthis iswhat bSaul was saying,in his attempt to clarify David’s lineage: bDoeshe bcome fromthe descendants of bPerez, or doeshe bcome fromthe descendants of bZerah?What is the significance of this question? bIfhe bcomes from Perez he will be king, as a king may breach [ iporetz /i] a wayfor himself band no one can stop him.And bif he comes from Zerah he will be merely a man of importance,but not a king.,The Gemara continues with its explanation: bFor what reason didSaul bsay toAbner that he should binquire aboutDavid? bAs it is written: “And Saul clad David with his apparel [ imaddav /i]”(I Samuel 17:38), which indicates that the clothes were bofDavid’s bsize [ ikemiddato /i]. And it is written with regard to Saul: “From his shoulders and upward he was higher than any of the people”(I Samuel 9:2). Upon seeing that his clothes fit David, Saul began to fear that it might be David who was destined for the throne, and he therefore inquired into his background. At that point, bDoeg the Edomite said toSaul: bBefore you inquire as to whether or not he is fit for kingship, inquire as to whether or not he iseven bfit to enter into the congregation. What is the reasonfor such doubts? It is bthathe bdescends from Ruth the Moabite,and Moabites are permanently barred from entering the congregation., bAbner said to him: Wealready blearnedthat there is no room for such concern. As the verse states: “An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 23:4), teaching that ban Ammoniteman is barred from entering into the congregation, bbut not an Ammonite woman;and similarly, ba Moabiteman is barred from entering into the congregation, bbut not a Moabite woman.Doeg said to him: bHowever, if that is so,say that the verse that renders it prohibited for a imamzerto enter the congregation renders prohibited only a male imamzer /i, but not a female imamzer /i.Abner replied: bIt is written: “A imamzer /i,”which should be understood not as a noun but as an adjective, denoting ba strange blemish [ imum zar /i],one who is defective due to a forbidden relationship, and this applies to males and females alike.,Doeg retorted: If so, say that it is prohibited for only ban Egyptianman to enter into the congregation, bbut not an Egyptian woman.Abner answered: bHere it is different, as the reason forthe prohibition recorded in this bversewith regard to Ammonites bis explicit: “Because they did not meet you with bread and with wateron the way, when you came forth out of Egypt” (Deuteronomy 23:5). Since bit is the way of a manto go forth bto meetguests bbut it is not the way of a womanto go forth, females were not included in this prohibition. Doeg countered: Still, bthe men should have goneforth bto meet the men, and the women to meet the women.Abner bwas silent,as he did not know how to respond to this objection., bImmediately: “And the king said, inquire you whose son is this lad”(I Samuel 17:56). The Gemara comments: bThere,in the previous verse, Saul bcalls him youth [ ina’ar /i],and bhere he calls him lad [ ielem /i].This change in the wording hints at the following discussion. Saul bsaid toDoeg bas follows:The ihalakhais hidden [ initalma /i] from you,and you are ignorant of the law. bGo and inquireabout the matter bin the study hall. Hewent to the study hall and basked. They said to him:The ihalakhais: bAn Ammoniteman is forbidden, bbut not an Ammonite woman; a Moabiteman is forbidden, bbut not a Moabite woman. /b
47. Origen, Against Celsus, 2.27 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.27. After this he says, that certain of the Christian believers, like persons who in a fit of drunkenness lay violent hands upon themselves, have corrupted the Gospel from its original integrity, to a threefold, and fourfold, and many-fold degree, and have remodelled it, so that they might be able to answer objections. Now I know of no others who have altered the Gospel, save the followers of Marcion, and those of Valentinus, and, I think, also those of Lucian. But such an allegation is no charge against the Christian system, but against those who dared so to trifle with the Gospels. And as it is no ground of accusation against philosophy, that there exist Sophists, or Epicureans, or Peripatetics, or any others, whoever they may be, who hold false opinions; so neither is it against genuine Christianity that there are some who corrupt the Gospel histories, and who introduce heresies opposed to the meaning of the doctrine of Jesus.
48. Anon., Latin Life of Adam And Eve, 2



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(un)faithful(ness) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254
abraham Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 196; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 368
adiaphora/indistinguishable/neutral, translation of Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 19
advantage (sumpheron, utilitas) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 210
afterlife, eschatological punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 508
afterlife, reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 508
agōn, in diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 111
allegory Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 141
anti-semitism Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 412
apistia, apistos, of israelites Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 44
apostle Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 372
apostolic tradition Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 138
apostolikon, marcions as a corruption of pauls letters Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 138
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
argument Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
augustine Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 372
banquets Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 57
barnabas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 568
belial Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
bion of borysthenes Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
body, christian understanding of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
body, platonisms attitude toward Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
body, views of Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 57
bultmann, rudolf Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 111, 734
care, of god or christ for creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 44
caspary, gerald e. Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
christianity, and gnosticism Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
church, as one body in christ deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 146
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 380, 446
cicero Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 75
circumcision, origen on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
circumcision Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 176; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 508; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 368, 372, 380; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 135, 146
compassion, conversion, significance of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 135, 146
corinth/corinthians Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
covenant Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 255, 258
curses Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 128
daniélou, cardinal jean Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
darkness, sheol Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 508
dead sea scrolls Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 358
dialogue, in diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 111
diaspora Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 176
diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 111, 734
dio chrysostom, use of diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 111
dio chrysostom Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
easter Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 358
ekklêsia Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
election (of israel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 372
epictetus, use of dialogue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 111
epictetus Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
epistemology, pauls Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92
epistemology, stoic Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92
esau Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106
eschatology Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 358
essenes Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 412
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
experience, of spirit Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 358
faithfulness, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 43, 44
faithfulness, of israel Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 43, 44
flesh Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 256
fools/foolishness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 508
freedom (eleutheria) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 157
frei, on letter and spirit Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
frei, philos influence on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 372, 380, 568
gentiles, and paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 196
gentiles, as contrast with jews Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 196
gentiles Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 508
glory, doxa (δόξα) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 255
glory, hope of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 43
glory, of god Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254
glory, of moses Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
gnosticism, christianitys polemic against Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
god, purposes of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 146
gods, paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106
good (agathos) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 210
gospel of the circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 372, 380, 568
grace, as gods beneficence deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 135
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 44
greco, roman Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 256, 258
greek-jewish (graeco-jewish), philosophy Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 446
greeks/hellenes, and jews Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 196
hebrew language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
homoioteleuton Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 508
impure/unclean Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 508
inconsistency, in paul Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1
inspiration Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254
intertextuality Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 128
israel, and gentiles deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 135
israel deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 135
jacob Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 568
jerusalem church Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 380, 449
jesus christ Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 255, 256, 358; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 196
jewish practices/torah observance, circumcision Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1, 19, 75, 92, 210
jewish practices/torah observance, works of the law (erga nomou) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 210
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1, 19, 75, 92, 210
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and circumcision Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 196
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and non-jews in paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 196
jews and gentiles, hostility between deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 135
jews and gentiles, reconciliation of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 146
josephus Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 380, 449, 568
judah (patriarch) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 128
judaize, judaizing (ioudaïzein) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 380, 568
judaizing Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 75
judas iscariot Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 128
judea (region) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 372, 380
law, biblical Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 141
law Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 368, 372, 380, 568
letter, diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
letter and spirit, origen on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
life Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258
likeness Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 982
marcion Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 412
maximus of tyre Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
monasteries Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 1353
monk Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 1353
moses Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 255, 258; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 372
musonius Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
mē genoito Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 111
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92, 210
nineteenth century (scholarship) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 372
origen of alexandria, on circumcision Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
paideia Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258
paraenesis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 568
paul, on god Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106
paul, on human responsibility Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106
paul, on predestination/predetermination (προόρισις) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106
paul Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 255, 256, 358; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 196; Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 412; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 141; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 508
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 368, 372, 380, 446, 449, 568
paul and stoicism, relationship of Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 19, 75
perfection Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 982
peter (cephas, simon –) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 568
philo Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 380
philo judeas Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 255, 256, 258
philo of alexandria, influence on origen Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
philosopher Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
philosophy Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 57
physical description, use of diatribe Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 111
platonism, and the body Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
plutarch Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
poor, the Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 568
prayer Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 1353
preaching Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 111, 734
predestination (προόρισις), paul on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 106
priest; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258
principles Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 138, 141
promises of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 43, 44
proselyte, proselytism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
punishment of wrongdoers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 508
pure Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 508
qumran Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
qumran community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
rabbinic literature Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
rabbinic tradition/literature, halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
rebirth Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 982, 1353
reborn Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 982
reconciliation, ethnic deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 135, 146
renewal Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 1353
repentance Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 1353
resurrection Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 358
revelation Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254, 255
rhetoric, device Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 111
rhetoric, questions Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 111
rhetoric, rhetorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 372, 380, 568
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 130
rome, churches/christians in Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 372
sacrifice Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 508
scripture Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 1353
seal Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 1353
second birth Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 976
service to god or christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 44
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
shenoute Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 1353
sheol Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 508
sign of the cross Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 1353
sin, sins deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 146
sin Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 982
sinai Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
slavery Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1
slavery and freedom, metaphoric Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 57
solitary, singleness Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 138
soul; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258
spirit, characterizations as, down payment (ἀρραβών) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 358
spirit, characterizations as, first fruit (ἀπαρχή) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 358
spirit, characterizations as, revealer Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254
spirit, characterizations as, seal/pledge Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254
spirit, effects of Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254
stoic(ism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 446
synagogue, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 368
synagogue Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 368
tabernacle, feast of Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 258
teles Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 734
telos Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 157, 210
the rebirth Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 976
theodore Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 1353
titus (pauls companion) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 568
torah Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
torah (law) Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 412
trigg, joseph wilson Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 231
valentinus Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 141
value (axia) Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 75, 92, 157, 210
values/character as identity marker, for paul Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 196
vice Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92
virtue Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92
vision, visionary' Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 255
vision, visionary Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 254
wisdom Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 508
women, position of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 446
works of law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 368
wrath, of god deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 146
yehuda the ammonite Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
yoshua, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 449
zeal (for the law) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 568
zeno Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 75
zeus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 92