Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8253
New Testament, Romans, 2.28


οὐ γὰρ ὁ ἐν τῷ φανερῷ Ἰουδαῖός ἐστιν, οὐδὲ ἡ ἐν τῷ φανερῷ ἐν σαρκὶ περιτομή·For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

41 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 10.16, 30.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.16. וּמַלְתֶּם אֵת עָרְלַת לְבַבְכֶם וְעָרְפְּכֶם לֹא תַקְשׁוּ עוֹד׃ 30.6. וּמָל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶת־לְבָבְךָ וְאֶת־לְבַב זַרְעֶךָ לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ לְמַעַן חַיֶּיךָ׃ 10.16. Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and be no more stiffnecked." 30.6. And the LORD thy God will circumcise thy heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.24-2.25, 12.48-12.49 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.24. וַיִּשְׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נַאֲקָתָם וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יִצְחָק וְאֶת־יַעֲקֹב׃ 2.25. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּדַע אֱלֹהִים׃ 12.48. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַיהוָה הִמּוֹל לוֹ כָל־זָכָר וְאָז יִקְרַב לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ וְהָיָה כְּאֶזְרַח הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־עָרֵל לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.49. תּוֹרָה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָאֶזְרָח וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 2.24. And God heard their groaning, and God remembered His covet with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob." 2.25. And God saw the children of Israel, and God took cognizance of them." 12.48. And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land; but no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof." 12.49. One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 15.5, 17.1, 17.4, 17.6, 17.10-17.14, 24.2-24.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.5. וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הַבֶּט־נָא הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וּסְפֹר הַכּוֹכָבִים אִם־תּוּכַל לִסְפֹּר אֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ׃ 17.1. זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ 17.1. וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי־אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים׃ 17.4. אֲנִי הִנֵּה בְרִיתִי אִתָּךְ וְהָיִיתָ לְאַב הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם׃ 17.6. וְהִפְרֵתִי אֹתְךָ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד וּנְתַתִּיךָ לְגוֹיִם וּמְלָכִים מִמְּךָ יֵצֵאוּ׃ 17.11. וּנְמַלְתֶּם אֵת בְּשַׂר עָרְלַתְכֶם וְהָיָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם׃ 17.12. וּבֶן־שְׁמֹנַת יָמִים יִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם יְלִיד בָּיִת וּמִקְנַת־כֶּסֶף מִכֹּל בֶּן־נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִזַּרְעֲךָ הוּא׃ 17.13. הִמּוֹל יִמּוֹל יְלִיד בֵּיתְךָ וּמִקְנַת כַּסְפֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה בְרִיתִי בִּבְשַׂרְכֶם לִבְרִית עוֹלָם׃ 17.14. וְעָרֵל זָכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמּוֹל אֶת־בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי הֵפַר׃ 24.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֶל־עַבְדּוֹ זְקַן בֵּיתוֹ הַמֹּשֵׁל בְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ שִׂים־נָא יָדְךָ תַּחַת יְרֵכִי׃ 24.2. וַתְּמַהֵר וַתְּעַר כַּדָּהּ אֶל־הַשֹּׁקֶת וַתָּרָץ עוֹד אֶל־הַבְּאֵר לִשְׁאֹב וַתִּשְׁאַב לְכָל־גְּמַלָּיו׃ 24.3. וְאַשְׁבִּיעֲךָ בַּיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וֵאלֹהֵי הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תִקַּח אִשָּׁה לִבְנִי מִבְּנוֹת הַכְּנַעֲנִי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי יוֹשֵׁב בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃ 24.3. וַיְהִי כִּרְאֹת אֶת־הַנֶּזֶם וְאֶת־הַצְּמִדִים עַל־יְדֵי אֲחֹתוֹ וּכְשָׁמְעוֹ אֶת־דִּבְרֵי רִבְקָה אֲחֹתוֹ לֵאמֹר כֹּה־דִבֶּר אֵלַי הָאִישׁ וַיָּבֹא אֶל־הָאִישׁ וְהִנֵּה עֹמֵד עַל־הַגְּמַלִּים עַל־הָעָיִן׃ 15.5. And He brought him forth abroad, and said: ‘Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them’; and He said unto him: ‘So shall thy seed be.’" 17.1. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be thou wholehearted." 17.4. ’As for Me, behold, My covet is with thee, and thou shalt be the father of a multitude of nations." 17.6. And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee." 17.10. This is My covet, which ye shall keep, between Me and you and thy seed after thee: every male among you shall be circumcised." 17.11. And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of a covet betwixt Me and you." 17.12. And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every male throughout your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any foreigner, that is not of thy seed." 17.13. He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised; and My covet shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covet." 17.14. And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken My covet.’" 24.2. And Abraham said unto his servant, the elder of his house, that ruled over all that he had: ‘Put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh." 24.3. And I will make thee swear by the LORD, the God of heaven and the God of the earth, that thou shalt not take a wife for my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I dwell."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 12.3, 26.41 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.3. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִמּוֹל בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ׃ 26.41. אַף־אֲנִי אֵלֵךְ עִמָּם בְּקֶרִי וְהֵבֵאתִי אֹתָם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיהֶם אוֹ־אָז יִכָּנַע לְבָבָם הֶעָרֵל וְאָז יִרְצוּ אֶת־עֲוֺנָם׃ 12.3. And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised." 26.41. I also will walk contrary unto them, and bring them into the land of their enemies; if then perchance their uncircumcised heart be humbled, and they then be paid the punishment of their iniquity;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 3.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.9. כּוּשׁ עָצְמָה וּמִצְרַיִם וְאֵין קֵצֶה פּוּט וְלוּבִים הָיוּ בְּעֶזְרָתֵךְ׃ 3.9. Ethiopia and Egypt were thy strength, and it was infinite; Put and Lubim were thy helpers."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 36.8-36.10, 103.2-103.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

36.8. מַה־יָּקָר חַסְדְּךָ אֱלֹהִים וּבְנֵי אָדָם בְּצֵל כְּנָפֶיךָ יֶחֱסָיוּן׃ 36.9. יִרְוְיֻן מִדֶּשֶׁן בֵּיתֶךָ וְנַחַל עֲדָנֶיךָ תַשְׁקֵם׃ 103.2. בָּרֲכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת־יְהוָה וְאַל־תִּשְׁכְּחִי כָּל־גְּמוּלָיו׃ 103.2. בָּרֲכוּ יְהוָה מַלְאָכָיו גִּבֹּרֵי כֹחַ עֹשֵׂי דְבָרוֹ לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּקוֹל דְּבָרוֹ׃ 103.3. הַסֹּלֵחַ לְכָל־עֲוֺנֵכִי הָרֹפֵא לְכָל־תַּחֲלֻאָיְכִי׃ 103.4. הַגּוֹאֵל מִשַּׁחַת חַיָּיְכִי הַמְעַטְּרֵכִי חֶסֶד וְרַחֲמִים׃ 36.8. How precious is Thy lovingkindness, O God! And the children of men take refuge in the shadow of Thy wings." 36.9. They are abundantly satisfied with the fatness of Thy house; And Thou makest them drink of the river of Thy pleasures." 36.10. For with Thee is the fountain of life; In Thy light do we see light." 103.2. Bless the LORD, O my soul, And forget not all His benefits;" 103.3. Who forgiveth all thine iniquity; Who healeth all Thy diseases;" 103.4. Who redeemeth Thy life from the pit; Who encompasseth thee with lovingkindness and tender mercies;"
7. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 4.4, 9.24-9.25, 31.31-31.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.4. הִמֹּלוּ לַיהֹוָה וְהָסִרוּ עָרְלוֹת לְבַבְכֶם אִישׁ יְהוּדָה וְיֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם פֶּן־תֵּצֵא כָאֵשׁ חֲמָתִי וּבָעֲרָה וְאֵין מְכַבֶּה מִפְּנֵי רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם׃ 9.24. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וּפָקַדְתִּי עַל־כָּל־מוּל בְּעָרְלָה׃ 9.25. עַל־מִצְרַיִם וְעַל־יְהוּדָה וְעַל־אֱדוֹם וְעַל־בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וְעַל־מוֹאָב וְעַל כָּל־קְצוּצֵי פֵאָה הַיֹּשְׁבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּי כָל־הַגּוֹיִם עֲרֵלִים וְכָל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל עַרְלֵי־לֵב׃ 31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 31.32. לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.34. וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃ 4.4. Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and take away the foreskins of your heart, ye men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem; lest My fury go forth like fire, and burn that none can quench it, Because of the evil of your doings." 9.24. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will punish all them that are circumcised in their uncircumcision:" 9.25. Egypt, and Judah, and Edom, and the children of Ammon, and Moab, and all that have the corners of their hair polled, that dwell in the wilderness; For all the nations are uncircumcised, But all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart." 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;" 31.32. not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD." 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;" 31.34. and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more."
8. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 5.2-5.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.2. בָּעֵת הַהִיא אָמַר יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ עֲשֵׂה לְךָ חַרְבוֹת צֻרִים וְשׁוּב מֹל אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל שֵׁנִית׃ 5.3. וַיַּעַשׂ־לוֹ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ חַרְבוֹת צֻרִים וַיָּמָל אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־גִּבְעַת הָעֲרָלוֹת׃ 5.4. וְזֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־מָל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כָּל־הָעָם הַיֹּצֵא מִמִּצְרַיִם הַזְּכָרִים כֹּל אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה מֵתוּ בַמִּדְבָּר בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 5.5. כִּי־מֻלִים הָיוּ כָּל־הָעָם הַיֹּצְאִים וְכָל־הָעָם הַיִּלֹּדִים בַּמִּדְבָּר בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרַיִם לֹא־מָלוּ׃ 5.6. כִּי אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה הָלְכוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּדְבָּר עַד־תֹּם כָּל־הַגּוֹי אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה הַיֹּצְאִים מִמִּצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁמְעוּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לָהֶם לְבִלְתִּי הַרְאוֹתָם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבוֹתָם לָתֶת לָנוּ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 5.7. וְאֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם הֵקִים תַּחְתָּם אֹתָם מָל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כִּי־עֲרֵלִים הָיוּ כִּי לֹא־מָלוּ אוֹתָם בַּדָּרֶךְ׃ 5.8. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר־תַּמּוּ כָל־הַגּוֹי לְהִמּוֹל וַיֵּשְׁבוּ תַחְתָּם בַּמַּחֲנֶה עַד חֲיוֹתָם׃ 5.2. At that time the LORD said unto Joshua: ‘Make thee knives of flint, and circumcise again the children of Israel the second time.’" 5.3. And Joshua made him knives of flint, and circumcised the children of Israel at Gibeath-ha-araloth." 5.4. And this is the cause why Joshua did circumcise: all the people that came forth out of Egypt, that were males, even all the men of war, died in the wilderness by the way, after they came forth out of Egypt." 5.5. For all the people that came out were circumcised; but all the people that were born in the wilderness by the way as they came forth out of Egypt, had not been circumcised." 5.6. For the children of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness, till all the nation, even the men of war that came forth out of Egypt, were consumed, because they hearkened not unto the voice of the LORD; unto whom the LORD swore that He would not let them see the land which the LORD swore unto their fathers that He would give us, a land flowing with milk and honey." 5.7. And He raised up their children in their stead; them did Joshua circumcise; for they were uncircumcised, because they had not been circumcised by the way." 5.8. And it came to pass, when all the nation were circumcised, every one of them, that they abode in their places in the camp, till they were whole."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 44.7, 44.9 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.7. בַּהֲבִיאֲכֶם בְּנֵי־נֵכָר עַרְלֵי־לֵב וְעַרְלֵי בָשָׂר לִהְיוֹת בְּמִקְדָּשִׁי לְחַלְּלוֹ אֶת־בֵּיתִי בְּהַקְרִיבְכֶם אֶת־לַחְמִי חֵלֶב וָדָם וַיָּפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אֶל כָּל־תּוֹעֲבוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 44.9. כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה כָּל־בֶּן־נֵכָר עֶרֶל לֵב וְעֶרֶל בָּשָׂר לֹא יָבוֹא אֶל־מִקְדָּשִׁי לְכָל־בֶּן־נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 44.7. in that ye have brought in aliens, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, to be in My sanctuary, to profane it, even My house, when ye offer My bread, the fat and the blood, and they have broken My covet, to add unto all your abominations." 44.9. Thus saith the Lord GOD: No alien, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter into My sanctuary, even any alien that is among the children of Israel."
10. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

11. Anon., Jubilees, 15.25-15.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

15.25. And on the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and all the men of his house, (and those born in the house), and all those, whom he had bought with money from the children of the stranger, were circumcised with him. 15.26. This law is for all the generations for ever
12. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.60-1.61, 2.46 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.60. According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised 1.61. and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers necks. 2.46. they forcibly circumcised all the uncircumcised boys that they found within the borders of Israel.
13. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.10. For example, two women were brought in for having circumcised their children. These women they publicly paraded about the city, with their babies hung at their breasts, then hurled them down headlong from the wall.'
14. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 1.20-1.24, 13.19-13.22, 15.29-15.30, 17.1, 17.9-17.12, 18.6-18.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.20. The two most comprehensive types of the emotions are pleasure and pain; and each of these is by nature concerned with both body and soul. 1.21. The emotions of both pleasure and pain have many consequences. 1.22. Thus desire precedes pleasure and delight follows it. 1.23. Fear precedes pain and sorrow comes after. 1.24. Anger, as a man will see if he reflects on this experience, is an emotion embracing pleasure and pain. 13.19. You are not ignorant of the affection of brotherhood, which the divine and all-wise Providence has bequeathed through the fathers to their descendants and which was implanted in the mother's womb. 13.20. There each of the brothers dwelt the same length of time and was shaped during the same period of time; and growing from the same blood and through the same life, they were brought to the light of day. 13.21. When they were born after an equal time of gestation, they drank milk from the same fountains. For such embraces brotherly-loving souls are nourished; 13.22. and they grow stronger from this common nurture and daily companionship, and from both general education and our discipline in the law of God. 15.29. O mother of the nation, vindicator of the law and champion of religion, who carried away the prize of the contest in your heart! 15.30. O more noble than males in steadfastness, and more manly than men in endurance! 17.1. Some of the guards said that when she also was about to be seized and put to death she threw herself into the flames so that no one might touch her body. 17.9. Here lie buried an aged priest and an aged woman and seven sons, because of the violence of the tyrant who wished to destroy the way of life of the Hebrews. 17.10. They vindicated their nation, looking to God and enduring torture even to death. 17.11. Truly the contest in which they were engaged was divine 17.12. for on that day virtue gave the awards and tested them for their endurance. The prize was immortality in endless life. 18.6. The mother of seven sons expressed also these principles to her children: 18.7. I was a pure virgin and did not go outside my father's house; but I guarded the rib from which woman was made. 18.8. No seducer corrupted me on a desert plain, nor did the destroyer, the deceitful serpent, defile the purity of my virginity. 18.9. In the time of my maturity I remained with my husband, and when these sons had grown up their father died. A happy man was he, who lived out his life with good children, and did not have the grief of bereavement. 18.10. While he was still with you, he taught you the law and the prophets. 18.11. He read to you about Abel slain by Cain, and Isaac who was offered as a burnt offering, and of Joseph in prison. 18.12. He told you of the zeal of Phineas, and he taught you about Haiah, Azariah, and Mishael in the fire. 18.13. He praised Daniel in the den of the lions and blessed him. 18.14. He reminded you of the scripture of Isaiah, which says, `Even though you go through the fire, the flame shall not consume you.' 18.15. He sang to you songs of the psalmist David, who said, `Many are the afflictions of the righteous.' 18.16. He recounted to you Solomon's proverb, `There is a tree of life for those who do his will.' 18.17. He confirmed the saying of Ezekiel, `Shall these dry bones live?' 18.18. For he did not forget to teach you the song that Moses taught, which says 18.19. `I kill and I make alive: this is your life and the length of your days.'
15. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 10.3-10.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.3. Accordingly he mentioned the swine with this intent. Thou shalt not cleave, saith he, to such men who are like unto swine; that is, when they are in luxury they forget the Lord, but when they are in want they recognize the Lord, just as the swine when it eateth knoweth not his lord, but when it is hungry it crieth out, and when it has received food again it is silent. 10.4. Neither shalt thou eat eagle nor falcon nor kite nor crow. Thou shalt not, He saith, cleave unto, or be likened to, such men who now not how to provide food for themselves by toil and sweat, but in their lawlessness seize what belongeth to others, and as if they were walking in guilelessness watch and search about for some one to rob in their rapacity, just as these birds alone do not provide food for themselves, but sit idle and seek how they may eat the meat that belongeth to others, being pestilent in their evil-doings. 10.5. And thou shalt not eat, saith He, lamprey nor polypus nor cuttle fish . Thou shalt not, He meaneth, become like unto such men, who are desperately wicked, and are already condemned to death, just as these fishes alone are accursed and swim in the depths, not swimming on the surface like the rest, but dwell on the ground beneath the deep sea. 10.6. Moreover thou shalt not eat the hare. Why so? Thou shalt not be found a corrupter of boys, nor shalt thou become like such persons; for the hare gaineth one passage in the body every year; for according to the number of years it lives it has just so many orifices. 10.7. Again, neither shalt thou eat the hyena; thou shalt not, saith He, become an adulterer or a fornicator, neither shalt thou resemble such persons. Why so? Because this animal changeth its nature year by year, and becometh at one time male and at another female. 10.8. Moreover He hath hated the weasel also and with good reason. Thou shalt not, saith He, become such as those men of whom we hear as working iniquity with their mouth for uncleanness, neither shalt thou cleave unto impure women who work iniquity with their mouth. For this animal conceiveth with its mouth.
16. Epictetus, Discourses, 2.9.19-2.9.21, 2.22.19-2.22.20, 3.23.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.137 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.137. 14. As to the other things which he sets down as blameworthy, it may perhaps be the best way to let them pass without apology, that he may be allowed to be his own accuser, and the accuser of the rest of the Egyptians. However, he accuses us for sacrificing animals, and for abstaining from swine’s flesh, and laughs at us for the circumcision of our privy members.
18. Juvenal, Satires, 14.98-14.106 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. New Testament, 1 John, 3.13, 4.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.13. Don't be surprised, my brothers, if the world hates you. 4.19. We love Him, because he first loved us.
20. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as strangers in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia
21. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.22-1.23, 1.31, 2.1, 2.7, 2.9-2.10, 2.12, 4.1, 4.10-4.13, 5.5, 7.17-7.19, 7.29-7.31, 9.19-9.23, 10.18, 10.20, 10.32, 12.2, 12.13, 16.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.22. For Jews ask for signs,Greeks seek after wisdom 1.23. but we preach Christ crucified; astumbling block to Jews, and foolishness to Greeks 1.31. that, according as it iswritten, "He who boasts, let him boast in the Lord. 2.1. When I came to you, brothers, I didn't come with excellence ofspeech or of wisdom, proclaiming to you the testimony of God. 2.7. But we speak God's wisdom in amystery, the wisdom that has been hidden, which God foreordained beforethe worlds to our glory 2.9. But as it is written,"Things which an eye didn't see, and an ear didn't hear,Which didn't enter into the heart of man,These God has prepared for those who love him. 2.10. But to us, God revealed them through the Spirit. For theSpirit searches all things, yes, the deep things of God. 2.12. But we received, not the spirit of the world, but theSpirit which is from God, that we might know the things that werefreely given to us by God. 4.1. So let a man think of us as Christ's servants, and stewards ofGod's mysteries. 4.10. We are fools for Christ's sake, but you are wisein Christ. We are weak, but you are strong. You have honor, but we havedishonor. 4.11. Even to this present hour we hunger, thirst, arenaked, are beaten, and have no certain dwelling place. 4.12. We toil,working with our own hands. Being reviled, we bless. Being persecuted,we endure. 4.13. Being defamed, we entreat. We are made as the filthof the world, the dirt wiped off by all, even until now. 5.5. are to deliver such a one to Satan for thedestruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day ofthe Lord Jesus. 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 7.29. But I saythis, brothers: the time is short, that from now on, both those whohave wives may be as though they had none; 7.30. and those who weep,as though they didn't weep; and those who rejoice, as though theydidn't rejoice; and those who buy, as though they didn't possess; 7.31. and those who use the world, as not using it to the fullest. Forthe mode of this world passes away. 9.19. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 9.22. To the weak I became asweak, that I might gain the weak. I have become all things to all men,that I may by all means save some. 9.23. Now I do this for thegospel's sake, that I may be a joint partaker of it. 10.18. Consider Israel after theflesh. Don't those who eat the sacrifices have communion with the altar? 10.20. But I say that thethings which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and notto God, and I don't desire that you would have communion with demons. 10.32. Give no occasions for stumbling, either to Jews, or to Greeks,or to the assembly of God; 12.2. You know that when you were heathen, you were ledaway to those mute idols, however you might be led. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem.
22. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 4.13-5.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews;
23. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.8-1.9, 1.14, 1.17, 1.20, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. But we know that the law is good, if a man uses it lawfully 1.9. as knowing this, that law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and insubordinate, for the ungodly and sinners, for the unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers 1.14. The grace of our Lord abounded exceedingly with faith and love which is in Christ Jesus. 1.17. Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, to God who alone is wise, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen. 1.20. of whom is Hymenaeus and Alexander; whom I delivered to Satan, that they might be taught not to blaspheme. 2.7. to which I was appointed a preacher and an apostle (I am telling the truth in Christ, not lying), a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth.
24. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.16, 3.3-3.9, 3.12-3.17, 4.1-4.10, 5.5, 5.21, 6.10, 7.1, 11.22-11.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25. New Testament, Acts, 10.45, 11.2-11.3, 13.14-13.48, 15.1, 16.13-16.15, 17.10, 17.12, 21.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.45. They of the circumcision who believed were amazed, as many as came with Peter, because the gift of the Holy Spirit was also poured out on the Gentiles. 11.2. When Peter had come up to Jerusalem, those who were of the circumcision contended with him 11.3. saying, "You went in to uncircumcised men, and ate with them! 13.14. But they, passing through from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia. They went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak. 13.16. Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, "Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen. 13.17. The God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they stayed as aliens in the land of Egypt , and with an uplifted arm, he led them out of it. 13.18. For about the time of forty years he put up with them in the wilderness. 13.19. When he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he gave them their land for an inheritance, for about four hundred fifty years. 13.20. After these things he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet. 13.21. Afterward they asked for a king, and God gave to them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years. 13.22. When he had removed him, he raised up David to be their king, to whom he also testified, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after my heart, who will do all my will.' 13.23. From this man's seed, God has brought salvation to Israel according to his promise 13.24. before his coming, when John had first preached the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. 13.25. As John was fulfilling his course, he said, 'What do you suppose that I am? I am not he. But behold, one comes after me the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to untie.' 13.26. Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, the word of this salvation is sent out to you. 13.27. For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they didn't know him, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him. 13.28. Though they found no cause for death, they still asked Pilate to have him killed. 13.29. When they had fulfilled all things that were written about him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a tomb. 13.30. But God raised him from the dead 13.31. and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. 13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 13.36. For David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay. 13.37. But he whom God raised up saw no decay. 13.38. Be it known to you therefore, brothers, that through this man is proclaimed to you remission of sins 13.39. and by him everyone who believes is justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses. 13.40. Beware therefore, lest that come on you which is spoken in the prophets: 13.41. 'Behold, you scoffers, and wonder, and perish; For I work a work in your days, A work which you will in no way believe, if one declares it to you.' 13.42. So when the Jews went out of the synagogue, the Gentiles begged that these words might be preached to them the next Sabbath. 13.43. Now when the synagogue broke up, many of the Jews and of the devout proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas; who, speaking to them, urged them to continue in the grace of God. 13.44. The next Sabbath almost the whole city was gathered together to hear the word of God. 13.45. But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with jealousy, and contradicted the things which were spoken by Paul, and blasphemed. 13.46. Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly, and said, "It was necessary that God's word should be spoken to you first. Since indeed you thrust it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we turn to the Gentiles. 13.47. For so has the Lord commanded us, saying, 'I have set you as a light of the Gentiles, That you should be for salvation to the uttermost parts of the earth.' 13.48. As the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of God. As many as were appointed to eternal life believed. 15.1. Some men came down from Judea and taught the brothers, "Unless you are circumcised after the custom of Moses, you can't be saved. 16.13. On the Sabbath day we went forth outside of the city by a riverside, where we supposed there was a place of prayer, and we sat down, and spoke to the women who had come together. 16.14. A certain woman named Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of Thyatira, one who worshiped God, heard us; whose heart the Lord opened to listen to the things which were spoken by Paul. 16.15. When she and her household were baptized, she begged us, saying, "If you have judged me to be faithful to the Lord, come into my house, and stay." She urged us. 17.10. The brothers immediately sent Paul and Silas away by night to Beroea. When they arrived, they went into the Jewish synagogue. 17.12. Many of them therefore believed; also of the Greek women of honorable estate, and not a few men. 21.21. They have been informed about you, that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children neither to walk after the customs.
26. New Testament, James, 1.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. For the sun arises with the scorching wind, and withers the grass, and the flower in it falls, and the beauty of its appearance perishes. So also will the rich man fade away in his pursuits.
27. New Testament, Colossians, 1.26-1.27, 2.2, 2.11-2.12, 3.11, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.26. the mystery which has been hidden for ages and generations. But now it has been revealed to his saints 1.27. to whom God was pleased to make known what are the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory; 2.2. that their hearts may be comforted, they being knit together in love, and gaining all riches of the full assurance of understanding, that they may know the mystery of God, both of the Father and of Christ 2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all. 4.11. and Jesus who is called Justus, who are of the circumcision. These are my only fellow workers for the Kingdom of God, men who have been a comfort to me.
28. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.9, 2.11-2.22, 3.3-3.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 3.3. how that by revelation the mystery was made known to me, as I wrote before in few words 3.4. by which, when you read, you can perceive my understanding in the mystery of Christ; 3.5. which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit; 3.6. that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel 3.7. whereof I was made a servant, according to the gift of that grace of God which was given me according to the working of his power. 3.8. To me, the very least of all saints, was this grace given, to preach to the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ 3.9. and to make all men see what is the administration of the mystery which for ages has been hidden in God, who created all things through Jesus Christ;
29. New Testament, Galatians, 1.13-1.14, 1.16-1.18, 1.22, 2.1-2.3, 2.7-2.9, 2.11-2.17, 3.1, 3.7, 3.28-3.29, 4.4, 4.25-4.26, 4.29, 5.2-5.3, 5.6, 5.9, 5.11, 5.16-5.25, 6.8, 6.12-6.13, 6.15-6.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 1.17. nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those whowere apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia. Then I returnedto Damascus. 1.18. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem tovisit Peter, and stayed with him fifteen days. 1.22. Iwas still unknown by face to the assemblies of Judea which were inChrist 2.1. Then after a period of fourteen years I went up again toJerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me. 2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain. 2.3. But not even Titus, whowas with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 2.7. but to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 2.15. We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 2.17. But if, while we sought to be justified in Christ, we ourselvesalso were found sinners, is Christ a servant of sin? Certainly not! 3.1. Foolish Galatians, who has bewitched you not to obey thetruth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth among you as crucified? 3.7. Know therefore that those whoare of faith, the same are sons of Abraham. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 3.29. If you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise. 4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 5.2. Behold, I, Paul, tell you that if you receive circumcision, Christ willprofit you nothing. 5.3. Yes, I testify again to every man whoreceives circumcision, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 5.9. A little yeast grows through the wholelump. 5.11. But I, brothers, if I still preach circumcision, why am Istill persecuted? Then the stumbling-block of the cross has beenremoved. 5.16. But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you won't fulfill the lust ofthe flesh. 5.17. For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and theSpirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one other, that youmay not do the things that you desire. 5.18. But if you are led by theSpirit, you are not under the law. 5.19. Now the works of the fleshare obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness,lustfulness 5.20. idolatry, sorcery, hatred, strife, jealousies,outbursts of anger, rivalries, divisions, heresies 5.21. envyings,murders, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these; of which Iforewarn you, even as I also forewarned you, that those who practicesuch things will not inherit the Kingdom of God. 5.22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience,kindness, goodness, faithfulness 5.23. gentleness, and self-control.Against such things there is no law. 5.24. Those who belong to Christhave crucified the flesh with its passions and lusts. 5.25. If we liveby the Spirit, let's also walk by the Spirit. 6.8. For hewho sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption. But hewho sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life. 6.12. As many as desire to look good in the flesh, they compel you tobe circumcised; only that they may not be persecuted for the cross ofChrist. 6.13. For even they who receive circumcision don't keep thelaw themselves, but they desire to have you circumcised, that they mayboast in your flesh. 6.15. For in Christ Jesus neitheris circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation. 6.16. As many as walk by this rule, peace and mercy be on them, and onGod's Israel.
30. New Testament, Philippians, 2.13, 3.2-3.5, 3.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. For it is God who works in you both to will and to work, for his good pleasure. 3.2. Beware of the dogs, beware of the evil workers, beware of the false circumcision. 3.3. For we are the circumcision, who worship God in the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh; 3.4. though I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. If any other man thinks that he has confidence in the flesh, I yet more: 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.20. For our citizenship is in heaven, from where we also wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ;
31. New Testament, Romans, 1.3-1.4, 1.7, 1.14, 1.16-1.31, 2.1-2.27, 2.29, 3.1-3.2, 3.20-3.31, 4.1, 4.4-4.5, 4.9-4.13, 4.15-4.19, 5.5-5.8, 5.12-5.21, 6.1-6.14, 6.16-6.19, 7.5-7.25, 8.3-8.7, 8.10-8.13, 8.21, 8.23, 8.29-8.30, 8.32, 9.2-9.13, 9.16, 9.24, 9.27, 9.30-9.32, 10.12, 10.14, 10.19, 10.21, 11.1-11.2, 11.6-11.9, 11.13, 11.25-11.27, 11.33, 13.9-13.10, 15.8, 15.16, 15.19, 15.25-15.26, 15.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 1.7. to all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 1.14. I am debtor both to Greeks and to foreigners, both to the wise and to the foolish. 1.16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. 1.17. For in it is revealed God's righteousness from faith to faith. As it is written, "But the righteous shall live by faith. 1.18. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness 1.19. because that which is known of God is revealed in them, for God revealed it to them. 1.20. For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity; that they may be without excuse. 1.21. Because, knowing God, they didn't glorify him as God, neither gave thanks, but became vain in their reasoning, and their senseless heart was darkened. 1.22. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools 1.23. and traded the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves 1.25. who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. 1.26. For this reason, God gave them up to vile passions. For their women changed the natural function into that which is against nature. 1.27. Likewise also the men, leaving the natural function of the woman, burned in their lust toward one another, men doing what is inappropriate with men, and receiving in themselves the due penalty of their error. 1.28. Even as they refused to have God in their knowledge, God gave them up to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not fitting; 1.29. being filled with all unrighteousness, sexual immorality, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil habits, secret slanderers 1.30. backbiters, hateful to God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents 1.31. without understanding, covet-breakers, without natural affection, unforgiving, unmerciful; 2.1. Therefore you are without excuse, O man, whoever you are who judge. For in that which you judge another, you condemn yourself. For you who judge practice the same things. 2.2. We know that the judgment of God is according to truth against those who practice such things. 2.3. Do you think this, O man who judges those who practice such things, and do the same, that you will escape the judgment of God? 2.4. Or do you despise the riches of his goodness, forbearance, and patience, not knowing that the goodness of God leads you to repentance? 2.5. But according to your hardness and unrepentant heart you are treasuring up for yourself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God; 2.6. who "will pay back to everyone according to their works: 2.7. to those who by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honor and incorruptibility, eternal life; 2.8. but to those who are self-seeking, and don't obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, will be wrath and indignation 2.9. oppression and anguish, on every soul of man who works evil, on the Jew first, and also on the Greek. 2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 2.11. For there is no partiality with God. 2.12. For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without the law. As many as have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. 2.13. For it isn't the hearers of the law who are righteous before God, but the doers of the law will be justified 2.14. (for when Gentiles who don't have the law do by nature the things of the law, these, not having the law, are a law to themselves 2.15. in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying with them, and their thoughts among themselves accusing or else excusing them) 2.16. in the day when God will judge the secrets of men, according to my gospel, by Jesus Christ. 2.17. Indeed you bear the name of a Jew, and rest on the law, and glory in God 2.18. and know his will, and approve the things that are excellent, being instructed out of the law 2.19. and are confident that you yourself are a guide of the blind, a light to those who are in darkness 2.20. a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of babies, having in the law the form of knowledge and of the truth. 2.21. You therefore who teach another, don't you teach yourself? You who preach that a man shouldn't steal, do you steal? 2.22. You who say a man shouldn't commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 2.23. You who glory in the law, through your disobedience of the law do you dishonor God? 2.24. For "the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you," just as it is written. 2.25. For circumcision indeed profits, if you are a doer of the law, but if you are a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. 2.26. If therefore the uncircumcised keep the ordices of the law, won't his uncircumcision be accounted as circumcision? 2.27. Won't the uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfills the law, judge you, who with the letter and circumcision are a transgressor of the law? 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 3.2. Much in every way! Because first of all, they were entrusted with the oracles of God. 3.20. Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. 3.21. But now apart from the law, a righteousness of God has been revealed, being testified by the law and the prophets; 3.22. even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ to all and on all those who believe. For there is no distinction 3.23. for all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God; 3.24. being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; 3.25. whom God set forth to be an atoning sacrifice, through faith in his blood, for a demonstration of his righteousness through the passing over of prior sins, in God's forbearance; 3.26. to demonstrate his righteousness at this present time; that he might himself be just, and the justifier of him who has faith in Jesus. 3.27. Where then is the boasting? It is excluded. By what manner of law? of works? No, but by a law of faith. 3.28. We maintain therefore that a man is justified by faith apart from the works of the law. 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 3.31. Do we then nullify the law through faith? May it never be! No, we establish the law. 4.1. What then will we say that Abraham, our forefather, has found according to the flesh? 4.4. Now to him who works, the reward is not accounted as of grace, but as of debt. 4.5. But to him who doesn't work, but believes in him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is accounted for righteousness. 4.9. Is this blessing then pronounced on the circumcised, or on the uncircumcised also? For we say that faith was accounted to Abraham for righteousness. 4.10. How then was it counted? When he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. 4.11. He received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while he was in uncircumcision, that he might be the father of all those who believe, though they be in uncircumcision, that righteousness might also be accounted to them. 4.12. The father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had in uncircumcision. 4.13. For the promise to Abraham and to his seed that he should be heir of the world wasn't through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. 4.15. For the law works wrath, for where there is no law, neither is there disobedience. 4.16. For this cause it is of faith, that it may be according to grace, to the end that the promise may be sure to all the seed, not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all. 4.17. As it is written, "I have made you a father of many nations." This is in the presence of him whom he believed: God, who gives life to the dead, and calls the things that are not, as though they were. 4.18. Who in hope believed against hope, to the end that he might become a father of many nations, according to that which had been spoken, "So will your seed be. 4.19. Without being weakened in faith, he didn't consider his own body, already having been worn out, (he being about a hundred years old), and the deadness of Sarah's womb. 5.5. and hope doesn't disappoint us, because God's love has been poured out into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us. 5.6. For while we were yet weak, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. 5.7. For one will hardly die for a righteous man. Yet perhaps for a righteous person someone would even dare to die. 5.8. But God commends his own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. 5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 5.13. For until the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 5.15. But the free gift isn't like the trespass. For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. 5.16. The gift is not as through one who sinned: for the judgment came by one to condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses to justification. 5.17. For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one; so much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ. 5.18. So then as through one trespass, all men were condemned; even so through one act of righteousness, all men were justified to life. 5.19. For as through the one man's disobedience many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the one will many be made righteous. 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 5.21. that as sin reigned in death, even so might grace reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. 6.1. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 6.2. May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer? 6.3. Or don't you know that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.5. For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will also be part of his resurrection; 6.6. knowing this, that our old man was crucified with him, that the body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be in bondage to sin. 6.7. For he who has died has been freed from sin. 6.8. But if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him; 6.9. knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dies no more. Death no more has dominion over him! 6.10. For the death that he died, he died to sin one time; but the life that he lives, he lives to God. 6.11. Thus also consider yourselves also to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord. 6.12. Therefore don't let sin reign in your mortal body, that you should obey it in its lusts. 6.13. Neither present your members to sin as instruments of unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God, as alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God. 6.14. For sin will not have dominion over you. For you are not under law, but under grace. 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 7.5. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. 7.6. But now we have been discharged from the law, having died to that in which we were held; so that we serve in newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter. 7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet. 7.8. But sin, finding occasion through the commandment, produced in me all kinds of coveting. For apart from the law, sin is dead. 7.9. I was alive apart from the law once, but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. 7.10. The commandment, which was for life, this I found to be for death; 7.11. for sin, finding occasion through the commandment, deceived me, and through it killed me. 7.12. Therefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good. 7.13. Did then that which is good become death to me? May it never be! But sin, that it might be shown to be sin, by working death to me through that which is good; that through the commandment sin might become exceeding sinful. 7.14. For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am fleshly, sold under sin. 7.15. For I don't know what I am doing. For I don't practice what I desire to do; but what I hate, that I do. 7.16. But if what I don't desire, that I do, I consent to the law that it is good. 7.17. So now it is no more I that do it, but sin which dwells in me. 7.18. For I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwells no good thing. For desire is present with me, but I don't find it doing that which is good. 7.19. For the good which I desire, I don't do; but the evil which I don't desire, that I practice. 7.20. But if what I don't desire, that I do, it is no more I that do it, but sin which dwells in me. 7.21. I find then the law, that, to me, while I desire to do good, evil is present. 7.22. For I delight in God's law after the inward man 7.23. but I see a different law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity under the law of sin which is in my members. 7.24. What a wretched man I am! Who will deliver me out of the body of this death? 7.25. I thank God through Jesus Christ, our Lord! So then with the mind, I myself serve God's law, but with the flesh, the sin's law. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.6. For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace; 8.7. because the mind of the flesh is hostile towards God; for it is not subject to God's law, neither indeed can it be. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.21. that the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 8.30. Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified. 8.32. He who didn't spare his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how would he not also with him freely give us all things? 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart. 9.3. For I could wish that I myself were accursed from Christ for my brothers' sake, my relatives according to the flesh 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.5. of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen. 9.6. But it is not as though the word of God has come to nothing. For they are not all Israel, that are of Israel. 9.7. Neither, because they are Abraham's seed, are they all children. But, "In Isaac will your seed be called. 9.8. That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed. 9.9. For this is a word of promise, "At the appointed time I will come, and Sarah will have a son. 9.10. Not only so, but Rebecca also conceived by one, by our father Isaac. 9.11. For being not yet born, neither having done anything good or bad, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him who calls 9.12. it was said to her, "The elder will serve the younger. 9.13. Even as it is written, "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated. 9.16. So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who has mercy. 9.24. us, whom he also called, not from the Jews only, but also from the Gentiles? 9.27. Isaiah cries concerning Israel, "If the number of the children of Israel are as the sand of the sea, It is the remt who will be saved; 9.30. What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, who didn't follow after righteousness, attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith; 9.31. but Israel, following after a law of righteousness, didn't arrive at the law of righteousness. 9.32. Why? Because they didn't seek it by faith, but as it were by works of the law. They stumbled over the stumbling stone; 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 10.14. How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? How will they believe in him whom they have not heard? How will they hear without a preacher? 10.19. But I ask, didn't Israel know? First Moses says, "I will provoke you to jealousy with that which is no nation, With a nation void of understanding I will make you angry. 10.21. But as to Israel he says, "All day long I stretched out my hands to a disobedient and contrary people. 11.1. I ask then, Did God reject his people? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 11.2. God didn't reject his people, which he foreknew. Or don't you know what the Scripture says about Elijah? How he pleads with God against Israel: 11.6. And if by grace, then it is no longer of works; otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if it is of works, it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work. 11.7. What then? That which Israel seeks for, that he didn't obtain, but the elect obtained it, and the rest were hardened. 11.8. According as it is written, "God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day. 11.9. David says, "Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, A stumbling block, and a retribution to them. 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 11.25. For I don't desire, brothers, to have you ignorant of this mystery, so that you won't be wise in your own conceits, that a partial hardening has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in 11.26. and so all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, "There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob. 11.27. This is my covet to them, When I will take away their sins. 11.33. Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past tracing out! 13.9. For the commandments, "You shall not commit adultery," "You shall not murder," "You shall not steal," "You shall not give false testimony," "You shall not covet," and whatever other commandments there are, are all summed up in this saying, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 13.10. Love doesn't harm a neighbor. Love therefore is the fulfillment of the law. 15.8. Now I say that Christ has been made a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, that he might confirm the promises given to the fathers 15.16. that I should be a servant of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles, ministering as a priest the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be made acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. 15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints;
32. New Testament, Titus, 1.10, 2.14, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. For there are also many unruly men, vain talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision 2.14. who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify for himself a people for his own possession, zealous for good works. 3.4. But when the kindness of God our Savior and his love toward mankind appeared
33. New Testament, John, 1.9, 1.16, 1.18, 3.6, 3.16-3.17, 6.63, 15.18-15.19, 15.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 3.6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh. That which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 3.16. For God so loved the world, that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. 3.17. For God didn't send his Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world should be saved through him. 6.63. It is the spirit who gives life. The flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life. 15.18. If the world hates you, you know that it has hated me before it hated you. 15.19. If you were of the world, the world would love its own. But because you are not of the world, since I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you. 15.25. But this happened so that the word may be fulfilled which was written in their law, 'They hated me without a cause.'
34. New Testament, Mark, 14.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.38. Watch and pray, that you not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.
35. New Testament, Matthew, 26.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26.41. Watch and pray, that you don't enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.
36. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5.1-5.5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 5.8.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

38. Augustine, De Diversis Quaestionibus Ad Simplicianum, 1.2, 1.2.7 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

39. Augustine, De Peccatorum Meritis Et Remissione Et De Baptismo Parvulorum, 1.9-1.10, 1.13-1.15, 1.19 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

40. Anon., Epistle To Diognetus, 5.8-5.17

41. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 166, 165

165. it falls in their way to damage. The weasel class, too, is peculiar: for besides what has been said, it has a characteristic which is defiling: It conceives through the ears and brings forth through the


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 192, 196; Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
adam-christ typology Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 369
adiaphora/indistinguishable/neutral Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 194
advantage (sumpheron,utilitas) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 209
allegory,allegorical interpretation Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
amoraic midrash Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 181
amore iustitiae Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 443
angel Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
apostle paul Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 369, 436, 442, 445, 484, 487, 521
aramaic Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 181
aristobulus,allegorical exegesis of ot Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
aristobulus,paul comparison Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
aristobulus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
artapanus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 175
augustine Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 367, 369, 374, 432, 433, 435, 436, 442, 443, 444, 445, 484, 485, 487, 521; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 181
baptism Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 60; Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 369, 432, 445; Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 201
blanc,cecile Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 261
boccaccio,giovanni Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 261
body,in jewish sources Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 196
body Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 196
bonum Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 444
bultmann,on figural reading Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 261
chastity Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
church Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 201
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 181, 380
circumcise/circumcision Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
circumcision Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 369, 374, 442, 443, 444, 484, 485; Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 128, 196; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 175, 176; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 181, 380; deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 133
compassion,conversion,significance of deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 133
concupiscentia,concupiscence Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 444, 445
conflict,of jews and christians (parting of the ways) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 181
conformity to Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 201
covenant Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
death Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
decalogue / ten commandments Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 374, 433, 484, 485
demetrius,chronographer,hellenistic historiography Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
demetrius,chronographer Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
desire (epithumia) Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 85
dialogue,,faith of Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 60
diaspora Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 175, 176, 179
dietary laws biblical Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 85
dietary laws in the second-and third-century texts Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 85
dietary laws symbolic interpretation of Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 85
donatist,donatism Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 367
edom Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
egypt Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
elder),paul comparison Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
elder) Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
ephraim Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
epictetus Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 194
epistle to diognetus,use of john Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 317
epistolography Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
esau Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
ezekiel,tragedian,hebraios,use of Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 175
ezekiel,tragedian,paul comparison Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
ezekiel,tragedian Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 175, 179
faith/belief Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
figural reading,auerbach on Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 261
flesh (as negative force) deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 133
food,impurity of in second- and third-century sources Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 85
food Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 196
frei,on law Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 261
gathercole,simon Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 145
gender,in jewish views Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 196
gender Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 196
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 181, 380
gentiles,and paul Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 196
gentiles,as contrast with jews Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 196
gentiles Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 521
gentiles (ethnē) Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
genuine humanness,defined by epictetus Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 145
gospel of the circumcision Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 380
greek,ethnos Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 181
greek paideia,jewish use Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
greeks/hellenes,and jews Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 196
grief (lupē) Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
hebraios,ethnic label Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 175
hebrews/israelites,and paul Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 192
hellenism,hellenistic Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 181
heretics Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 85
homer,model for hellenistic jews Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
homer Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
human beings,as θνητὰ λογικὰ ζῷα Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 145
human beings,defined by epictetus Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 145
human vocation,defined by epictetus Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 145
humilitas,humility Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 369, 442
huttunen,niko Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 145
identity,jewish Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 189
identity Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 85
identity construction Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
interior homo,inner man Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 433
irenaeus,against heresies Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 317
isaac Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
ishmael Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
israel,used of christians Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 128
israel Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
iustitia,justice Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 369, 432, 443, 445
iustitia dei Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 432
jerome,de viris illustribus Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 317
jerusalem church Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 380
jesus christ Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 369, 374, 432, 433, 442, 444, 445; Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 196
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 209
jews/judeans/ioudaioi,and circumcision Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 196
jews/judeans/ioudaioi,and ethnic vocabulary in paul Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 192
jews/judeans/ioudaioi,and non-jews in paul Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 196
jews Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 369, 442, 443, 521
jews and gentiles,hostility between deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 133
jews and gentiles,in the church deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 133
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 380
judah Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
judaism,acceptance of hellenism Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
judaism Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 374
judaism and hellenism Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
judaize,judaizing (ioudaïzein) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 380
judea (region) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 380
judgment (divine) Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
language,law,works of Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 128
law,jewish,origen on Dawson (2001), Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity, 261
law,old testament Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 201
law in paul Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 380
law of christ Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 209
lex fidei Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 374, 433, 435, 484, 487
lex operum / factorum Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 374, 433, 435
lineage and genealogy as identity marker,in paul Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 192
long-ignatius Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 458
marcellinus Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 367, 369, 374, 432, 433, 435, 436, 442, 443, 444, 445, 484, 485, 487, 521
martyrdom Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 201
messiah Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
moral transformation Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 201
mosaic law Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 374, 521
moses,hebraios,use of Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 175
moses Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
natural law Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 521
nature/nature Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 194, 209
neither/nothing (oudeteros/ouden) Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 194
neusner,j. Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 196
passions deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 133
passions (pathē) Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88; Wilson (2022), Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency, 209
paul,allegory use Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
paul,and auctoritas Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 60
paul,and baptism Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 60
paul,and eschatology Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
paul,and faith of christ Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 60
paul,and passions (pathē) Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
paul,and pros¯opopoiia Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 60
paul,and slavery Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 60
paul,and the self Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 60
paul,anthropology of Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 60
paul,aristobulus comparison Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
paul,missionary activity Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 189
paul,rhetoric of Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
paul Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 192, 196; Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
paul (saul) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 181, 380
pax,peace Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 442
pelagius xxvi Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 484
per fidem iesu christi Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 369, 432
philo Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 380
philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
plato,aristobulus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
plato Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 487; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
platonism Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 60
portrayal in acts,reception of Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 201
proselyte/proselytism Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
pythagoras,pythagorean,neopythagoean Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
reconciliation,ethnic deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 133
repentance Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 201
rhetoric,rhetorical Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 380
roman assembly,correspondence Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
sabbatum,sabbath Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 374, 433, 485
sacraments Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 201
salvation Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
sarah Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
sexual relations' Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 171
sexual relations in second- and third-century christian sources Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 85
signum,sign Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 442
sin Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 201
slavery Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 60
speech-in-character (prosōpopoeia) Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
spiritus gratiae Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 443
supersessionism Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
theodotus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
thought,diaspora consciousness Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
thought,hellenistic jews comparison Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
thought,homeland Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
timore poenae Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 443
two-ways hypothesis Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 88
values/character as identity marker,for paul Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 192, 196
women,in jewish sources Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 196
women Lieu (2004), Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World, 196
ζῷον λογικόν θνητόν,human beings as Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 145
θνητὰ λογικὰ ζῷα,human beings as Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 145