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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8253
New Testament, Romans, 14.21


καλὸν τὸ μὴ φαγεῖν κρέα μηδὲ πεῖν οἶνον μηδὲ ἐν ᾧ ὁ ἀδελφός σου προσκόπτει·It is good to not eat meat, drink wine, nor do anything by which your brother stumbles, is offended, or is made weak.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

31 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 34.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

34.12. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּכְרֹת בְּרִית לְיוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בָּא עָלֶיהָ פֶּן־יִהְיֶה לְמוֹקֵשׁ בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃ 34.12. Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a covet with the inhabitants of the land whither thou goest, lest they be for a snare in the midst of thee."
2. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 9.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.3. לֹא יֵשְׁבוּ בְּאֶרֶץ יְהוָה וְשָׁב אֶפְרַיִם מִצְרַיִם וּבְאַשּׁוּר טָמֵא יֹאכֵלוּ׃ 9.3. They shall not dwell in the LORD’S land; But Ephraim shall return to Egypt, And they shall eat unclean food in Assyria."
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.14. לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.14. Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.14. גּוֹרָלְךָ תַּפִּיל בְּתוֹכֵנוּ כִּיס אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לְכֻלָּנוּ׃ 1.14. Cast in thy lot among us; Let us all have one purse’—"
5. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.3. וַיֵּצְאוּ בְנֵי־הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר־בֵּית־אֵל אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו הֲיָדַעְתָּ כִּי הַיּוֹם יְהוָה לֹקֵחַ אֶת־אֲדֹנֶיךָ מֵעַל רֹאשֶׁךָ וַיֹּאמֶר גַּם־אֲנִי יָדַעְתִּי הֶחֱשׁוּ׃ 2.3. And the sons of the prophets that were at Beth-el came forth to Elisha, and said unto him: ‘Knowest thou that the LORD will take away thy master from thy head to-day?’ And he said: ‘Yea, I know it; hold ye your peace.’—"
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 28.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

28.11. כִּי בְּלַעֲגֵי שָׂפָה וּבְלָשׁוֹן אַחֶרֶת יְדַבֵּר אֶל־הָעָם הַזֶּה׃ 28.11. For with stammering lips and with a strange tongue Shall it be spoken to this people;"
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 4.13 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה כָּכָה יֹאכְלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־לַחְמָם טָמֵא בַּגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר אַדִּיחֵם שָׁם׃ 4.13. And the LORD said: ‘Even thus shall the children of Israel eat their bread unclean, among the nations whither I will drive them.’"
8. Cicero, Topica, 2.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.47 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.47. to build altars and sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to sacrifice swine and unclean animals
10. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 18.1, 50.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

18.1. He who lives for ever created the whole universe; 18.1. Like a drop of water from the sea and a grain of sand so are a few years in the day of eternity. 50.17. Then all the people together made haste and fell to the ground upon their faces to worship their Lord,the Almighty, God Most High.
11. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.3, 14.11, 18.1, 50.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.3. And when I was born, I began to breathe the common air,and fell upon the kindred earth,and my first sound was a cry, like that of all. 14.11. Therefore there will be a visitation also upon the heathen idols,because, though part of what God created, they became an abomination,and became traps for the souls of men and a snare to the feet of the foolish. 18.1. But for thy holy ones there was very great light. Their enemies heard their voices but did not see their forms,and counted them happy for not having suffered
12. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.181, 11.346, 13.311-13.313, 15.372-15.379 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.181. When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men. 11.346. 7. Now when Alexander was dead, the government was parted among his successors, but the temple upon Mount Gerizzim remained. And if any one were accused by those of Jerusalem of having eaten things common or of having broken the Sabbath, or of any other crime of the like nature 13.311. But here one may take occasion to wonder at one Judas, who was of the sect of the Essenes, and who never missed the truth in his predictions; for this man, when he saw Antigonus passing by the temple, cried out to his companions and friends, who abode with him as his scholars, in order to learn the art of foretelling things to come? 13.312. “That it was good for him to die now, since he had spoken falsely about Antigonus, who is still alive, and I see him passing by, although he had foretold that he should die at the place called Strato’s Tower that very day, while yet the place is six hundred furlongs off, where he had foretold he should be slain; and still this day is a great part of it already past, so that he was in danger of proving a false prophet.” 13.313. As he was saying this, and that in a melancholy mood, the news came that Antigonus was slain in a place under ground, which itself was called also Strato’s Tower, or of the same name with that Caesarea which is seated at the sea. This event put the prophet into a great disorder. 15.372. However, it is but fit to set down here the reasons wherefore Herod had these Essenes in such honor, and thought higher of them than their mortal nature required; nor will this account be unsuitable to the nature of this history, as it will show the opinion men had of these Essenes. 15.373. 5. Now there was one of these Essenes, whose name was Manahem, who had this testimony, that he not only conducted his life after an excellent manner, but had the foreknowledge of future events given him by God also. This man once saw Herod when he was a child, and going to school, and saluted him as king of the Jews; 15.374. but he, thinking that either he did not know him, or that he was in jest, put him in mind that he was but a private man; but Manahem smiled to himself, and clapped him on his backside with his hand, and said, “However that be, thou wilt be king, and wilt begin thy reign happily, for God finds thee worthy of it. And do thou remember the blows that Manahem hath given thee, as being a signal of the change of thy fortune. 15.375. And truly this will be the best reasoning for thee, that thou love justice [towards men], and piety towards God, and clemency towards thy citizens; yet do I know how thy whole conduct will be, that thou wilt not be such a one 15.376. for thou wilt excel all men in happiness, and obtain an everlasting reputation, but wilt forget piety and righteousness; and these crimes will not be concealed from God, at the conclusion of thy life, when thou wilt find that he will be mindful of them, and punish time for them.” 15.377. Now at that time Herod did not at all attend to what Manahem said, as having no hopes of such advancement; but a little afterward, when he was so fortunate as to be advanced to the dignity of king, and was in the height of his dominion, he sent for Manahem, and asked him how long he should reign. 15.378. Manahem did not tell him the full length of his reign; wherefore, upon that silence of his, he asked him further, whether he should reign ten years or not? He replied, “Yes, twenty, nay, thirty years;” but did not assign the just determinate limit of his reign. Herod was satisfied with these replies, and gave Manahem his hand, and dismissed him; and from that time he continued to honor all the Essenes. 15.379. We have thought it proper to relate these facts to our readers, how strange soever they be, and to declare what hath happened among us, because many of these Essenes have, by their excellent virtue, been thought worthy of this knowledge of divine revelations.
13. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.78-1.80 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.78. 5. And truly anyone would be surprised at Judas upon this occasion. He was of the sect of the Essenes, and had never failed or deceived men in his predictions before. Now, this man saw Antigonus as he was passing along by the temple, and cried out to his acquaintance (they were not a few who attended upon him as his scholars) 1.79. “O strange!” said he, “it is good for me to die now, since truth is dead before me, and somewhat that I have foretold hath proved false; for this Antigonus is this day alive, who ought to have died this day; and the place where he ought to be slain, according to that fatal decree, was Strato’s Tower, which is at the distance of six hundred furlongs from this place; and yet four hours of this day are over already; which point of time renders the prediction impossible to be fulfilled.”
14. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.1, 1.18, 2.6, 7.18, 8.4, 8.7, 8.9-8.13, 10.9-10.10, 10.16-10.21, 10.25-10.33, 15.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the willof God, and our brother Sosthenes 1.18. For the word of the cross isfoolishness to those who are dying, but to us who are saved it is thepower of God. 2.6. We speak wisdom, however, among those who are fullgrown; yet a wisdom not of this world, nor of the rulers of this world,who are coming to nothing. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 8.4. Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we knowthat no idol is anything in the world, and that there is no other Godbut one. 8.7. However, that knowledgeisn't in all men. But some, with consciousness of the idol until now,eat as of a thing sacrificed to an idol, and their conscience, beingweak, is defiled. 8.9. But be careful that by no means does this liberty ofyours become a stumbling block to the weak. 8.10. For if a man seesyou who have knowledge sitting in an idol's temple, won't hisconscience, if he is weak, be emboldened to eat things sacrificed toidols? 8.11. And through your knowledge, he who is weak perishes, thebrother for whose sake Christ died. 8.12. Thus, sinning against thebrothers, and wounding their conscience when it is weak, you sinagainst Christ. 8.13. Therefore, if food causes my brother to stumble,I will eat no meat forevermore, that I don't cause my brother tostumble. 10.9. Neither let us test the Lord, as some of them tested, andperished by the serpents. 10.10. Neither grumble, as some of them alsogrumbled, and perished by the destroyer. 10.16. Thecup of blessing which we bless, isn't it a communion of the blood ofChrist? The bread which we break, isn't it a communion of the body ofChrist? 10.17. Because we, who are many, are one bread, one body; forwe all partake of the one bread. 10.18. Consider Israel after theflesh. Don't those who eat the sacrifices have communion with the altar? 10.19. What am I saying then? That a thing sacrificed to idols isanything, or that an idol is anything? 10.20. But I say that thethings which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and notto God, and I don't desire that you would have communion with demons. 10.21. You can't both drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons.You can't both partake of the table of the Lord, and of the table ofdemons. 10.25. Whatever is sold in the butcher shop, eat, asking no questionfor the sake of conscience 10.26. for "the earth is the Lord's, andits fullness. 10.27. But if one of those who don't believe invitesyou to a meal, and you are inclined to go, eat whatever is set beforeyou, asking no questions for the sake of conscience. 10.28. But ifanyone says to you, "This was offered to idols," don't eat it for thesake of the one who told you, and for the sake of conscience. For "theearth is the Lord's, and all its fullness. 10.29. Conscience, I say,not your own, but the other's conscience. For why is my liberty judgedby another conscience? 10.30. If I partake with thankfulness, why am Idenounced for that for which I give thanks? 10.31. Whether thereforeyou eat, or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God. 10.32. Give no occasions for stumbling, either to Jews, or to Greeks,or to the assembly of God; 10.33. even as I also please all men in allthings, not seeking my own profit, but the profit of the many, thatthey may be saved. 15.18. Then they also who arefallen asleep in Christ have perished.
15. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.2-4.3, 5.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.2. through the hypocrisy of men who speak lies, branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron; 4.3. forbidding marriage and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 5.23. Be no longer a drinker of water only, but use a little wine for your stomach's sake and your frequent infirmities.
16. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 2.15, 4.3, 4.9, 11.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17. New Testament, Acts, 1.6-1.8, 10.14, 11.28, 15.28-15.29, 21.10, 21.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.6. Therefore, when they had come together, they asked him, "Lord, are you now restoring the kingdom to Israel? 1.7. He said to them, "It isn't for you to know times or seasons which the Father has set within His own authority. 1.8. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come on you. You will be witnesses to me in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the uttermost parts of the earth. 10.14. But Peter said, "Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean. 11.28. One of them named Agabus stood up, and indicated by the Spirit that there should be a great famine over all the world, which also happened in the days of Claudius. 15.28. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things: 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 21.10. As we stayed there some days, a certain prophet named Agabus came down from Judea. 21.28. crying out, "Men of Israel, help! This is the man who teaches all men everywhere against the people, and the law, and this place. Moreover, he also brought Greeks into the temple, and has defiled this holy place!
18. New Testament, Colossians, 2.16-2.23, 3.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. Let no man therefore judge you in eating, or in drinking, or with respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabbath day 2.17. which are a shadow of the things to come; but the body is Christ's. 2.18. Let no one rob you of your prize by a voluntary humility and worshipping of the angels, dwelling in the things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind 2.19. and not holding firmly to the Head, from whom all the body, being supplied and knit together through the joints and ligaments, grows with God's growth. 2.20. If you died with Christ from the elements of the world, why, as though living in the world, do you subject yourselves to ordices 2.21. Don't handle, nor taste, nor touch 2.22. (all of which perish with use), according to the precepts and doctrines of men? 2.23. Which things indeed appear like wisdom in self-imposed worship, and humility, and severity to the body; but aren't of any value against the indulgence of the flesh. 3.16. Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly; in all wisdom teaching and admonishing one another with psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your heart to the Lord.
19. New Testament, Ephesians, 5.15, 5.18-5.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.15. Therefore watch carefully how you walk, not as unwise, but as wise; 5.18. Don't be drunken with wine, in which is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit 5.19. speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs; singing, and singing praises in your heart to the Lord;
20. New Testament, Galatians, 2.11-2.21, 3.10-3.14, 4.3-4.5, 4.21-4.31, 5.2, 5.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 2.15. We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 2.17. But if, while we sought to be justified in Christ, we ourselvesalso were found sinners, is Christ a servant of sin? Certainly not! 2.18. For if I build up again those things which I destroyed, I provemyself a law-breaker. 2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 2.21. I don't make void the grace of God.For if righteousness is through the law, then Christ died for nothing! 3.10. For as many as are of the works of the law areunder a curse. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who doesn'tcontinue in all things that are written in the book of the law, to dothem. 3.11. Now that no man is justified by the law before God isevident, for, "The righteous will live by faith. 3.12. The law is notof faith, but, "The man who does them will live by them. 3.13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become acurse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on atree 3.14. that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentilesthrough Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spiritthrough faith. 4.3. So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under theelements of the world. 4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. 4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27. For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear. Break forth and shout, you that don't travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband. 4.28. Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman. 4.31. So then, brothers, we are not children of ahandmaid, but of the free woman. 5.2. Behold, I, Paul, tell you that if you receive circumcision, Christ willprofit you nothing. 5.11. But I, brothers, if I still preach circumcision, why am Istill persecuted? Then the stumbling-block of the cross has beenremoved.
21. New Testament, Philippians, 3.3-3.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.3. For we are the circumcision, who worship God in the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh; 3.4. though I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. If any other man thinks that he has confidence in the flesh, I yet more: 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.7. However, what things were gain to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith;
22. New Testament, Romans, 2.12, 2.25, 3.1-3.2, 3.10, 4.17, 4.23, 7.4-7.12, 9.3-9.5, 9.32-9.33, 11.9, 14.1-14.20, 14.22-14.23, 15.6-15.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.12. For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without the law. As many as have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. 2.25. For circumcision indeed profits, if you are a doer of the law, but if you are a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. 3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 3.2. Much in every way! Because first of all, they were entrusted with the oracles of God. 3.10. As it is written, "There is no one righteous. No, not one. 4.17. As it is written, "I have made you a father of many nations." This is in the presence of him whom he believed: God, who gives life to the dead, and calls the things that are not, as though they were. 4.23. Now it was not written that it was accounted to him for his sake alone 7.4. Therefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you would be joined to another, to him who was raised from the dead, that we might bring forth fruit to God. 7.5. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. 7.6. But now we have been discharged from the law, having died to that in which we were held; so that we serve in newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter. 7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet. 7.8. But sin, finding occasion through the commandment, produced in me all kinds of coveting. For apart from the law, sin is dead. 7.9. I was alive apart from the law once, but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. 7.10. The commandment, which was for life, this I found to be for death; 7.11. for sin, finding occasion through the commandment, deceived me, and through it killed me. 7.12. Therefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good. 9.3. For I could wish that I myself were accursed from Christ for my brothers' sake, my relatives according to the flesh 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.5. of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen. 9.32. Why? Because they didn't seek it by faith, but as it were by works of the law. They stumbled over the stumbling stone; 9.33. even as it is written, "Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and a rock of offense; And no one who believes in him will be put to shame. 11.9. David says, "Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, A stumbling block, and a retribution to them. 14.1. Now receive one who is weak in faith, but not for disputes over opinions. 14.2. One man has faith to eat all things, but he who is weak eats only vegetables. 14.3. Don't let him who eats despise him who doesn't eat. Don't let him who doesn't eat judge him who eats, for God has received him. 14.4. Who are you who judge another's servant? To his own lord he stands or falls. Yes, he will be made to stand, for God has power to make him stand. 14.5. One man esteems one day as more important. Another esteems every day alike. Let each man be fully assured in his own mind. 14.6. He who observes the day, observes it to the Lord; and he who does not observe the day, to the Lord he does not observe it. He who eats, eats to the Lord, for he gives God thanks. He who doesn't eat, to the Lord he doesn't eat, and gives God thanks. 14.7. For none of us lives to himself, and none dies to himself. 14.8. For if we live, we live to the Lord. Or if we die, we die to the Lord. If therefore we live or die, we are the Lord's. 14.9. For to this end Christ died, rose, and lived again, that he might be Lord of both the dead and the living. 14.10. But you, why do you judge your brother? Or you again, why do you despise your brother? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. 14.11. For it is written, "'As I live,' says the Lord, 'to me every knee will bow. Every tongue will confess to God.' 14.12. So then each one of us will give account of himself to God. 14.13. Therefore let's not judge one another any more, but judge this rather, that no man put a stumbling block in his brother's way, or an occasion for falling. 14.14. I know, and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean of itself; except that to him who considers anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean. 14.15. Yet if because of food your brother is grieved, you walk no longer in love. Don't destroy with your food him for whom Christ died. 14.16. Then don't let your good be slandered 14.17. for the Kingdom of God is not eating and drinking, but righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. 14.18. For he who serves Christ in these things is acceptable to God and approved by men. 14.19. So then, let us follow after things which make for peace, and things by which we may build one another up. 14.20. Don't overthrow God's work for food's sake. All things indeed are clean, however it is evil for that man who creates a stumbling block by eating. 14.22. Do you have faith? Have it to yourself before God. Happy is he who doesn't judge himself in that which he approves. 14.23. But he who doubts is condemned if he eats, because it isn't of faith; and whatever is not of faith is sin. 15.6. that with one accord you may with one mouth glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. 15.7. Therefore receive one another, even as Christ also received you, to the glory of God. 15.8. Now I say that Christ has been made a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, that he might confirm the promises given to the fathers 15.9. and that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written, "Therefore will I give praise to you among the Gentiles, And sing to your name. 15.10. Again he says, "Rejoice, you Gentiles, with his people. 15.11. Again, "Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles! Let all the peoples praise him. 15.12. Again, Isaiah says, "There will be the root of Jesse, He who arises to rule over the Gentiles; On him will the Gentiles hope. 15.13. Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that you may abound in hope, in the power of the Holy Spirit.
23. New Testament, Titus, 1.15, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. To the pure, all things are pure; but to those who are defiled and unbelieving, nothing is pure; but both their mind and their conscience are defiled. 2.3. and that older women likewise be reverent in behavior, not slanderers nor enslaved to much wine, teachers of that which is good;
24. New Testament, John, 21.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21.13. Then Jesus came and took the bread, gave it to them, and the fish likewise.
25. New Testament, Mark, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.2. Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is, unwashed, hands, they found fault.
26. New Testament, Matthew, 13.41, 15.11, 19.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.41. The Son of Man will send out his angels, and they will gather out of his kingdom all things that cause stumbling, and those who do iniquity 15.11. That which enters into the mouth doesn't defile the man; but that which proceeds out of the mouth, this defiles the man. 19.12. For there are eunuchs who were born that way from their mother's womb, and there are eunuchs who were made eunuchs by men; and there are eunuchs who made themselves eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven's sake. He who is able to receive it, let him receive it.
27. Tosefta, Berachot, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.1. A person should not taste anything until he makes a Beracha (blessing) [on it], as it is said, “To Hashem is the Earth and its fullness…” (Psalms 24:1) [A person] who receives pleasure from this world without a Beracha makes inappropriate use of sacred property, until all of the Mitzvot (commandments) [that must be done over this object] will permit it to him. A person should use his face, his hands and his feet only for the honor of his Creator, as it is said, “Every creation of Hashem is for His sake.” (Proverbs 16:4)"
28. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.24.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

29. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, 15.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

30. Origen, Against Celsus, 8.28 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.28. We shall now proceed to the next statement of Celsus, and examine it with care: If in obedience to the traditions of their fathers they abstain from such victims, they must also abstain from all animal food, in accordance with the opinions of Pythagoras, who thus showed his respect for the soul and its bodily organs. But if, as they say, they abstain that they may not eat along with demons, I admire their wisdom, in having at length discovered, that whenever they eat they eat with demons, although they only refuse to do so when they are looking upon a slain victim; for when they eat bread, or drink wine, or taste fruits, do they not receive these things, as well as the water they drink and the air they breathe, from certain demons, to whom have been assigned these different provinces of nature? Here I would observe that I cannot see how those whom he speaks of as abstaining from certain victims, in accordance with the traditions of their fathers, are consequently bound to abstain from the flesh of all animals. We do not indeed deny that the divine word does seem to command something similar to this, when to raise us to a higher and purer life it says, It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor anything whereby your brother stumbles, or is offended, or is made weak; and again, Destroy not him with your meat, for whom Christ died; and again, If meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh while the world stands, lest I make my brother to offend.
31. Epigraphy, I.Ephesos, 1004, 1145, 17, 34, 10



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abstinence Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 10
animals Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 147
artemis, goddess and cult, mysteries Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 275
artemis, goddess and cult, processions Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 275
basilides Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 493
causes of corruption, harmonization Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 14
celsus Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 10
cicero Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 227
communes loci (commonplaces) Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 227
criteria, conceptual coherence Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 275
criteria, verbal coherence Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 275
criteria in textual criticism, lectio difficilior Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 14
criteria in textual criticism Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 14
curetes Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 275
defilement Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 147
demons Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 147
differentiation Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 275
divine command, refusal Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 80
divine speech, enigmatic Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 228
drinking Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 147
eating Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 147
emotional responses to dreams, perplexity Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 80
enigmatic speech, biblical and jewish oracular and prophetic Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 228
eucharist, of bread and water McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 226, 227
exousia Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 207
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 338
food Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 147
food laws, permitted and non-permitted species Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 80
greek vocables and phrases, αὐτός Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 14
greek vocables and phrases, ὅτι Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 14
holiness, profanity, profanation, consecration Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 80
holy spirit Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 275
idol food Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 128; Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 75
inconsistency, in paul Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1
irony Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 80
jewish practices/torah observance, circumcision Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1, 207
jewish practices/torah observance Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1, 207
judaism, asceticism McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 227
justice Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 147
knowledge, pauline Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 128
marriage, heretical contempt for Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 493
meals, eucharistic Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 61
meals, group Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 61
meat Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 61; McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 226, 227; Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 147
moral formation, adaptation in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 128
moral formation, protocol of Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 128
moral formation, via meals Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 128
mother, motherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 338
origen, strategies for linking heresy with various others Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 493
origen Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 10
parents Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 338
paul, 1 corinthians McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 226
paul, romans McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 226, 227
paul Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 227
pauline Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 10
peter's vision, halakhic perspectives" Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 80
pleasures Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 147
praise Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 275
prophecy, glossolalia Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 228
prophecy, prophetic praxis Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 228
prophecy, riddling Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 228
purity, impurity, defilement, cleansing, purification Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 80
purity, impurity, defilement, cleansing, ritual purity, ritual purity Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 80
pythagoreans Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 10
revelation and guidance Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 228
roman emperors, tiberius Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 275
rome, romans McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 226, 227
sacrifice, cuisine of McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 226
simplicity, of orthodoxy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 493
sin Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 147
slavery Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 1
stoicism Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 227
strong McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 226, 227
stylistic and rhetorical devices, pleonasm Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 80
the body Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 147
the flesh Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 147
theissen, gerd McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 226
topos Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 227
transmigration of souls Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 147
valentinians Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 493
vegetables Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 80
weak McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 226, 227
weakness, of corinthian believers Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 128
wine, avoidance/prohibition' McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 227
wine, avoidance/prohibition McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 226
wine Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 61; Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 275; Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 80
κατόρθωσις Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 493
σωφρονίζειν Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 493