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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8253
New Testament, Romans, 11.22


ἐπὶ μὲν τοὺς πεσόντας ἀποτομία, ἐπὶ δὲ σὲ χρηστότης θεοῦ, ἐὰν ἐπιμένῃς τῇ χρηστότητι, ἐπεὶ καὶ σὺ ἐκκοπήσῃ.See then the goodness and severity of God. Toward those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in his goodness; otherwise you also will be cut off.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

64 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.4, 32.13, 32.15, 32.17-32.18, 32.21, 32.30-32.31, 32.42-32.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.4. כִּי־אֶשָּׂא אֶל־שָׁמַיִם יָדִי וְאָמַרְתִּי חַי אָנֹכִי לְעֹלָם׃ 32.4. הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ כִּי כָל־דְּרָכָיו מִשְׁפָּט אֵל אֱמוּנָה וְאֵין עָוֶל צַדִּיק וְיָשָׁר הוּא׃ 32.13. יַרְכִּבֵהוּ עַל־במותי [בָּמֳתֵי] אָרֶץ וַיֹּאכַל תְּנוּבֹת שָׂדָי וַיֵּנִקֵהוּ דְבַשׁ מִסֶּלַע וְשֶׁמֶן מֵחַלְמִישׁ צוּר׃ 32.15. וַיִּשְׁמַן יְשֻׁרוּן וַיִּבְעָט שָׁמַנְתָּ עָבִיתָ כָּשִׂיתָ וַיִּטֹּשׁ אֱלוֹהַ עָשָׂהוּ וַיְנַבֵּל צוּר יְשֻׁעָתוֹ׃ 32.17. יִזְבְּחוּ לַשֵּׁדִים לֹא אֱלֹהַ אֱלֹהִים לֹא יְדָעוּם חֲדָשִׁים מִקָּרֹב בָּאוּ לֹא שְׂעָרוּם אֲבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 32.18. צוּר יְלָדְךָ תֶּשִׁי וַתִּשְׁכַּח אֵל מְחֹלְלֶךָ׃ 32.21. הֵם קִנְאוּנִי בְלֹא־אֵל כִּעֲסוּנִי בְּהַבְלֵיהֶם וַאֲנִי אַקְנִיאֵם בְּלֹא־עָם בְּגוֹי נָבָל אַכְעִיסֵם׃ 32.31. כִּי לֹא כְצוּרֵנוּ צוּרָם וְאֹיְבֵינוּ פְּלִילִים׃ 32.42. אַשְׁכִּיר חִצַּי מִדָּם וְחַרְבִּי תֹּאכַל בָּשָׂר מִדַּם חָלָל וְשִׁבְיָה מֵרֹאשׁ פַּרְעוֹת אוֹיֵב׃ 32.43. הַרְנִינוּ גוֹיִם עַמּוֹ כִּי דַם־עֲבָדָיו יִקּוֹם וְנָקָם יָשִׁיב לְצָרָיו וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ׃ 32.4. The Rock, His work is perfect; For all His ways are justice; A God of faithfulness and without iniquity, Just and right is He. ." 32.13. He made him ride on the high places of the earth, And he did eat the fruitage of the field; And He made him to suck honey out of the crag, And oil out of the flinty rock;" 32.15. But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked— Thou didst wax fat, thou didst grow thick, thou didst become gross— And he forsook God who made him, And contemned the Rock of his salvation." 32.17. They sacrificed unto demons, no-gods, Gods that they knew not, New gods that came up of late, Which your fathers dreaded not." 32.18. of the Rock that begot thee thou wast unmindful, And didst forget God that bore thee. ." 32.21. They have roused Me to jealousy with a no-god; They have provoked Me with their vanities; And I will rouse them to jealousy with a no-people; I will provoke them with a vile nation." 32.30. How should one chase a thousand, And two put ten thousand to flight, Except their Rock had given them over And the LORD had delivered them up?" 32.31. For their rock is not as our Rock, Even our enemies themselves being judges." 32.42. I will make Mine arrows drunk with blood, And My sword shall devour flesh; With the blood of the slain and the captives, From the long-haired heads of the enemy.’" 32.43. Sing aloud, O ye nations, of His people; For He doth avenge the blood of His servants, And doth render vengeance to His adversaries, And doth make expiation for the land of His people."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 16.11, 34.29-34.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.11. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 34.29. וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן־הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא־יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ׃ 34.31. וַיִּקְרָא אֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֵלָיו אַהֲרֹן וְכָל־הַנְּשִׂאִים בָּעֵדָה וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם׃ 34.32. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן נִגְּשׁוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְצַוֵּם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינָי׃ 34.33. וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה מִדַּבֵּר אִתָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל־פָּנָיו מַסְוֶה׃ 34.34. וּבְבֹא מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ יָסִיר אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַד־צֵאתוֹ וְיָצָא וְדִבֶּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר יְצֻוֶּה׃ 34.35. וְרָאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְהֵשִׁיב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַל־פָּנָיו עַד־בֹּאוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ׃ 16.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 34.29. And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses’hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth abeams while He talked with him." 34.30. And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face sent forth beams; and they were afraid to come nigh him." 34.31. And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him; and Moses spoke to them." 34.32. And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh, and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai." 34.33. And when Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face." 34.34. But when Moses went in before the LORD that He might speak with him, he took the veil off, until he came out; and he came out; and spoke unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded." 34.35. And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’face sent forth beams; and Moses put the veil back upon his face, until he went in to speak with Him."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 12.3, 12.7, 15.6, 49.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.3. וַאֲבָרֲכָה מְבָרְכֶיךָ וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ אָאֹר וְנִבְרְכוּ בְךָ כֹּל מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָאֲדָמָה׃ 12.7. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלָיו׃ 15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 12.3. And I will bless them that bless thee, and him that curseth thee will I curse; and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed.’" 12.7. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said: ‘Unto thy seed will I give this land’; and he builded there an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him." 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness." 49.10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 25.2-25.3, 25.8, 25.12-25.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.2. וַתִּקְרֶאןָ לָעָם לְזִבְחֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וַיֹּאכַל הָעָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 25.3. וַיִּצָּמֶד יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.8. וַיָּבֹא אַחַר אִישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֻּבָּה וַיִּדְקֹר אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־קֳבָתָהּ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.12. לָכֵן אֱמֹר הִנְנִי נֹתֵן לוֹ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי שָׁלוֹם׃ 25.13. וְהָיְתָה לּוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו בְּרִית כְּהֻנַּת עוֹלָם תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר קִנֵּא לֵאלֹהָיו וַיְכַפֵּר עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.2. And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods; and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods." 25.3. And Israel joined himself unto the Baal of Peor; and the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel." 25.8. And he went after the man of Israel into the chamber, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel." 25.12. Wherefore say: Behold, I give unto him My covet of peace;" 25.13. and it shall be unto him, and to his seed after him, the covet of an everlasting priesthood; because he was jealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 17.10-17.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.11. וַתֵּלֶךְ לָקַחַת וַיִּקְרָא אֵלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמַר לִקְחִי־נָא לִי פַּת־לֶחֶם בְּיָדֵךְ׃ 17.12. וַתֹּאמֶר חַי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אִם־יֶשׁ־לִי מָעוֹג כִּי אִם־מְלֹא כַף־קֶמַח בַּכַּד וּמְעַט־שֶׁמֶן בַּצַּפָּחַת וְהִנְנִי מְקֹשֶׁשֶׁת שְׁנַיִם עֵצִים וּבָאתִי וַעֲשִׂיתִיהוּ לִי וְלִבְנִי וַאֲכַלְנֻהוּ וָמָתְנוּ׃ 17.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ אֵלִיָּהוּ אַל־תִּירְאִי בֹּאִי עֲשִׂי כִדְבָרֵךְ אַךְ עֲשִׂי־לִי מִשָּׁם עֻגָה קְטַנָּה בָרִאשֹׁנָה וְהוֹצֵאתְ לִי וְלָךְ וְלִבְנֵךְ תַּעֲשִׂי בָּאַחֲרֹנָה׃ 17.14. כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּד הַקֶּמַח לֹא תִכְלָה וְצַפַּחַת הַשֶּׁמֶן לֹא תֶחְסָר עַד יוֹם תתן־[תֵּת־] יְהוָה גֶּשֶׁם עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 17.15. וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתַּעֲשֶׂה כִּדְבַר אֵלִיָּהוּ וַתֹּאכַל הוא־והיא [הִיא־] [וָהוּא] וּבֵיתָהּ יָמִים׃ 17.16. כַּד הַקֶּמַח לֹא כָלָתָה וְצַפַּחַת הַשֶּׁמֶן לֹא חָסֵר כִּדְבַר יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּיַד אֵלִיָּהוּ׃ 17.17. וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה חָלָה בֶּן־הָאִשָּׁה בַּעֲלַת הַבָּיִת וַיְהִי חָלְיוֹ חָזָק מְאֹד עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נוֹתְרָה־בּוֹ נְשָׁמָה׃ 17.18. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־אֵלִיָּהוּ מַה־לִּי וָלָךְ אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים בָּאתָ אֵלַי לְהַזְכִּיר אֶת־עֲוֺנִי וּלְהָמִית אֶת־בְּנִי׃ 17.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ תְּנִי־לִי אֶת־בְּנֵךְ וַיִּקָּחֵהוּ מֵחֵיקָהּ וַיַּעֲלֵהוּ אֶל־הָעֲלִיָּה אֲשֶׁר־הוּא יֹשֵׁב שָׁם וַיַּשְׁכִּבֵהוּ עַל־מִטָּתוֹ׃ 17.21. וַיִּתְמֹדֵד עַל־הַיֶּלֶד שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי תָּשָׁב נָא נֶפֶשׁ־הַיֶּלֶד הַזֶּה עַל־קִרְבּוֹ׃ 17.22. וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה בְּקוֹל אֵלִיָּהוּ וַתָּשָׁב נֶפֶשׁ־הַיֶּלֶד עַל־קִרְבּוֹ וַיֶּחִי׃ 17.23. וַיִּקַּח אֵלִיָּהוּ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וַיֹּרִדֵהוּ מִן־הָעֲלִיָּה הַבַּיְתָה וַיִּתְּנֵהוּ לְאִמּוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ רְאִי חַי בְּנֵךְ׃ 17.24. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־אֵלִיָּהוּ עַתָּה זֶה יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אִישׁ אֱלֹהִים אָתָּה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה בְּפִיךָ אֱמֶת׃ 17.10. So he arose and went to Zarephath; and when he came to the gate of the city, behold, a widow was there gathering sticks; and he called to her, and said: ‘Fetch me, I pray thee, a little water in a vessel, that I may drink.’" 17.11. And as she was going to fetch it, he called to her, and said: ‘Bring me, I pray thee, a morsel of bread in thy hand.’" 17.12. And she said: ‘As the LORD thy God liveth, I have not a cake, only a handful of meal in the jar, and a little oil in the cruse; and, behold, I am gathering two sticks, that I may go in and dress it for me and my son, that we may eat it, and die.’" 17.13. And Elijah said unto her: ‘Fear not; go and do as thou hast said; but make me thereof a little cake first, and bring it forth unto me, and afterward make for thee and for thy son." 17.14. For thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: The jar of meal shall not be spent, neither shall the cruse of oil fail, until the day that the LORD sendeth rain upon the land.’" 17.15. And she went and did according to the saying of Elijah; and she, and he, and her house, did eat many days." 17.16. The jar of meal was not spent, neither did the cruse of oil fail, according to the word of the LORD, which He spoke by Elijah." 17.17. And it came to pass after these things, that the son of the woman, the mistress of the house, fell sick; and his sickness was so sore, that there was no breath left in him." 17.18. And she said unto Elijah: ‘What have I to do with thee, O thou man of God? art thou come unto me to bring my sin to remembrance, and to slay my son?’" 17.19. And he said unto her: ‘Give me thy son.’ And he took him out of her bosom, and carried him up into the upper chamber, where he abode, and laid him upon his own bed." 17.20. And he cried unto the LORD, and said: ‘O LORD my God, hast Thou also brought evil upon the widow with whom I sojourn, by slaying her son?’" 17.21. And he stretched himself upon the child three times, and cried unto the LORD, and said: ‘O LORD my God, I pray thee, let this child’s soul come back into him.’" 17.22. And the LORD hearkened unto the voice of Elijah; and the soul of the child came back into him, and he revived." 17.23. And Elijah took the child, and brought him down out of the upper chamber into the house, and delivered him unto his mother; and Elijah said: ‘See, thy son liveth.’" 17.24. And the woman said to Elijah: ‘Now I know that thou art a man of God, and that the word of the LORD in thy mouth is truth.’"
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.11, 4.42-4.44 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.11. וַיְהִי הֵמָּה הֹלְכִים הָלוֹךְ וְדַבֵּר וְהִנֵּה רֶכֶב־אֵשׁ וְסוּסֵי אֵשׁ וַיַּפְרִדוּ בֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַל אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּסְעָרָה הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 4.42. וְאִישׁ בָּא מִבַּעַל שָׁלִשָׁה וַיָּבֵא לְאִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים לֶחֶם בִּכּוּרִים עֶשְׂרִים־לֶחֶם שְׂעֹרִים וְכַרְמֶל בְּצִקְלֹנוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר תֵּן לָעָם וְיֹאכֵלוּ׃ 4.43. וַיֹּאמֶר מְשָׁרְתוֹ מָה אֶתֵּן זֶה לִפְנֵי מֵאָה אִישׁ וַיֹּאמֶר תֵּן לָעָם וְיֹאכֵלוּ כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה אָכֹל וְהוֹתֵר׃ 4.44. וַיִּתֵּן לִפְנֵיהֶם וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיּוֹתִרוּ כִּדְבַר יְהוָה׃ 2.11. And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both assunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." 4.42. And there came a man from Baal-shalishah, and brought the man of God bread of the first-fruits, twenty loaves of barley, and fresh ears of corn in his sack. And he said: ‘Give unto the people, that they may eat.’" 4.43. And his servant said: ‘How should I set this before a hundred men?’ But he said: ‘Give the people, that they may eat; for thus saith the LORD: They shall eat, and shall leave thereof.’" 4.44. So he set it before them, and they did eat, and left thereof, according to the word of the LORD."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.14. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 7.14. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:"
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 59.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

59.20. And a redeemer will come to Zion, And unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, Saith the LORD."
11. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 4, 37 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12. Lysias, Orations, 22.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13. Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 60.1-60.3 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 122 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

122. And these blessings he at all times freely bestows, never rejecting the prayer of supplication which is addressed to him; for it is said in another passage, when Moses addresses him with supplication: "I am favourable to them according to thy Word." And this expression, as it seems, is equivalent to the other: "In thee all the nations of the earth shall be blessed." On which account also the wise Abraham, who had had experience of the goodness of God in all things, believes that even if all other things are destroyed, still a small fragment of virtue would be preserved, like a spark of fire, and that for the sake of this little spark, he pities those other things also, so as to raise them up when fallen, and rekindled them when extinct.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.142, 3.153 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.142. But if the servants who have been beaten do not die at once after receiving the blows, but live one day or two, then the master shall no longer be liable to be accused of murder, having this strong ground of defence that he did not kill them on the spot by beating, nor afterwards when he had them in his house, but that he suffered them to live as long as they could, even though that may not have been very long. Besides that, no one is so silly as to attempt to distress another by conduct by which he himself also will be a loser. 3.153. Moreover, there is this further commandment given with great propriety, that the fathers are not to die in behalf of their sons, nor the sons in behalf of their parents, but that every one who has done things worthy of death is to be put to death by himself alone. And this commandment is established because of those persons who set might above right, and also for the sake of those who are too affectionate;
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 139 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

139. And it appears to me that some lawgivers, having started from this point, have also promulgated the law about condemned women, which commands that pregt women, if they have committed any offence worthy of death, shall nevertheless not be executed until they have brought forth, in order that the creature in their womb may not be slain with them when they are put to death.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.217 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.217. On this day, then, the man who had done this deed of impiety was led away to prison; and Moses being at a loss what ought to be done to the man (for he knew that he had committed a crime worthy of death, but did not know what was the most suitable manner for the punishment to be inflicted upon him
18. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.78 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.78. And the gold of that land is good." Is there, then, any other gold which is not good? Beyond all doubt; for the nature of prudence is twofold, there being one prudence general, and another particular. Therefore, the prudence that is in me, being particular prudence, is not good; for when I perish that also will perish together with me; but general or universal prudence, the abode of which is the wisdom of God and the house of God, is good; for it is imperishable itself, and dwells in an imperishable habitation. XXVI.
19. Anon., Didache, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Mishnah, Pesahim, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. Six things the inhabitants of Jericho did: against three they [the sages] protested, and against three [they] did not protest.And these are those against which they did not protest: They grafted palm trees all day [on the eve of Pesah]; They ‘wrapped up’ the Shema; And they harvested and stacked [their produce] before [the bringing of] the ‘omer. And [for these] they did not protest. And these are those against which they did protest: They permitted [for use] the small branches [of sycamore trees] belonging to sacred property, And they ate the fallen fruit from beneath [trees] on Shabbat, and they gave pe’ah from vegetables; And [for these] they did protest."
21. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases whichbrought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”"
22. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
23. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.8, 2.6-2.7, 3.6-3.8, 4.5, 4.7, 5.1-5.5, 10.8, 12.8, 13.2, 13.7-13.13, 14.25, 15.20-15.28, 16.1-16.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. who will also confirm you until the end, blameless in the day of ourLord Jesus Christ. 2.6. We speak wisdom, however, among those who are fullgrown; yet a wisdom not of this world, nor of the rulers of this world,who are coming to nothing. 2.7. But we speak God's wisdom in amystery, the wisdom that has been hidden, which God foreordained beforethe worlds to our glory 3.6. I planted. Apollos watered. But Godgave the increase. 3.7. So then neither he who plants is anything, norhe who waters, but God who gives the increase. 3.8. Now he who plantsand he who waters are the same, but each will receive his own rewardaccording to his own labor. 4.5. Thereforejudge nothing before the time, until the Lord comes, who will bothbring to light the hidden things of darkness, and reveal the counselsof the hearts. Then each man will get his praise from God. 4.7. For who makes you different? And what doyou have that you didn't receive? But if you did receive it, why do youboast as if you had not received it? 5.1. It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality amongyou, and such sexual immorality as is not even named among theGentiles, that one has his father's wife. 5.2. You are puffed up, anddidn't rather mourn, that he who had done this deed might be removedfrom among you. 5.3. For I most assuredly, as being absent in body butpresent in spirit, have already, as though I were present, judged himwho has done this thing. 5.4. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,you being gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our LordJesus Christ 5.5. are to deliver such a one to Satan for thedestruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day ofthe Lord Jesus. 10.8. Neither let us commit sexual immorality,as some of them committed, and in one day twenty-three thousand fell. 12.8. For to one is given through theSpirit the word of wisdom, and to another the word of knowledge,according to the same Spirit; 13.2. If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and allknowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, butdon't have love, I am nothing. 13.7. bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, enduresall things. 13.8. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies,they will be done away with. Where there are various languages, theywill cease. Where there is knowledge, it will be done away with. 13.9. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part; 13.10. but when thatwhich is complete has come, then that which is partial will be doneaway with. 13.11. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I felt as achild, I thought as a child. Now that I have become a man, I have putaway childish things. 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known. 13.13. But now faith, hope, and love remain-- these three. The greatest of these is love. 14.25. And thus the secrets of his heart are revealed.So he will fall down on his face and worship God, declaring that God isamong you indeed. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 16.1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commandedthe assemblies of Galatia, you do likewise. 16.2. On the first day ofthe week, let each one of you save, as he may prosper, that nocollections be made when I come. 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem. 16.4. If it is appropriate for me to go also, they will gowith me. 16.5. But I will come to you when I have passed throughMacedonia, for I am passing through Macedonia.
24. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come.
25. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.1-4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. But the Spirit says expressly that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons 4.2. through the hypocrisy of men who speak lies, branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron; 4.3. forbidding marriage and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth.
26. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.1-2.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. But there also arose false prophets among the people, as among you also there will be false teachers, who will secretly bring in destructive heresies, denying even the Master who bought them, bringing on themselves swift destruction. 2.2. Many will follow their destructive ways, and as a result, the way of the truth will be maligned. 2.3. In covetousness they will exploit you with deceptive words: whose sentence now from of old doesn't linger, and their destruction will not slumber. 2.4. For if God didn't spare angels when they sinned, but cast them down to Tartarus, and committed them to pits of darkness, to be reserved to judgment; 2.5. and didn't spare the ancient world, but preserved Noah with seven others, a preacher of righteousness, when he brought a flood on the world of the ungodly; 2.9. the Lord knows how to deliver the godly out of temptation and to keep the unrighteous under punishment for the day of judgment; 2.10. but chiefly those who walk after the flesh in the lust of defilement, and despise authority. Daring, self-willed, they are not afraid to speak evil of dignitaries; 2.13. receiving the wages of unrighteousness; people who count it pleasure to revel in the day-time, spots and blemishes, reveling in their deceit while they feast with you; 2.15. forsaking the right way, they went astray, having followed the way of Balaam the son of Beor, who loved the wages of wrong-doing; 2.17. These are wells without water, clouds driven by a storm; for whom the blackness of darkness has been reserved forever. 2.18. For, uttering great swelling words of emptiness, they entice in the lusts of the flesh, by licentiousness, those who are indeed escaping from those who live in error; 2.19. promising them liberty, while they themselves are bondservants of corruption; for by whom a man is overcome, by the same is he also brought into bondage. 2.20. For if, after they have escaped the defilement of the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, they are again entangled therein and overcome, the last state has become worse with them than the first. 2.21. For it would be better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than, after knowing it, to turn back from the holy commandment delivered to them. 2.22. But it has happened to them according to the true proverb, "The dog turns to his own vomit again," and "the sow that had washed to wallowing in the mire.
27. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.7-3.18, 6.18, 8.13-8.15, 9.2-9.6, 9.8-9.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

28. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.8, 2.3, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. Therefore don't be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner; but endure hardship for the gospel according to the power of God 2.3. You therefore must endure hardship, as a good soldier of Christ Jesus. 2.11. This saying is faithful: For if we died with him, We will also live with him.
29. New Testament, Acts, 1.8-1.9, 2.41, 2.46-2.47, 4.4, 7.56, 13.48, 21.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.8. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come on you. You will be witnesses to me in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the uttermost parts of the earth. 1.9. When he had said these things, as they were looking, he was taken up, and a cloud received him out of their sight. 2.41. Then those who gladly received his word were baptized. There were added that day about three thousand souls. 2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 2.47. praising God, and having favor with all the people. The Lord added to the assembly day by day those who were being saved. 4.4. But many of those who heard the word believed, and the number of the men came to be about five thousand. 7.56. and said, "Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God! 13.48. As the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of God. As many as were appointed to eternal life believed. 21.20. They, when they heard it, glorified God. They said to him, "You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed, and they are all zealous for the law.
30. New Testament, James, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.17. Elijah was a man with a nature like ours, and he prayed earnestly that it might not rain, and it didn't rain on the earth for three years and six months.
31. New Testament, Jude, 24, 14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

32. New Testament, Colossians, 1.22, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.22. yet now he has reconciled in the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and without blemish and blameless before him 2.7. rooted and built up in him, and established in the faith, even as you were taught, abounding in it in thanksgiving.
33. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.1-2.3, 2.8-2.9, 2.11-2.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.8. for by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God 2.9. not of works, that no one would boast. 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit.
34. New Testament, Galatians, 1.1, 1.4, 1.7, 1.16-1.18, 2.1-2.10, 2.16, 2.19-2.21, 3.6-3.9, 3.15-3.16, 4.4, 4.21-4.31, 5.6, 6.8, 6.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead) 1.4. who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us out of this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father -- 1.7. and there isn'tanother gospel. Only there are some who trouble you, and want topervert the gospel of Christ. 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 1.17. nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those whowere apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia. Then I returnedto Damascus. 1.18. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem tovisit Peter, and stayed with him fifteen days. 2.1. Then after a period of fourteen years I went up again toJerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me. 2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain. 2.3. But not even Titus, whowas with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 2.4. Thiswas because of the false brothers secretly brought in, who stole in tospy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they mightbring us into bondage; 2.5. to whom we gave no place in the way ofsubjection, not for an hour, that the truth of the gospel mightcontinue with you. 2.6. But from those who were reputed to beimportant (whatever they were, it makes no difference to me; Goddoesn't show partiality to man) -- they, I say, who were respectedimparted nothing to me 2.7. but to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 2.21. I don't make void the grace of God.For if righteousness is through the law, then Christ died for nothing! 3.6. Even as Abraham "believed God, and it wascounted to him for righteousness. 3.7. Know therefore that those whoare of faith, the same are sons of Abraham. 3.8. The Scripture,foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached thegospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, "In you all the nations will beblessed. 3.9. So then, those who are of faith are blessed with thefaithful Abraham. 3.15. Brothers, I speak like men. Though it is only aman's covet, yet when it has been confirmed, no one makes it void,or adds to it. 3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law 4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27. For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear. Break forth and shout, you that don't travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband. 4.28. Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman. 4.31. So then, brothers, we are not children of ahandmaid, but of the free woman. 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 6.8. For hewho sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption. But hewho sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life. 6.16. As many as walk by this rule, peace and mercy be on them, and onGod's Israel.
35. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.5-1.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. For to which of the angels did he say at any time, "You are my Son, Today have I become your father?"and again, "I will be to him a Father, And he will be to me a Son? 1.6. Again, when he brings in the firstborn into the world he says, "Let all the angels of God worship him. 1.7. of the angels he says, "Who makes his angels winds, And his servants a flame of fire. 1.8. but of the Son he says, "Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; The scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom. 1.9. You have loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; Therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness above your fellows. 1.10. And, "You, Lord, in the beginning, laid the foundation of the earth. The heavens are the works of your hands. 1.11. They will perish, but you continue. They all will grow old like a garment does. 1.12. As a mantle you will roll them up, And they will be changed; But you are the same. Your years will not fail. 1.13. But of which of the angels has he said at any time, "Sit at my right hand, Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet?
36. New Testament, Philippians, 2.11, 2.13, 3.10, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 2.13. For it is God who works in you both to will and to work, for his good pleasure. 3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself.
37. New Testament, Romans, 1.4, 1.18-1.25, 2.3-2.11, 2.29, 3.30, 4.1, 4.11, 4.16, 4.25, 5.10, 6.2-6.6, 6.8, 6.11, 8.3, 8.11, 8.17, 8.29-8.30, 8.32, 8.34, 9.1-9.33, 10.1-10.21, 11.1-11.21, 11.23-11.36, 12.4-12.5, 14.4, 15.8-15.10, 15.16-15.19, 15.21-15.22, 15.24-15.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 1.18. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness 1.19. because that which is known of God is revealed in them, for God revealed it to them. 1.20. For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity; that they may be without excuse. 1.21. Because, knowing God, they didn't glorify him as God, neither gave thanks, but became vain in their reasoning, and their senseless heart was darkened. 1.22. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools 1.23. and traded the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves 1.25. who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. 2.3. Do you think this, O man who judges those who practice such things, and do the same, that you will escape the judgment of God? 2.4. Or do you despise the riches of his goodness, forbearance, and patience, not knowing that the goodness of God leads you to repentance? 2.5. But according to your hardness and unrepentant heart you are treasuring up for yourself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God; 2.6. who "will pay back to everyone according to their works: 2.7. to those who by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honor and incorruptibility, eternal life; 2.8. but to those who are self-seeking, and don't obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, will be wrath and indignation 2.9. oppression and anguish, on every soul of man who works evil, on the Jew first, and also on the Greek. 2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 2.11. For there is no partiality with God. 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 4.1. What then will we say that Abraham, our forefather, has found according to the flesh? 4.11. He received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while he was in uncircumcision, that he might be the father of all those who believe, though they be in uncircumcision, that righteousness might also be accounted to them. 4.16. For this cause it is of faith, that it may be according to grace, to the end that the promise may be sure to all the seed, not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all. 4.25. who was delivered up for our trespasses, and was raised for our justification. 5.10. For if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we will be saved by his life. 6.2. May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer? 6.3. Or don't you know that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.5. For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will also be part of his resurrection; 6.6. knowing this, that our old man was crucified with him, that the body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be in bondage to sin. 6.8. But if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him; 6.11. Thus also consider yourselves also to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.17. and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if indeed we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 8.30. Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified. 8.32. He who didn't spare his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how would he not also with him freely give us all things? 8.34. Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, yes rather, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us. 9.1. I tell the truth in Christ. I am not lying, my conscience testifying with me in the Holy Spirit 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart. 9.3. For I could wish that I myself were accursed from Christ for my brothers' sake, my relatives according to the flesh 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.5. of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen. 9.6. But it is not as though the word of God has come to nothing. For they are not all Israel, that are of Israel. 9.7. Neither, because they are Abraham's seed, are they all children. But, "In Isaac will your seed be called. 9.8. That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed. 9.9. For this is a word of promise, "At the appointed time I will come, and Sarah will have a son. 9.10. Not only so, but Rebecca also conceived by one, by our father Isaac. 9.11. For being not yet born, neither having done anything good or bad, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him who calls 9.12. it was said to her, "The elder will serve the younger. 9.13. Even as it is written, "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated. 9.14. What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? May it never be! 9.15. For he said to Moses, "I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion. 9.16. So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who has mercy. 9.17. For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, "For this very purpose I caused you to be raised up, that I might show in you my power, and that my name might be published abroad in all the earth. 9.18. So then, he has mercy on whom he desires, and he hardens whom he desires. 9.19. You will say then to me, "Why does he still find fault? For who withstands his will? 9.20. But indeed, O man, who are you to reply against God? Will the thing formed ask him who formed it, "Why did you make me like this? 9.21. Or hasn't the potter a right over the clay, from the same lump to make one part a vessel for honor, and another for dishonor? 9.22. What if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath made for destruction 9.23. and that he might make known the riches of his glory on vessels of mercy, which he prepared beforehand for glory 9.24. us, whom he also called, not from the Jews only, but also from the Gentiles? 9.25. As he says also in Hosea, "I will call them 'my people,' which were not my people; And her 'beloved,' who was not beloved. 9.26. It will be that in the place where it was said to them, 'You are not my people,' There they will be called 'sons of the living God.' 9.27. Isaiah cries concerning Israel, "If the number of the children of Israel are as the sand of the sea, It is the remt who will be saved; 9.28. For He will finish the work and cut it short in righteousness, Because the LORD will make a short work upon the earth. 9.29. As Isaiah has said before, "Unless the Lord of Hosts had left us a seed, We would have become like Sodom, And would have been made like Gomorrah. 9.30. What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, who didn't follow after righteousness, attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith; 9.31. but Israel, following after a law of righteousness, didn't arrive at the law of righteousness. 9.32. Why? Because they didn't seek it by faith, but as it were by works of the law. They stumbled over the stumbling stone; 9.33. even as it is written, "Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and a rock of offense; And no one who believes in him will be put to shame. 10.1. Brothers, my heart's desire and my prayer to God is for Israel, that they may be saved. 10.2. For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge. 10.3. For being ignorant of God's righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, they didn't subject themselves to the righteousness of God. 10.4. For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes. 10.5. For Moses writes about the righteousness of the law, "The one who does them will live by them. 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 10.9. that if you will confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10.10. For with the heart, one believes unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 10.11. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame. 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 10.13. For, "Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved. 10.14. How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? How will they believe in him whom they have not heard? How will they hear without a preacher? 10.15. And how will they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: "How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring glad tidings of good things! 10.16. But they didn't all listen to the glad news. For Isaiah says, "Lord, who has believed our report? 10.17. So faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. 10.18. But I say, didn't they hear? Yes, most assuredly, "Their sound went out into all the earth, Their words to the ends of the world. 10.19. But I ask, didn't Israel know? First Moses says, "I will provoke you to jealousy with that which is no nation, With a nation void of understanding I will make you angry. 10.20. Isaiah is very bold, and says, "I was found by those who didn't seek me. I was revealed to those who didn't ask for me. 10.21. But as to Israel he says, "All day long I stretched out my hands to a disobedient and contrary people. 11.1. I ask then, Did God reject his people? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 11.2. God didn't reject his people, which he foreknew. Or don't you know what the Scripture says about Elijah? How he pleads with God against Israel: 11.3. Lord, they have killed your prophets, they have broken down your altars; and I am left alone, and they seek my life. 11.4. But how does God answer him? "I have reserved for myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to Baal. 11.5. Even so then at this present time also there is a remt according to the election of grace. 11.6. And if by grace, then it is no longer of works; otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if it is of works, it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work. 11.7. What then? That which Israel seeks for, that he didn't obtain, but the elect obtained it, and the rest were hardened. 11.8. According as it is written, "God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day. 11.9. David says, "Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, A stumbling block, and a retribution to them. 11.10. Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see. Bow down their back always. 11.11. I ask then, did they stumble that they might fall? May it never be! But by their fall salvation has come to the Gentiles, to provoke them to jealousy. 11.12. Now if their fall is the riches of the world, and their loss the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fullness? 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 11.14. if by any means I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh, and may save some of them. 11.15. For if the rejection of them is the reconciling of the world, what would their acceptance be, but life from the dead? 11.16. If the first fruit is holy, so is the lump. If the root is holy, so are the branches. 11.17. But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive, were grafted in among them, and became partaker with them of the root and of the richness of the olive tree; 11.18. don't boast over the branches. But if you boast, it is not you who support the root, but the root supports you. 11.19. You will say then, "Branches were broken off, that I might be grafted in. 11.20. True; by their unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by your faith. Don't be conceited, but fear; 11.21. for if God didn't spare the natural branches, neither will he spare you. 11.23. They also, if they don't continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 11.24. For if you were cut out of that which is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a good olive tree, how much more will these, which are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? 11.25. For I don't desire, brothers, to have you ignorant of this mystery, so that you won't be wise in your own conceits, that a partial hardening has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in 11.26. and so all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, "There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob. 11.27. This is my covet to them, When I will take away their sins. 11.28. Concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sake. But concerning the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sake. 11.29. For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. 11.30. For as you in time past were disobedient to God, but now have obtained mercy by their disobedience 11.31. even so these also have now been disobedient, that by the mercy shown to you they may also obtain mercy. 11.32. For God has shut up all to disobedience, that he might have mercy on all. 11.33. Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past tracing out! 11.34. For who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been his counselor? 11.35. Or who has first given to him, And it will be repaid to him again? 11.36. For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things. To him be the glory for ever! Amen. 12.4. For even as we have many members in one body, and all the members don't have the same function 12.5. so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another. 14.4. Who are you who judge another's servant? To his own lord he stands or falls. Yes, he will be made to stand, for God has power to make him stand. 15.8. Now I say that Christ has been made a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, that he might confirm the promises given to the fathers 15.9. and that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written, "Therefore will I give praise to you among the Gentiles, And sing to your name. 15.10. Again he says, "Rejoice, you Gentiles, with his people. 15.16. that I should be a servant of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles, ministering as a priest the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be made acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. 15.17. I have therefore my boasting in Christ Jesus in things pertaining to God. 15.18. For I will not dare to speak of any things except those which Christ worked through me, for the obedience of the Gentiles, by word and deed 15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; 15.21. But, as it is written, "They will see, to whom no news of him came. They who haven't heard will understand. 15.22. Therefore also I was hindered these many times from coming to you 15.24. whenever I journey to Spain, I will come to you. For I hope to see you on my journey, and to be helped on my way there by you, if first I may enjoy your company for a while. 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.27. Yes, it has been their good pleasure, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to them also to serve them in fleshly things. 15.28. When therefore I have accomplished this, and have sealed to them this fruit, I will go on by way of you to Spain. 15.29. I know that, when I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ. 15.30. Now I beg you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, that you strive together with me in your prayers to God for me 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints; 15.32. that I may come to you in joy through the will of God, and together with you, find rest.
38. New Testament, John, 1.21, 6.63-6.66, 8.44, 15.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.21. They asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?"He said, "I am not.""Are you the Prophet?"He answered, "No. 6.63. It is the spirit who gives life. The flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life. 6.64. But there are some of you who don't believe." For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were who didn't believe, and who it was who would betray him. 6.65. He said, "For this cause have I said to you that no one can come to me, unless it is given to him by my Father. 6.66. At this, many of his disciples went back, and walked no more with him. 8.44. You are of your Father, the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and doesn't stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks on his own; for he is a liar, and the father of it. 15.16. You didn't choose me, but I chose you, and appointed you, that you should go and bear fruit, and that your fruit should remain; that whatever you will ask of the Father in my name, he may give it to you.
39. New Testament, Luke, 7.11-7.17, 16.17, 20.9-20.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.11. It happened soon afterwards, that he went to a city called Nain. Many of his disciples, along with a great multitude, went with him. 7.12. Now when he drew near to the gate of the city, behold, one who was dead was carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow. Many people of the city were with her. 7.13. When the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said to her, "Don't cry. 7.14. He came near and touched the coffin, and the bearers stood still. He said, "Young man, I tell you, arise! 7.15. He who was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he gave him to his mother. 7.16. Fear took hold of all, and they glorified God, saying, "A great prophet has arisen among us!" and, "God has visited his people! 7.17. This report went out concerning him in the whole of Judea, and in all the surrounding region. 16.17. But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away, than for one tiny stroke of a pen in the law to fall. 20.9. He began to tell the people this parable. "A man planted a vineyard, and rented it out to some farmers, and went into another country for a long time. 20.10. At the proper season, he sent a servant to the farmers to collect his share of the fruit of the vineyard. But the farmers beat him, and sent him away empty. 20.11. He sent yet another servant, and they also beat him, and treated him shamefully, and sent him away empty. 20.12. He sent yet a third, and they also wounded him, and threw him out. 20.13. The lord of the vineyard said, 'What shall I do? I will send my beloved son. It may be that seeing him, they will respect him.' 20.14. But when the farmers saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, 'This is the heir. Come, let's kill him, that the inheritance may be ours.' 20.15. They threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him. What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do to them? 20.16. He will come and destroy these farmers, and will give the vineyard to others."When they heard it, they said, "May it never be! 20.17. But he looked at them, and said, "Then what is this that is written, 'The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the chief cornerstone?' 20.18. Everyone who falls on that stone will be broken to pieces, But it will crush whomever it falls on to dust. 20.19. The chief priests and the scribes sought to lay hands on Him that very hour, but they feared the people -- for they knew He had spoken this parable against them.
40. New Testament, Mark, 6.34-6.44, 8.1-8.9, 9.4, 9.13, 12.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.34. Jesus came out, saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things. 6.35. When it was late in the day, his disciples came to him, and said, "This place is deserted, and it is late in the day. 6.36. Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat. 6.37. But he answered them, "You give them something to eat."They asked him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread, and give them something to eat? 6.38. He said to them, "How many loaves do you have? Go see."When they knew, they said, "Five, and two fish. 6.39. He commanded them that everyone should sit down in groups on the green grass. 6.40. They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties. 6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 6.42. They all ate, and were filled. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 6.44. Those who ate the loaves were five thousand men. 8.1. In those days, when there was a very great multitude, and they had nothing to eat, Jesus called his disciples to himself, and said to them 8.2. I have compassion on the multitude, because they have stayed with me now three days, and have nothing to eat. 8.3. If I send them away fasting to their home, they will faint on the way, for some of them have come a long way. 8.4. His disciples answered him, "From where could one satisfy these people with bread here in a deserted place? 8.5. He asked them, "How many loaves do you have?"They said, "Seven. 8.6. He commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground, and he took the seven loaves. Having given thanks, he broke them, and gave them to his disciples to serve, and they served the multitude. 8.7. They had a few small fish. Having blessed them, he said to serve these also. 8.8. They ate, and were filled. They took up seven baskets of broken pieces that were left over. 8.9. Those who had eaten were about four thousand. Then he sent them away. 9.4. Elijah and Moses appeared to them, and they were talking with Jesus. 9.13. But I tell you that Elijah has come, and they have also done to him whatever they wanted to, even as it is written about him. 12.25. For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven.
41. New Testament, Matthew, 7.16-7.19, 9.16-9.17, 11.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.16. By their fruits you will know them. Do you gather grapes from thorns, or figs from thistles? 7.17. Even so, every good tree produces good fruit; but the corrupt tree produces evil fruit. 7.18. A good tree can't produce evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree produce good fruit. 7.19. Every tree that doesn't grow good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire. 9.16. No one puts a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment; for the patch would tear away from the garment, and a worse hole is made. 9.17. Neither do people put new wine into old wineskins, or else the skins would burst, and the wine be spilled, and the skins ruined. No, they put new wine into fresh wineskins, and both are preserved. 11.14. If you are willing to receive it, this is Elijah, who is to come.
42. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

43. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

44. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 5.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

45. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.7.5, 1.30.15, 5.7.1, 5.10.1-5.10.2, 5.12.1-5.12.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

46. Palestinian Talmud, Kilayim, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

47. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

49a. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ארבעה עשר שחל להיות בשבת מבערין את הכל מלפני השבת דברי ר"מ וחכמים אומרים בזמנו ר"א בר צדוק אומר תרומה מלפני השבת וחולין בזמנן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא ר"א בר צדוק אומר פעם אחת שבת אבא ביבנה וחל ארבעה עשר להיות בשבת ובא זונין ממונה של ר"ג ואמר הגיע עת לבער את החמץ והלכתי אחר אבא וביערנו את החמץ:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ההולך לשחוט את פסחו ולמול את בנו ולאכול סעודת אירוסין בבית חמיו ונזכר שיש לו חמץ בתוך ביתו אם יכול לחזור ולבער ולחזור למצותו יחזור ויבער ואם לאו מבטלו בלבו,להציל מן הנכרים ומן הנהר ומן הלסטים ומן הדליקה ומן המפולת יבטל בלבו ולשבות שביתת הרשות יחזור מיד,וכן מי שיצא מירושלים ונזכר שיש בידו בשר קדש אם עבר צופים שורפו במקומו ואם לאו חוזר ושורפו לפני הבירה מעצי המערכה,ועד כמה הן חוזרין ר"מ אומר זה וזה בכביצה ר' יהודה אומר זה וזה בכזית וחכמים אומרים בשר קדש בכזית וחמץ בכביצה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורמינהו ההולך לאכול סעודת אירוסין בבית חמיו ולשבות שביתת הרשות יחזור מיד,א"ר יוחנן לא קשיא הא ר' יהודה הא רבי יוסי דתניא סעודת אירוסין רשות דברי ר' יהודה רבי יוסי אומר מצוה,והשתא דאמר רב חסדא מחלוקת בסעודה שניה אבל בסעודה ראשונה דברי הכל מצוה אפילו תימא הא והא ר' יהודה ולא קשיא הא בסעודה ראשונה הא בסעודה שניה,תניא אמר רבי יהודה אני לא שמעתי אלא סעודת אירוסין אבל לא סבלונות אמר לו ר' יוסי אני שמעתי סעודת אירוסין וסבלונות,תניא רבי שמעון אומר כל סעודה שאינה של מצוה אין תלמיד חכם רשאי להנות ממנה,כגון מאי א"ר יוחנן כגון בת כהן לישראל ובת תלמיד חכם לעם הארץ דא"ר יוחנן בת כהן לישראל אין זווגן עולה יפה,מאי היא אמר רב חסדא או אלמנה או גרושה או זרע אין לה במתניתא תנא קוברה או קוברתו או מביאתו לידי עניות,איני והא א"ר יוחנן הרוצה שיתעשר ידבק בזרעו של אהרן כל שכן שתורה וכהונה מעשרתן לא קשיא הא בת"ח הא בעם הארץ,ר' יהושע נסיב כהנתא חלש אמר לא ניחא ליה לאהרן דאדבק בזרעיה דהוי ליה חתנא כי אנא,רב אידי בר אבין נסיב כהנתא נפקו מיניה תרי בני סמיכי רב ששת בריה דרב אידי ור' יהושע בריה דרב אידי אמר ר"פ אי לא נסיבנא כהנתא לא איעתרי,אמר רב כהנא אי לא נסיבנא כהנתא לא גלאי אמרו ליה והא למקום תורה גלית לא גלאי כדגלי אינשי,אמר רבי יצחק כל הנהנה מסעודת הרשות לסוף גולה שנא' (עמוס ו, ד) ואוכלים כרים מצאן ועגלים מתוך מרבק וכתיב לכן עתה יגלו בראש גולים:,ת"ר כל ת"ח המרבה סעודתו בכל מקום סוף מחריב את ביתו ומאלמן את אשתו ומייתם את גוזליו ותלמודו משתכח ממנו ומחלוקות רבות באות עליו ודבריו אינם נשמעים ומחלל שם שמים ושם רבו ושם אביו וגורם שם רע לו ולבניו ולבני בניו עד סוף כל הדורות,מאי היא אמר אביי קרו ליה בר מחים תנורי רבא אמר בר מרקיד בי כובי רב פפא אמר בר מלחיך פינכי רב שמעיה אמר בר מך רבע:,ת"ר לעולם ימכור אדם כל מה שיש לו וישא בת ת"ח שאם מת או גולה מובטח לו שבניו ת"ח ואל ישא בת ע"ה שאם מת או גולה בניו ע"ה,ת"ר לעולם ימכור אדם כל מה שיש לו וישא בת ת"ח וישיא בתו לת"ח משל לענבי הגפן בענבי הגפן דבר נאה ומתקבל ולא ישא בת עם הארץ משל לענבי הגפן בענבי הסנה דבר כעור 49a. strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bthe fourteenthof Nisan bthat occurs on Shabbat, one removes allleaven from his possession, whether it is iterumaor non-sacred food, bbefore Shabbat,except for that which will be eaten during the first part of Shabbat. In that case, one cannot remove leaven from his possession on the fourteenth of Nisan itself as he does in other years. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say:One may remove the leaven bat itsusual btimeon the fourteenth of Nisan by throwing it away or declaring it ownerless. bRabbi Eliezer bar Tzadok says: iTeruma /ishould be removed bbefore Shabbat,as only a few people are permitted to eat it and therefore one can presume that it will remain uneaten during Shabbat. However, bnon-sacredfoods should be removed bat theirusual btime,on the fourteenth of Nisan itself., strongGEMARA: /strong bIt was taughtin the iToseftathat bRabbi Eliezer bar Tzadok says: One time my father,Rabbi Tzadok, bspent Shabbat in Yavne, and the fourteenthof Nisan boccurred onthat bShabbat. Zonin,who was bthe appointee of Rabban Gamliel, came and said: The time has come to remove leavened bread; and I went with my father and we removed the leavened bread.This story serves as anecdotal evidence that leaven is removed at the usual time on the fourteenth of Nisan, even on Shabbat., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne who is travelingon the eve of Passover bto slaughter his Paschal lamb, to circumcise his son, or to eat a betrothal feast in his father-in-law’s house, and he remembers that he has leavened bread in his house, if he is able to returnto his house band removethe leaven and afterward breturn to the mitzvatoward which he was traveling, bhe should returnhome band removehis leaven. bBut ifthere is not enough time for him to go home and remove the leaven, and still complete the mitzva that he already began, bhe should nullify it in his heart,as by Torah law this is sufficient.,If one was traveling bto saveJews from an attack by bgentiles, from aflooding briver, from bandits, from a fire, or from a collapsedbuilding, he should not even attempt to return, and instead bhe should nullifythe leaven bin his heart.This applies even if he could remove his leaven and still return to his previous activity. If he went bto establish his Shabbatresidence in order to adjust his Shabbat limit for an boptionalpurpose, rather than in order to fulfill a commandment, bhe should return immediatelyto remove his leaven., bAnd so too,the same ihalakhaapplies to bone who left Jerusalem and remembered that there was consecrated meat in his hand.Meat that is taken out of Jerusalem becomes disqualified, and one is required to burn it in proximity to the Temple. bIf he passedthe area of Mount bScopus[iTzofim /i],beyond which one cannot see Jerusalem, bhe burnsthe meat bat the sitewhere bheis located; band ifhe has bnottraveled that far, bhe must return and burn it before the Temple with wood from the arrangementon the altar, which was designated for burning consecrated items that were disqualified.,The mishna asks: For bhow muchleaven or consecrated meat is one required bto return? Rabbi Meir says:In both bthiscase band thatcase, one must return for ban egg-bulk. Rabbi Yehuda says:In both bthiscase band thatcase, one must return for ban olive-bulk. And the Rabbis saythat the amount depends on the case: With regard to bconsecrated meat,he is required to return if he has ban olive-bulk, butin a case where he remembers that he has bleavened bread,he required to return only bfor an egg-bulk. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara braises a contradictionbetween this mishna and another source. It was taught in a ibaraita /i: bOne who is traveling to eat a betrothal feast in his father-in-law’s house or to establish his Shabbatresidence for an boptionalpurpose, bmust return immediatelyto remove his leaven. This contradicts the mishna, which states that one who is going to a betrothal feast may nullify the leaven without returning for it, because the meal is considered a mitzva., bRabbi Yoḥa said:This is bnot difficult,as there is a tannaitic dispute with regard to the issue. bThissource, the ibaraita /i, is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,while bthatsource, the mishna, is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yosei. As it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA betrothal feast is optional;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei says:It is a bmitzva. /b, bAnd now that Rav Ḥisda said: The disputebetween Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei applies to bthe secondbetrothal feast, where the groom takes part in an additional meal with the bride’s family, bbut everyone agrees that the firstbetrothal bfeast is a mitzva,the contradiction between the mishna and the ibaraitacan be resolved differently. bEven if you say that thismishna and bthat ibaraitaare both in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,it is bnot difficult. Thismishna, which relates to the meal as a mitzva, is referring to bthe first meal. That ibaraita /i, which assumes that the meal is not a mitzva, is referring to bthe second meal. /b, bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda said: I heard onlythat there is a mitzva with regard to a bbetrothal feastitself, bbut notwith regard to the feast of the bgifts [ isivlonot /i],when the groom would present gifts to the bride. While a festive meal was eaten on this occasion, it was not considered to be a mitzva. bRabbi Yosei said to him: I heardthat both ba betrothal feast andthe feast of the bgiftsare considered mitzvot.,Having discussed whether a betrothal feast is a mitzva, the Gemara addresses a related issue. bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon says: A Torah scholar may notderive bbenefit frompartaking in bany feast that is not a mitzva. /b,The Gemara asks: bIn what casedoes this statement apply? bRabbi Yoḥa said: In a casewhere bthe daughter of a priestmarries ban Israelite,or where bthe daughter of a Torah scholarmarries ban ignoramus.Although a wedding feast is generally a mitzva, it is not in this case, bas Rabbi Yoḥa said:When bthe daughter of a priestmarries ban Israelite their union will not be auspicious,as it is disgraceful for the priesthood when the daughter of a priest marries an Israelite.,The Gemara asks: bWhat ismeant by bthisstatement that their union will be inauspicious? bRav Ḥisda said:The inauspicious nature of such a marriage can be identified based on the verse describing the return of a daughter of a priest to her father’s house after marrying a non-priest. The verse is understood as mentioning that the marriage will result in one of three possibilities: she will beither be a widow, a divorcee, or without children(see Leviticus 22:13). bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i:Either her husband bwill bury her or she will bury him,because one of them will die young, bor she will cause him to become poor. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥahimself bsay: One who wishes to become wealthy should cling to the descendants of Aaron,and ball the more soshould the merit of the bTorahand the bpriesthood cause them to become wealthy.The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,as bthiscase, where he becomes wealthy, brefers to a Torah scholarwho marries a woman of priestly lineage. In that case their union will be a successful one. bThatcase, where their union will not be auspicious, refers to ban ignoramuswho marries a woman of priestly lineage.,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yehoshua married a daughter of a priestand bbecame ill. He said:Apparently, bit is not satisfactory to Aaronthe priest bthat I cling to his descendants, so that he has a son-in-law like me. /b,The Gemara also relates that bRav Idi bar Avin married a daughter of a priest. Two sonswho were bordainedto decide halakhic matters bcame from him,namely bRav Sheshet, son of Rav Idi, and Rabbi Yehoshua, son of Rav Idi.Similarly, bRav Pappa said: Had I not married a daughter of a priest, I would not have become wealthy. /b,On the other hand, bRav Kahana,who was not a priest, bsaid: Had I not married a daughter of a priest, I would not have been exiled,as Rav Kahana was forced to flee from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael. bThey said to him: But you were exiled to a place of Torah,which is not a punishment at all. He answered: bI was not exiled as people aregenerally bexiled,i.e., I did not emigrate of my own free will; rather, I was forced to flee from the authorities., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who benefits frompartaking in ban optional feast,which is not a mitzva, bwill ultimately be exiled, as it is stated: “And eat the lambs of the flock and the calves out of the midst of the stall”(Amos 6:4), band it is written: “Therefore now they shall go into exile at the head of the exiles;and the revelry of those who stretched themselves out shall pass away” (Amos 6:7).,The Gemara continues discussing a Torah scholar who benefits from optional feasts. bThe Sages taught: Any Torah scholar who feasts excessively everywheredegrades himself and brings suffering upon himself. He will bultimately destroy his house, widow his wife, orphan his chicks,i.e., his children, band his studies will be forgotten. Much dispute will come upon him, his words will not be heeded, and he will desecrate God’s name and the name of his master and the name of his father. And he will cause a bad name for himself, his children, and his descendants throughout future generations. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is thisbad reputation that he causes to himself and his descendants? bAbaye said:His son bis called the son[ibar/b] bof the one who heats ovens,since this person continually heated ovens in order to prepare food for feasts. bRava said:His son will be called bthe son of the one who dancesin binns [ ibei kuvei /i],as he seems to be invited to every feast to entertain the guests. bRav Pappa said:His son will be called bthe son of the one who licks bowls [ ipinkhei /i]. Rav Shemaya said:His son will be called bthe son of the one who foldshis garment band crouches,i.e., falls asleep drunk.,On the topic of proper marriage partners, the Gemara cites the following discussion. bThe Sages taught: One should alwaysbe willing to bsell all he hasin order to bmarry the daughter of a Torah scholar, as if he dies orif he bis exiledand he cannot raise his children, bhe can be assured that his sons will be Torah scholars,since their mother will ensure that they are well educated. bAnd one should not marry the daughter of an ignoramus, as if he dies or is exiled, his sons will be ignoramuses. /b,Furthermore, bthe Sages taught: One should alwaysbe willing to bsell all he hasin order to bmarry the daughter of a Torah scholar andin order to bmarry off his daughter to a Torah scholar.This type of marriage can be bcompared to grapes of a vinethat become intertwined bwith grapes of a vine, somethingwhich is bbeautiful and acceptableto God and man. bAnd one should not marry the daughter of an ignoramus.This type of marriage can be bcompared to grapes of a vinethat have become intertwined bwith berries of a bramble,which is bsomething unseemly /b
48. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

63a. והמלוה סלע לעני בשעת דחקו עליו הכתוב אומר (ישעיהו נח, ט) אז תקרא וה' יענה תשוע ויאמר הנני:,סי' אש"ה וקרק"ע עז"ר זא"ת שת"י הברכו"ת תגר"י פחת"י: א"ר אלעזר כל אדם שאין לו אשה אינו אדם שנאמר (בראשית ה, ב) זכר ונקבה בראם ויקרא את שמם אדם ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שאין לו קרקע אינו אדם שנא' (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני אדם,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (בראשית ב, יח) אעשה לו עזר כנגדו זכה עוזרתו לא זכה כנגדו ואיכא דאמרי ר' אלעזר רמי כתיב כנגדו וקרינן כניגדו זכה כנגדו לא זכה מנגדתו,אשכחיה רבי יוסי לאליהו א"ל כתיב אעשה לו עזר במה אשה עוזרתו לאדם א"ל אדם מביא חיטין חיטין כוסס פשתן פשתן לובש לא נמצאת מאירה עיניו ומעמידתו על רגליו,וא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (בראשית ב, כג) זאת הפעם עצם מעצמי ובשר מבשרי מלמד שבא אדם על כל בהמה וחיה ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שבא על חוה,ואמר ר' אלעזר מאי דכתיב (בראשית יב, ג) ונברכו בך כל משפחות האדמה אמר ליה הקב"ה לאברהם שתי ברכות טובות יש לי להבריך בך רות המואביה ונעמה העמונית כל משפחות האדמה אפילו משפחות הדרות באדמה אין מתברכות אלא בשביל ישראל (בראשית יח, יח) כל גויי הארץ אפילו ספינות הבאות מגליא לאספמיא אינן מתברכות אלא בשביל ישראל,ואמר רבי אלעזר עתידים כל בעלי אומניות שיעמדו על הקרקע שנאמר (יחזקאל כז, כט) וירדו מאניותיהם כל תופשי משוט מלחים כל חובלי הים על הארץ יעמדו ואמר ר' אלעזר אין לך אומנות פחותה מן הקרקע שנאמר וירדו רבי אלעזר חזיא לההיא ארעא דשדי ביה כרבא לפותיא א"ל אי תשדייה לאורכיך הפוכי בעיסקא טב מינך,רב על לביני שיבלי חזנהו דקא נייפן אמר להו אי נייפת איתנופי הפוכי בעיסקא טב מינך אמר רבא מאה זוזי בעיסקא כל יומא בשרא וחמרא מאה זוזי בארעא מילחא וחפורה ולא עוד אלא מגניא ליה אארעא ומרמיא ליה תיגרי,אמר רב פפא זרע ולא תזבין אע"ג דכי הדדי נינהו הני מברכן זבין ולא תיזול הני מילי ביסתרקי אבל גלימא לא מיתרמיא ליה,טום ולא תשפיץ שפוץ ולא תיבני שכל העוסק בבנין מתמסכן קפוץ זבין ארעא מתון נסיב איתתא נחית דרגא נסיב איתתא סק דרגא בחר שושבינא,א"ר אלעזר בר אבינא אין פורענות באה לעולם אלא בשביל ישראל שנאמר (צפניה ג, ו) הכרתי גוים נשמו פנותם החרבתי חוצותם וכתיב (צפניה ג, ז) אמרתי אך תיראי אותי תקחי מוסר,רב הוה מיפטר מרבי חייא אמר ליה רחמנא ליצלך ממידי דקשה ממותא ומי איכא מידי דקשה ממותא נפק דק ואשכח (קהלת ז, כו) ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה וגו' רב הוה קא מצערא ליה דביתהו כי אמר לה עבידי לי טלופחי עבדא ליה חימצי חימצי עבדא ליה טלופחי,כי גדל חייא בריה אפיך לה אמר ליה איעליא לך אמך אמר ליה אנא הוא דקא אפיכנא לה אמר ליה היינו דקא אמרי אינשי דנפיק מינך טעמא מלפך את לא תעביד הכי שנאמר (ירמיהו ט, ד) למדו לשונם דבר שקר העוה וגו',רבי חייא הוה קא מצערא ליה דביתהו כי הוה משכח מידי צייר ליה בסודריה ומייתי ניהלה אמר ליה רב והא קא מצערא ליה למר א"ל דיינו שמגדלות בנינו ומצילות אותנו 63a. band who lends a iselato a pauper at his time of need, about him the verse states: “Then shall you call, and the Lord will answer; you shall cry, and He will say: Here I am”(Isaiah 58:9).,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicdevice for a series of statements cited in the name of Rabbi Elazar: bWoman; and land; helper; this; two; the blessings; merchants; lowly.The Gemara presents these statements: bRabbi Elazar said: Any man who does not have a wife is not a man, as it is stated: “Male and female He created them…and called their name Adam”(Genesis 5:2). bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: Any man who does not havehis own bland is not a man, as it is stated: “The heavens are the heavens of the Lord; but the earth He has given to the children of men”(Psalms 115:16)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthatwhich bis written: “I will make him a helpmate for him [ ikenegdo /i]”(Genesis 2:18)? If one is bworthyhis wife bhelps him;if he is bnot worthyshe is bagainst him. And some saya slightly different version: bRabbi Elazar raised a contradiction: It is writtenin the Torah with a spelling that allows it to be read: bStriking him [ ikenagdo /i], and we readit as though it said: bFor him [ ikenegdo /i].If he is bworthyshe is bfor himas his helpmate; if he is bnot worthyshe bstrikes him. /b,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yosei encountered Elijahthe prophet and bsaid to him: It is written: I will make him a helpmate. In whatmanner bdoes a woman help a man?Elijah bsaid to him:When ba man brings wheatfrom the field, does he bchewraw bwheat?When he brings home bflax,does he bwearunprocessed bflax?His wife turns the raw products into bread and clothing. Is his wife bnot foundto be the one who blights up his eyes and stands him on his feet? /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthatwhich bis written: “This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh”(Genesis 2:23)? This bteaches that Adam had intercourse with each animal and beastin his search for his mate, band his mind was not at ease,in accordance with the verse: “And for Adam, there was not found a helpmate for him” (Genesis 2:20), buntil he had intercourse with Eve. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthatwhich bis written: “And in you shall all the families of the earth be blessed [ inivrekhu /i]”(Genesis 12:3)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham: I have two good shoots to graft[ilehavrikh/b] bonto you: Ruth the Moabite,the ancestress of the house of David, band Naamah the Ammonite,whose marriage with Solomon led to the ensuing dynasty of the kings of Judea. b“All the families of the earth”means: bEven families that live in the earth,i.e., who have land of their own, bare blessed only due to the Jewish people.Similarly, when the verse states: b“All the nations of the earthshall be blessed in him” (Genesis 18:18), it indicates that beven ships that come from Galia to Hispania are blessed only due to the Jewish people. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: All craftsmen are destined to stand uponand work bthe land, as it is stated: “And all that handle the oar, the mariners, and all the pilots of the sea, shall come down from their ships, they shall stand upon the land”(Ezekiel 27:29). bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: There is no occupation lowlier thanworking bthe land, as it is stated: “And they shall come down,”implying that one who works the land is of lower stature than even a sailor. The Gemara similarly relates: bRabbi Elazar saw land that was plowedacross bits width. He said to it:Even bif they plow youonce more blengthwise,for further improvement, bconducting business is better thanfarming with byou,as the potential profits gained by selling merchandise are far greater than those from working the land.,The Gemara relates a similar incident: bRav entered between the sheavesin a field and bsaw them wavingin the wind. bHe said to them: If youwant to bwavego ahead and bwave,but bconducting business is better thanfarming with byou. Ravasimilarly bsaid:One who has ba hundred dinarsthat are invested bina bbusinessis able to eat bmeat and wine every day,whereas he who has ba hundred dinarsworth bof landeats only bsalt and vegetables. And what is more,working the land bcauses him to lie on the groundat night in order to guard it, bandit bdraws quarrels upon himwith other people., bRav Pappa said: Sowyour own produce band do not buyit. bEven though they are equal to each otherin value, bthesethat you sow bwill be blessed.Conversely, bbuyyour clothes brather than weave [ iteizul /i]them yourself. The Gemara comments: bThis appliesonly to bmats [ ibistarkei /i], butwith regard to the bcloakone wears, perhaps bhe will not find itprecisely to his liking, and therefore he should make his own cloak, which fits his measurements.,Rav Pappa further advised: If there is a hole in your house, bcloseit bup and do notenlarge it and then bplasterit, or at least bplasterit band do notknock it down and bbuildit again. bAs, whoever engages in construction becomes poor. Hurryto bbuy landso that you do not lose the opportunity. Be bpatient and marry a womanwho is suitable for you. bDescend a levelto bmarry a womanof lower social status, and bascend a levelto bchoose a friend [ ishushevina /i]. /b, bRabbi Elazar bar Avina said: Calamity befalls the world only due tothe sins of bthe Jewish people, as it is stated: “I have cut off nations, their corners are desolate; I have made their streets waste”(Zephaniah 3:6), band it is written: “I said: Surely you will fear Me, you will receive correction”(Zephaniah 3:7). This indicates that other nations were punished so that the Jewish people would mend their ways.,The Gemara cites more statements with regard to wives. When bRav was taking leave ofhis uncle and teacher, bRabbi Ḥiyya,upon his return from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: May the Merciful One save you from something that is worse than death.Rav was perplexed: bIs there anything that is worse than death? He went, examinedthe sources, band foundthe following verse: b“And I find more bitter than death the woman, etc.”(Ecclesiastes 7:26). Rabbi Ḥiyya was hinting at this verse, and indeed, bRav’s wife wouldconstantly baggravate him. When he would say to her: Prepare me lentils, she would prepare him peas;if he asked her for bpeas, she would prepare him lentils. /b, bWhen Ḥiyya, his son, grew up, he would reversethe requests Rav asked him to convey bto her,so that Rav would get what he wanted. Rav bsaid tohis son Ḥiyya: bYour mother has improvednow that byouconvey my requests. bHe said toRav: bIt is I who reverseyour request bto her.Rav bsaid to him: This isan example of the well-known adage bthat people say:He bwho comes from you shall teach you wisdom;I should have thought of that idea myself. bYou,however, bshould not do so,i.e., reverse my request, bas it is stated: “They have taught their tongue to speak lies, theyweary themselves to bcommit iniquity, etc.”(Jeremiah 9:4). If you attribute such a request to me, you will have uttered a falsehood.,The Gemara relates a similar story. bRabbi Ḥiyya’s wife wouldconstantly baggravate him.Nevertheless, bwhen he would find somethingshe would appreciate, bhe would wrap it in his shawl and bringit bto her. Rav said to him: Doesn’t sheconstantly baggravate you?Why do you bring her things? Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: It is enough for usthat our wives braise our children and save us /b
49. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 4.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

50. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 4.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

51. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 4.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

52. Origen, Commentariorum Series In Evangelium Matthaei (Mt. 22.342763), 38 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

53. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, 10.11, 13.11, 13.23, 17.33 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.11. Again the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast into the sea. Matthew 13:47 As in the case of images and statues, the likenesses are not likenesses in every respect of those things in relation to which they are made; but, for example, the image painted with wax on the plane surface of wood has the likeness of the surface along with the color, but does not further preserve the hollows and prominences, but only their outward appearance; and in the moulding of statues an endeavour is made to preserve the likeness in respect of the hollows and the prominences, but not in respect of the color; and, if the cast be formed of wax, it endeavours to preserve both, I mean both the color and also the hollows and the prominences, but is not indeed an image of the things in the respect of depth; so conceive with me also that, in the case of the similitudes in the Gospel, when the kingdom of heaven is likened unto anything, the comparison does not extend to all the features of that to which the kingdom is compared, but only to those features which are required by the argument in hand. And here, accordingly, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast into the sea, not (as supposed by some, who represent that by this word the different natures of those who have come into the net, to-wit, the evil and the righteous, are treated of), as if it is to be thought that, because of the phrase which gathered of every kind, there are many different natures of the righteous and likewise also of the evil; for to such an interpretation all the Scriptures are opposed, which emphasise the freedom of the will, and censure those who sin and approve those who do right; or otherwise blame could not rightly attach to those of the kinds that were such by nature, nor praise to those of a better kind. For the reason why fishes are good or bad lies not in the souls of the fishes, but is based on that which the Word said with knowledge, Let the waters bring forth creeping things with living souls, Genesis 1:20 when, also, God made great sea-monsters and every soul of creeping creatures which the waters brought forth according to their kinds. Genesis 1:21 There, accordingly, The waters brought forth every soul of creeping animals according to their kinds, the cause not being in it; but here we are responsible for our being good kinds and worthy of what are called vessels, or bad and worthy of being cast outside. For it is not the nature in us which is the cause of the evil, but it is the voluntary choice which works evil; and so our nature is not the cause of righteousness, as if it were incapable of admitting unrighteousness, but it is the principle which we have admitted that makes men righteous; for also you never see the kinds of things in the water changing from the bad kinds of fishes into the good, or from the better kind to the worse; but you can always behold the righteous or evil among men either coming from wickedness to virtue, or returning from progress towards virtue to the flood of wickedness. Wherefore also in Ezekiel, concerning the man who turns away from unrighteousness to the keeping of the divine commandments, it is thus written: But if the wicked man turn away from all his wickednesses which he has done, etc., down to the words, that he turn from his wicked way and live; Ezekiel 18:20-23 but concerning the man who returns from the advance towards virtue unto the flood of wickedness it is said, But in the case of the righteous man turning away from his righteousness and committing iniquity, etc., down to the words, in his sins which he has sinned in them shall he die. Ezekiel 18:24 Let those who, from the parable of the drag-net, introduce the doctrine of different natures, tell us in regard to the wicked man who afterwards turned aside from all the wickednesses which he committed and keeps all the commandments of God, and does that which is righteous and merciful, of what nature was he when he was wicked? Clearly not of a nature to be praised. If verily of a nature to be censured, of what kind of nature can he reasonably be described, when he turns away from all his sins which he did? For if he were of the bad class of natures, because of his former deeds, how did he change to that which was better? Or if because of his subsequent deeds you would say that he was of the good class, how being good by nature did he become wicked? And you will also meet with a like dilemma in regard to the righteous man turning away from his righteousness and committing unrighteousness in all manner of sins. For before he turned away from righteousness, being occupied with righteous deeds he was not of a bad nature, for a bad nature could not be in righteousness, since a bad tree - that is wickedness- cannot produce good fruits - the fruits that spring from virtue. Again, on the other hand, if he had been of a good and unchangeable nature he would not have turned away from the good after being called righteous, so as to commit unrighteousness in all his sins which he committed. 13.11. And this may be put in another way. There are some who are kings' sons on the earth, and yet they are not sons of those kings, but sons, and sons absolutely; but others, because of their being strangers to the sons of the kings of the earth, and sons of no one of those upon the earth, but on this very account are sons, whether of God or of His Son, or of some one of those who are God's. If, then, the Saviour inquires of Peter, saying, The kings of the earth from whom do they receive toll or tribute - from their own sons or from strangers? Matthew 17:25 and Peter replies not from their own sons, but from strangers, then Jesus says about such as are strangers to the kings of the earth, and on account of being free are sons, Therefore the sons are free; Matthew 17:26 for the sons of the kings of the earth are not free, since every one that commits sin is the bond-servant of sin, John 8:34 but they are free who abide in the truth of the word of God, and on this account, know the truth, that they also may become free from sin. If, any one then, is a son simply, and not in this matter wholly a son of the kings of the earth, he is free. And nevertheless, though he is free, he takes care not to offend even the kings of the earth, and their sons, and those who receive the half-shekel; wherefore He says, Let us not cause them to stumble, but go and cast your net, and take up the fish that first comes up, Matthew 17:27 etc. But I would inquire of those who are pleased to make myths about different natures, of what sort of nature they were, whether the kings of the earth, or their sons, or those who receive the half-shekel, whom the Saviour does not wish to offend; it appears of a verity, ex hypothesi, that they are not of a nature worthy of praise, and yet He took heed not to cause them to stumble, and He prevents any stumbling-block being put in their way, that they may not sin more grievously, and that with a view to their being saved - if they will - even by receiving Him who has spared them from being caused to stumble. And as in a place verily of consolation - for such is, by interpretation, Capernaum - comforting the disciple as being both free and a son, He gives to him the power of catching the fish first, that when it came up Peter might be comforted by its coming up and being caught, and by the stater being taken from its mouth, in order to be paid to those whose the stater was, and who demanded as their own such a piece of money. 13.23. Next we must test accurately the meaning of the word necessity in the passage, For there is a necessity that the occasions come, Matthew 18:7 and to the like effect in Luke, It is 'inadmissible' but that occasions of stumbling should come, Luke 18:1 instead of impossible. And as it is necessary that that which is mortal should die, and it is impossible but that it should die, and as it must needs be that he who is in the body should be fed, for it is impossible for one who is not fed to live, so it is necessary and impossible but that occasions of stumbling should arise, since there is a necessity also that wickedness should exist before virtue in men, from which wickedness stumbling-blocks arise; for it is impossible that a man should be found altogether sinless, and who, without sin, has attained to virtue. For the wickedness in the evil powers, which is the primal source of the wickedness among men, is altogether eager to work through certain instruments against the men in the world. And perhaps also the wicked powers are more exasperated when they are cast out by the word of Jesus, and their worship is lessened, their customary sacrifices not being offered unto them; and there is a necessity that these offenses come; but there is no necessity that they should come through any particular one; wherefore the woe falls on the man through whom the stumbling-block comes, as he has given a place to the wicked power whose purpose it is to create a stumbling-block. But do not suppose that by nature, and from constitution, there are certain stumbling-blocks which seek out men through whom they come; for as God did not make death, so neither did He create stumbling-blocks; but free-will begot the stumbling-blocks in some who did not wish to endure toils for virtue.
54. Origen, On First Principles, 1.5.3, 1.8.1, 2.9.5-2.9.7, 3.1.8-3.1.9, 3.1.16, 3.1.18, 3.4.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5.3. After the enumeration, then, of so many and so important names of orders and offices, underlying which it is certain that there are personal existences, let us inquire whether God, the creator and founder of all things, created certain of them holy and happy, so that they could admit no element at all of an opposite kind, and certain others so that they were made capable both of virtue and vice; or whether we are to suppose that He created some so as to be altogether incapable of virtue, and others again altogether incapable of wickedness, but with the power of abiding only in a state of happiness, and others again such as to be capable of either condition. In order, now, that our first inquiry may begin with the names themselves, let us consider whether the holy angels, from the period of their first existence, have always been holy, and are holy still, and will be holy, and have never either admitted or had the power to admit any occasion of sin. Then in the next place, let us consider whether those who are called holy principalities began from the moment of their creation by God to exercise power over some who were made subject to them, and whether these latter were created of such a nature, and formed for the very purpose of being subject and subordinate. In like manner, also, whether those which are called powers were created of such a nature and for the express purpose of exercising power, or whether their arriving at that power and dignity is a reward and desert of their virtue. Moreover, also, whether those which are called thrones or seats gained that stability of happiness at the same time with their coming forth into being, so as to have that possession from the will of the Creator alone; or whether those which are called dominions had their dominion conferred on them, not as a reward for their proficiency, but as the peculiar privilege of their creation, so that it is something which is in a certain degree inseparable from them, and natural. Now, if we adopt the view that the holy angels, and the holy powers, and the blessed seats, and the glorious virtues, and the magnificent dominions, are to be regarded as possessing those powers and dignities and glories in virtue of their nature, it will doubtless appear to follow that those beings which have been mentioned as holding offices of an opposite kind must be regarded in the same manner; so that those principalities with whom we have to struggle are to be viewed, not as having received that spirit of opposition and resistance to all good at a later period, or as falling away from good through the freedom of the will, but as having had it in themselves as the essence of their being from the beginning of their existence. In like manner also will it be the case with the powers and virtues, in none of which was wickedness subsequent or posterior to their first existence. Those also whom the apostle termed rulers and princes of the darkness of this world, are said, with respect to their rule and occupation of darkness, to fall not from perversity of intention, but from the necessity of their creation. Logical reasoning will compel us to take the same view with regard to wicked and maligt spirits and unclean demons. But if to entertain this view regarding maligt and opposing powers seem to be absurd, as it is certainly absurd that the cause of their wickedness should be removed from the purpose of their own will, and ascribed of necessity to their Creator, why should we not also be obliged to make a similar confession regarding the good and holy powers, that, viz., the good which is in them is not theirs by essential being, which we have manifestly shown to be the case with Christ and the Holy Spirit alone, as undoubtedly with the Father also? For it was proved that there was nothing compound in the nature of the Trinity, so that these qualities might seem to belong to it as accidental consequences. From which it follows, that in the case of every creature it is a result of his own works and movements, that those powers which appear either to hold sway over others or to exercise power or dominion, have been preferred to and placed over those whom they are said to govern or exercise power over, and not in consequence of a peculiar privilege inherent in their constitutions, but on account of merit. 1.8.1. A similar method must be followed in treating of the angels; nor are we to suppose that it is the result of accident that a particular office is assigned to a particular angel: as to Raphael, e.g., the work of curing and healing; to Gabriel, the conduct of wars; to Michael, the duty of attending to the prayers and supplications of mortals. For we are not to imagine that they obtained these offices otherwise than by their own merits, and by the zeal and excellent qualities which they severally displayed before this world was formed; so that afterwards in the order of archangels, this or that office was assigned to each one, while others deserved to be enrolled in the order of angels, and to act under this or that archangel, or that leader or head of an order. All of which things were disposed, as I have said, not indiscriminately and fortuitously, but by a most appropriate and just decision of God, who arranged them according to deserts, in accordance with His own approval and judgment: so that to one angel the Church of the Ephesians was to be entrusted; to another, that of the Smyrnæans; one angel was to be Peter's, another Paul's; and so on through every one of the little ones that are in the Church, for such and such angels as even daily behold the face of God must be assigned to each one of them; and there must also be some angel that encamps round about them that fear God. All of which things, assuredly, it is to be believed, are not performed by accident or chance, or because they (the angels) were so created, lest on that view the Creator should be accused of partiality; but it is to be believed that they were conferred by God, the just and impartial Ruler of all things, agreeably to the merits and good qualities and mental vigour of each individual spirit. 2.9.5. Now, when we say that this world was established in the variety in which we have above explained that it was created by God, and when we say that this God is good, and righteous, and most just, there are numerous individuals, especially those who, coming from the school of Marcion, and Valentinus, and Basilides, have heard that there are souls of different natures, who object to us, that it cannot consist with the justice of God in creating the world to assign to some of His creatures an abode in the heavens, and not only to give such a better habitation, but also to grant them a higher and more honourable position; to favour others with the grant of principalities; to bestow powers upon some, dominions on others; to confer upon some the most honourable seats in the celestial tribunals; to enable some to shine with more resplendent glory, and to glitter with a starry splendour; to give to some the glory of the sun, to others the glory of the moon, to others the glory of the stars; to cause one star to differ from another star in glory. And, to speak once for all, and briefly, if the Creator God wants neither the will to undertake nor the power to complete a good and perfect work, what reason can there be that, in the creation of rational natures, i.e., of beings of whose existence He Himself is the cause, He should make some of higher rank, and others of second, or third, or of many lower and inferior degrees? In the next place, they object to us, with regard to terrestrial beings, that a happier lot by birth is the case with some rather than with others; as one man, e.g., is begotten of Abraham, and born of the promise; another, too, of Isaac and Rebekah, and who, while still in the womb, supplants his brother, and is said to be loved by God before he is born. Nay, this very circumstance — especially that one man is born among the Hebrews, with whom he finds instruction in the divine law; another among the Greeks, themselves also wise, and men of no small learning; and then another among the Ethiopians, who are accustomed to feed on human flesh; or among the Scythians, with whom parricide is an act sanctioned by law; or among the people of Taurus, where strangers are offered in sacrifice — is a ground of strong objection. Their argument accordingly is this: If there be this great diversity of circumstances, and this diverse and varying condition by birth, in which the faculty of free-will has no scope (for no one chooses for himself either where, or with whom, or in what condition he is born); if, then, this is not caused by the difference in the nature of souls, i.e., that a soul of an evil nature is destined for a wicked nation, and a good soul for a righteous nation, what other conclusion remains than that these things must be supposed to be regulated by accident and chance? And if that be admitted, then it will be no longer believed that the world was made by God, or administered by His providence; and as a consequence, a judgment of God upon the deeds of each individual will appear a thing not to be looked for. In which matter, indeed, what is clearly the truth of things is the privilege of Him alone to know who searches all things, even the deep things of God. 2.9.6. We, however, although but men, not to nourish the insolence of the heretics by our silence, will return to their objections such answers as occur to us, so far as our abilities enable us. We have frequently shown, by those declarations which we were able to produce from the holy Scriptures, that God, the Creator of all things, is good, and just, and all-powerful. When He in the beginning created those beings which He desired to create, i.e., rational natures, He had no other reason for creating them than on account of Himself, i.e., His own goodness. As He Himself, then, was the cause of the existence of those things which were to be created, in whom there was neither any variation nor change, nor want of power, He created all whom He made equal and alike, because there was in Himself no reason for producing variety and diversity. But since those rational creatures themselves, as we have frequently shown, and will yet show in the proper place, were endowed with the power of free-will, this freedom of will incited each one either to progress by imitation of God, or reduced him to failure through negligence. And this, as we have already stated, is the cause of the diversity among rational creatures, deriving its origin not from the will or judgment of the Creator, but from the freedom of the individual will. Now God, who deemed it just to arrange His creatures according to their merit, brought down these different understandings into the harmony of one world, that He might adorn, as it were, one dwelling, in which there ought to be not only vessels of gold and silver, but also of wood and clay (and some indeed to honour, and others to dishonour), with those different vessels, or souls, or understandings. And these are the causes, in my opinion, why that world presents the aspect of diversity, while Divine Providence continues to regulate each individual according to the variety of his movements, or of his feelings and purpose. On which account the Creator will neither appear to be unjust in distributing (for the causes already mentioned) to every one according to his merits; nor will the happiness or unhappiness of each one's birth, or whatever be the condition that falls to his lot, be deemed accidental; nor will different creators, or souls of different natures, be believed to exist. 2.9.7. But even holy Scripture does not appear to me to be altogether silent on the nature of this secret, as when the Apostle Paul, in discussing the case of Jacob and Esau, says: For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of Him who calls, it was said, The elder shall serve the younger, as it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. And after that, he answers himself, and says, What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? And that he might furnish us with an opportunity of inquiring into these matters, and of ascertaining how these things do not happen without a reason, he answers himself, and says, God forbid. For the same question, as it seems to me, which is raised concerning Jacob and Esau, may be raised regarding all celestial and terrestrial creatures, and even those of the lower world as well. And in like manner it seems to me, that as he there says, The children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, so it might also be said of all other things, When they were not yet created, neither had yet done any good or evil, that the decree of God according to election may stand, that (as certain think) some things on the one hand were created heavenly, some on the other earthly, and others, again, beneath the earth, not of works (as they think), but of Him who calls, what shall we say then, if these things are so? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid. As, therefore, when the Scriptures are carefully examined regarding Jacob and Esau, it is not found to be unrighteousness with God that it should be said, before they were born, or had done anything in this life, the elder shall serve the younger; and as it is found not to be unrighteousness that even in the womb Jacob supplanted his brother, if we feel that he was worthily beloved by God, according to the deserts of his previous life, so as to deserve to be preferred before his brother; so also is it with regard to heavenly creatures, if we notice that diversity was not the original condition of the creature, but that, owing to causes that have previously existed, a different office is prepared by the Creator for each one in proportion to the degree of his merit, on this ground, indeed, that each one, in respect of having been created by God an understanding, or a rational spirit, has, according to the movements of his mind and the feelings of his soul, gained for himself a greater or less amount of merit, and has become either an object of love to God, or else one of dislike to Him; while, nevertheless, some of those who are possessed of greater merit are ordained to suffer with others for the adorning of the state of the world, and for the discharge of duty to creatures of a lower grade, in order that by this means they themselves may be participators in the endurance of the Creator, according to the words of the apostle: For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who has subjected the same in hope. Keeping in view, then, the sentiment expressed by the apostle, when, speaking of the birth of Esau and Jacob, he says, Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid, I think it right that this same sentiment should be carefully applied to the case of all other creatures, because, as we formerly remarked, the righteousness of the Creator ought to appear in everything. And this, it appears to me, will be seen more clearly at last, if each one, whether of celestial or terrestrial or infernal beings, be said to have the causes of his diversity in himself, and antecedent to his bodily birth. For all things were created by the Word of God, and by His Wisdom, and were set in order by His Justice. And by the grace of His compassion He provides for all men, and encourages all to the use of whatever remedies may lead to their cure, and incites them to salvation. 3.1.8. Let us begin, then, with those words which were spoken to Pharaoh, who is said to have been hardened by God, in order that he might not let the people go; and, along with his case, the language of the apostle also will be considered, where he says, Therefore He has mercy on whom He will, and whom He will He hardens. For it is on these passages chiefly that the heretics rely, asserting that salvation is not in our own power, but that souls are of such a nature as must by all means be either lost or saved; and that in no way can a soul which is of an evil nature become good, or one which is of a virtuous nature be made bad. And hence they maintain that Pharaoh, too, being of a ruined nature, was on that account hardened by God, who hardens those that are of an earthly nature, but has compassion on those who are of a spiritual nature. Let us see, then, what is the meaning of their assertion; and let us, in the first place, request them to tell us whether they maintain that the soul of Pharaoh was of an earthly nature, such as they term lost. They will undoubtedly answer that it was of an earthly nature. If so, then to believe God, or to obey Him, when his nature opposed his so doing, was an impossibility. And if this were his condition by nature, what further need was there for his heart to be hardened, and this not once, but several times, unless indeed because it was possible for him to yield to persuasion? Nor could any one be said to be hardened by another, save him who of himself was not obdurate. And if he were not obdurate of himself, it follows that neither was he of an earthly nature, but such an one as might give way when overpowered by signs and wonders. But he was necessary for God's purpose, in order that, for the saving of the multitude, He might manifest in him His power by his offering resistance to numerous miracles, and struggling against the will of God, and his heart being by this means said to be hardened. Such are our answers, in the first place, to these persons; and by these their assertion may be overturned, according to which they think that Pharaoh was destroyed in consequence of his evil nature. And with regard to the language of the Apostle Paul, we must answer them in a similar way. For who are they whom God hardens, according to your view? Those, namely, whom you term of a ruined nature, and who, I am to suppose, would have done something else had they not been hardened. If, indeed, they come to destruction in consequence of being hardened, they no longer perish naturally, but in virtue of what befalls them. Then, in the next place, upon whom does God show mercy? On those, namely, who are to be saved. And in what respect do those persons stand in need of a second compassion, who are to be saved once by their nature, and so come naturally to blessedness, except that it is shown even from their case, that, because it was possible for them to perish, they therefore obtain mercy, that so they may not perish, but come to salvation, and possess the kingdom of the good. And let this be our answer to those who devise and invent the fable of good or bad natures, i.e., of earthly or spiritual souls, in consequence of which, as they say, each one is either saved or lost. 3.1.8. Let us begin, then, with what is said about Pharaoh— that he was hardened by God, that he might not send away the people; along with which will be examined also the statement of the apostle, Therefore has He mercy on whom He will have mercy, and whom He will He hardens. And certain of those who hold different opinions misuse these passages, themselves also almost destroying free-will by introducing ruined natures incapable of salvation, and others saved which it is impossible can be lost; and Pharaoh, they say, as being of a ruined nature, is therefore hardened by God, who has mercy upon the spiritual, but hardens the earthly. Let us see now what they mean. For we shall ask them if Pharaoh was of an earthy nature; and when they answer, we shall say that he who is of an earthy nature is altogether disobedient to God: but if disobedient, what need is there of his heart being hardened, and that not once, but frequently? Unless perhaps, since it was possible for him to obey (in which case he would certainly have obeyed, as not being earthy, when hard pressed by the signs and wonders), God needs him to be disobedient to a greater degree, in order that He may manifest His mighty deeds for the salvation of the multitude, and therefore hardens his heart. This will be our answer to them in the first place, in order to overturn their supposition that Pharaoh was of a ruined nature. And the same reply must be given to them with respect to the statement of the apostle. For whom does God harden? Those who perish, as if they would obey unless they were hardened, or manifestly those who would be saved because they are not of a ruined nature. And on whom has He mercy? Is it on those who are to be saved? And how is there need of a second mercy for those who have been prepared once for salvation, and who will by all means become blessed on account of their nature? Unless perhaps, since they are capable of incurring destruction, if they did not receive mercy, they will obtain mercy, in order that they may not incur that destruction of which they are capable, but may be in the condition of those who are saved. And this is our answer to such persons. 3.1.9. And now we must return an answer also to those who would have the God of the law to be just only, and not also good; and let us ask such in what manner they consider the heart of Pharaoh to have been hardened by God— by what acts or by what prospective arrangements. For we must observe the conception of a God who in our opinion is both just and good, but according to them only just. And let them show us how a God whom they also acknowledge to be just, can with justice cause the heart of a man to be hardened, that, in consequence of that very hardening, he may sin and be ruined. And how shall the justice of God be defended, if He Himself is the cause of the destruction of those whom, owing to their unbelief (through their being hardened), He has afterwards condemned by the authority of a judge? For why does He blame him, saying, But since you will not let My people go, lo, I will smite all the first-born in Egypt, even your first-born, and whatever else was spoken through Moses by God to Pharaoh? For it behooves every one who maintains the truth of what is recorded in Scripture, and who desires to show that the God of the law and the prophets is just, to render a reason for all these things, and to show how there is in them nothing at all derogatory to the justice of God, since, although they deny His goodness, they admit that He is a just judge, and creator of the world. Different, however, is the method of our reply to those who assert that the creator of this world is a maligt being, i.e., a devil. 3.1.9. But to those who think they understand the term hardened, we must address the inquiry, What do they mean by saying that God, by His working, hardens the heart, and with what purpose does He do this? For let them observe the conception of a God who is in reality just and good; but if they will not allow this, let it be conceded to them for the present that He is just; and let them show how the good and just God, or the just God only, appears to be just, in hardening the heart of him who perishes because of his being hardened: and how the just God becomes the cause of destruction and disobedience, when men are chastened by Him on account of their hardness and disobedience. And why does He find fault with him, saying, You will not let My people go; Lo, I will smite all the first-born in Egypt, even your first-born; and whatever else is recorded as spoken from God to Pharaoh through the intervention of Moses? For he who believes that the Scriptures are true, and that God is just, must necessarily endeavour, if he be honest, to show how God, in using such expressions, may be distinctly understood to be just. But if any one should stand, declaring with uncovered head that the Creator of the world was inclined to wickedness, we should need other words to answer them. 3.1.16. There is next brought before us that declaration uttered by the Saviour in the Gospel: That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest they should happen to be converted, and their sins be forgiven them. On which our opponent will remark: If those who shall hear more distinctly are by all means to be corrected and converted, and converted in such a manner as to be worthy of receiving the remission of sins, and if it be not in their own power to hear the word distinctly, but if it depend on the Instructor to teach more openly and distinctly, while he declares that he does not proclaim to them the word with clearness, lest they should perhaps hear and understand, and be converted, and be saved, it will follow, certainly, that their salvation is not dependent upon themselves. And if this be so, then we have no free-will either as regards salvation or destruction. Now were it not for the words that are added, Lest perhaps they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them, we might be more inclined to return the answer, that the Saviour was unwilling that those individuals whom He foresaw would not become good, should understand the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, and that therefore He spoke to them in parables; but as that addition follows, Lest perhaps they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them, the explanation is rendered more difficult. And, in the first place, we have to notice what defense this passage furnishes against those heretics who are accustomed to hunt out of the Old Testament any expressions which seem, according to their view, to predicate severity and cruelty of God the Creator, as when He is described as being affected with the feeling of vengeance or punishment, or by any of those emotions, however named, from which they deny the existence of goodness in the Creator; for they do not judge of the Gospels with the same mind and feelings, and do not observe whether any such statements are found in them as they condemn and censure in the Old Testament. For manifestly, in the passage referred to, the Saviour is shown, as they themselves admit, not to speak distinctly, for this very reason, that men may not be converted, and when converted, receive the remission of sins. Now, if the words be understood according to the letter merely, nothing less, certainly, will be contained in them than in those passages which they find fault with in the Old Testament. And if they are of opinion that any expressions occurring in such a connection in the New Testament stand in need of explanation, it will necessarily follow that those also occurring in the Old Testament, which are the subject of censure, may be freed from aspersion by an explanation of a similar kind, so that by such means the passages found in both Testaments may be shown to proceed from one and the same God. But let us return, as we best may, to the question proposed. 3.1.16. There was after this the passage from the Gospel, where the Saviour said, that for this reason did He speak to those without in parables, that seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not understand; lest they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them. Now, our opponent will say, If some persons are assuredly converted on hearing words of greater clearness, so that they become worthy of the remission of sins, and if it does not depend upon themselves to hear these words of greater clearness, but upon him who teaches, and he for this reason does not announce them to them more distinctly, lest they should see and understand, it is not within the power of such to be saved; and if so, we are not possessed of free-will as regards salvation and destruction. Effectual, indeed, would be the reply to such arguments, were it not for the addition, Lest they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them,— namely, that the Saviour did not wish those who were not to become good and virtuous to understand the more mystical (parts of His teaching), and for this reason spoke to them in parables; but now, on account of the words, Lest they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them, the defense is more difficult. In the first place, then, we must notice the passage in its bearing on the heretics, who hunt out those portions from the Old Testament where is exhibited, as they themselves daringly assert, the cruelty of the Creator of the world in His purpose of avenging and punishing the wicked, or by whatever other name they wish to designate such a quality, so speaking only that they may say that goodness does not exist in the Creator; and who do not deal with the New Testament in a similar manner, nor in a spirit of candour, but pass by places similar to those which they consider censurable in the Old Testament. For manifestly, and according to the Gospel, is the Saviour shown, as they assert, by His former words, not to speak distinctly for this reason, that men might not be converted, and, being converted, might become deserving of the remission of sins: which statement of itself is nothing inferior to those passages from the Old Testament which are objected to. And if they seek to defend the Gospel, we must ask them whether they are not acting in a blameworthy manner in dealing differently with the same questions; and, while not stumbling against the New Testament, but seeking to defend it, they nevertheless bring a charge against the Old regarding similar points, whereas they ought to offer a defense in the same way of the passages from the New. And therefore we shall force them, on account of the resemblances, to regard all as the writings of one God. Come, then, and let us, to the best of our ability, furnish an answer to the question submitted to us. 3.1.18. Let us now look to the expression, It is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For our opponents assert, that if it does not depend upon him that wills, nor on him that runs, but on God that shows mercy, that a man be saved, our salvation is not in our own power. For our nature is such as to admit of our either being saved or not, or else our salvation rests solely on the will of Him who, if He wills it, shows mercy, and confers salvation. Now let us inquire, in the first place, of such persons, whether to desire blessings be a good or evil act; and whether to hasten after good as a final aim be worthy of praise. If they were to answer that such a procedure was deserving of censure, they would evidently be mad; for all holy men both desire blessings and run after them, and certainly are not blameworthy. How, then, is it that he who is not saved, if he be of an evil nature, desires blessing, and runs after them, but does not find them? For they say that a bad tree does not bring forth good fruits, whereas it is a good fruit to desire blessings. And how is the fruit of a bad tree good? And if they assert that to desire blessings, and to run after them, is an act of indifference, i.e., neither good nor bad, we shall reply, that if it be an indifferent act to desire blessings, and to run after them, then the opposite of that will also be an indifferent act, viz., to desire evils, and to run after them; whereas it is certain that it is not an indifferent act to desire evils, and to run after them, but one that is manifestly wicked. It is established, then, that to desire and follow after blessings is not an indifferent, but a virtuous proceeding. 3.1.18. Let us look next at the passage: So, then, it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For they who find fault say: If it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy, salvation does not depend upon ourselves, but upon the arrangement made by Him who has formed us such as we are, or on the purpose of Him who shows mercy when he pleases. Now we must ask these persons the following questions: Whether to desire what is good is virtuous or vicious; and whether the desire to run in order to reach the goal in the pursuit of what is good be worthy of praise or censure? And if they shall say that it is worthy of censure, they will return an absurd answer; since the saints desire and run, and manifestly in so acting do nothing that is blameworthy. But if they shall say that it is virtuous to desire what is good, and to run after what is good, we shall ask them how a perishing nature desires better things; for it is like an evil tree producing good fruit, since it is a virtuous act to desire better things. They will give (perhaps) a third answer, that to desire and run after what is good is one of those things that are indifferent, and neither beautiful nor wicked. Now to this we must say, that if to desire and to run after what is good be a thing of indifference, then the opposite also is a thing of indifference, viz., to desire what is evil, and to run after it. But it is not a thing of indifference to desire what is evil, and to run after it. And therefore also, to desire what is good, and to run after it, is not a thing of indifference. Such, then, is the defense which I think we can offer to the statement, that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. Solomon says in the book of Psalms (for the Song of Degrees is his, from which we shall quote the words): Unless the Lord build the house, they labour in vain that build it; except the Lord keep the city, the watchman wakes in vain: not dissuading us from building, nor teaching us not to keep watch in order to guard the city in our soul, but showing that what is built without God, and does not receive a guard from Him, is built in vain and watched to no purpose, because God might reasonably be entitled the Lord of the building; and the Governor of all things, the Ruler of the guard of the city. As, then, if we were to say that such a building is not the work of the builder, but of God, and that it was not owing to the successful effort of the watcher, but of the God who is over all, that such a city suffered no injury from its enemies, we should not be wrong, it being understood that something also had been done by human means, but the benefit being gratefully referred to God who brought it to pass; so, seeing that the (mere) human desire is not sufficient to attain the end, and that the running of those who are, as it were, athletes, does not enable them to gain the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus — for these things are accomplished with the assistance of God — it is well said that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. As if also it were said with regard to husbandry what also is actually recorded: I planted, Apollos watered; and God gave the increase. So then neither is he that plants anything, neither he that waters; but God that gives the increase. Now we could not piously assert that the production of full crops was the work of the husbandman, or of him that watered, but the work of God. So also our own perfection is brought about, not as if we ourselves did nothing; for it is not completed by us, but God produces the greater part of it. And that this assertion may be more clearly believed, we shall take an illustration from the art of navigation. For in comparison with the effect of the winds, and the mildness of the air, and the light of the stars, all co-operating in the preservation of the crew, what proportion could the art of navigation be said to bear in the bringing of the ship into harbour? — since even the sailors themselves, from piety, do not venture to assert often that they had saved the ship, but refer all to God; not as if they had done nothing, but because what had been done by Providence was infinitely greater than what had been effected by their art. And in the matter of our salvation, what is done by God is infinitely greater than what is done by ourselves; and therefore, I think, is it said that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For if in the manner which they imagine we must explain the statement, that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy, the commandments are superfluous; and it is in vain that Paul himself blames some for having fallen away, and approves of others as having remained upright, and enacts laws for the Churches: it is in vain also that we give ourselves up to desire better things, and in vain also (to attempt) to run. But it is not in vain that Paul gives such advice, censuring some and approving of others; nor in vain that we give ourselves up to the desire of better things, and to the chase after things that are pre-eminent. They have accordingly not well explained the meaning of the passage. 3.4.5. With respect, however, to the following being ranked among the works of the flesh, viz., heresies, and envyings, and contentions, or other (vices), they so understand the passage, that the mind, being rendered grosser in feeling, from its yielding itself to the passions of the body, and being oppressed by the mass of its vices, and having no refined or spiritual feelings, is said to be made flesh, and derives its name from that in which it exhibits more vigour and force of will. They also make this further inquiry, Who will be found, or who will be said to be, the creator of this evil sense, called the sense of the flesh? Because they defend the opinion that there is no other creator of soul and flesh than God. And if we were to assert that the good God created anything in His own creation that was hostile to Himself, it would appear to be a manifest absurdity. If, then, it is written, that carnal wisdom is enmity against God, and if this be declared to be a result of creation, God Himself will appear to have formed a nature hostile to Himself, which cannot be subject to Him nor to His law, as if it were (supposed to be) an animal of which such qualities are predicated. And if this view be admitted, in what respect will it appear to differ from that of those who maintain that souls of different natures are created, which, according to their natures, are destined either to be lost or saved? But this is an opinion of the heretics alone, who, not being able to maintain the justice of God on grounds of piety, compose impious inventions of this kind. And now we have brought forward to the best of our ability, in the person of each of the parties, what might be advanced by way of argument regarding the several views, and let the reader choose out of them for himself that which he thinks ought to be preferred.
55. Origen, Fragments On 1 Corinthians, 34 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

56. Origen, Homilies On Ezekiel, 2.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

57. Origen, Philocalia, 25.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

58. Origen, Philocalia, 25.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

59. Plotinus, Enneads, 2.9.9-2.9.10 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

60. Augustine, Reply To Faustus, 13.7-13.14, 13.16 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

61. Augustine, De Correptione Et Gratia, 23 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

62. Augustine, De Ordine Libri Duo, 2.12 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

63. Nemesius, On The Nature of Man, 39-41, 35 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

64. Anon., Prayer of Manasseh, 11



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, offspring Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
abraham, the patriarch, descent from Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
abraham Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 190
adam Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
adversus ioudaios writings Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 87
akiva, r. Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 224
alexander of aphrodisias Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
ancestors Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
anima/soul Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
animals, sacred, protecting the byproducts of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219
antitheses (marcion) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
apistia, apistos, of israelites Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 170, 171
apistia, apistos Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 171
apocalyptic Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
apostle, paul Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
arboriculture Arampapaslis, Augoustakis, Froedge, Schroer, Dynamics Of Marginality: Liminal Characters and Marginal Groups in Neronian and Flavian Literature (2023) 30
arriano, contra faustum manichaeum Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 182
assimilation, to god/gods Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 157
athena Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 220, 221
augustines works, conf. Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
augustines works, corrept. Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
augustines works, ord. Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
augustines works, simpl. Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
aurelius, marcus Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
basilides Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542; Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
bloom, harold Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
body Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 299
borders v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 372
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 372
boyarin, daniel, a radical jew Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 3
boyarin, daniel, on circumcision Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
boyarin, daniel, on divine performance Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
boyarin, daniel, on identity of israel Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 20, 21, 24
boyarin, daniel, poststructuralism of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19, 20
christianity, adversus ioudaios writings of Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 87
christianity, relation to judaism Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 3
church, as new israel Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
cicero Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
circumcision, boyarin on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
circumcision, in jewish identity Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
circumcision, of the heart Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
circumcision Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 372
city Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
compassion, conversion, significance of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
consecration, of foodstuffs Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 207
consecration, of trees Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224
consecration, protections for derivatives and byproducts of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219
damascus Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
damnation, eternal Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 293
daniel Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
danielic (see also enochic) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
david Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 190; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
davidic king Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 246
davidic son, son of david Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 246
determinism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 293
diaspora, general Arampapaslis, Augoustakis, Froedge, Schroer, Dynamics Of Marginality: Liminal Characters and Marginal Groups in Neronian and Flavian Literature (2023) 30
difference, erasure of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
disclosure Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 299
divine performance, boyarin on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
divine performance, paul on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 20
dough offering Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 207, 224
doxology Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
dupied Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 185, 293
elchasaites Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
eleazar, r. Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 222
election/elect Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 185
elijah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
elisha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
enoch Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
enochic tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
epictetus Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
evil will, stoic dead will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
evil will, stoic non-free free will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
evil will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38, 293
exile Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
ezra Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 190
faith, faithfulness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
faith/belief, as gods gift Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
faith/belief, initial faith Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
faith/belief Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
faith Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
fate/fatalism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38, 185, 293
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 246
faustus of milevus, augustine against Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 182
flesh Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
fleshly, definition of Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 79
foreknowledge Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14
forgiveness Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 190
fortunatus the manichaean Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
free choice/free will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 293
friendship, differences between divine and human Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 157
genealogy, as flesh Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
gentile Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
gentiles, gentile, nations Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
gentiles Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 372
gift Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
gnosticism, as heretical or other Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
gnosticism, specific doctrines Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
gnosticism/gnostics Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 185, 293
gnostics and gnosticism, hermeneutics of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
gnostics and gnosticism, secret or oral tradition, belief in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
gnostics and gnosticism Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
god, intervention of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
god, representations of, creator Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 208
god (pauline), character (love) Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 157
gods goodness Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 190
gospel Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
grace, and faith Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
grace, discriminatory grace/salvation Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 170, 171; Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 185, 293
grafting Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224
greece, sacred trees in Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 220, 221, 224
greek Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
hagar, paul on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
hays, richard b., echoes of scripture in the letters of paul Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
heave-offering Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 207, 224
hekdesh, protection of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219
heracleon (gnostic) Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
hermeneutics Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 85
holy spirit Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
identity, christian, and human diversity Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 20
identity, christian, pauls concept of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 3
identity, jewish, circumcision in Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
identity, jewish, transformation of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
identity of jesus christ in pre-existence, earthly life, death, risen and exalted life Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 171
insitio Arampapaslis, Augoustakis, Froedge, Schroer, Dynamics Of Marginality: Liminal Characters and Marginal Groups in Neronian and Flavian Literature (2023) 30
inspiration, divine Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
irenaeus Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14
israel, and gentiles deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
israel, community of, as textual signifier Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 20, 21, 24
israel, community of, boyarin on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
israel, community of, christian understanding of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 3
israel, community of, paul on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 3, 21, 24, 226
israel, community of, transformation of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 20, 21, 24
israel Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
jericho, consecrated sycamore trees at Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 221, 222
jerusalem Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 372
jerusalem church Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
jerusalem community, church Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
jesus, disciples, early followers, messianic movement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
jesus, failure of his messianic enterprise vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
jew(ish) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 372
jewish-christian tradition, custom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
jewish other, ritual Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
jews and gentiles, in the church deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
john Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 87
john (the baptist) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
joseph Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
joshua Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 190
judah, r. Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 224
judaism, relation to christianity Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 3
justice, righteousness, divine attribute Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
justice, righteousness, human attribute Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
justification' Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 246
kingdom of god Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 79
knowledge, pauline Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 157
land of israel Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
law, the, in origen Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
law Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
letter and spirit, paul on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19, 20
levi, r. Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 223, 224
levites, as recipients of prebendary entitlements Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 207
life, eternal Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 79
light Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 436
lords supper Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 208
luke, gospel of, as pauline gospel Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
magi, elision with gnosticism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
magi, on law and the old testament Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
mani and manichaeans Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
manichaeans, augustine on Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 182
manichaeans, on paul the apostle Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 182
manichaeans, on the new testament Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 182
manichaeism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38, 185, 293
marcion and marcionites, antitheses (marcion) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
marcion and marcionites, canon of new testament and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
marcion and marcionites, hermeneutics of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
marriage, heretical contempt for Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
martyrdom, heretics sophistically avoid Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
maturation Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 79
meaning, pauls conception of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 21
meaning, promise as Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
mesopotamians Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
messiah, jesus as Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 3, 21
midrash, midrashic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
mistranslations Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
moral criticism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
moral formation, involvement of god/gods within Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 157
moral formation, love in Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 157
moriai Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 220, 221, 224
moses Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
mysterion Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 299
nag hammadi Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14
nemesios Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
neoplatonism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38, 185
new testament, and adversus ioudaios Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 87
non-jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 372
old testament, augustine on Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 182
old testament, christian reading of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 3
old testament, defense as christian scripture Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
old testament, faulhaber on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 3
origen, on gnosticism as heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
origen Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14
paedobaptism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
palestinian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
paul, and protecting derivatives of agricultural consecrations Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219
paul, and proto-rabbinic tradition Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219, 222
paul, and sacred admixtures Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 207
paul, and the olive tree metaphor in romans Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224
paul, pauline Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
paul, the apostle, conception of meaning Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 21
paul, the apostle, epistle to the romans Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 3, 20, 21, 24
paul, the apostle, interpretation of israel Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 3, 24, 226
paul, the apostle, jewish identity of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19, 20
paul, the apostle, on letter and spirit Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19, 20
paul, the apostle, supersessionism of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 21, 24
paul Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 87
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
paul and pauline epistles, manichaeans on Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 182
pauline epistles, luke as pauline gospel Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
pauline epistles, marcion's collection" Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
pauline epistles Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 299
peace deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
perseverance Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
pharisees Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 87
philosophy, christianity treated by gnostics as Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
pinhas ben yair, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
pliny the elder Arampapaslis, Augoustakis, Froedge, Schroer, Dynamics Of Marginality: Liminal Characters and Marginal Groups in Neronian and Flavian Literature (2023) 30
plotinus Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38
portrayal in acts, reception of Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 79
poststructuralism, boyarins Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19, 20
praise Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
predestination Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38
predetermination Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 185
pride Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 207
promise, as meaning Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
proof texts Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185, 293
prophecy, israelite Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
prophecy, mystery Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
prophet, prophecy, prophetic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
prophetic Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
providence, stoic type Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38, 293
qumran essenes Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
rabbis, and the grafting of branches onto sacred trees Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 221, 222
rabbis, and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219
reconciliation, ethnic deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
reconciliation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 171
redemption, salvation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
regeneration Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
regula fidei Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
religion passim, hymn Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
restoration Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
revelation Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
rhetoric, metaphor Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
risk, relation to divine-human trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 171
roman, rome Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
romans/roman empire/rome Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 436
romans Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 87
sacrilege Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 207, 219
salvation, discriminatory salvation/grace Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
salvation Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 185
sarah, wife of abraham Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
saul Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 190
second temple period, jewry, tradition Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
secret Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 299
signifiers, textual Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 20, 21, 24
simeon, r. Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 224
sitting (posture) Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 436
soul, as breath of life Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 79
soul, definition of Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 79
sovereignty of god, judaeo-christian view Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 185
sovereignty of god Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 185
spiritual gifts, love and Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 157
stephanas/stephen Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
superbia Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
supercessionism Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 436
supersessionism, pauls Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 21, 24
synoptic, gospels Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
synoptic, tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 490
temple, grafting branches onto Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224
temple, in jerusalem, in rabbinic writings Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219
temple, protecting byproducts of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219
torah Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 436; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 223
total depravity/incapacity Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
traditions or schools of exegesis, valentinus and valentinian school Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
transformation, divine Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
trees, sacred, as an allegory for the early church Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224
trees, sacred, in greece Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 220, 221, 224
trees, sacred Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 224
valentinian the gnostic Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38
valentinians, doctrine of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
valentinians Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 542
valentinus and valentinian school Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
vespasian Arampapaslis, Augoustakis, Froedge, Schroer, Dynamics Of Marginality: Liminal Characters and Marginal Groups in Neronian and Flavian Literature (2023) 30
weakness, of human nature Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 157
wisdom Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 299; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 75
with christ, dying and living Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 170, 171