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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8253
New Testament, Romans, 11.16


εἰ δὲ ἡ ἀπαρχὴ ἁγία, καὶ τὸ φύραμα· καὶ εἰ ἡ ῥίζα ἁγία, καὶ οἱ κλάδοι.If the first fruit is holy, so is the lump. If the root is holy, so are the branches.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

63 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.42-32.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.42. אַשְׁכִּיר חִצַּי מִדָּם וְחַרְבִּי תֹּאכַל בָּשָׂר מִדַּם חָלָל וְשִׁבְיָה מֵרֹאשׁ פַּרְעוֹת אוֹיֵב׃ 32.43. הַרְנִינוּ גוֹיִם עַמּוֹ כִּי דַם־עֲבָדָיו יִקּוֹם וְנָקָם יָשִׁיב לְצָרָיו וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ׃ 32.42. I will make Mine arrows drunk with blood, And My sword shall devour flesh; With the blood of the slain and the captives, From the long-haired heads of the enemy.’" 32.43. Sing aloud, O ye nations, of His people; For He doth avenge the blood of His servants, And doth render vengeance to His adversaries, And doth make expiation for the land of His people."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 34.29-34.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

34.29. וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן־הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא־יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ׃ 34.31. וַיִּקְרָא אֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֵלָיו אַהֲרֹן וְכָל־הַנְּשִׂאִים בָּעֵדָה וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם׃ 34.32. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן נִגְּשׁוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְצַוֵּם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינָי׃ 34.33. וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה מִדַּבֵּר אִתָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל־פָּנָיו מַסְוֶה׃ 34.34. וּבְבֹא מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ יָסִיר אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַד־צֵאתוֹ וְיָצָא וְדִבֶּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר יְצֻוֶּה׃ 34.35. וְרָאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְהֵשִׁיב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַל־פָּנָיו עַד־בֹּאוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ׃ 34.29. And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses’hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth abeams while He talked with him." 34.30. And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face sent forth beams; and they were afraid to come nigh him." 34.31. And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him; and Moses spoke to them." 34.32. And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh, and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai." 34.33. And when Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face." 34.34. But when Moses went in before the LORD that He might speak with him, he took the veil off, until he came out; and he came out; and spoke unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded." 34.35. And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’face sent forth beams; and Moses put the veil back upon his face, until he went in to speak with Him."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.28, 21.25, 49.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 21.25. וְהוֹכִחַ אַבְרָהָם אֶת־אֲבִימֶלֶךְ עַל־אֹדוֹת בְּאֵר הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר גָּזְלוּ עַבְדֵי אֲבִימֶלֶךְ׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 21.25. And Abraham reproved Abimelech because of the well of water, which Abimelech’s servants had violently taken away." 49.10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 14.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.6. אֶהְיֶה כַטַּל לְיִשְׂרָאֵל יִפְרַח כַּשּׁוֹשַׁנָּה וְיַךְ שָׁרָשָׁיו כַּלְּבָנוֹן׃ 14.6. I will be as the dew unto Israel; He shall blossom as the lily, And cast forth his roots as Lebanon."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.17, 23.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.17. לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃ 23.17. מִמּוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תָּבִיאּוּ לֶחֶם תְּנוּפָה שְׁתַּיִם שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים סֹלֶת תִּהְיֶינָה חָמֵץ תֵּאָפֶינָה בִּכּוּרִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him." 23.17. Ye shall bring out of your dwellings two wave-loaves of two tenth parts of an ephah; they shall be of fine flour, they shall be baked with leaven, for first-fruits unto the LORD."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 15.18-15.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.18. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם בְּבֹאֲכֶם אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה׃ 15.19. וְהָיָה בַּאֲכָלְכֶם מִלֶּחֶם הָאָרֶץ תָּרִימוּ תְרוּמָה לַיהוָה׃ 15.21. מֵרֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם תִּתְּנוּ לַיהוָה תְּרוּמָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 15.18. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When ye come into the land whither I bring you," 15.19. then it shall be, that, when ye eat of the bread of the land, ye shall set apart a portion for a gift unto the LORD." 15.20. of the first of your dough ye shall set apart a cake for a gift; as that which is set apart of the threshing-floor, so shall ye set it apart." 15.21. of the first of your dough ye shall give unto the LORD a portion for a gift throughout your generations."
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.9. כַּבֵּד אֶת־יְהוָה מֵהוֹנֶךָ וּמֵרֵאשִׁית כָּל־תְּבוּאָתֶךָ׃ 3.9. Honour the LORD with thy substance, And with the first-fruits of all thine increase;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.10 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5.10. They hate him that reproveth in the gate, And they abhor him that speaketh uprightly."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.4, 59.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.4. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 2.4. And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more." 59.20. And a redeemer will come to Zion, And unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, Saith the LORD."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 4, 37 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11. Hebrew Bible, Haggai, 2.10-2.13 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.11. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁאַל־נָא אֶת־הַכֹּהֲנִים תּוֹרָה לֵאמֹר׃ 2.12. הֵן יִשָּׂא־אִישׁ בְּשַׂר־קֹדֶשׁ בִּכְנַף בִּגְדוֹ וְנָגַע בִּכְנָפוֹ אֶל־הַלֶּחֶם וְאֶל־הַנָּזִיד וְאֶל־הַיַּיִן וְאֶל־שֶׁמֶן וְאֶל־כָּל־מַאֲכָל הֲיִקְדָּשׁ וַיַּעֲנוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא׃ 2.13. וַיֹּאמֶר חַגַּי אִם־יִגַּע טְמֵא־נֶפֶשׁ בְּכָל־אֵלֶּה הֲיִטְמָא וַיַּעֲנוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים וַיֹּאמְרוּ יִטְמָא׃ 2.10. In the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet, saying:" 2.11. ’Thus saith the LORD of hosts: Ask now the priests for instruction, saying:" 2.12. If one bear hallowed flesh in the skirt of his garment, and with his skirt do touch bread, or pottage, or wine, or oil, or any food, shall it be holy?’ And the priests answered and said: ‘No.’" 2.13. Then said Haggai: ‘If one that is unclean by a dead body touch any of these, shall it be unclean?’ And the priests answered and said: ‘It shall be unclean.’"
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 30.24, 35.7-35.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.24. כִּי חִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה הֵרִים לַקָּהָל אֶלֶף פָּרִים וְשִׁבְעַת אֲלָפִים צֹאן וְהַשָּׂרִים הֵרִימוּ לַקָּהָל פָּרִים אֶלֶף וְצֹאן עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים וַיִּתְקַדְּשׁוּ כֹהֲנִים לָרֹב׃ 35.7. וַיָּרֶם יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ לִבְנֵי הָעָם צֹאן כְּבָשִׂים וּבְנֵי־עִזִּים הַכֹּל לַפְּסָחִים לְכָל־הַנִּמְצָא לְמִסְפַּר שְׁלֹשִׁים אֶלֶף וּבָקָר שְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים אֵלֶּה מֵרְכוּשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 35.8. וְשָׂרָיו לִנְדָבָה לָעָם לַכֹּהֲנִים וְלַלְוִיִּם הֵרִימוּ חִלְקִיָּה וּזְכַרְיָהוּ וִיחִיאֵל נְגִידֵי בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים לַכֹּהֲנִים נָתְנוּ לַפְּסָחִים אַלְפַּיִם וְשֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת וּבָקָר שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת׃ 35.9. וכונניהו [וְכָנַנְיָהוּ] וּשְׁמַעְיָהוּ וּנְתַנְאֵל אֶחָיו וַחֲשַׁבְיָהוּ וִיעִיאֵל וְיוֹזָבָד שָׂרֵי הַלְוִיִּם הֵרִימוּ לַלְוִיִּם לַפְּסָחִים חֲמֵשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וּבָקָר חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת׃ 30.24. For Hezekiah king of Judah did give to the congregation for offerings a thousand bullocks and seven thousand sheep; and the princes gave to the congregation a thousand bullocks and ten thousand sheep; and priests sanctified themselves in great numbers." 35.7. And Josiah gave to the children of the people, of the flock, lambs and kids, all of them for the passover-offerings, unto all that were present, to the number of thirty thousand, and three thousand bullocks; these were of the king’s substance." 35.8. And his princes gave willingly unto the people, to the priests, and to the Levites. Hilkiah and Zechariah and Jehiel, the rulers of the house of God, gave unto the priests for the passover-offerings two thousand and six hundred [small cattle], and three hundred oxen." 35.9. Coiah also, and Shemaiah and Nethanel, his brethren, and Hashabiah and Jeiel and Jozabad, the chiefs of the Levites, gave unto the Levites for the passover-offerings five thousand [small cattle], and five hundred oxen."
13. Anon., Jubilees, 1.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.16. And I will send witnesses unto them, that I may witness against them, but they will not hear, and will slay the witnesses also
14. Cicero, Letters To His Friends, 2.1.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 4.6.11-4.6.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 12.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12.2. Therefore thou dost correct little by little those who trespass,and dost remind and warn them of the things wherein they sin,that they may be freed from wickedness and put their trust in thee, O Lord.
17. Livy, History, 1.19.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 74 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

74. It is right therefore to offer the first fruits of these things: and the first fruits are the language of gratitude sent up from sincere truth of mind. And this language divides itself according to appropriate divisions in the same manner as the lyre and the other musical instruments are divided. For in each of those instruments each sound is by itself harmonious, and also exceedingly adapted to making a symphony with the rest. As in grammar also those of the elements which are called vowels are both capable of being uttered by themselves, and they also make a complete sound in conjunction with other letters.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.132 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.132. in the first place, that the necessary food for their support shall at all times be provided for them without any labour or toil of their own; for God commands those who are making bread, to take of all the fat and of all the dough, a loaf as first fruits for the use of the priests, making thus, by this legitimate instruction, a provision for those men who put aside these first fruits, proceeding in the way that leads to piety;
20. Epictetus, Discourses, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.71 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.71. but that the owners of those first-born which are not appointed for sacrifices in the laws of our country, should bring a shekel and a half in their stead: but for the first-born of a man, five shekels: that they should also have the first-fruits out of the shearing of the sheep; and that when any baked breadcorn, and made loaves of it, they should give somewhat of what they had baked to them.
22. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.36. Nay, John abused the sacred materials, and employed them in the construction of his engines of war; for the people and the priests had formerly determined to support the temple, and raise the holy house twenty cubits higher; for king Agrippa had at a very great expense, and with very great pains, brought thither such materials as were proper for that purpose, being pieces of timber very well worth seeing, both for their straightness and their largeness; 5.36. But then Titus, knowing that the city would be either saved or destroyed for himself, did not only proceed earnestly in the siege, but did not omit to have the Jews exhorted to repentance;
23. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases whichbrought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”"
24. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.5, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The mitzvah of the aravah how was it [performed]?There was a place below Jerusalem called Moza. They went down there and gathered tall branches of aravot and then they came and stood them up at the sides of the altar, and their tops were bent over the altar. They then sounded a teki’ah [long blast], a teru’ah [staccato blast] and again a teki’ah. Every day they went round the altar once, saying, “O Lord, save us, O Lord, make us prosper” (Psalms 118:. Rabbi Judah says: “Ani vaho, save us.” On that day they went round the altar seven times. When they departed, what did they say? “O altar, beauty is to you! O altar, beauty is to you!” Rabbi Eliezer said: [they would say,] “To the Lord and to you, O altar, to the Lord and to you, O altar.”" 4.9. How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs."
25. Mishnah, Terumot, 3.1-3.2, 5.1-5.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. If one gave a cucumber as terumah and it was found to be bitter, a melon and it was found to be rotten, it is considered terumah, but he must again give terumah. If one gave a jar of wine as terumah and it was found to be vinegar: If prior to his act he knew that it was vinegar, the terumah is not valid; But if it had turned sour after he had given it as terumah, behold it is terumah. In case of doubt, it is terumah but he must again give terumah. The first terumah does not render on its own [produce into which it falls] “doubtful terumah” and it is not subject to the added fifth, and so the second." 3.2. If one of them falls into non-sacred produce, it does not make [the mixture] medumma [a mixture into which terumah has fallen]. If the second of them falls [then] into another place, it also does not make it medumma. But if both fall into one place, they do make it medumma, according to the size of the smaller of the two." 5.1. If a seah of unclean terumah fell into less than a hundred seahs of hullin, or first tithe, or second tithe, or dedicated property, whether these were unclean or clean, they must all be left to rot. If the seah [of terumah] was clean, [the mixture] must be sold to priests at the price of terumah, excluding the value of that seah itself. If it fell into first tithe, he should declare terumah of tithe. And if it fell into second tithe or dedicated property, they must be redeemed. If the hullin was unclean, it may be eaten in small quantities, or roasted, or kneaded with fruit juice, or divided into pieces of dough so that the size of one egg be not in any one place." 5.2. A seah of unclean terumah which fell into a hundred of clean hullin:Rabbi Eliezer says: [a seah] must be taken out and burnt, for I say that the seah taken out is the one that fell in. But the sages say: it may be taken out and eaten in small quantities, or roasted, or kneaded with fruit juice, or divided into pieces of dough so that the size of one egg be not in any one place." 5.3. A seah of clean terumah fell into a hundred of unclean hullin, it may be eaten in small quantities, or roasted, or kneaded with fruit juice, or divided into pieces of dough so that the size of one egg be not in any one place." 5.4. A seah of unclean terumah that falls into one hundred seahs of clean terumah: Bet Shammai prohibits, But Bet Hillel permits. Bet Hillel said to Bet Shammai: since clean [terumah] is forbidden to non-priests and unclean [terumah is forbidden] to priests, then just as clean [terumah] is brought up, so too unclean [terumah] can be brought up. Bet Shammai answered them: No! If hullin which is treated more leniently [in that it is permitted to non-priests] allows us to bring up clean [terumah that falls into it], does terumah [which is more stringent in that it is forbidden to non-priests] also allow us to bring up that which is unclean? After [Bet Shammai] had agreed [with Bet Hillel], Rabbi Eliezer said: it should be taken out and burned. But the sages say: it is gone, on account of its being a tiny [portion of the whole mixture]." 5.5. A seah of terumah that fell into a hundred [of hullin], and he lifted it out and fell into [hullin] elsewhere:Rabbi Eliezer says: it renders medumma as though it were certainly terumah. But the sages say: it is rendered medumma only according to proportion." 5.6. A seah of terumah which fell into less than a hundred [of hullin], and rendered the whole medumma, and part of this mixture fell afterwards into another place: Rabbi Eliezer says: it renders again medumma as if certain terumah [had fallen in]. But the sages say: the [first] mixture renders medumma only according to the proportion. [Similarly], that which is leavened [with terumah] renders other dough leavened [as with terumah] only according to the proportion. And drawn water disqualifies a ritual bath also only according to the proportion." 5.7. If a seah of terumah fell into a hundred [of hullin] and he lifted [a seah] out, and then another fell in, and he lifted another out and another fell in, the pile is permissible as long as the amount of terumah does not exceed that of the hullin." 5.8. If a seah of terumah fell into a hundred [of hullin], and before he could take it out, another fell in, the whole becomes forbidden. Rabbi Shimon permits it." 5.9. If a seah of terumah fell into a hundred [of hullin], and they were ground together and reduced in bulk, just as the hullin was reduced so too the terumah was reduced, and it is permitted. If a seah of terumah fell into less than a hundred [of hullin] and they were ground together and increased in bulk, just as the hullin became more, so too the terumah became more, and it is forbidden. If it is known that the kernels of hullin were better than the terumah, it is permitted. If a seah of terumah fell into less than a hundred [of hullin], and more hullin fell in afterwards, if it was accidental it is permissible, but if intentional it is forbidden."
26. Mishnah, Shekalim, 6.5-6.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.5. There were thirteen chests in the Temple and on them was inscribed [respectively]:“new shekels”;“New shekels” those for each year; “old shekels”;“Old shekels” whoever has not paid his shekel in the past year may pay it in the coming year; “bird-offerings”;“Bird-offerings” these are turtle-doves; “young pigeons for burnt-offerings”;“Young pigeons for burnt-offerings” these are young pigeons. “wood”; “frankincense”; “gold for the kapporet”; and on six, “freewill offerings”. Both [these two chests] are for burnt-offerings, the words of Rabbi Judah. But the sages say: “bird-offerings” one [half] is for sin-offerings and the other [half] for burnt-offerings, but “young pigeons for burnt-offerings” all goes to burnt-offerings." 6.6. One who says: “Behold, I am obligated to bring wood”, he may not bring less than two logs. [If he says: “Behold, I am obligated to bring] frankincense”, he may not bring less than a handful of it. [If he says: “Behold, I am obligated to bring] gold”, he may not bring less than a gold denar. “On six [was inscribed] “for freewill-offerings”: What was done with the freewill-offerings? They would buy with them burnt-offerings, the flesh [of which] was for the name [of God] and the hides for the priests. The following is the midrash which was expounded by Yehoyada the high priest: “It is a guilt-offering; it is a guilt offering, it goes to the Lord” (Leviticus 5:19). This is the general rule: anything which is brought because of a sin or because of guilt, they should purchase with it burnt offerings, the flesh [of which] was for the name [of God] and the hides for the priests. Thus the two verses are fulfilled: a guilt offering for the Lord and a guilt offering for the priests, and it says: “Money brought as a guilt offering or as a sin offering was not deposited in the House of the Lord; it went to the priests” (II Kings 12:17)."
27. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.30-1.31, 2.7, 3.8, 4.5, 4.7, 5.1-5.6, 6.9-6.11, 12.2, 14.24-14.25, 15.2-15.8, 15.13-15.23, 15.48, 16.1-16.5, 16.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.30. But of him, you are in ChristJesus, who was made to us wisdom from God, and righteousness andsanctification, and redemption: 1.31. that, according as it iswritten, "He who boasts, let him boast in the Lord. 2.7. But we speak God's wisdom in amystery, the wisdom that has been hidden, which God foreordained beforethe worlds to our glory 3.8. Now he who plantsand he who waters are the same, but each will receive his own rewardaccording to his own labor. 4.5. Thereforejudge nothing before the time, until the Lord comes, who will bothbring to light the hidden things of darkness, and reveal the counselsof the hearts. Then each man will get his praise from God. 4.7. For who makes you different? And what doyou have that you didn't receive? But if you did receive it, why do youboast as if you had not received it? 5.1. It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality amongyou, and such sexual immorality as is not even named among theGentiles, that one has his father's wife. 5.2. You are puffed up, anddidn't rather mourn, that he who had done this deed might be removedfrom among you. 5.3. For I most assuredly, as being absent in body butpresent in spirit, have already, as though I were present, judged himwho has done this thing. 5.4. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,you being gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our LordJesus Christ 5.5. are to deliver such a one to Satan for thedestruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day ofthe Lord Jesus. 5.6. Your boasting is not good. Don't you know that a little yeastleavens the whole lump? 6.9. Or don't you know that the unrighteouswill not inherit the Kingdom of God? Don't be deceived. Neither thesexually immoral, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor male prostitutes,nor homosexuals 6.10. nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, norslanderers, nor extortioners, will inherit the Kingdom of God. 6.11. Such were some of you, but you were washed. But you were sanctified.But you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and in the Spiritof our God. 12.2. You know that when you were heathen, you were ledaway to those mute idols, however you might be led. 14.24. But if all prophesy, and someoneunbelieving or unlearned comes in, he is reproved by all, and he isjudged by all. 14.25. And thus the secrets of his heart are revealed.So he will fall down on his face and worship God, declaring that God isamong you indeed. 15.2. bywhich also you are saved, if you hold firmly the word which I preachedto you -- unless you believed in vain. 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.4. that he was buried, that he wasraised on the third day according to the Scriptures 15.5. and that heappeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 15.6. Then he appeared to overfive hundred brothers at once, most of whom remain until now, but somehave also fallen asleep. 15.7. Then he appeared to James, then to allthe apostles 15.8. and last of all, as to the child born at the wrongtime, he appeared to me also. 15.13. But if there is no resurrection of the dead, neither hasChrist been raised. 15.14. If Christ has not been raised, then ourpreaching is in vain, and your faith also is in vain. 15.15. Yes, weare found false witnesses of God, because we testified about God thathe raised up Christ, whom he didn't raise up, if it is so that the deadare not raised. 15.16. For if the dead aren't raised, neither hasChrist been raised. 15.17. If Christ has not been raised, your faithis vain; you are still in your sins. 15.18. Then they also who arefallen asleep in Christ have perished. 15.19. If we have only hoped inChrist in this life, we are of all men most pitiable. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 16.1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commandedthe assemblies of Galatia, you do likewise. 16.2. On the first day ofthe week, let each one of you save, as he may prosper, that nocollections be made when I come. 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem. 16.4. If it is appropriate for me to go also, they will gowith me. 16.5. But I will come to you when I have passed throughMacedonia, for I am passing through Macedonia. 16.15. Now I beg you, brothers (you know the house of Stephanas,that it is the first fruits of Achaia, and that they have setthemselves to minister to the saints)
28. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 3.8, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.8. For now we live, if you stand fast in the Lord. 5.6. so then let's not sleep, as the rest do, but let's watch and be sober.
29. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.1-4.3, 6.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. But the Spirit says expressly that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons 4.2. through the hypocrisy of men who speak lies, branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron; 4.3. forbidding marriage and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 6.10. For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil. Some have been led astray from the faith in their greed, and have pierced themselves through with many sorrows.
30. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.1-2.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. But there also arose false prophets among the people, as among you also there will be false teachers, who will secretly bring in destructive heresies, denying even the Master who bought them, bringing on themselves swift destruction. 2.2. Many will follow their destructive ways, and as a result, the way of the truth will be maligned. 2.3. In covetousness they will exploit you with deceptive words: whose sentence now from of old doesn't linger, and their destruction will not slumber. 2.4. For if God didn't spare angels when they sinned, but cast them down to Tartarus, and committed them to pits of darkness, to be reserved to judgment; 2.5. and didn't spare the ancient world, but preserved Noah with seven others, a preacher of righteousness, when he brought a flood on the world of the ungodly; 2.9. the Lord knows how to deliver the godly out of temptation and to keep the unrighteous under punishment for the day of judgment; 2.10. but chiefly those who walk after the flesh in the lust of defilement, and despise authority. Daring, self-willed, they are not afraid to speak evil of dignitaries; 2.13. receiving the wages of unrighteousness; people who count it pleasure to revel in the day-time, spots and blemishes, reveling in their deceit while they feast with you; 2.15. forsaking the right way, they went astray, having followed the way of Balaam the son of Beor, who loved the wages of wrong-doing; 2.17. These are wells without water, clouds driven by a storm; for whom the blackness of darkness has been reserved forever. 2.18. For, uttering great swelling words of emptiness, they entice in the lusts of the flesh, by licentiousness, those who are indeed escaping from those who live in error; 2.19. promising them liberty, while they themselves are bondservants of corruption; for by whom a man is overcome, by the same is he also brought into bondage. 2.20. For if, after they have escaped the defilement of the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, they are again entangled therein and overcome, the last state has become worse with them than the first. 2.21. For it would be better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than, after knowing it, to turn back from the holy commandment delivered to them. 2.22. But it has happened to them according to the true proverb, "The dog turns to his own vomit again," and "the sow that had washed to wallowing in the mire.
31. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.7-3.18, 5.11, 7.1, 8.13-8.15, 9.2-9.6, 9.8-9.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

32. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. But we are bound to always give thanks to God for you, brothers loved by the Lord, because God chose you from the beginning for salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief in the truth;
33. New Testament, Acts, 13.48, 22.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13.48. As the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of God. As many as were appointed to eternal life believed. 22.3. I am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God, even as you all are this day.
34. New Testament, Apocalypse, 14.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.4. These are those who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are those who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed by Jesus from among men, the first fruits to God and to the Lamb.
35. New Testament, James, 1.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. of his own will he brought us forth by the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first fruits of his creatures.
36. New Testament, Jude, 24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

37. New Testament, Colossians, 1.18, 1.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.22. yet now he has reconciled in the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and without blemish and blameless before him
38. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.1-2.3, 2.8-2.9, 2.11-2.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.8. for by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God 2.9. not of works, that no one would boast. 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit.
39. New Testament, Galatians, 1.7, 1.16-1.18, 2.1-2.10, 3.6-3.9, 4.21-4.31, 5.1, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. and there isn'tanother gospel. Only there are some who trouble you, and want topervert the gospel of Christ. 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 1.17. nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those whowere apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia. Then I returnedto Damascus. 1.18. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem tovisit Peter, and stayed with him fifteen days. 2.1. Then after a period of fourteen years I went up again toJerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me. 2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain. 2.3. But not even Titus, whowas with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 2.4. Thiswas because of the false brothers secretly brought in, who stole in tospy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they mightbring us into bondage; 2.5. to whom we gave no place in the way ofsubjection, not for an hour, that the truth of the gospel mightcontinue with you. 2.6. But from those who were reputed to beimportant (whatever they were, it makes no difference to me; Goddoesn't show partiality to man) -- they, I say, who were respectedimparted nothing to me 2.7. but to the contrary, when they saw that Ihad been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcision, even asPeter with the gospel for the circumcision 2.8. (for he who appointedPeter to the apostleship of the circumcision appointed me also to theGentiles); 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision. 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 3.6. Even as Abraham "believed God, and it wascounted to him for righteousness. 3.7. Know therefore that those whoare of faith, the same are sons of Abraham. 3.8. The Scripture,foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached thegospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, "In you all the nations will beblessed. 3.9. So then, those who are of faith are blessed with thefaithful Abraham. 4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27. For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear. Break forth and shout, you that don't travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband. 4.28. Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman. 4.31. So then, brothers, we are not children of ahandmaid, but of the free woman. 5.1. Stand firm therefore in the liberty by which Christ has madeus free, and don't be entangled again with a yoke of bondage. 5.9. A little yeast grows through the wholelump.
40. New Testament, Hebrews, 12.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.15. looking carefully lest there be any man who falls short of the grace of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and thereby the many be defiled;
41. New Testament, Philippians, 2.12-2.13, 2.30, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.12. So then, my beloved, even as you have always obeyed, not only in my presence, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling. 2.13. For it is God who works in you both to will and to work, for his good pleasure. 2.30. because for the work of Christ he came near to death, risking his life to supply that which was lacking in your service toward me. 4.1. Therefore, my brothers, beloved and longed for, my joy and crown, so stand firm in the Lord, my beloved.
42. New Testament, Romans, 1.16-1.17, 2.3-2.11, 2.29, 4.1, 8.23, 9.1-9.33, 10.1-10.21, 11.1-11.15, 11.17-11.36, 13.11, 15.8-15.10, 15.16-15.19, 15.21-15.22, 15.24-15.32, 16.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. 1.17. For in it is revealed God's righteousness from faith to faith. As it is written, "But the righteous shall live by faith. 2.3. Do you think this, O man who judges those who practice such things, and do the same, that you will escape the judgment of God? 2.4. Or do you despise the riches of his goodness, forbearance, and patience, not knowing that the goodness of God leads you to repentance? 2.5. But according to your hardness and unrepentant heart you are treasuring up for yourself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God; 2.6. who "will pay back to everyone according to their works: 2.7. to those who by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honor and incorruptibility, eternal life; 2.8. but to those who are self-seeking, and don't obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, will be wrath and indignation 2.9. oppression and anguish, on every soul of man who works evil, on the Jew first, and also on the Greek. 2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 2.11. For there is no partiality with God. 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 4.1. What then will we say that Abraham, our forefather, has found according to the flesh? 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 9.1. I tell the truth in Christ. I am not lying, my conscience testifying with me in the Holy Spirit 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart. 9.3. For I could wish that I myself were accursed from Christ for my brothers' sake, my relatives according to the flesh 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.5. of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen. 9.6. But it is not as though the word of God has come to nothing. For they are not all Israel, that are of Israel. 9.7. Neither, because they are Abraham's seed, are they all children. But, "In Isaac will your seed be called. 9.8. That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed. 9.9. For this is a word of promise, "At the appointed time I will come, and Sarah will have a son. 9.10. Not only so, but Rebecca also conceived by one, by our father Isaac. 9.11. For being not yet born, neither having done anything good or bad, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him who calls 9.12. it was said to her, "The elder will serve the younger. 9.13. Even as it is written, "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated. 9.14. What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? May it never be! 9.15. For he said to Moses, "I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion. 9.16. So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who has mercy. 9.17. For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, "For this very purpose I caused you to be raised up, that I might show in you my power, and that my name might be published abroad in all the earth. 9.18. So then, he has mercy on whom he desires, and he hardens whom he desires. 9.19. You will say then to me, "Why does he still find fault? For who withstands his will? 9.20. But indeed, O man, who are you to reply against God? Will the thing formed ask him who formed it, "Why did you make me like this? 9.21. Or hasn't the potter a right over the clay, from the same lump to make one part a vessel for honor, and another for dishonor? 9.22. What if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath made for destruction 9.23. and that he might make known the riches of his glory on vessels of mercy, which he prepared beforehand for glory 9.24. us, whom he also called, not from the Jews only, but also from the Gentiles? 9.25. As he says also in Hosea, "I will call them 'my people,' which were not my people; And her 'beloved,' who was not beloved. 9.26. It will be that in the place where it was said to them, 'You are not my people,' There they will be called 'sons of the living God.' 9.27. Isaiah cries concerning Israel, "If the number of the children of Israel are as the sand of the sea, It is the remt who will be saved; 9.28. For He will finish the work and cut it short in righteousness, Because the LORD will make a short work upon the earth. 9.29. As Isaiah has said before, "Unless the Lord of Hosts had left us a seed, We would have become like Sodom, And would have been made like Gomorrah. 9.30. What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, who didn't follow after righteousness, attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith; 9.31. but Israel, following after a law of righteousness, didn't arrive at the law of righteousness. 9.32. Why? Because they didn't seek it by faith, but as it were by works of the law. They stumbled over the stumbling stone; 9.33. even as it is written, "Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and a rock of offense; And no one who believes in him will be put to shame. 10.1. Brothers, my heart's desire and my prayer to God is for Israel, that they may be saved. 10.2. For I testify about them that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge. 10.3. For being ignorant of God's righteousness, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, they didn't subject themselves to the righteousness of God. 10.4. For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes. 10.5. For Moses writes about the righteousness of the law, "The one who does them will live by them. 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 10.9. that if you will confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10.10. For with the heart, one believes unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 10.11. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame. 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 10.13. For, "Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved. 10.14. How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? How will they believe in him whom they have not heard? How will they hear without a preacher? 10.15. And how will they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: "How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring glad tidings of good things! 10.16. But they didn't all listen to the glad news. For Isaiah says, "Lord, who has believed our report? 10.17. So faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. 10.18. But I say, didn't they hear? Yes, most assuredly, "Their sound went out into all the earth, Their words to the ends of the world. 10.19. But I ask, didn't Israel know? First Moses says, "I will provoke you to jealousy with that which is no nation, With a nation void of understanding I will make you angry. 10.20. Isaiah is very bold, and says, "I was found by those who didn't seek me. I was revealed to those who didn't ask for me. 10.21. But as to Israel he says, "All day long I stretched out my hands to a disobedient and contrary people. 11.1. I ask then, Did God reject his people? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 11.2. God didn't reject his people, which he foreknew. Or don't you know what the Scripture says about Elijah? How he pleads with God against Israel: 11.3. Lord, they have killed your prophets, they have broken down your altars; and I am left alone, and they seek my life. 11.4. But how does God answer him? "I have reserved for myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to Baal. 11.5. Even so then at this present time also there is a remt according to the election of grace. 11.6. And if by grace, then it is no longer of works; otherwise grace is no longer grace. But if it is of works, it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work. 11.7. What then? That which Israel seeks for, that he didn't obtain, but the elect obtained it, and the rest were hardened. 11.8. According as it is written, "God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day. 11.9. David says, "Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, A stumbling block, and a retribution to them. 11.10. Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see. Bow down their back always. 11.11. I ask then, did they stumble that they might fall? May it never be! But by their fall salvation has come to the Gentiles, to provoke them to jealousy. 11.12. Now if their fall is the riches of the world, and their loss the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fullness? 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 11.14. if by any means I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh, and may save some of them. 11.15. For if the rejection of them is the reconciling of the world, what would their acceptance be, but life from the dead? 11.17. But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive, were grafted in among them, and became partaker with them of the root and of the richness of the olive tree; 11.18. don't boast over the branches. But if you boast, it is not you who support the root, but the root supports you. 11.19. You will say then, "Branches were broken off, that I might be grafted in. 11.20. True; by their unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by your faith. Don't be conceited, but fear; 11.21. for if God didn't spare the natural branches, neither will he spare you. 11.22. See then the goodness and severity of God. Toward those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in his goodness; otherwise you also will be cut off. 11.23. They also, if they don't continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 11.24. For if you were cut out of that which is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a good olive tree, how much more will these, which are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? 11.25. For I don't desire, brothers, to have you ignorant of this mystery, so that you won't be wise in your own conceits, that a partial hardening has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in 11.26. and so all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, "There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob. 11.27. This is my covet to them, When I will take away their sins. 11.28. Concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sake. But concerning the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sake. 11.29. For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. 11.30. For as you in time past were disobedient to God, but now have obtained mercy by their disobedience 11.31. even so these also have now been disobedient, that by the mercy shown to you they may also obtain mercy. 11.32. For God has shut up all to disobedience, that he might have mercy on all. 11.33. Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past tracing out! 11.34. For who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been his counselor? 11.35. Or who has first given to him, And it will be repaid to him again? 11.36. For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things. To him be the glory for ever! Amen. 13.11. Do this, knowing the time, that it is already time for you to awaken out of sleep, for salvation is now nearer to us than when we first believed. 15.8. Now I say that Christ has been made a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, that he might confirm the promises given to the fathers 15.9. and that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written, "Therefore will I give praise to you among the Gentiles, And sing to your name. 15.10. Again he says, "Rejoice, you Gentiles, with his people. 15.16. that I should be a servant of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles, ministering as a priest the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be made acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. 15.17. I have therefore my boasting in Christ Jesus in things pertaining to God. 15.18. For I will not dare to speak of any things except those which Christ worked through me, for the obedience of the Gentiles, by word and deed 15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; 15.21. But, as it is written, "They will see, to whom no news of him came. They who haven't heard will understand. 15.22. Therefore also I was hindered these many times from coming to you 15.24. whenever I journey to Spain, I will come to you. For I hope to see you on my journey, and to be helped on my way there by you, if first I may enjoy your company for a while. 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.27. Yes, it has been their good pleasure, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to them also to serve them in fleshly things. 15.28. When therefore I have accomplished this, and have sealed to them this fruit, I will go on by way of you to Spain. 15.29. I know that, when I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ. 15.30. Now I beg you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, that you strive together with me in your prayers to God for me 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints; 15.32. that I may come to you in joy through the will of God, and together with you, find rest. 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ.
43. New Testament, John, 6.63-6.66, 8.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.63. It is the spirit who gives life. The flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life. 6.64. But there are some of you who don't believe." For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were who didn't believe, and who it was who would betray him. 6.65. He said, "For this cause have I said to you that no one can come to me, unless it is given to him by my Father. 6.66. At this, many of his disciples went back, and walked no more with him. 8.44. You are of your Father, the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and doesn't stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks on his own; for he is a liar, and the father of it.
44. New Testament, Luke, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.19. but Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias, his brother's wife, and for all the evil things which Herod had done
45. New Testament, Mark, 7.9-7.13, 13.34-13.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this. 13.34. It is like a man, traveling to another country, having left his house, and given authority to his servants, and to each one his work, and also commanded the doorkeeper to keep watch. 13.35. Watch therefore, for you don't know when the lord of the house is coming, whether at evening, or at midnight, or when the rooster crows, or in the morning; 13.36. lest coming suddenly he might find you sleeping. 13.37. What I tell you, I tell all: Watch.
46. New Testament, Matthew, 9.16-9.17, 18.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.16. No one puts a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment; for the patch would tear away from the garment, and a worse hole is made. 9.17. Neither do people put new wine into old wineskins, or else the skins would burst, and the wine be spilled, and the skins ruined. No, they put new wine into fresh wineskins, and both are preserved. 18.15. If your brother sins against you, go, show him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained back your brother.
47. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

48. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

49. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

50. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 30, 58, 19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

19. 'And the Logos became flesh' not only by becoming man at his Advent [on earth], but also 'at the beginning' the essential Logos became a son by circumscription and not in essence. And again he became flesh when he acted through the prophets. And the Saviour is called an offspring of the essential Logos; therefore, 'in the beginning was the Logos and the Logos was with God' and 'that which came into existence in him was life' and life is the Lord. And when Paul says, 'Put on the new man created according to God' it is as if he said, Believe on him who was 'created' by God, 'according to God,' that is, the Logos in God. And 'created according to God' can refer to the end of advance which man will reach, as does. . . he rejected the end for which he was created. And in other passages he speaks still more plainly and distinctly: 'Who is an image of the invisible God'; then he goes on, 'First-Born of all creation.' For he calls the Logos of the essential Logos 'an image of the invisible God,' but 'First-Born of all creation.' Having been begotten without passion he became the creator and progenitor of all creation and substance, for by him the Father made all things. Wherefore it is also said that he 'received the form of a servant,' which refers not only to his flesh at the advent, but also to his substance, which he derived from its underlying reality, for substance is a slave, inasmuch as it is passive and subordinate to the active and dominating, cause.
51. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 5.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

52. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.7.5, 1.30.15 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

53. Mishna, Meilah, 3.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.5. The milk of consecrated animals and the eggs of [consecrated] turtle-doves may not be used, but are not subject to the law of sacrilege. When is this so? For things dedicated for the altar, but as for things dedicated for Temple upkeep, if one consecrated a chicken both it and its eggs are subject to the law of sacrilege, or [if one dedicated] a she-donkey, both it and its milk are subject to the law of sacrilege."
54. Mishna, Tevulyom, 3.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.4. Dough that had been mixed [with dough of terumah] or that had been leavened with yeast of terumah, is not disqualified by tevul yom. Rabbi Yose and Rabbi Shimon declare it unfit. Dough that had become susceptible [to uncleanness] by a liquid, and it was kneaded with produce juice, and later touched by a tevul yom: Rabbi Elazar ben Judah of Barthotha says in the name of Rabbi Joshua: he disqualifies all of it. Rabbi Akiva says in his name: he disqualifies only the part that he touched."
55. Babylonian Talmud, Meilah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12b. דאמר רב המקיז דם לבהמת קדשים אסור בהנאה ומועלין בו,גופא אמר רב הונא אמר רב המקיז דם לבהמת קדשים אסור בהנאה ומועלין בו מתיב רב המנונא חלב המוקדשין וביצי תורין לא נהנין ולא מועלין,אמר ליה כי קאמרינן לגבי דם דלא מתקיימת בלא דם אבל חלב דקא מקיימא בלא חלב לא,מתיב רב משרשיא הזבל והפרש שבחצר אין נהנין ואין מועלין ויפלו דמיה ללשכה,אמאי הכא נמי לא מקיים בלא פרש אמרי מאי איריא הדין פרש דמן עלמא קאתי לה אזיל האי אתי אחרינא לאפוקי דם מגופה,הא קתני לא נהנין ולא מועלין ודמיו ללשכה מסייעא ליה לרבי אלעזר דאמר ר"א כל מקום שאמרו חכמים קדוש ואינו קדוש דמיו יפלו ללשכה, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big חלב המוקדשין וביצי תורין לא נהנין ולא מועלין,בד"א בקדשי מזבח אבל בקדשי בדק הבית הקדיש תרנגולת מועלין בה ובביצתה חמורה מועלין בה ובחלבה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אלא גבי מזבח כי אקדשה קדושת דמים לא אית בה מעילה,אמר רב פפא חסורי מיחסרא והכי קתני בד"א כשהקדיש קדושת הגוף לגבי מזבח אבל הקדישו קדושת דמים לגבי מזבח נעשה כמי שהקדישו לבדק הבית הקדיש תרנגולת מועלין בה ובביצתה חמורה מועלין בה ובחלבה, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כל הראוי למזבח 12b. bAs Rav said:In a case of bone who lets blood froma live bsacrificial animal,deriving bbenefitfrom that blood bis prohibited andone is liable for bmisusing itby Torah law. Since there is a stage when there is a prohibition of misuse by Torah law, one can understand the ihalakhathat one is liable by rabbinic law for misusing the blood ultimately, when it descended to the Kidron Valley. This is not comparable to doves whose time of fitness for sacrifice has not arrived, as they are initially not subject to misuse by Torah law.,§ The Gemara analyzes bthematter bitself. Rav Huna saysthat bRav says:In a case of bone who lets blood from a sacrificial animal, deriving benefitfrom that blood bis prohibited andone is liable for bmisusing it. Rav Hamnuna raises an objectionto the opinion of Rav from the mishna below: With regard to bthe milk ofanimals bconsecratedto be sacrificed band the eggs of dovesconsecrated to be sacrificed, one bmay not derive benefitfrom them iab initio /i, bbutif one derived benefit from them he is bnotliable for their bmisuse,despite the fact that one is liable for misuse of the animals and doves themselves. Apparently, the products of a consecrated item do not share its status with regard to the ihalakhaof misuse. Why doesn’t this principle apply to blood as well?,Rav bsaid toRav Hamnuna in response: bWhen we saidthe products of a consecrated item are also subject to the ihalakhaof misuse that was only bwith regard to blood, asthe animal bcannot exist without bloodand therefore the blood is considered like the animal itself. bButin the case of bmilk, sincethe animal can bexist without milk,the milk is bnotconsidered like the animal itself., bRav Mesharshiyya raises an objectionto this suggestion from a ibaraita /i: One bmay not derive benefitfrom bthedried bmanure and thefresh bdungof offerings of the most sacred order found bin theTemple bcourtyard iab initio /i, bbutif one derived benefit from them he is bnotliable for bmisusingthem; bandthe bmoneyreceived from btheirsale bwillbe ballocated for thetreasury bchamberof the Temple.,In light of the suggested distinction between blood and milk, the Gemara asks: bWhyis the dung not subject to the ihalakhotof misuse? bHere too,the animal bcannot exist without dung,and therefore the dung should be subject to the ihalakhotof misuse like blood. The Sages bsayin response: bHowcan you bcomparethe two cases? In the case of bthis dung that comes tothe animal bfrom an externalsource, i.e., the food that it ate, bthisfood bgoesout of the body in the form of dung and bthat otherfood bcomesinto the body and takes its place. This description serves bto exclude blood, which ispart bofthe animal’s bbodyand is not replaced from an external source.,The Gemara notes: The ibaraita bteachesthat one bmay not derive benefitfrom the manure and dung iab initio /i, bbutif one derived benefit from them he is bnotliable for bmisuse, andthe bmoneyreceived from btheirsale bwillbe ballocated for thetreasury bchamberof the Temple. This bsupportsthe opinion of bRabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar said: Wherever the Sages saidan item is bconsecrated and not consecrated,as in this case where one may not derive benefit but he is not liable for misuse either, the bmoneyreceived from bitssale is ballocated for thetreasury bchamberof the Temple., strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bthe milk of sacrificialanimals band the eggs ofsacrificial bdoves,one bmay not derive benefitfrom them iab initio /i, bbutif one derived benefit from them after the fact he is bnotliable for their bmisuse. /b, bIn whatcase bis this statement,that if one derived benefit from the eggs or milk of sacrificial animals, he is not liable for their misuse, bsaid?It is stated binthe case of bsacrificialanimals offered on the baltar,as their eggs and milk are not brought to the altar and therefore they are considered distinct from the offerings themselves. bButthis is not the ihalakha binthe case of animals that are not sacrificed and are bconsecratedonly bfor Temple maintece.For example, if one bconsecrated a henhe is liable for bmisusing it and formisusing bits egg;if one consecrated ba donkeyhe is liable for bmisusing it and formisusing bits milk,as the animal and its milk, and likewise the hen and its eggs, are both consecrated for Temple maintece and are deemed a single unit., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that if one derived benefit from the eggs or milk of consecrated animals sacrificed on the altar he is not liable for their misuse. The Gemara asks: bButdoes that mean that in a case of an item that is suitable to be sacrificed bon the altar, if he consecrated itwith ba sanctitythat inheres in its bvalue,i.e., to sell it and use the money to buy an offering rather than sacrifice the animal itself, then its eggs or milk are bnot subject tothe ihalakhotof bmisuse?Since he does not intend to sacrifice the animal itself, why shouldn’t the prohibition of misuse apply to its milk or its eggs?, bRav Pappa said:The wording of the mishna bis incomplete and thisis what bit is teaching: In whatcase bis this statement,that the milk and eggs of a consecrated animal sacrificed on the altar are not subject to misuse, bsaid?It is said bwhen he consecratedthe animal with binherent sanctityto be sacrificed bon the altar. Butif bhe consecrated itwith ba sanctitythat inheres in its bvalue,i.e., to sell it and use the money to buy an offering to be sacrificed bon the altar,then bit isconsidered bas though he consecrated it forthe bTemple mainteceand it is subject to misuse. Therefore, if bone consecrated a hento sell it and use the money to buy an offering he is liable for bmisusing it and formisusing bits egg;if one consecrated ba donkeyhe is liable for bmisusing it and formisusing bits milk. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to banyconsecrated item bthat is fit forsacrifice on bthe altar /b
56. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.111-7.113, 7.116 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.111. They hold the emotions to be judgements, as is stated by Chrysippus in his treatise On the Passions: avarice being a supposition that money is a good, while the case is similar with drunkenness and profligacy and all the other emotions.And grief or pain they hold to be an irrational mental contraction. Its species are pity, envy, jealousy, rivalry, heaviness, annoyance, distress, anguish, distraction. Pity is grief felt at undeserved suffering; envy, grief at others' prosperity; jealousy, grief at the possession by another of that which one desires for oneself; rivalry, pain at the possession by another of what one has oneself. 7.112. Heaviness or vexation is grief which weighs us down, annoyance that which coops us up and straitens us for want of room, distress a pain brought on by anxious thought that lasts and increases, anguish painful grief, distraction irrational grief, rasping and hindering us from viewing the situation as a whole.Fear is an expectation of evil. Under fear are ranged the following emotions: terror, nervous shrinking, shame, consternation, panic, mental agony. Terror is a fear which produces fright; shame is fear of disgrace; nervous shrinking is a fear that one will have to act; consternation is fear due to a presentation of some unusual occurrence; 7.113. panic is fear with pressure exercised by sound; mental agony is fear felt when some issue is still in suspense.Desire or craving is irrational appetency, and under it are ranged the following states: want, hatred, contentiousness, anger, love, wrath, resentment. Want, then, is a craving when it is baulked and, as it were, cut off from its object, but kept at full stretch and attracted towards it in vain. Hatred is a growing and lasting desire or craving that it should go ill with somebody. Contentiousness is a craving or desire connected with partisanship; anger a craving or desire to punish one who is thought to have done you an undeserved injury. The passion of love is a craving from which good men are free; for it is an effort to win affection due to the visible presence of beauty. 7.116. Also they say that there are three emotional states which are good, namely, joy, caution, and wishing. Joy, the counterpart of pleasure, is rational elation; caution, the counterpart of fear, rational avoidance; for though the wise man will never feel fear, he will yet use caution. And they make wishing the counterpart of desire (or craving), inasmuch as it is rational appetency. And accordingly, as under the primary passions are classed certain others subordinate to them, so too is it with the primary eupathies or good emotional states. Thus under wishing they bring well-wishing or benevolence, friendliness, respect, affection; under caution, reverence and modesty; under joy, delight, mirth, cheerfulness.
57. Origen, Commentary On John, 1.16 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.16. In the beginning was the Word. John 1:1 It is not only the Greeks who consider the word beginning to have many meanings. Let any one collect the Scripture passages in which the word occurs, and with a view to an accurate interpretation of it note what it stands for in each passage, and he will find that the word has many meanings in sacred discourse also. We speak of a beginning in reference to a transition. Here it has to do with a road and with length. This appears in the saying: Proverbs 16:5 The beginning of a good way is to do justice. For since the good way is long, there have first to be considered in reference to it the question connected with action, and this side is presented in the words to do justice; the contemplative side comes up for consideration afterwards. In the latter the end of it comes to rest at last in the so-called restoration of all things, since no enemy is left them to fight against, if that be true which is said: 1 Corinthians 15:25-26 For He must reign until He have placed His enemies under His feet. But the last enemy to be destroyed is death. For then but one activity will be left for those who have come to God on account of His word which is with Him, that, namely, of knowing God, so that, being found by the knowledge of the Father, they may all be His Son, as now no one but the Son knows the Father. For should any one enquire carefully at what time those are to know the Father to whom He who knows the Father reveals Him, and should he consider how a man now sees only through a glass and in a riddle, never having learned to know as he ought to know, he would be justified in saying that no one, no apostle even, and no prophet had known the Father, but when he became one with Him as a son and a father are one. And if any one says that it is a digression which has led us to this point, our consideration of that one meaning of the word beginning, we must show that the digression is necessary and useful for the end we have in view. For if we speak of a beginning in the case of a transition, and of a way and its length, and if we are told that the beginning of a good way is to do justice, then it concerns us to know in what manner every good way has for its beginning to do justice, and how after such beginning it arrives at contemplation, and in what manner it thus arrives at contemplation.
58. Origen, Against Celsus, 2.64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.64. Although Jesus was only a single individual, He was nevertheless more things than one, according to the different standpoint from which He might be regarded; nor was He seen in the same way by all who beheld Him. Now, that He was more things than one, according to the varying point of view, is clear from this statement, I am the way, and the truth, and the life; and from this, I am the bread; and this, I am the door, and innumerable others. And that when seen He did not appear in like fashion to all those who saw Him, but according to their several ability to receive Him, will be clear to those who notice why, at the time when He was about to be transfigured on the high mountain, He did not admit all His apostles (to this sight), but only Peter, and James, and John, because they alone were capable of beholding His glory on that occasion, and of observing the glorified appearance of Moses and Elijah, and of listening to their conversation, and to the voice from the heavenly cloud. I am of opinion, too, that before He ascended the mountain where His disciples came to Him alone, and where He taught them the beatitudes, when He was somewhere in the lower part of the mountain, and when, as it became late, He healed those who were brought to Him, freeing them from all sickness and disease, He did not appear the same person to the sick, and to those who needed His healing aid, as to those who were able by reason of their strength to go up the mountain along with Him. Nay, even when He interpreted privately to His own disciples the parables which were delivered to the multitudes without, from whom the explanation was withheld, as they who heard them explained were endowed with higher organs of hearing than they who heard them without explanation, so was it altogether the same with the eyes of their soul, and, I think, also with those of their body. And the following statement shows that He had not always the same appearance, viz., that Judas, when about to betray Him, said to the multitudes who were setting out with him, as not being acquainted with Him, Whomsoever I shall kiss, the same is He. And I think that the Saviour Himself indicates the same thing by the words: I was daily with you, teaching in the temple, and you laid no hold on Me. Entertaining, then, such exalted views regarding Jesus, not only with respect to the Deity within, and which was hidden from the view of the multitude, but with respect to the transfiguration of His body, which took place when and to whom He would, we say, that before Jesus had put off the governments and powers, and while as yet He was not dead unto sin, all men were capable of seeing Him; but that, when He had put off the governments and powers, and had no longer anything which was capable of being seen by the multitude, all who had formerly seen Him were not now able to behold Him. And therefore, sparing them, He did not show Himself to all after His resurrection from the dead.
59. Plotinus, Enneads, 2.9.9-2.9.10 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

60. Augustine, Reply To Faustus, 13.7-13.14, 13.16 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

61. Augustine, De Correptione Et Gratia, 23 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

62. Augustine, De Ordine Libri Duo, 2.12 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

63. Nemesius, On The Nature of Man, 39-41, 35 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, offspring Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
abraham, the patriarch, descent from Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
adversus ioudaios writings Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 87
affect Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 95
agrippa ii Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 216
akiva, r. Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 206, 212, 224
alexander of aphrodisias Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
ancestors Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 430
anima/soul Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
animals, sacred, protecting the byproducts of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219
antitheses (marcion) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
apolinarius of laodicea Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 187
apostles Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186, 187
arboriculture Arampapaslis, Augoustakis, Froedge, Schroer, Dynamics Of Marginality: Liminal Characters and Marginal Groups in Neronian and Flavian Literature (2023) 30
aristotle Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 95
arriano, contra faustum manichaeum Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 182
athanasius of alexandria Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 187
athena Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 215
augustines works, conf. Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
augustines works, corrept. Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
augustines works, ord. Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
augustines works, simpl. Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
aurelius, marcus Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
authority Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186, 187
basilides Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
beast, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 430
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 430
bloom, harold Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
body Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 299
borders v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 372
boundary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 372
boyarin, daniel, on circumcision Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
boyarin, daniel, on divine performance Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
boyarin, daniel, on identity of israel Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 20, 21, 24
boyarin, daniel, poststructuralism of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19, 20
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186, 187
christianity, adversus ioudaios writings of Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 87
church, as new israel Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
cicero Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
circumcision, boyarin on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
circumcision, in jewish identity Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
circumcision, of the heart Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
circumcision Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 372
city Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
community Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186, 187
compassion, conversion, significance of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
consecration, in rabbinic writings Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 229
consecration, of foodstuffs Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 207, 208, 209
consecration, of trees Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 224
consecration, protections for derivatives and byproducts of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219
consecration, to block access to a property by a claimant Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 229
damascus Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368
damnation, eternal Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 293
davidic king Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 246
davidic son, son of david Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 246
day, judgment, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 430
day, resurrection, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 430
deity, deities Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 99
desire (epithumia) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 99
determinism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 293
diaspora, general Arampapaslis, Augoustakis, Froedge, Schroer, Dynamics Of Marginality: Liminal Characters and Marginal Groups in Neronian and Flavian Literature (2023) 30
difference, erasure of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
dio chrysostom Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 95
disclosure Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 299
divine performance, boyarin on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
divine performance, paul on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 20
dough offering Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 207, 208, 209, 224
dupied Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 185, 293
dying and rising (or death and resurrection) Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 194
elchasaites Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
election/elect Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 185
epictetus Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
eschatological Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 430
eschatology Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186
eucharist Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186, 187
evil will, stoic dead will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
evil will, stoic non-free free will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
evil will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38, 293
exile Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
faith/belief, as gods gift Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
faith/belief, initial faith Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
faith/belief Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
faith Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
fate/fatalism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38, 185, 293
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 246
faustus of milevus, augustine against Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 182
first day of the week Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186, 187
first fruits Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 208, 209
foreknowledge Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14
fortunatus the manichaean Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
free choice/free will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 293
fruit, first Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 430
genealogy, as flesh Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
gentiles Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 372
gentiles (ethnē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 95, 99
gnosticism/gnostics Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 185, 293
gnostics and gnosticism, hermeneutics of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
gnostics and gnosticism, secret or oral tradition, belief in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
gnostics and gnosticism Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
god, intervention of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
grace, and faith Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
grace, discriminatory grace/salvation Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
grace Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 185, 293
grafting Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 206, 219, 224
greece, sacred trees in Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 224
greece, sacrilege in Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 206
grief (lupē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 95, 99
hagar, paul on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
hays, richard b., echoes of scripture in the letters of paul Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
heave-offering Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 207, 209, 224
hekdesh, protection of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219
hekdesh Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 229
holiness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 430
holy spirit Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
identity, christian, and human diversity Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 20
identity, jewish, circumcision in Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
identity, jewish, transformation of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
image of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 430
insitio Arampapaslis, Augoustakis, Froedge, Schroer, Dynamics Of Marginality: Liminal Characters and Marginal Groups in Neronian and Flavian Literature (2023) 30
inspiration, divine Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
irenaeus Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14
israel, and gentiles deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
israel, community of, as textual signifier Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 20, 21, 24
israel, community of, boyarin on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19
israel, community of, paul on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 21, 24, 226
israel, community of, transformation of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 20, 21, 24
israel Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 95, 99; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
jerusalem Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 372
jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 372
jews and gentiles, in the church deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
john Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 87
joseph Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
judah, r. Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 212, 213, 224, 229
judgment Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 430
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186, 187
justice Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 430
justification' Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 246
land, auction of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 229
law Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186, 187
letter and spirit, paul on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19, 20
letters of recommendation Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 140
levi, r. Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 224
levites, as recipients of prebendary entitlements Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 207, 208, 209
luke, gospel of, as pauline gospel Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
mani and manichaeans Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
manichaeans, augustine on Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 182
manichaeans, on paul the apostle Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 182
manichaeans, on the new testament Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 182
manichaeism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38, 185, 293
marcion and marcionites, antitheses (marcion) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
marcion and marcionites, canon of new testament and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
marcion and marcionites, hermeneutics of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
meaning, pauls conception of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 21
meaning, promise as Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
mesopotamians Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
messiah, jesus as Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 21
mistranslations Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
moriai Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 224
mysterion Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 299
nag hammadi Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14
nemesios Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
neoplatonism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38, 185
new testament, and adversus ioudaios Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 87
non-jew Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 368, 372
old testament, augustine on Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 182
origen Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186; Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14
paedobaptism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
passions (pathē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 95, 99
paul, and moral progress Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 99
paul, and passions (pathē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 95, 99
paul, and protecting derivatives of agricultural consecrations Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 229
paul, and proto-rabbinic tradition Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 218, 219, 229
paul, and sacred admixtures Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 207, 208, 209
paul, and the olive tree metaphor in romans Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219, 224
paul, gospel of Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 95
paul, rhetoric of Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 95, 99
paul, the apostle, conception of meaning Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 21
paul, the apostle, epistle to the romans Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 20, 21, 24
paul, the apostle, interpretation of israel Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24, 226
paul, the apostle, jewish identity of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19, 20
paul, the apostle, on letter and spirit Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19, 20
paul, the apostle, supersessionism of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 21, 24
paul Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 95, 99; Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 87
paul and pauline epistles, manichaeans on Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 182
pauline epistles, luke as pauline gospel Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
pauline epistles, marcion's collection" Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
pauline epistles Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 299
paulinism Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 187
peace deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
perseverance Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
pharisees Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 218; Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 87
philo of alexandria Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186, 187
philosophy, christianity treated by gnostics as Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
pliny the elder Arampapaslis, Augoustakis, Froedge, Schroer, Dynamics Of Marginality: Liminal Characters and Marginal Groups in Neronian and Flavian Literature (2023) 30
plotinus Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38
poststructuralism, boyarins Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 19, 20
predestination Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38
predetermination Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 185
pride Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 207, 208, 209
promise, as meaning Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
proof texts Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185, 293
prophetic Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
providence, stoic type Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38, 293
purification/purity Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 154, 194
qumran, sectarians of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 218
qumran essenes Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
rabbis, and the consecration of land Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 229
rabbis, and the idea of sanctity Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 217, 218
rabbis, and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 206, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219
rabbis Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186, 187
reconciliation, ethnic deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 137
regeneration Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
regula fidei Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 293
restoration Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
resurrection Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 194
revelation Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
rhetoric, and letters Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 140
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 140
righteousness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 430
roman assembly, correspondence Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 95, 99
romans Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 87
sacred land, in judea, in rabbinic writings Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 229
sacred land, in judea, of the jerusalem temple Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 229
sacred land, in judea, special boundary markers for Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 229
sacrifice Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 430
sacrilege Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 206, 207, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219
sadducees Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 218
salvation, discriminatory salvation/grace Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
salvation Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 99; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186, 187; Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 185
sarah, wife of abraham Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 24
secret Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 299
shekel tax Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 229
signifiers, textual Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 20, 21, 24
simeon, r. Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 211, 212, 213, 224, 229
soul Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 99
sovereignty of god, judaeo-christian view Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 185
sovereignty of god Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38, 185
stoics, stoicism Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 95, 99
superbia Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 185
supersessionism, pauls Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 21, 24
temple, grafting branches onto Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219, 224
temple, in jerusalem, consecrated timber for construction at Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 216
temple, in jerusalem, economy of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 229
temple, in jerusalem, in rabbinic writings Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219
temple, protecting byproducts of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 229
temple Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 216
theodotus Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186, 187
total depravity/incapacity Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 38
traditions or schools of exegesis, valentinus and valentinian school Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
transformation, divine Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
trees, sacred, as an allegory for the early church Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 219, 224
trees, sacred, in greece Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 224
trees, sacred Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 206, 224
valentinian the gnostic Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 14, 38
valentinians Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186, 187
valentinus and valentinian school Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 599
vespasian Arampapaslis, Augoustakis, Froedge, Schroer, Dynamics Of Marginality: Liminal Characters and Marginal Groups in Neronian and Flavian Literature (2023) 30
wisdom Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 299
word (logos) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 99
worship Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 186, 187
writing, authoritative Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
writing, inspired Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
writing, sacred Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32