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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8258
New Testament, Matthew, 6.8


μὴ οὖν ὁμοιωθῆτε αὐτοῖς, οἶδεν γὰρ [ὁ θεὸς] ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὧν χρείαν ἔχετε πρὸ τοῦ ὑμᾶς αἰτῆσαι αὐτόν.Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

85 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.11, 4.7-4.11, 12.8-12.10 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. 4.9. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 4.11. and for all who practice it charity is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.6. הֲ־לַיְהוָה תִּגְמְלוּ־זֹאת עַם נָבָל וְלֹא חָכָם הֲלוֹא־הוּא אָבִיךָ קָּנֶךָ הוּא עָשְׂךָ וַיְכֹנְנֶךָ׃ 32.6. Do ye thus requite the LORD, O foolish people and unwise? Is not He thy father that hath gotten thee? Hath He not made thee, and established thee?"
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 4.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.16. לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל־תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים לַיְלָה וָיוֹם גַּם־אֲנִי וְנַעֲרֹתַי אָצוּם כֵּן וּבְכֵן אָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־כַדָּת וְכַאֲשֶׁר אָבַדְתִּי אָבָדְתִּי׃ 4.16. ’Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day; I also and my maidens will fast in like manner; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.14, 33.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 33.11. וְדִבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים כַּאֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ וְשָׁב אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וּמְשָׁרְתוֹ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן נַעַר לֹא יָמִישׁ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹהֶל׃ 3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’" 33.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend. And he would return into the camp; but his minister Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, departed not out of the Tent."
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדֹשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְהִוא שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדָּתָה אוֹ חֻפְשָׁה לֹא נִתַּן־לָהּ בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי־לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה׃ 19.2. Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them: Ye shall be holy; for I the LORD your God am holy."
7. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.8. וְאַתָּה מִגְדַּל־עֵדֶר עֹפֶל בַּת־צִיּוֹן עָדֶיךָ תֵּאתֶה וּבָאָה הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה הָרִאשֹׁנָה מַמְלֶכֶת לְבַת־יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 4.8. And thou, Migdal-eder, the hill of the daughter of Zion, Unto thee shall it come; Yea, the former dominion shall come, The kingdom of the daughter of Jerusalem."
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.23-1.24, 4.4, 4.10, 4.20, 5.1, 5.7, 7.1-7.2, 9.1, 10.19, 22.17, 24.23, 30.1, 31.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.23. תָּשׁוּבוּ לְתוֹכַחְתִּי הִנֵּה אַבִּיעָה לָכֶם רוּחִי אוֹדִיעָה דְבָרַי אֶתְכֶם׃ 1.24. יַעַן קָרָאתִי וַתְּמָאֵנוּ נָטִיתִי יָדִי וְאֵין מַקְשִׁיב׃ 4.4. וַיֹּרֵנִי וַיֹּאמֶר לִי יִתְמָךְ־דְּבָרַי לִבֶּךָ שְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתַי וֶחְיֵה׃ 5.1. בְּנִי לְחָכְמָתִי הַקְשִׁיבָה לִתְבוּנָתִי הַט־אָזְנֶךָ׃ 5.1. פֶּן־יִשְׂבְּעוּ זָרִים כֹּחֶךָ וַעֲצָבֶיךָ בְּבֵית נָכְרִי׃ 5.7. וְעַתָּה בָנִים שִׁמְעוּ־לִי וְאַל־תָּסוּרוּ מֵאִמְרֵי־פִי׃ 7.1. וְהִנֵּה אִשָּׁה לִקְרָאתוֹ שִׁית זוֹנָה וּנְצֻרַת לֵב׃ 7.1. בְּנִי שְׁמֹר אֲמָרָי וּמִצְוֺתַי תִּצְפֹּן אִתָּךְ׃ 7.2. שְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתַי וֶחְיֵה וְתוֹרָתִי כְּאִישׁוֹן עֵינֶיךָ׃ 7.2. צְרוֹר־הַכֶּסֶף לָקַח בְּיָדוֹ לְיוֹם הַכֵּסֶא יָבֹא בֵיתוֹ׃ 9.1. חָכְמוֹת בָּנְתָה בֵיתָהּ חָצְבָה עַמּוּדֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה׃ 9.1. תְּחִלַּת חָכְמָה יִרְאַת יְהוָה וְדַעַת קְדֹשִׁים בִּינָה׃ 10.19. בְּרֹב דְּבָרִים לֹא יֶחְדַּל־פָּשַׁע וְחֹשֵׂךְ שְׂפָתָיו מַשְׂכִּיל׃ 22.17. הַט אָזְנְךָ וּשְׁמַע דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים וְלִבְּךָ תָּשִׁית לְדַעְתִּי׃ 24.23. גַּם־אֵלֶּה לַחֲכָמִים הַכֵּר־פָּנִים בְּמִשְׁפָּט בַּל־טוֹב׃ 30.1. דִּבְרֵי אָגוּר בִּן־יָקֶה הַמַּשָּׂא נְאֻם הַגֶּבֶר לְאִיתִיאֵל לְאִיתִיאֵל וְאֻכָל׃ 30.1. אַל־תַּלְשֵׁן עֶבֶד אֶל־אדנו [אֲדֹנָיו] פֶּן־יְקַלֶּלְךָ וְאָשָׁמְתָּ׃ 31.1. דִּבְרֵי לְמוּאֵל מֶלֶךְ מַשָּׂא אֲ‍שֶׁר־יִסְּרַתּוּ אִמּוֹ׃ 31.1. אֵשֶׁת־חַיִל מִי יִמְצָא וְרָחֹק מִפְּנִינִים מִכְרָהּ׃ 1.23. Turn you at my reproof; behold, I will pour out my spirit unto you, I will make known my words unto you." 1.24. Because I have called, and ye refused, I have stretched out my hand, and no man attended," 4.4. And he taught me, and said unto me: ‘Let thy heart hold fast my words, Keep my commandments, and live;" 4.10. Hear, O my son, and receive my sayings; And the years of thy life shall be many." 4.20. My son, attend to my words; Incline thine ear unto my sayings." 5.1. My son, attend unto my wisdom; Incline thine ear to my understanding;" 5.7. Now therefore, O ye children, hearken unto me, And depart not from the words of my mouth." 7.1. My son, keep my words, And lay up my commandments with thee." 7.2. Keep my commandments and live, And my teaching as the apple of thine eye." 9.1. Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars;" 10.19. In the multitude of words there wanteth not transgression; But he that refraineth his lips is wise." 22.17. Incline thine ear, and hear the words of the wise, And apply thy heart unto my knowledge." 24.23. These also are sayings of the wise. To have respect of persons in judgment is not good." 30.1. The words of Agur the son of Jakeh; the burden. The man saith unto Ithiel, unto Ithiel and Ucal:" 31.1. The words of king Lemuel; the burden wherewith his mother corrected him."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 37.13-37.15, 68.6, 141.1, 145.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

37.13. אֲדֹנָי יִשְׂחַק־לוֹ כִּי־רָאָה כִּי־יָבֹא יוֹמוֹ׃ 37.14. חֶרֶב פָּתְחוּ רְשָׁעִים וְדָרְכוּ קַשְׁתָּם לְהַפִּיל עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן לִטְבוֹחַ יִשְׁרֵי־דָרֶךְ׃ 37.15. חַרְבָּם תָּבוֹא בְלִבָּם וְקַשְּׁתוֹתָם תִּשָּׁבַרְנָה׃ 68.6. אֲבִי יְתוֹמִים וְדַיַּן אַלְמָנוֹת אֱלֹהִים בִּמְעוֹן קָדְשׁוֹ׃ 141.1. יִפְּלוּ בְמַכְמֹרָיו רְשָׁעִים יַחַד אָנֹכִי עַד־אֶעֱבוֹר׃ 141.1. מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד יְהוָה קְרָאתִיךָ חוּשָׁה לִּי הַאֲזִינָה קוֹלִי בְּקָרְאִי־לָךְ׃ 145.16. פּוֹתֵחַ אֶת־יָדֶךָ וּמַשְׂבִּיעַ לְכָל־חַי רָצוֹן׃ 37.13. The Lord doth laugh at him; for He seeth that his day is coming." 37.14. The wicked have drawn out the sword, and have bent their bow; to cast down the poor and needy, to slay such as are upright in the way;" 37.15. Their sword shall enter into their own heart, and their bows shall be broken." 68.6. A father of the fatherless, and a judge of the widows, Is God in His holy habitation." 141.1. A Psalm of David. LORD, I have called Thee; make haste unto me; Give ear unto my voice, when I call unto Thee." 145.16. Thou openest Thy hand, And satisfiest every living thing with favour."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 5.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.12. וַיְדַבֵּר שְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים מָשָׁל וַיְהִי שִׁירוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה וָאָלֶף׃ 5.12. And he spoke three thousand proverbs; and his songs were a thousand and five."
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 1.12, 7.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.12. וַיִּסְפְּדוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיָּצֻמוּ עַד־הָעָרֶב עַל־שָׁאוּל וְעַל־יְהוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ וְעַל־עַם יְהוָה וְעַל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי נָפְלוּ בֶּחָרֶב׃ 7.14. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 1.12. and they mourned, and wept, and fasted until evening, for Sha᾽ul, and for Yehonatan his son, and for the people of the Lord, and for the house of Yisra᾽el; because they were fallen by the sword." 7.14. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:"
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.15, 1.20, 5.7, 6.1, 40.1-40.11, 52.7-52.9, 52.11-52.12, 63.16, 64.7, 65.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.15. וּבְפָרִשְׂכֶם כַּפֵּיכֶם אַעְלִים עֵינַי מִכֶּם גַּם כִּי־תַרְבּוּ תְפִלָּה אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ יְדֵיכֶם דָּמִים מָלֵאוּ׃ 5.7. כִּי כֶרֶם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה נְטַע שַׁעֲשׁוּעָיו וַיְקַו לְמִשְׁפָּט וְהִנֵּה מִשְׂפָּח לִצְדָקָה וְהִנֵּה צְעָקָה׃ 6.1. בִּשְׁנַת־מוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ עֻזִּיָּהוּ וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־אֲדֹנָי יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא רָם וְנִשָּׂא וְשׁוּלָיו מְלֵאִים אֶת־הַהֵיכָל׃ 6.1. הַשְׁמֵן לֵב־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאָזְנָיו הַכְבֵּד וְעֵינָיו הָשַׁע פֶּן־יִרְאֶה בְעֵינָיו וּבְאָזְנָיו יִשְׁמָע וּלְבָבוֹ יָבִין וָשָׁב וְרָפָא לוֹ׃ 40.1. נַחֲמוּ נַחֲמוּ עַמִּי יֹאמַר אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 40.1. הִנֵּה אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה בְּחָזָק יָבוֹא וּזְרֹעוֹ מֹשְׁלָה לוֹ הִנֵּה שְׂכָרוֹ אִתּוֹ וּפְעֻלָּתוֹ לְפָנָיו׃ 40.2. הַמְסֻכָּן תְּרוּמָה עֵץ לֹא־יִרְקַב יִבְחָר חָרָשׁ חָכָם יְבַקֶּשׁ־לוֹ לְהָכִין פֶּסֶל לֹא יִמּוֹט׃ 40.2. דַּבְּרוּ עַל־לֵב יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְקִרְאוּ אֵלֶיהָ כִּי מָלְאָה צְבָאָהּ כִּי נִרְצָה עֲוֺנָהּ כִּי לָקְחָה מִיַּד יְהוָה כִּפְלַיִם בְּכָל־חַטֹּאתֶיהָ׃ 40.3. קוֹל קוֹרֵא בַּמִּדְבָּר פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה יַשְּׁרוּ בָּעֲרָבָה מְסִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 40.3. וְיִעֲפוּ נְעָרִים וְיִגָעוּ וּבַחוּרִים כָּשׁוֹל יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃ 40.4. כָּל־גֶּיא יִנָּשֵׂא וְכָל־הַר וְגִבְעָה יִשְׁפָּלוּ וְהָיָה הֶעָקֹב לְמִישׁוֹר וְהָרְכָסִים לְבִקְעָה׃ 40.5. וְנִגְלָה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה וְרָאוּ כָל־בָּשָׂר יַחְדָּו כִּי פִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃ 40.6. קוֹל אֹמֵר קְרָא וְאָמַר מָה אֶקְרָא כָּל־הַבָּשָׂר חָצִיר וְכָל־חַסְדּוֹ כְּצִיץ הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 40.7. יָבֵשׁ חָצִיר נָבֵל צִיץ כִּי רוּחַ יְהוָה נָשְׁבָה בּוֹ אָכֵן חָצִיר הָעָם׃ 40.8. יָבֵשׁ חָצִיר נָבֵל צִיץ וּדְבַר־אֱלֹהֵינוּ יָקוּם לְעוֹלָם׃ 40.9. עַל הַר־גָּבֹהַ עֲלִי־לָךְ מְבַשֶּׂרֶת צִיּוֹן הָרִימִי בַכֹּחַ קוֹלֵךְ מְבַשֶּׂרֶת יְרוּשָׁלִָם הָרִימִי אַל־תִּירָאִי אִמְרִי לְעָרֵי יְהוּדָה הִנֵּה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 40.11. כְּרֹעֶה עֶדְרוֹ יִרְעֶה בִּזְרֹעוֹ יְקַבֵּץ טְלָאִים וּבְחֵיקוֹ יִשָּׂא עָלוֹת יְנַהֵל׃ 52.7. מַה־נָּאווּ עַל־הֶהָרִים רַגְלֵי מְבַשֵּׂר מַשְׁמִיעַ שָׁלוֹם מְבַשֵּׂר טוֹב מַשְׁמִיעַ יְשׁוּעָה אֹמֵר לְצִיּוֹן מָלַךְ אֱלֹהָיִךְ׃ 52.8. קוֹל צֹפַיִךְ נָשְׂאוּ קוֹל יַחְדָּו יְרַנֵּנוּ כִּי עַיִן בְּעַיִן יִרְאוּ בְּשׁוּב יְהוָה צִיּוֹן׃ 52.9. פִּצְחוּ רַנְּנוּ יַחְדָּו חָרְבוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם כִּי־נִחַם יְהוָה עַמּוֹ גָּאַל יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 52.11. סוּרוּ סוּרוּ צְאוּ מִשָּׁם טָמֵא אַל־תִּגָּעוּ צְאוּ מִתּוֹכָהּ הִבָּרוּ נֹשְׂאֵי כְּלֵי יְהוָה׃ 52.12. כִּי לֹא בְחִפָּזוֹן תֵּצֵאוּ וּבִמְנוּסָה לֹא תֵלֵכוּן כִּי־הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיכֶם יְהוָה וּמְאַסִּפְכֶם אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 63.16. כִּי־אַתָּה אָבִינוּ כִּי אַבְרָהָם לֹא יְדָעָנוּ וְיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יַכִּירָנוּ אַתָּה יְהוָה אָבִינוּ גֹּאֲלֵנוּ מֵעוֹלָם שְׁמֶךָ׃ 64.7. וְעַתָּה יְהוָה אָבִינוּ אָתָּה אֲנַחְנוּ הַחֹמֶר וְאַתָּה יֹצְרֵנוּ וּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדְךָ כֻּלָּנוּ׃ 65.24. וְהָיָה טֶרֶם־יִקְרָאוּ וַאֲנִי אֶעֱנֶה עוֹד הֵם מְדַבְּרִים וַאֲנִי אֶשְׁמָע׃ 1.15. And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide Mine eyes from you; Yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear; Your hands are full of blood." 1.20. But if ye refuse and rebel, Ye shall be devoured with the sword; For the mouth of the LORD hath spoken." 5.7. For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, And the men of Judah the plant of His delight; And He looked for justice, but behold violence; For righteousness, but behold a cry." 6.1. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple." 40.1. Comfort ye, comfort ye My people, saith your God." 40.2. Bid Jerusalem take heart, and proclaim unto her, that her time of service is accomplished, that her guilt is paid off; that she hath received of the LORD’S hand double for all her sins." 40.3. Hark! one calleth: ‘Clear ye in the wilderness the way of the LORD, make plain in the desert a highway for our God." 40.4. Every valley shall be lifted up, and every mountain and hill shall be made low; and the rugged shall be made level, and the rough places a plain;" 40.5. And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together; for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.’" 40.6. Hark! one saith: ‘Proclaim!’ And he saith: ‘What shall I proclaim?’ ’All flesh is grass, And all the goodliness thereof is as the flower of the field;" 40.7. The grass withereth, the flower fadeth; Because the breath of the LORD bloweth upon it— Surely the people is grass." 40.8. The grass withereth, the flower fadeth; But the word of our God shall stand for ever.’" 40.9. O thou that tellest good tidings to Zion, Get thee up into the high mountain; O thou that tellest good tidings to Jerusalem, Lift up thy voice with strength; Lift it up, be not afraid; Say unto the cities of Judah: ‘Behold your God! ’" 40.10. Behold, the Lord GOD will come as a Mighty One, And His arm will rule for Him; Behold, His reward is with Him, And His recompense before Him." 40.11. Even as a shepherd that feedeth his flock, That gathereth the lambs in his arm, And carrieth them in his bosom, And gently leadeth those that give suck." 52.7. How beautiful upon the mountains Are the feet of the messenger of good tidings, That announceth peace, the harbinger of good tidings, That announceth salvation; That saith unto Zion: ‘Thy God reigneth! ’" 52.8. Hark, thy watchmen! they lift up the voice, Together do they sing; For they shall see, eye to eye, The LORD returning to Zion." 52.9. Break forth into joy, sing together, Ye waste places of Jerusalem; For the LORD hath comforted His people, He hath redeemed Jerusalem." 52.11. Depart ye, depart ye, go ye out from thence, Touch no unclean thing; Go ye out of the midst of her; be ye clean, Ye that bear the vessels of the LORD." 52.12. For ye shall not go out in haste, Neither shall ye go by flight; For the LORD will go before you, And the God of Israel will be your rearward." 63.16. For Thou art our Father; for Abraham knoweth us not, and Israel doth not acknowledge us; Thou, O LORD, art our Father, Our Redeemer from everlasting is Thy name." 64.7. But now, O LORD, Thou art our Father; we are the clay, and Thou our potter, and we all are the work of Thy hand." 65.24. And it shall come to pass that, before they call, I will answer, And while they are yet speaking, I will hear."
13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 3.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.19. וְאָנֹכִי אָמַרְתִּי אֵיךְ אֲשִׁיתֵךְ בַּבָּנִים וְאֶתֶּן־לָךְ אֶרֶץ חֶמְדָּה נַחֲלַת צְבִי צִבְאוֹת גּוֹיִם וָאֹמַר אָבִי תקראו־[תִּקְרְאִי־] לִי וּמֵאַחֲרַי לֹא תשובו [תָשׁוּבִי׃] 3.19. But I said: ‘How would I put thee among the sons, And give thee a pleasant land, The goodliest heritage of the nations! ’ And I said: ‘Thou shalt call Me, My father; And shalt not turn away from following Me.’"
14. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 20.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

20.26. וַיַּעֲלוּ כָל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכָל־הָעָם וַיָּבֹאוּ בֵית־אֵל וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיָּצוּמוּ בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא עַד־הָעָרֶב וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלוֹת וּשְׁלָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 20.26. Then all the children of Yisra᾽el, and all the people, went up, and came to the house of God, and wept, and sat there before the Lord, and fasted that day until evening, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the Lord."
15. Homer, Iliad, 9.497-9.501 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

9.497. /to the end that thou mayest hereafter save me from shameful ruin. Wherefore Achilles, do thou master thy proud spirit; it beseemeth thee not to have a pitiless heart. Nay, even the very gods can bend, and theirs withal is more excellent worth and honour and might. Their hearts by incense and reverent vows 9.498. /to the end that thou mayest hereafter save me from shameful ruin. Wherefore Achilles, do thou master thy proud spirit; it beseemeth thee not to have a pitiless heart. Nay, even the very gods can bend, and theirs withal is more excellent worth and honour and might. Their hearts by incense and reverent vows 9.499. /to the end that thou mayest hereafter save me from shameful ruin. Wherefore Achilles, do thou master thy proud spirit; it beseemeth thee not to have a pitiless heart. Nay, even the very gods can bend, and theirs withal is more excellent worth and honour and might. Their hearts by incense and reverent vows 9.500. /and libations and the savour of sacrifice do men turn from wrath with supplication, whenso any man transgresseth and doeth sin. For Prayers are the daughters of great Zeus, halting and wrinkled and of eyes askance, and they are ever mindful to follow in the steps of Sin. 9.501. /and libations and the savour of sacrifice do men turn from wrath with supplication, whenso any man transgresseth and doeth sin. For Prayers are the daughters of great Zeus, halting and wrinkled and of eyes askance, and they are ever mindful to follow in the steps of Sin.
16. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 36.23-36.24 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

36.23. וְקִדַּשְׁתִּי אֶת־שְׁמִי הַגָּדוֹל הַמְחֻלָּל בַּגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר חִלַּלְתֶּם בְּתוֹכָם וְיָדְעוּ הַגּוֹיִם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה בְּהִקָּדְשִׁי בָכֶם לְעֵינֵיהֶם׃ 36.24. וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם מִן־הַגּוֹיִם וְקִבַּצְתִּי אֶתְכֶם מִכָּל־הָאֲרָצוֹת וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם אֶל־אַדְמַתְכֶם׃ 36.23. And I will sanctify My great name, which hath been profaned among the nations, which ye have profaned in the midst of them; and the nations shall know that I am the LORD, saith the Lord GOD, when I shall be sanctified in you before their eyes." 36.24. For I will take you from among the nations, and gather you out of all the countries, and will bring you into your own land."
17. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 17.13, 22.10 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.13. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־אָסִיר מֵעִמּוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר הֲסִירוֹתִי מֵאֲשֶׁר הָיָה לְפָנֶיךָ׃ 17.13. I will be to him for a father, and he shall be to Me for a son; and I will not take My mercy away from him, as I took it from him that was before thee;" 22.10. He shall build a house for My name; and he shall be to Me for a son, and I will be to him for a father; and I will establish the throne of his kingdom over Israel for ever."
18. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 5.1-5.3 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.1. בִּרְבוֹת הַטּוֹבָה רַבּוּ אוֹכְלֶיהָ וּמַה־כִּשְׁרוֹן לִבְעָלֶיהָ כִּי אִם־ראית [רְאוּת] עֵינָיו׃ 5.1. אַל־תְּבַהֵל עַל־פִּיךָ וְלִבְּךָ אַל־יְמַהֵר לְהוֹצִיא דָבָר לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי הָאֱלֹהִים בַּשָּׁמַיִם וְאַתָּה עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־כֵּן יִהְיוּ דְבָרֶיךָ מְעַטִּים׃ 5.2. כִּי בָּא הַחֲלוֹם בְּרֹב עִנְיָן וְקוֹל כְּסִיל בְּרֹב דְּבָרִים׃ 5.3. כַּאֲשֶׁר תִּדֹּר נֶדֶר לֵאלֹהִים אַל־תְּאַחֵר לְשַׁלְּמוֹ כִּי אֵין חֵפֶץ בַּכְּסִילִים אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תִּדֹּר שַׁלֵּם׃ 5.1. Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thy heart be hasty to utter a word before God; for God is in heaven, and thou upon earth; therefore let thy words be few." 5.2. For a dream cometh through a multitude of business; And a fool’s voice through a multitude of words." 5.3. When thou vowest a vow unto God, defer not to pay it; for He hath no pleasure in fools; pay that which thou vowest."
19. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

23c. on account of my service to the god.And in addition to these things, the young men who have the most leisure, the sons of the richest men, accompany me of their own accord, find pleasure in hearing people being examined, and often imitate me themselves, and then they undertake to examine others; and then, I fancy, they find a great plenty of people who think they know something, but know little or nothing. As a result, therefore, those who are examined by them are angry with me, instead of being angry with themselves, and say that Socrates is a most abominable person
20. Plato, Euthyphro, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14e. Euthyphro. You are right, Socrates. Socrates. Then holiness would be an art of barter between gods and men? Euthyphro. Yes, of barter, if you like to call it so. Socrates. I don’t like to call it so, if it is not true. But tell me, what advantage accrues to the gods from the gifts they get from us? For everybody knows what they give
21. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

715e. when he is young, but at its keenest when he is old. Clin. Very true. Ath. What, then, is to be our next step? May we not assume that our immigrants have arrived and are in the country, and should we not proceed with our address to them? Clin. of course. Ath. Let us, then, speak to them thus:— O men, that God who, as old tradition tells, holdeth the beginning, the end, and the center of all things that exist
22. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

278e. adding this phrase and taking that away, will you not properly address him as poet or writer of speeches or of laws? Phaedrus. Certainly. Socrates. Tell this then to your friend. Phaedrus. But what will you do? For your friend ought not to be passed by. Socrates. What friend? Phaedrus. The fair Isocrates. What message will you give him? What shall we say that he is? Socrates. Isocrates is young yet, Phaedrus;
23. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

24. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.3.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.3.2. And again, when he prayed he asked simply for good gifts, Cyropaedia I. vi. 5. for the gods know best what things are good. To pray for gold or silver or sovereignty or any other such thing, was just like praying for a gamble or a fight or anything of which the result is obviously uncertain.
25. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

26. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.11, 4.7-4.11, 12.8-12.10 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. 4.9. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 4.11. and for all who practice it charity is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives.
27. Anon., Jubilees, 1.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.19. And they will forget all My law and all My commandments and all My judgments, and will go astray as to new moons, and sabbaths, and festivals, and jubilees, and ordices.
28. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 4.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.3. Owing to all these things I lay upon the ground, and besought God that the Lord would deliver me from her deceit.
29. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 2.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.26. interea, unde isti versus? non enim adgnosco. adgnosco KR 1 (d exp. 2 ) V 1 (d eras. ) a n. G 1 Dicam hercle; etenim recte requiris. videsne abundare me otio? Quid tum? Fuisti saepe, credo, cum Athenis esses, in scholis philosophorum. Vero, ante vero V rec ac libenter quidem. Animadvertebas igitur, etsi tum nemo erat admodum copiosus, verum tamen versus ab is admisceri orationi. Ac ac hac G dyonisio X multos quidem a Dionysio Stoico. Probe dicis. sed is quasi dictata, nullo dilectu, nulla elegantia: delectu K nulla elegantia a e in r. V c eligantia KR c Philo et †proprium nrt sic G et proprium nr t V ( exp. 1 ) et proprium noster R etpũ nr K ( add. 1 au 2, propriŭ ss. 2 ) et proprio numero Sey. et pro nuntiabat numero ( cf. div. 2, 117 ) Po. et lecta poëmata et loco adiungebat. itaque postquam adamavi hanc quasi senilem declamationem, studiose equidem utor nostris poëtis; sed sicubi illi defecerunt—verti enim enim exp. V vet etlam Ha. multa de Graecis, ne quo ornamento in hoc genere disputationis careret Latina oratio. Sed videsne, poëtae quid mali adferant?
30. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 11.17-11.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 11.17-11.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Dead Sea Scrolls, Ben Sira, 31.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 9.3-9.6, 10.5-10.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

34. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 6.9-6.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.9. כְּעַן מַלְכָּא תְּקִים אֱסָרָא וְתִרְשֻׁם כְּתָבָא דִּי לָא לְהַשְׁנָיָה כְּדָת־מָדַי וּפָרַס דִּי־לָא תֶעְדֵּא׃ 6.11. וְדָנִיֵּאל כְּדִי יְדַע דִּי־רְשִׁים כְּתָבָא עַל לְבַיְתֵהּ וְכַוִּין פְּתִיחָן לֵהּ בְּעִלִּיתֵהּ נֶגֶד יְרוּשְׁלֶם וְזִמְנִין תְּלָתָה בְיוֹמָא הוּא בָּרֵךְ עַל־בִּרְכוֹהִי וּמְצַלֵּא וּמוֹדֵא קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־הֲוָא עָבֵד מִן־קַדְמַת דְּנָה׃ 6.12. אֱדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ הַרְגִּשׁוּ וְהַשְׁכַּחוּ לְדָנִיֵּאל בָּעֵא וּמִתְחַנַּן קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ׃ 6.9. Now, O king, establish the interdict, and sign the writing, that it be not changed, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not.’" 6.10. Wherefore king Darius signed the writing and the interdict." 6.11. And when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house—now his windows were open in his upper chamber toward Jerusalem—and he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime." 6.12. Then these men came tumultuously, and found Daniel making petition and supplication before his God."
35. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.24-1.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.24. The prayer was to this effect:'O Lord, Lord God, Creator of all things, who art awe-inspiring and strong and just and merciful, who alone art King and art kind,' 1.25. who alone art bountiful, who alone art just and almighty and eternal, who dost rescue Israel from every evil, who didst choose the fathers and consecrate them,' 1.26. accept this sacrifice on behalf of all thy people Israel and preserve thy portion and make it holy. 1.27. Gather together our scattered people, set free those who are slaves among the Gentiles, look upon those who are rejected and despised, and let the Gentiles know that thou art our God.' 1.28. Afflict those who oppress and are insolent with pride. 1.29. Plant thy people in thy holy place, as Moses said.'
36. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.28, 3.30, 5.5-5.7, 7.14, 12.12, 17.22-17.29, 29.9-29.13, 31.22, 34.25-34.26, 35.1-35.7, 37.18, 45.15-45.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.28. Do not disobey the fear of the Lord;do not approach him with a divided mind. 5.5. Do not be so confident of atonement that you add sin to sin. 5.5. A pleasant voice multiplies friends,and a gracious tongue multiplies courtesies. 5.6. Do not say, "His mercy is great,he will forgive the multitude of my sins," for both mercy and wrath are with him,and his anger rests on sinners. 5.6. Let those that are at peace with you be many,but let your advisers be one in a thousand. 5.7. Do not delay to turn to the Lord,nor postpone it from day to day;for suddenly the wrath of the Lord will go forth,and at the time of punishment you will perish. 5.7. When you gain a friend, gain him through testing,and do not trust him hastily. 7.14. Do not prattle in the assembly of the elders,nor repeat yourself in your prayer. 12.12. Do not put him next to you,lest he overthrow you and take your place;do not have him sit at your right,lest he try to take your seat of honor,and at last you will realize the truth of my words,and be stung by what I have said. 17.22. A mans almsgiving is like a signet with the Lord and he will keep a persons kindness like the apple of his eye. 17.23. Afterward he will arise and requite them,and he will bring their recompense on their heads. 17.24. Yet to those who repent he grants a return,and he encourages those whose endurance is failing. 17.25. Turn to the Lord and forsake your sins;pray in his presence and lessen your offenses. 17.26. Return to the Most High and turn away from iniquity,and hate abominations intensely. 17.27. Who will sing praises to the Most High in Hades,as do those who are alive and give thanks? 17.28. From the dead, as from one who does not exist,thanksgiving has ceased;he who is alive and well sings the Lords praises. 17.29. How great is the mercy of the Lord,and his forgiveness for those who turn to him! 29.9. Help a poor man for the commandments sake,and because of his need do not send him away empty. 29.11. Lay up your treasure according to the commandments of the Most High,and it will profit you more than gold. 29.12. Store up almsgiving in your treasury,and it will rescue you from all affliction; 29.13. more than a mighty shield and more than a heavy spear,it will fight on your behalf against your enemy. 31.22. Listen to me, my son, and do not disregard me,and in the end you will appreciate my words. In all your work be industrious,and no sickness will overtake you. 34.25. If a man washes after touching a dead body,and touches it again,what has he gained by his washing? 34.26. So if a man fasts for his sins,and goes again and does the same things,who will listen to his prayer?And what has he gained by humbling himself? 35.1. He who keeps the law makes many offerings;he who heeds the commandments sacrifices a peace offering. 35.1. Give to the Most High as he has given,and as generously as your hand has found. 35.2. He who returns a kindness offers fine flour,and he who gives alms sacrifices a thank offering. 35.2. Mercy is as welcome when he afflicts them as clouds of rain in the time of drought. 35.3. To keep from wickedness is pleasing to the Lord,and to forsake unrighteousness is atonement. 35.4. Do not appear before the Lord empty-handed 35.5. for all these things are to be done because of the commandment. 35.6. The offering of a righteous man anoints the altar,and its pleasing odor rises before the Most High. 35.7. The sacrifice of a righteous man is acceptable,and the memory of it will not be forgotten. 37.18. four turns of fortune appear,good and evil, life and death;and it is the tongue that continually rules them. 45.15. Moses ordained him,and anointed him with holy oil;it was an everlasting covet for him and for his descendants all the days of heaven,to minister to the Lord and serve as priest and bless his people in his name. 45.16. He chose him out of all the living to offer sacrifice to the Lord,incense and a pleasing odor as a memorial portion,to make atonement for the people.
37. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 6.9, 6.11, 16.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.9. To you then, O monarchs, my words are directed,that you may learn wisdom and not transgress. 6.11. Therefore set your desire on my words;long for them, and you will be instructed. 16.12. For neither herb nor poultice cured them,but it was thy word, O Lord, which heals all men.
38. Horace, Odes, 1.2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.2. and while those that were there present have given false accounts of things, and this either out of a humor of flattery to the Romans, or of hatred towards the Jews; and while their writings contain sometimes accusations, and sometimes encomiums, but nowhere the accurate truth of the facts 1.2. as also how our people made a sedition upon Herod’s death, while Augustus was the Roman emperor, and Quintilius Varus was in that country; and how the war broke out in the twelfth year of Nero, with what happened to Cestius; and what places the Jews assaulted in a hostile manner in the first sallies of the war. 1.2. These honorary grants Caesar sent orders to have engraved in the Capitol, that they might stand there as indications of his own justice, and of the virtue of Antipater.
39. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.62-2.63 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.62. Accordingly, on the seventh day there are spread before the people in every city innumerable lessons of prudence, and temperance, and courage, and justice, and all other virtues; during the giving of which the common people sit down, keeping silence and pricking up their ears, with all possible attention, from their thirst for wholesome instruction; but some of those who are very learned explain to them what is of great importance and use, lessons by which the whole of their lives may be improved. 2.63. And there are, as we may say, two most especially important heads of all the innumerable particular lessons and doctrines; the regulating of one's conduct towards God by the rules of piety and holiness, and of one's conduct towards men by the rules of humanity and justice; each of which is subdivided into a great number of subordinate ideas, all praiseworthy.
40. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 31-33, 30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Therefore, during six days, each of these individuals, retiring into solitude by himself, philosophises by himself in one of the places called monasteries, never going outside the threshold of the outer court, and indeed never even looking out. But on the seventh day they all come together as if to meet in a sacred assembly, and they sit down in order according to their ages with all becoming gravity, keeping their hands inside their garments, having their right hand between their chest and their dress, and the left hand down by their side, close to their flank;
41. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.216 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
42. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 7.12-7.13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7.12. What then did he do on this sabbath day? he commanded all the people to assemble together in the same place, and sitting down with one another, to listen to the laws with order and reverence, in order that no one should be ignorant of anything that is contained in them; 7.13. and, in fact, they do constantly assemble together, and they do sit down one with another, the multitude in general in silence, except when it is customary to say any words of good omen, by way of assent to what is being read. And then some priest who is present, or some one of the elders, reads the sacred laws to them, and interprets each of them separately till eventide; and then when separate they depart, having gained some skill in the sacred laws, and having made great advancers towards piety.
43. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 157, 156 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

156. Therefore, he knew that they had synagogues, and that they were in the habit of visiting them, and most especially on the sacred sabbath days, when they publicly cultivate their national philosophy. He knew also that they were in the habit of contributing sacred sums of money from their first fruits and sending them to Jerusalem by the hands of those who were to conduct the sacrifices.
44. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 81-82, 80 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

80. and leaving the logical part of philosophy, as in no respect necessary for the acquisition of virtue, to the word-catchers, and the natural part, as being too sublime for human nature to master, to those who love to converse about high objects (except indeed so far as such a study takes in the contemplation of the existence of God and of the creation of the universe), they devote all their attention to the moral part of philosophy, using as instructors the laws of their country which it would have been impossible for the human mind to devise without divine inspiration.
45. Anon., 2 Baruch, 79-87, 78 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

46. Anon., Didache, 6.2, 6.3, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 9, 9.1-10.7, 10, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 12.4, 15.3, 15.4, 16.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. But after you are filled, thus give thanks: We thank You, holy Father, for Your holy name which You caused to tabernacle in our hearts, and for the knowledge and faith and immortality, which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. You, Master almighty, created all things for Your name's sake; You gave food and drink to men for enjoyment, that they might give thanks to You; but to us You freely gave spiritual food and drink and life eternal through Your Servant. Before all things we thank You that You are mighty; to You be the glory forever. Remember, Lord, Your Church, to deliver it from all evil and to make it perfect in Your love, and gather it from the four winds, sanctified for Your kingdom which You have prepared for it; for Yours is the power and the glory forever. Let grace come, and let this world pass away. Hosanna to the God (Son) of David! If any one is holy, let him come; if any one is not so, let him repent. Maran atha. Amen. But permit the prophets to make Thanksgiving as much as they desire.
47. Apollonius of Tyana, Letters, 48.2, 55.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

48. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.209, 2.175 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.209. “There are a people called Jews, who dwell in a city the strongest of all other cities, which the inhabitants call Jerusalem, and are accustomed to rest on every seventh day; on which times they make no use of their arms, nor meddle with husbandry, nor take care of any affairs of life, but spread out their hands in their holy places, and pray till the evening. 2.175. for he did not suffer the guilt of ignorance to go on without punishment, but demonstrated the law to be the best and the most necessary instruction of all others, permitting the people to leave off their other employments, and to assemble together for the hearing of the law, and learning it exactly, and this not once or twice, or oftener, but every week; which thing all the other legislators seem to have neglected. /p
49. Mishnah, Avot, 1.2, 2.1, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Shimon the Righteous was one of the last of the men of the great assembly. He used to say: the world stands upon three things: the Torah, the Temple service, and the practice of acts of piety." 2.1. Rabbi Said: which is the straight path that a man should choose for himself? One which is an honor to the person adopting it, and [on account of which] honor [accrues] to him from others. And be careful with a light commandment as with a grave one, for you did know not the reward for the fulfillment of the commandments. Also, reckon the loss [that may be sustained through the fulfillment] of a commandment against the reward [accruing] thereby, and the gain [that may be obtained through the committing] of a transgression against the loss [entailed] thereby. Apply your mind to three things and you will not come into the clutches of sin: Know what there is above you: an eye that sees, an ear that hears, and all your deeds are written in a book." 2.16. He [Rabbi Tarfon] used to say: It is not your duty to finish the work, but neither are you at liberty to neglect it; If you have studied much Torah, you shall be given much reward. Faithful is your employer to pay you the reward of your labor; And know that the grant of reward unto the righteous is in the age to come."
50. Mishnah, Berachot, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.2. Rabbi Nehunia ben Hakaneh used to pray as he entered the Bet Hamidrash and as he left it a short prayer. They said to him: what is the reason for this prayer? He replied: When I enter I pray that that no mishap should occur through me, and when I leave I express thanks for my portion."
51. Mishnah, Middot, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.4. On the south were the wood chamber, the chamber of the exile and the chamber of hewn stones. The wood chamber: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: I forget what it was used for. Abba Shaul says: It was the chamber of the high priest, and it was behind the two of them, and one roof covered all three. In the chamber of the exile there was a fixed cistern, with a wheel over it, and from there water was provided for all of the courtyard. In the chamber of hewn stone the great Sanhedrin of Israel used to sit and judge the priesthood. A priest in whom was found a disqualification used to put on black garments and wrap himself in black and go away. One in whom no disqualification was found used to put on white garments and wrap himself in white and go in and serve along with his brother priests. They used to make a feast because no blemish had been found in the seed of Aaron the priest, and they used to say: Blessed is the Omnipresent, blessed is He, for no blemish has been found in the seed of Aaron. Blessed is He who chose Aaron and his sons to stand to minister before the Lord in the Holy of Holies."
52. Mishnah, Peah, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. These are the things that have no definite quantity: The corners [of the field]. First-fruits; [The offerings brought] on appearing [at the Temple on the three pilgrimage festivals]. The performance of righteous deeds; And the study of the torah. The following are the things for which a man enjoys the fruits in this world while the principal remains for him in the world to come: Honoring one’s father and mother; The performance of righteous deeds; And the making of peace between a person and his friend; And the study of the torah is equal to them all."
53. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.8. The sin-offering and the certain guilt-offering effect atonement. Death and Yom HaKippurim effect atonement together with repentance. Repentance effects atonement for light transgressions: [the transgression of] positive commandments and negative commandments. And for severer transgressions [repentance] suspends [the divine punishment], until Yom HaKippurim arrives and effects atonement."
54. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.6. There were two chambers in the Temple, one the chamber of secret gifts and the other the chamber of the vessels. The chamber of secret gifts: sin-fearing persons used to put their gifts there in secret, and the poor who were descended of the virtuous were secretly supported from them. The chamber of the vessels: whoever offered a vessel as a gift would throw it in, and once in thirty days the treasurers opened it; and any vessel they found in it that was of use for the repair of the temple they left there, but the others were sold and their price went to the chamber of the repair of the temple."
55. New Testament, 1 John, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.11. Beloved, if God loved us in this way, we also ought to love one another.
56. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.5-1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. who by the power of God are guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. 1.6. Wherein you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while, if need be, you have been put to grief in various trials 1.7. that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ -- 1.8. whom not having known you love; in whom, though now you don't see him, yet believing, you rejoice greatly with joy unspeakable and full of glory -- 1.9. receiving the result of your faith, the salvation of your souls. 1.10. Concerning this salvation, the prophets sought and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that would come to you 1.11. searching for who or what kind of time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, pointed to, when he predicted the sufferings of Christ, and the glories that would follow them. 1.12. To them it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to you, did they minister these things, which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent out from heaven; which things angels desire to look into.
57. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.6, 2.8, 5.4, 6.2, 6.11, 12.8-12.10, 13.1-13.3, 13.8-13.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.6. We speak wisdom, however, among those who are fullgrown; yet a wisdom not of this world, nor of the rulers of this world,who are coming to nothing. 2.8. which none of the rulers of this worldhas known. For had they known it, they wouldn't have crucified the Lordof glory. 5.4. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,you being gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our LordJesus Christ 6.2. Don't youknow that the saints will judge the world? And if the world is judgedby you, are you unworthy to judge the smallest matters? 6.11. Such were some of you, but you were washed. But you were sanctified.But you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and in the Spiritof our God. 12.8. For to one is given through theSpirit the word of wisdom, and to another the word of knowledge,according to the same Spirit; 12.9. to another faith, by the sameSpirit; and to another gifts of healings, by the same Spirit; 12.10. and to another workings of miracles; and to another prophecy; and toanother discerning of spirits; to another different kinds of languages;and to another the interpretation of languages. 13.1. If I speak with the languages of men and of angels, but don'thave love, I have become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal. 13.2. If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and allknowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, butdon't have love, I am nothing. 13.3. If I dole out all my goods tofeed the poor, and if I give my body to be burned, but don't have love,it profits me nothing. 13.8. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies,they will be done away with. Where there are various languages, theywill cease. Where there is knowledge, it will be done away with. 13.9. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part; 13.10. but when thatwhich is complete has come, then that which is partial will be doneaway with. 13.11. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I felt as achild, I thought as a child. Now that I have become a man, I have putaway childish things. 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known.
58. New Testament, Acts, 9.28, 13.14-13.43, 15.29 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.28. He was with them going in and going out at Jerusalem 13.14. But they, passing through from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia. They went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak. 13.16. Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, "Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen. 13.17. The God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they stayed as aliens in the land of Egypt , and with an uplifted arm, he led them out of it. 13.18. For about the time of forty years he put up with them in the wilderness. 13.19. When he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he gave them their land for an inheritance, for about four hundred fifty years. 13.20. After these things he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet. 13.21. Afterward they asked for a king, and God gave to them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years. 13.22. When he had removed him, he raised up David to be their king, to whom he also testified, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after my heart, who will do all my will.' 13.23. From this man's seed, God has brought salvation to Israel according to his promise 13.24. before his coming, when John had first preached the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. 13.25. As John was fulfilling his course, he said, 'What do you suppose that I am? I am not he. But behold, one comes after me the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to untie.' 13.26. Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, the word of this salvation is sent out to you. 13.27. For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they didn't know him, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him. 13.28. Though they found no cause for death, they still asked Pilate to have him killed. 13.29. When they had fulfilled all things that were written about him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a tomb. 13.30. But God raised him from the dead 13.31. and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. 13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 13.36. For David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay. 13.37. But he whom God raised up saw no decay. 13.38. Be it known to you therefore, brothers, that through this man is proclaimed to you remission of sins 13.39. and by him everyone who believes is justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses. 13.40. Beware therefore, lest that come on you which is spoken in the prophets: 13.41. 'Behold, you scoffers, and wonder, and perish; For I work a work in your days, A work which you will in no way believe, if one declares it to you.' 13.42. So when the Jews went out of the synagogue, the Gentiles begged that these words might be preached to them the next Sabbath. 13.43. Now when the synagogue broke up, many of the Jews and of the devout proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas; who, speaking to them, urged them to continue in the grace of God. 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell.
59. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.4, 1.8, 4.2, 5.1, 5.7, 5.13, 6.16, 7.10, 7.15, 11.16, 19.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. John, to the seven assemblies that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from God, who is and who was and who is to come; and from the seven Spirits who are before his throne; 1.8. I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, "who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty. 4.2. Immediately I was in the Spirit. Behold, there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting on the throne 5.1. I saw, in the right hand of him who sat on the throne, a book written inside and outside, sealed shut with seven seals. 5.7. Then he came, and he took it out of the right hand of him who sat on the throne. 5.13. I heard every created thing which is in heaven, on the earth, under the earth, on the sea, and everything in them, saying, "To him who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb be the blessing, the honor, the glory, and the dominion, forever and ever! Amen. 6.16. They told the mountains and the rocks, "Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him who sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb 7.10. They cried with a loud voice, saying, "Salvation be to our God, who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb! 7.15. Therefore they are before the throne of God, they serve him day and night in his temple. He who sits on the throne will spread his tent over them. 11.16. The twenty-four elders, who sit before God's throne on their thrones, fell on their faces and worshiped God 19.4. The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God who sits on the throne, saying, "Amen! Hallelujah!
60. New Testament, James, 5.12, 5.14, 5.16, 5.19-5.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. But above all things, my brothers, don't swear, neither by heaven, nor by the earth, nor by any other oath; but let your "yes" be "yes," and your "no," "no;" so that you don't fall into hypocrisy. 5.14. Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the assembly, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord 5.16. Confess your offenses to one another, and pray one for another, that you may be healed. The effective, earnest prayer of a righteous man is powerfully effective. 5.19. Brothers, if any among you wanders from the truth, and someone turns him back 5.20. let him know that he who turns a sinner from the error of his way will save a soul from death, and will cover a multitude of sins.
61. New Testament, Colossians, 1.9-1.12, 2.4-2.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For this cause, we also, since the day we heard this, don't cease praying and making requests for you, that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding 1.10. that you may walk worthily of the Lord, to please him in all respects, bearing fruit in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God; 1.11. strengthened with all power, according to the might of his glory, for all endurance and perseverance with joy; 1.12. giving thanks to the Father, who made us fit to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light; 2.4. Now this I say that no one may delude you with persuasiveness of speech. 2.5. For though I am absent in the flesh, yet am I with you in the spirit, rejoicing and seeing your order, and the steadfastness of your faith in Christ.
62. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.3-1.23, 3.14-3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.11. in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his will; 1.12. to the end that we should be to the praise of his glory, we who had before hoped in Christ: 1.13. in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, -- in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise 1.14. who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. 1.15. For this cause I also, having heard of the faith in the Lord Jesus which is among you, and the love which you have toward all the saints 1.16. don't cease to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers 1.17. that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him; 1.18. having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope of his calling, and what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints 1.19. and what is the exceeding greatness of his power toward us who believe, according to that working of the strength of his might 1.20. which he worked in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and made him to sit at his right hand in the heavenly places 1.21. far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 1.22. He put all things in subjection under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things for the assembly 1.23. which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all. 3.14. For this cause, I bow my knees to the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ 3.15. from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named 3.16. that he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, that you may be strengthened with power through his Spirit in the inward man; 3.17. that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; to the end that you, being rooted and grounded in love 3.18. may be strengthened to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth 3.19. and to know Christ's love which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled with all the fullness of God. 3.20. Now to him who is able to do exceedingly abundantly above all that we ask or think, according to the power that works in us 3.21. to him be the glory in the assembly and in Christ Jesus to all generations forever and ever. Amen.
63. New Testament, Galatians, 2.12, 5.19-5.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 5.19. Now the works of the fleshare obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness,lustfulness 5.20. idolatry, sorcery, hatred, strife, jealousies,outbursts of anger, rivalries, divisions, heresies 5.21. envyings,murders, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these; of which Iforewarn you, even as I also forewarned you, that those who practicesuch things will not inherit the Kingdom of God.
64. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.9-2.11, 2.14, 2.18, 4.15, 5.1, 5.8, 10.9, 10.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. But we see him who has been made a little lower than the angels, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that by the grace of God he should taste of death for everyone. 2.10. For it became him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the author of their salvation perfect through sufferings. 2.11. For both he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all from one, for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brothers 2.14. Since then the children have shared in flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death he might bring to nothing him who had the power of death, that is, the devil 2.18. For in that he himself has suffered being tempted, he is able to help those who are tempted. 4.15. For we don't have a high priest who can't be touched with the feeling of our infirmities, but one who has been in all points tempted like we are, yet without sin. 5.1. For every high priest, being taken from among men, is appointed for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins. 5.8. though he was a Son, yet learned obedience by the things which he suffered. 10.9. then he has said, "Behold, I have come to do your will." He takes away the first, that he may establish the second 10.22. let's draw near with a true heart in fullness of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and having our body washed with pure water
65. New Testament, Philippians, 2.6-2.8, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 4.15. You yourselves also know, you Philippians, that in the beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no assembly had fellowship with me in the matter of giving and receiving but you only.
66. New Testament, Romans, 2.29, 5.1, 8.26, 10.13-10.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 5.1. Being therefore justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ; 8.26. In the same way, the Spirit also helps our weaknesses, for we don't know how to pray as we ought. But the Spirit himself makes intercession for us with groanings which can't be uttered. 10.13. For, "Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved. 10.14. How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? How will they believe in him whom they have not heard? How will they hear without a preacher? 10.15. And how will they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: "How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring glad tidings of good things!
67. New Testament, John, 1.1, 2.16, 3.35, 4.34, 5.17, 5.19-5.23, 5.26, 5.43, 6.32, 6.38, 6.40, 8.19, 8.49, 9.22, 10.25, 10.29, 12.34, 12.42, 14.7, 14.13, 14.28, 14.31, 15.1, 15.8, 18.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2.16. To those who sold the doves, he said, "Take these things out of here! Don't make my Father's house a marketplace! 3.35. The Father loves the Son, and has given all things into his hand. 4.34. Jesus said to them, "My food is to do the will of him who sent me, and to accomplish his work. 5.17. But Jesus answered them, "My Father is still working, so I am working, too. 5.19. Jesus therefore answered them, "Most assuredly, I tell you, the Son can do nothing of himself, but what he sees the Father doing. For whatever things he does, these the Son also does likewise. 5.20. For the Father has affection for the Son, and shows him all things that he himself does. He will show him greater works than these, that you may marvel. 5.21. For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son also gives life to whom he desires. 5.22. For the Father judges no one, but he has given all judgment to the Son 5.23. that all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. He who doesn't honor the Son doesn't honor the Father who sent him. 5.26. For as the Father has life in himself, even so he gave to the Son also to have life in himself. 5.43. I have come in my Father's name, and you don't receive me. If another comes in his own name, you will receive him. 6.32. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly, I tell you, it wasn't Moses who gave you the bread out of heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread out of heaven. 6.38. For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him who sent me. 6.40. This is the will of the one who sent me, that everyone who sees the Son, and believes in him, should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day. 8.19. They said therefore to him, "Where is your Father?"Jesus answered, "You know neither me, nor my Father. If you knew me, you would know my Father also. 8.49. Jesus answered, "I don't have a demon, but I honor my Father, and you dishonor me. 9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 10.25. Jesus answered them, "I told you, and you don't believe. The works that I do in my Father's name, these testify about me. 10.29. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all. No one is able to snatch them out of my Father's hand. 12.34. The multitude answered him, "We have heard out of the law that the Christ remains forever. How do you say, 'The Son of Man must be lifted up?' Who is this Son of Man? 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue 14.7. If you had known me, you would have known my Father also. From now on, you know him, and have seen him. 14.13. Whatever you will ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. 14.28. You heard how I told you, 'I go away, and I come to you.' If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I said 'I am going to my Father;' for the Father is greater than I. 14.31. But that the world may know that I love the Father, and as the Father commanded me, even so I do. Arise, let us go from here. 15.1. I am the true vine, and my Father is the farmer. 15.8. In this is my Father glorified, that you bear much fruit; and so you will be my disciples. 18.3. Judas then, having taken a detachment of soldiers and officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, came there with lanterns, torches, and weapons.
68. New Testament, Luke, 1.34-1.35, 2.49, 4.16-4.27, 5.16, 6.6-6.11, 6.20-6.26, 6.42, 7.41-7.42, 10.22, 11.1-11.13, 12.23, 12.56, 13.15, 15.18, 15.21, 18.9-18.14, 22.29, 22.42, 24.26, 24.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.34. Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, seeing I am a virgin? 1.35. The angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God. 2.49. He said to them, "Why were you looking for me? Didn't you know that I must be in my Father's house? 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian. 5.16. But he withdrew himself into the desert, and prayed. 6.6. It also happened on another Sabbath that he entered into the synagogue and taught. There was a man there, and his right hand was withered. 6.7. The scribes and the Pharisees watched him, to see whether he would heal on the Sabbath, that they might find an accusation against him. 6.8. But he knew their thoughts; and he said to the man who had the withered hand, "Rise up, and stand in the middle." He arose and stood. 6.9. Then Jesus said to them, "I will ask you something: Is it lawful on the Sabbath to do good, or to do harm? To save a life, or to kill? 6.10. He looked around at them all, and said to him, "Stretch out your hand." He did, and his hand was restored as sound as the other. 6.11. But they were filled with rage, and talked with one another about what they might do to Jesus. 6.20. He lifted up his eyes to his disciples, and said, "Blessed are you poor, For yours is the Kingdom of God. 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake. 6.23. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. 6.24. But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 6.25. Woe to you, you who are full now! For you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now! For you will mourn and weep. 6.26. Woe, when men speak well of you! For their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets. 6.42. Or how can you tell your brother, 'Brother, let me remove the speck of chaff that is in your eye,' when you yourself don't see the beam that is in your own eye? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye. 7.41. A certain lender had two debtors. The one owed five hundred denarii, and the other fifty. 7.42. When they couldn't pay, he forgave them both. Which of them therefore will love him most? 10.22. Turning to the disciples, he said, "All things have been delivered to me by my Father. No one knows who the Son is, except the Father, and who the Father is, except the Son, and he to whomever the Son desires to reveal him. 11.1. It happened, that when he finished praying in a certain place, one of his disciples said to him, "Lord, teach us to pray, just as John also taught his disciples. 11.2. He said to them, "When you pray, say, 'Our Father in heaven, May your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come. May your will be done on Earth, as it is in heaven. 11.3. Give us day by day our daily bread. 11.4. Forgive us our sins, For we ourselves also forgive everyone who is indebted to us. Bring us not into temptation, But deliver us from the evil one.' 11.5. He said to them, "Which of you, if you go to a friend at midnight, and tell him, 'Friend, lend me three loaves of bread 11.6. for a friend of mine has come to me from a journey, and I have nothing to set before him,' 11.7. and he from within will answer and say, 'Don't bother me. The door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed. I can't get up and give it to you'? 11.8. I tell you, although he will not rise and give it to him because he is his friend, yet because of his persistence, he will get up and give him as many as he needs. 11.9. I tell you, keep asking, and it will be given you. Keep seeking, and you will find. Keep knocking, and it will be opened to you. 11.10. For everyone who asks receives. He who seeks finds. To him who knocks it will be opened. 11.11. Which of you fathers, if your son asks for bread, will give him a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, he won't give him a snake instead of a fish, will he? 11.12. Or if he asks for an egg, he won't give him a scorpion, will he? 11.13. If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him? 12.23. Life is more than food, and the body is more than clothing. 12.56. You hypocrites! You know how to interpret the appearance of the earth and the sky, but how is it that you don't interpret this time? 13.15. Therefore the Lord answered him, "You hypocrites! Doesn't each one of you free his ox or his donkey from the stall on the Sabbath, and lead him away to water? 15.18. I will get up and go to my father, and will tell him, "Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in your sight. 15.21. The son said to him, 'Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in your sight. I am no longer worthy to be called your son.' 18.9. He spoke also this parable to certain people who were convinced of their own righteousness, and who despised all others. 18.10. Two men went up into the temple to pray; one was a Pharisee, and the other was a tax collector. 18.11. The Pharisee stood and prayed to himself like this: 'God, I thank you, that I am not like the rest of men, extortioners, unrighteous, adulterers, or even like this tax collector. 18.12. I fast twice a week. I give tithes of all that I get.' 18.13. But the tax collector, standing far away, wouldn't even lift up his eyes to heaven, but beat his breast, saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!' 18.14. I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other; for everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but he who humbles himself will be exalted. 22.29. I confer on you a kingdom, even as my Father conferred on me 22.42. saying, "Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done. 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.49. Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high.
69. New Testament, Mark, 1.35, 2.18-2.22, 3.1-3.6, 7.6, 8.31, 9.5, 11.24-11.25, 12.40, 14.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.35. Early in the night, he rose up and went out, and departed into a deserted place, and prayed there. 2.18. John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting, and they came and asked him, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples don't fast? 2.19. Jesus said to them, "Can the groomsmen fast while the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they can't fast. 2.20. But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then will they fast in that day. 2.21. No one sews a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment, or else the patch shrinks and the new tears away from the old, and a worse hole is made. 2.22. No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins, and the wine pours out, and the skins will be destroyed; but they put new wine into fresh wineskins. 3.1. He entered again into the synagogue, and there was a man there who had his hand withered. 3.2. They watched him, whether he would heal him on the Sabbath day, that they might accuse him. 3.3. He said to the man who had his hand withered, "Stand up. 3.4. He said to them, "Is it lawful on the Sabbath day to do good, or to do harm? To save a life, or to kill?" But they were silent. 3.5. When he had looked around at them with anger, being grieved at the hardening of their hearts, he said to the man, "Stretch out your hand." He stretched it out, and his hand was restored as healthy as the other. 3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 8.31. He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 11.24. Therefore I tell you, all things whatever you pray and ask for, believe that you receive them, and you shall have them. 11.25. Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone; so that your Father, who is in heaven, may also forgive you your transgressions. 12.40. those who devour widows' houses, and for a pretense make long prayers. These will receive greater condemnation. 14.36. He said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. However, not what I desire, but what you desire.
70. New Testament, Matthew, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

71. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 10.4, 31.5, 31.8, 32.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

72. Tosefta, Berachot, 3.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.7. Rebbi Yehudah said, “When Rebbi Akiva would pray [Shmoneh Esreh] together with the congregation he would finish faster than everyone else. When he would pray by himself a person would leave him on one side [of the room] and when he would come back he would find him on a different side [of the room], because of all of the bending of the knees and bowing that he would do.”"
73. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 41 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

74. Hermas, Mandates, 11.2, 11.4, 11.7, 11.11-11.12 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

75. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 1.1, 1.11, 1.11.2, 1.14-1.16, 1.33, 6.1, 6.20 (2nd cent. CE

1.1. The votaries of Pythagoras of Samos have this story to tell of him, that he was not an Ionian at all, but that, once on a time in Troy, he had been Euphorbus, and that he had come to life after death, but had died as the songs of Homer relate. And they say that he declined to wear apparel made from dead animal products and, to guard his purity, abstained from all flesh diet, and from the offering of animals in sacrifice. For that he would not stain the altars with blood; nay, rather the honey-cake and frankincense and the hymn of praise, these they say were the offerings made to the Gods by this man, who realized that they welcome such tribute more than they do the hecatombs and the knife laid upon the sacrificial basket. For they say that he had of a certainty social intercourse with the gods, and learnt from them the conditions under which they take pleasure in men or are disgusted, and on this intercourse he based his account of nature. For he said that, whereas other men only make conjectures about divinity and make guesses that contradict one another concerning it, — in his own case he said that Apollo had come to him acknowledging that he was the god in person; and that Athena and the Muses and other gods, whose forms and names men did not yet know, had also consorted with him though without making such acknowledgment. And the followers of Pythagoras accepted as law any decisions communicated by him, and honored him as an emissary from Zeus, but imposed, out of respect for their divine character, a ritual silence on themselves. For many were the divine and ineffable secrets which they had heard, but which it was difficult for any to keep who had not previously learnt that silence also is a mode of speech.Moreover they declare that Empedocles of Acragas had trodden this way of wisdom when he wrote the lineRejoice ye, for I am unto you an immortal God, and no more mortal.And this also:For erewhile, I already became both girl and boy.And the story that he made at Olympia a bull of pastry and sacrificed it to the god also shows that he approved of the sentiments of Pythagoras. And there is much else that they tell of those sages who observe the rule of Pythagoras; but I must not now enter upon such points, but hurry on to the work which I have set myself to complete. 1.11. AGAIN he inculcated the wise rule that in our sacrifices or dedications we should no go beyond the just mean, in the following way. On one occasion several people had flocked to the Temple, not long after the expulsion of the Cilician, and he took the occasion to ask the priest the following questions: Are then, he said, the gods just? Why, of course, most just, answered the priest. Well, and are they wise? And what, said the other, can be wiser than the godhead? But do they know the affairs of men, or are they without experience of them? Why, said the other, this is just the point in which the gods excel mankind, for the latter, because of their frailty, do not understand their own concerns, whereas the gods have the privilege of understanding the affairs both of men and of themselves. All your answers, said Apollonius, are excellent, O Priest, and very true. Since then, they know everything, it appears to me that a person who comes to the house of God and has a good conscience, should put up the following prayer: “O ye gods, grant unto me that which I deserve.' For, he went on, the holy, O Priest, surely deserve to receive blessings, and the wicked the contrary. Therefore the gods, as they are beneficent, if they find anyone who is healthy and whole and unscarred by vice, will send him on his way, surely, after crowning him, not with golden crowns, but with all sorts of blessings; but if they find a man branded with sin and utterly corrupt, they will hand him over and leave him to justice, after inflicting their wrath upon him all the more, because he dared to invade their Temple without being pure. And at the same moment he looked towards Asclepius, and said: O Asclepius, the philosophy you teach is secret and congenial to yourself, in that you suffer not the wicked to come hither, not even if they pour into your lap all the wealth of India and Sardes. For it is not out of reverence for the divinity that they sacrifice these victims and suspend these offerings, but in order to purchase a verdict, which you will not concede to them in your perfect justice. And much similar wisdom he delivered himself of in this Temple, while he was still a youth. 1.14. ON one occasion, Euxenus asked Apollonius why so noble a thinker as he and one who was master of a diction so fine and nervous did not write a book. He replied: I have not yet kept silence. And forthwith he began to hold his tongue from a sense of duty, and kept absolute silence, though his eyes and his mind were taking note of very many things, and though most things were being stored in his memory. Indeed, when he reached the age of a hundred, he still surpassed Simonides in point of memory, and he used to chant a hymn addressed to memory, in which it is said that everything is worn and withered away by time, whereas time itself never ages, but remains immortal because of memory. Nevertheless his company was not without charm during the period of his silence; for he would maintain a conversation by the expression of his eyes, by gestures of his hands and nodding his head; nor did he strike men as gloomy or morse; for he retained his fondness for company and cheerfulness. This part of his life he says was the most uphill work he knew, since he practiced silence for five whole years; for he says he often had things to say and could not do so, and he was often obliged not to hear things the hearing of which would have enraged him, and often when he was moved and inclined to break out in a rebuke to others, he said to himself: Bear up then, my heart and tongue; and when reasoning offended him he had to give up for the time the refuting of it. 1.15. THESE years of silence he spent partly in Pamphylia and partly in Cilicia; and though his paths lay through such effeminate races as these, he never spoke nor was even induced to murmur. Whenever, however, he came on a city engaged in civil conflict (and many were divided into fractions over spectacles of a low kind), he would advance and show himself, and by indicating part of his intended rebuke by manual gesture or by look on his face, he would put an end to all the disorder, and people hushed their voices, as if they were engaged in the mysteries. Well, it is not so very difficult to restrain those who have started a quarrel about dances and horses, for those who are rioting about such matters, if they turn their eyes to a real man, blush and check themselves and easily recover their senses; but a city hard pressed by famine is not so tractable, nor so easily brought to a better mood by persuasive words and its passion quelled. But in the case of Apollonius, mere silence on his part was enough for those so affected. Anyhow, when he came to Aspendus in Pamphylia (and this city is built on the river Eurymedon, lesser only than two others about there), he found vetches on sale in the market, and the citizens were feeding upon this and on anything else they could get; for the rich men had shut up all the grain and were holding it up for export from the country. Consequently an excited crowd of all ages had set upon the governor, and were lighting a fire to burn him alive, although he was clinging to the statues of the Emperor, which were more dreaded at that time and more inviolable than the Zeus in Olympia; for they were statues of Tiberius, in whose reign a master is said to have been held guilty of impiety, merely because he struck his own slave when he had on his person a silver drachma coined with the image of Tiberius. Apollonius then went up to the governor and with a sign of his hand asked him what was the matter; and he answered that he had done no wrong, but was indeed being wronged quite as much as the populace; but, he said, if he could not get a hearing, he would perish along with the populace. Apollonius then turned to the bystanders, and beckoned to them that they must listen; and they not only held their tongues from wonderment at him, but they laid the brands they had kindled on the altars which were there. The governor then plucked up courage and said: This man and that man, and he named several, are to blame for the famine which has arisen; for they have taken away the grain and are keeping it, one in one part of the country and another in another. The inhabitants of Aspendus thereupon passed the word to one another to make for these men's estates, but Apollonius signed with his head, that they should do no such thing, but rather summon those who were to blame and obtain the grain from them with their consent. And when, after a little time the guilty parties arrived, he very nearly broke out in speech against them, so much was he affected by the tears of the crowd; for the children and women had all flocked together, and the old men were groaning and moaning as if they were on the point of dying by hunger. However, he respected his vow of silence and wrote on a writing board his indictment of the offenders and handed it to the governor to read out aloud; and his indictment ran as follows: Apollonius to the grain dealers of Aspendus. The earth is mother of us all, for she is just; but you, because you are unjust have pretended that she is your mother alone; and if you do not stop, I will not permit you to remain upon her. They were so terrified by these words, that they filled the market-place with grain and the city revived. 1.16. After the term of his silence was over he also visited the great Antioch, and passed into the sanctuary of Apollo Daphnaios, to which the Assyrians attach the legend of Arcadia. For they say that Daphne, the daughter of Ladon, there underwent her metamorphosis, and they have a river flowing there, the Ladon, and a laurel tree is worshipped by them which they say is the one substituted for the maiden; and cypress trees of enormous height surround the sanctuary, and the ground sends up springs both ample and placid, in which they say Apollo purifies himself by ablution. And there it is that the earth sends up a shoot of cypress, they say in honor of Cyparissus, an Assyrian youth; and the beauty of the shrub lends credence to the story of his metamorphosis. Well, perhaps I may seem to have fallen into a somewhat juvenile vein to approach my story by such legendary particulars as these, but my interest is not really mythology. What then is the purport of my narrative? Apollonius, when he beheld a sanctuary so charming and yet the home of no serious studies, but only of men half-barbarous and uncultivated, remarked: O Apollo, change these voiceless ones into trees, so that at least as cypresses they may become vocal. And when he saw the Ladon, he said: It is not your daughter alone that underwent a change, but you too, so far as one can see, have become a barbarian after being a Hellene and an Arcadian. And when he was minded to converse, he avoided the frequented regions and the disorderly, and said, that it was not people he wanted but real men; and he resorted to the more solemn places, and lived in such sanctuaries as were not shut up. At sunrise, indeed, he performed certain rites by himself, rites which he only communicated to those who had disciplined themselves by a four years' spell of silence; but during the rest of the day, in case the city was a Greek one, and the sacred rituals familiar to a Greek, he would call the priests together and talk wisely about the gods, and would correct them, supposing they had departed from the traditional forms. If, however, the rites were barbarous and peculiar, then he would find out who had founded them and on what occasion they were established, and having learnt the sort of cult it was, he would make suggestions, in case he could think of any improvement upon them, and then he would go in quest of his followers and bid them ask any questions they liked. For he said that it was the duty of philosophers of his school to hold converse at the earliest dawn with the gods, but as the day advanced, about the gods, and during the rest of the day to discuss human affairs in friendly intercourse. And having answered all the questions which his companions addressed to him, and when he had enough of their society, he would rise and give himself up for the rest to haranguing the general public, not however before midday, but as far as possible just when the day stood still. And when he thought he had enough of such discussion, he would be anointed and rubbed, and then fling himself into cold water, for he called hot baths the old age of men. At any rate when the people of Antioch were shut out of them because of the enormities committed there, he said: The emperor, for your sins, has granted you a new lease of life. And when the Ephesians wanted to stone their governor because he did not fire up the baths, he said to them: You are blaming your governor because you get such a sorry bath; but I blame you because you take a bath at all. 1.33. SINCE the king said that he was more pleased and delighted with his arrival than if he had added to his own possessions the wealth of Persia and India, and added that Apollonius must be his guest and share with him the royal roof, Apollonius remarked: Supposing, O king, that you came to my country of Tyana and I invited you to live where I live, would you care to do so? Why no, answered the king, unless I had a house to live in that was big enough to accommodate not only my escort and bodyguard, but myself as well, in a handsome manner. Then, said the other, I may use the same argument to you; for if I am housed above my rank, I shall be ill at ease, for superfluity distresses wise men more than deficiency distresses you. Let me therefore be entertained by some private person who has the same means as myself, and I will visit with you as often as you like. The king conceded this point, lest he should be betrayed into doing anything that might annoy him, and Apollonius took up his quarters with a gentleman of Babylon of good character and besides high-minded. But before he had finished dinner one of the eunuchs presented himself and addressed him thus: The king, he said, bestows upon you ten presents, and leaves you free to name them; but he is anxious that you should not ask for small trifles, for he wishes to exhibit to you and to us his generosity. Apollonius commended the message, and asked: Then when am I to ask for them? And the messenger replied: To-morrow, and at once went off to all the king's friends and kinsmen and bade them be present when the sage should prefer his demand and receive the honor. But Damis says that he expected him to ask for nothing, because he had studied his character and knew that he offered to the gods the following prayer: O ye gods, grant unto me to have little and to want nothing. However, as he saw him much preoccupied and, as it were, brooding, he determined that he was going to ask and anxiously turning over in his mind, what he should ask. But at eventide: Damis, said Apollonius, I am thinking over with myself the question of why the barbarians have regarded eunuchs as men sufficiently chaste to be allowed the free entry of the women's apartments. But, answered the other, O Apollonius, a child could tell you. For inasmuch as the operation has deprived them of the faculty, they are freely admitted into those apartments, no matter how far their wishes may go. But do you suppose the operation has removed their desires or the further aptitude? Both, replied Damis, for if you extinguish in a man the unruly member that lashes the body to madness, the fit of passion will come on him no more. After a brief pause, Apollonius said: To-morrow, Damis, you shall learn that even eunuchs are liable to fall in love, and that the desire which is contracted through the eyes is not extinguished in them, but abides alive and ready to burst into a flame; for that will occur which will refute your opinion. And even if there were really any human art of such tyrannical force that it could expel such feelings from the heart, I do not see how we could ever attribute to them any chastity of character, seeing that they would have no choice, having been by sheer force and artificially deprived of the faculty of falling in love. For chastity consists in not yielding to passion when the longing and impulse is felt, and in the abstinence which rises superior to this form of madness. Accordingly Damis answered and said: Here is a thing that we will examine another time, O Apollonius; but we had better consider now that answer you can make to-morrow to the king's magnificent offer. For you will perhaps ask for nothing at all, but you should be careful and be on your guard lest you should seem to decline any gift the king may offer, as they say, out of mere empty pride, for you see the land that you are in and that we are wholly in his power. And you must be on your guard against the accusation of treating him with contempt, and understand, that although we have sufficient means to carry us to India, yet what we have will not be sufficient to bring us back thence, and we have no other supply to fall back upon. 6.1. Ethiopia covers the western wing of the entire earth under the sun, just as India does the eastern wing; and at Meroe it adjoins Egypt, and, after skirting a part of Libya Incognita, it ends at the sea which the poets call by the name of the Ocean, that being the name they applied to the mass of water which surrounds the earth. This country supplies Egypt with the river Nile, which takes its rise at the cataracts (Catadupi), and brings down from Ethiopia all Egypt, the soil of which in flood-time it inundates. Now in size this country is not worthy of comparison with India, not for that matter is any of the continents that are famous among men; and even if you put together all Egypt with Ethiopia, and we may regard the river as so combining the two, we should not compare the two together with India, so vast is the standard of comparison. However their respective rivers, theIndus and the Nile, resemble one another, if we consider their creatures. For they both spread their moisture over the land in the summer season, when the earth most wants it, and unlike all other rivers they produced the crocodile and the river-horse; and the religious rites celebrated over them correspond with one another, for many of the religious invocations of the Indians are repeated in the case of the Nile. We have a proof of the similarity of the two countries in the spices which are found in them, also in the fact that the lion and the elephant are captured and confined in both the one and the other. They are also the haunts of animals not found elsewhere, and of black men — a feature not found in other continents — and we meet in them with races of pigmies and of people who bark in various ways instead of talking, and other wonders of the kind. And the griffins of the Indians and the ants of the Ethiopians, though they are dissimilar in form, yet, from what we hear, play similar parts; for in each country they are the guardians of gold, and devoted to the gold reefs of the two countries. But we will not pursue these subjects; for we must resume the course of our history and follow in the sage's footsteps. 6.20. Thereupon Thespesion as if anxious to drop the subject, put some questions to Apollonius, about the scourging in Sparta, and asked if the Lacedaemonians were smitten with rods in public. Yes, answered the other, as hard, O Thespesion, as men can smite them; and it is especially men of noble birth among them that are so treated. Then what do they do to menials, he asked, when they do wrong? They do not kill them nowadays, said Apollonius, as Lycurgus formerly allowed, but the same whip is used to them too. And what judgment does Hellas pass upon the matter? They flock, he answered, to see the spectacle with pleasure and utmost enthusiasm, as if to the festival of Hyacinthus, or to that of the naked boys. Then these excellent Hellenes are not ashamed, either to behold those publicly whipped who erewhile governed them or to reflect that they were governed by men who are whipped by men who are whipped before the eyes of all? And how is it that you did not reform this abuse? For they say that you interested yourself in the affairs of the Lacedaemonians, as of other people. So far as anything could be reformed, I gave them my advice, and they readily adopted it; for they are the freest of the Hellenes; but at the same time they will only listen to one who gives them good advice. Now the custom of scourging is a ceremony in honor of the Scythian Artemis, so they say, and was prescribed by oracles, and to oppose the regulations of the gods is in my opinion utter madness. 'Tis a poor wisdom, Apollonius, he replied, which you attribute to the gods of the Hellenes, if they countece scourging as a part of the discipline of freedom. It's not the scourging, he said, but the sprinkling of the altar with human blood that is important, for the Scythians too held the altar to be worthy thereof; but the Lacedaemonians modified the ceremony of sacrifice because of its implacable cruelty, and turned it into a contest of endurance, undergone without any loss of life, and yet securing to the goddess as first fruits an offering of their own blood. Why then, said the other, do they not sacrifice strangers right out to Artemis, as the Scythians formerly considered right to do? Because, he answered, it is not congenial to any of the Greeks to adopt in full rigor the manners and customs of barbarians. And yet, said the other, it seems to me that it would be more humane to sacrifice one or two of them than to enforce as they do a policy of exclusion against all foreigners.Let us not assail, said the other, O Thespesion, the law-giver Lycurgus; but we must understand him, and then we shall see that his prohibition to strangers to settle in Sparta and live there was not inspired on his part by mere boorish exclusiveness, but by a desire to keep the institutions of Sparta in their original purity by preventing outsiders from mingling in her life. Well, said the other, I should allow the men of Sparta to be what they claim to be, if they had ever lived with strangers, and yet had faithfully adhered to their home principles; for it was not by keeping true to themselves in the absence of strangers, but by doing so in spite of their presence, that they needed to show their superiority. But they, although they enforced his policy of excluding strangers, corrupted their institutions, and were found doing exactly the same as did those of the Greeks whom they most detested. Anyhow, their subsequent naval program and policy of imposing tribute was modelled entirely upon that of Athens, and they themselves ended by committing acts which they had themselves regarded as a just casus belli against the Athenians, whom they had no sooner beaten in the field than they humbly adopted, as if they were the beaten party, their pet institution. And the very fact that the goddess was introduced from Taurus and Scythia was the action of men who embraced alien customs. But if an oracle prescribed this, what want was there of the scourge? What need to feign an endurance fit for slaves? Had they wanted to prove the disdain that Lacedaemonians felt for death, they had I think done better to sacrifice a youth of Sparta with his own consent upon the altar. For this would have been a real proof of the superior courage of the Spartans, and would have disinclined Hellas from ranging herself in the opposite camp to them. But you will say that they had to save their young men for the battlefield; well, in that case the law which prevails among the Scythians, and sentences all men of sixty years of age to death, would have been more suitably introduced and followed among the Lacedaemonians then among the Scythians, supposing that they embrace death in its grim reality and not as a mere parade. These remarks of mine are directed not so much against the Lacedaemonians, as against yourself, O Apollonius. For if ancient institutions, whose hoary age defies our understanding of their origins, are to be examined in an unsympathetic spirit, and the reason why they are pleasing to heaven subjected to cold criticism, such a line of speculation will produce a crop of odd conclusions; for we could attack the mystery rite of Eleusis in the same way and ask, why it is this and not that; and the same with the rites of the Samothracians, for in their ritual they avoid one thing and insist on another; and the same with the Dionysiac ceremonies and the phallic symbol, and the figure erected in Cyllene, and before we know where we are we shall be picking holes in everything. Let us choose, therefore, any other topic you like, but respect the sentiment of Pythagoras, which is also our own; for it is better, if we can't hold our tongues about everything, at any rate to preserve silence about such matters as these. Apollonius replied and said, If, O Thespesion, you had wished to discuss the topic seriously, you would have found that the Lacedaemonians have many excellent arguments to advance in favor of their institutions, proving that they are sound and superior to those of other Hellenes; but since you are so averse to continue the discussion, and even regard it as impious to talk about such things, let us proceed to another subject, of great importance, as I am convinced, for it is about justice that I shall now put a question.
76. Philostratus The Athenian, Lives of The Sophists, 1.1, 1.33 (2nd cent. CE

77. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. אי הכי מאי איריא הכונס את הבתולה אפי' כונס את האלמנה נמי,הכא טריד והכא לא טריד,אי משום טרדא אפילו טבעה ספינתו בים נמי אלמה אמר רבי אבא בר זבדא אמר רב אבל חייב בכל מצות האמורות בתורה חוץ מן התפילין שהרי נאמר בהן פאר שנאמר (יחזקאל כד, יז) פארך חבוש עליך וגו',אמרי התם טרדא דרשות הכא טרדא דמצוה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big רחץ לילה הראשון שמתה אשתו אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאבל אסור לרחוץ אמר להם איני כשאר בני אדם אסטניס אני,וכשמת טבי עבדו קבל עליו תנחומין אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאין מקבלין תנחומין על העבדים אמר להם אין טבי עבדי כשאר כל העבדים כשר היה,חתן אם רוצה לקרות קרית שמע לילה הראשון קורא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא כל הרוצה ליטול את השם יטול:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט דרבן (שמעון בן) גמליאל קסבר אנינות לילה דרבנן דכתיב (עמוס ח, י) ואחריתה כיום מר ובמקום אסטניס לא גזרו ביה רבנן: ,וכשמת טבי עבדו וכו':,ת"ר עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ותנחומי אבלים,מעשה ומתה שפחתו של רבי אליעזר נכנסו תלמידיו לנחמו כיון שראה אותם עלה לעלייה ועלו אחריו נכנס לאנפילון נכנסו אחריו נכנס לטרקלין נכנסו אחריו אמר להם כמדומה אני שאתם נכוים בפושרים עכשיו אי אתם נכוים אפילו בחמי חמין לא כך שניתי לכם עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ולא תנחומי אבלים אלא מה אומרים עליהם כשם שאומרים לו לאדם על שורו ועל חמורו שמתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך כך אומרים לו על עבדו ועל שפחתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך,תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין מספידין אותן ר' יוסי אומר אם עבד כשר הוא אומרים עליו הוי איש טוב ונאמן ונהנה מיגיעו אמרו לו אם כן מה הנחת לכשרים:,ת"ר אין קורין אבות אלא לשלשה ואין קורין אמהות אלא לארבע,אבות מאי טעמא אילימא משום דלא ידעינן אי מראובן קא אתינן אי משמעון קא אתינן אי הכי אמהות נמי לא ידעינן אי מרחל קא אתינן אי מלאה קא אתינן אלא עד הכא חשיבי טפי לא חשיבי,תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין קורין אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית ושל ר"ג היו קורים אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית,מעשה לסתור משום דחשיבי:,א"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים סג, ה) כן אברכך בחיי בשמך אשא כפי כן אברכך בחיי זו ק"ש בשמך אשא כפי זו תפלה ואם עושה כן עליו הכתוב אומר (תהלים סג, ו) כמו חלב ודשן תשבע נפשי ולא עוד אלא שנוחל שני עולמים העוה"ז והעולם הבא שנאמר (תהלים סג, ו) ושפתי רננות יהלל פי:,ר' אלעזר בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתשכן בפורינו אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות ותרבה גבולנו בתלמידים ותצליח סופנו אחרית ותקוה ותשים חלקנו בגן עדן ותקננו בחבר טוב ויצר טוב בעולמך ונשכים ונמצא יחול לבבנו ליראה את שמך ותבא לפניך קורת נפשנו לטובה.,רבי יוחנן בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתציץ בבשתנו ותביט ברעתנו ותתלבש ברחמיך ותתכסה בעזך ותתעטף בחסידותך ותתאזר בחנינותך ותבא לפניך מדת טובך וענותנותך.,ר' זירא בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שלא נחטא ולא נבוש ולא נכלם מאבותינו,ר' חייא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתהא תורתך אומנותנו ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו.,רב בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתתן לנו חיים ארוכים חיים של שלום חיים של טובה חיים של ברכה חיים של פרנסה חיים של חלוץ עצמות חיים שיש בהם יראת חטא חיים שאין בהם בושה וכלימה חיים של עושר וכבוד חיים שתהא בנו אהבת תורה ויראת שמים חיים שתמלא לנו את כל משאלות לבנו לטובה.,רבי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו שתצילנו מעזי פנים ומעזות פנים מאדם רע ומפגע רע מיצר רע מחבר רע משכן רע ומשטן המשחית ומדין קשה ומבעל דין קשה בין שהוא בן ברית בין שאינו בן ברית,ואע"ג דקיימי קצוצי עליה דרבי.,רב ספרא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתשים שלום 16b. The Gemara questions this: bIf so, why discussa case of bone who is marrying a virginin particular? bEven one who is marrying a widowis performing a mitzva and should balsobe exempt.,The Gemara responds that nevertheless, there is a distinction between one marrying a virgin and one marrying a widow. bHere,in the case of one who marries a virgin, the groom is bpreoccupiedby his thoughts, bwhile here,in the case of one who marries a widow, bhe is not preoccupied. /b,The Gemara challenges: bIfa groom is exempt from the recitation of iShemasimply bdue to preoccupation,then bevenone who is preoccupied because bhis ship sank at sea shouldbe exempt. If so, bwhy then did Rabbi Abba bar Zavda saythat bRav said: A mourner is obligated in all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah except forthe mitzva to don bphylacteries, asthe term bsplendor is statedwith regard to phylacteries, bas it is statedthat the prophet Ezekiel was prohibited to mourn and was told: b“Bind your splendor upon yourself”(Ezekiel 24:17). If even a mourner, who is pained and preoccupied, is obligated to recite iShema /i, clearly preoccupation has no bearing upon one’s obligation.,The Gemara responds: Nevertheless, there is a distinction between the cases. bThere,it is a case of bpreoccupation with a voluntaryact, as there is no mitzva to be preoccupied with his mourning, but bhere,in the case of a groom, the cause of bthe preoccupation isthe bmitzvaitself., strongMISHNA: /strong The mishna relates another episode portraying unusual conduct by Rabban Gamliel. bHe bathed on the first night after his wife died. His students said to him:Have byounot btaught us, our teacher, that a mourner is prohibited to bathe?He answered them: bI am not like other people, I am delicate [ iistenis /i].For me, not bathing causes actual physical distress, and even a mourner need not suffer physical distress as part of his mourning.,Another exceptional incident is related: bAnd when his slave, Tavi, died,Rabban Gamliel baccepted condolences for hisdeath as one would for a close family member. bHis students said to him: Have younot btaught us, our teacher, that one does not accept condolences forthe death of bslaves?Rabban Gamliel said to his students: bMy slave, Tavi, is not like all the rest of the slaves, he was virtuousand it is appropriate to accord him the same respect accorded to a family member.,With regard to the recitation of iShemaon one’s wedding night, the Sages said that bif,despite his exemption, ba groom wishes to recite iShemaon the first night,he may do so. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Not everyone who wishes to assume the reputationof a God-fearing person bmay assumeit, and consequently, not everyone who wishes to recite iShemaon his wedding night may do so., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to Rabban Gamliel’s bathing on the first night after the death of his wife, the Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat bRabban Gamlieldid not practice the customs of mourning after his wife died? The Gemara answers: bHe holds thatacute mourning [ ianinut /i] is in effect only on the day of the death itself, but bacute mourning at night isonly bby rabbinic law, as it is written:“And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentations; I will bring sackcloth upon your loins and baldness upon every head; and I will make you like a mourner for an only child, band the end will be like a bitter day”(Amos 8:10). Therefore, by Torah law one’s acute mourning is only during the day, like a bitter day, while the acute mourning at night that follows is only rabbinic. bAnd in the case of a delicate person, the Sages did not issue a decreethat one should afflict himself during the period of acute mourning.,We learned in our mishna that: bWhen his servant, Tavi, died,Rabban Gamliel accepted condolences for him., bThe Sagestaught in a ibaraita /i: For bslaves and maidservantswho die, bone does not stand in a rowof comforters to console the mourners, band one recites neither the blessing of the mourners nor the consolation of the mourners. /b, bAn incidentis related that when bRabbi Eliezer’s maidservant died, his students entered to console him. When he saw themapproaching bhe went up to the second floor, and they went up after him. He entered the gatehouse [ ianpilon /i], and they entered after him. He entered the banquet hall [ iteraklin /i],and bthey entered after him.Having seen them follow him everywhere, bhe said to them: It seems to me that you would be burned by lukewarm water,meaning that you could take a hint and when I went up to the second floor, you would understand that I did not wish to receive your consolations. bNowI see that byou are not even burned by boiling hot water. Did I not teach you the following:For bslaves and maidservantswho die, bone does not stand in a rowof comforters to console the mourners, band one neither recites the blessing of the mourners nordoes he recite bthe consolation of the mourners,as the relationship between master and slave is not like a familial relationship? bRather, what does one say about themwhen they die? bJust as we say to a person about his ox or donkey which died: May the Omnipresent replenish your loss, so too do we say for one’s slave or maidservantwho died: bMay the Omnipresent replenish your loss,as the connection between a master and his slave is only ficial in nature., bIt was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne does not eulogize slaves and maidservants. Rabbi Yosei says: If he was a virtuous servant, one recites over hima eulogy of sorts: bAlas, a good and loyal man who enjoyedthe fruits bof his hard labor. They said to him: If so, whatpraise bhave you left for virtuousJews? A Jewish person would be proud to be eulogized in that manner., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may only call threepeople bpatriarchs,Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but not Jacob’s children. bAnd one may only call fourpeople bmatriarchs,Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this exclusivity with regard to the bPatriarchs? If you saythat it is bbecause we do not know whether we descend from Reuben or from Simon,so we cannot accurately say our father Reuben, for example, bif so,with regard to the Matriarchs as well, bwe do not know whether we descend from Rachel or from Leah,and we should not call Rachel and Leah matriarchs either. bInstead,the reason the sons of Jacob are not called patriarchs is not for that reason, but because buntilJacob bthey are significantenough to be referred to as patriarchs, but bbeyondJacob, bthey are not significantenough to be referred to as patriarchs.,This serves as an introduction; although older people are often referred to with the honorific: Father so-and-so, bit was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne may not refer to slaves and maidservants as father [ iabba /i] so-and-so or mother [ iimma /i] so-and-so. But they would callthe slaves and maidservants bof Rabban Gamliel “father so-and-so” and “mother so-and-so.” /b,The Gemara asks: Is a bstorycited in order bto contradictthe previously stated ihalakha /i? The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction; rather, bbecauseRabban Gamliel’s servants bwere significant,they were addressed with these honorifics.,The Gemara cites an aggadic statement concerning prayer and the recitation of iShema /i. bRabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “So I will bless You as I live, to Your name I will raise my hands”(Psalms 63:5)? bSo I will bless You as I live, refers to the recitation of iShema /i,and bto Your name I will raise my hands, refers tothe iAmida bprayer,which is characterized as lifting one’s hands to God. bAnd if one does so,recites iShemaand prays, bthe verse says about him: “As with fat and marrow, my soul will be satisfied”(Psalms 63:6). bAnd not onlydoes he receive this reward, bbut he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “With lips of joys [ ireot /i], my mouth praises You”(Psalms 63:6). The plural, joys, refers to two joys, that of this world and that of the World-to-Come.,The Gemara describes how bafter Rabbi Elazar concluded his prayer, he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bto cause to dwell in our lot love and brotherhood, peace and friendship. br bAnd may You make our borders rich in disciples br band cause us to ultimately succeed,that we will have a good bend and hope. br bAnd may You set our portion in the Garden of Eden, br band may You establish for us a good companion and a good inclination in Your world. br bAnd may we rise early and find the aspiration of our hearts to fear Your name, br band may the satisfaction of our souls come before You,i.e., may You hear our prayers that we may have spiritual contentment in this world bfor the best. /b,Similarly, the Gemara recounts that bafter Rabbi Yoḥa concluded his prayer, he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You look upon our shame and behold our plight, br bthat You clothe Yourself in Your mercy, br band cover Yourself with Your might, br bthat You wrap Yourself in Your loving-kindness, br band gird Yourself with Your grace, br band may Your attributes of goodness and humility come before You. /b,Similarly, bafter Rabbi Zeira concluded his prayers he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat we not sin or shame ourselves, br band that we not disgrace ourselves before our forefathers, brin the sense that our actions should not disgrace the actions of our forefathers., bAfter Rabbi Ḥiyya prayed he said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat Your Torah should be our vocation, br band may our heart not become faint nor our eyes dim. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rav said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You grant us long life, a life of peace, br ba life of goodness, a life of blessing, br ba life of sustece, a life of freedom of movementfrom place to place, where we are not tied to one place, br ba life of dread of sin, a life without shame and disgrace, br ba life of wealth and honor, br ba life in which we have love of Torah and reverence for Heaven, br ba life in which You fulfill all the desires of our heart for good. /b, bAfter his prayer, RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, and God of our forefathers, br bthat You save us from the arrogant and from arrogancein general, br bfrom a bad man, from a bad mishap, br bfrom an evil instinct, from a bad companion, br bfrom a bad neighbor, from the destructive Satan, br bfrom a harsh trial and from a harsh opponent, br bwhether he is a member of the covet,a Jew, br bor whether he is not a member of the covet. /b, bAndthe Gemara notes that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would recite this prayer every day bdespite the fact thatroyal bofficers stoodwatch bover RabbiYehuda HaNasi for his protection; nevertheless, he prayed to avoid conflict or hindrance resulting from arrogance., bAfter his prayer, Rav Safra said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, that You establish peace /b
78. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. טעו לא ישלמו כל שכן שתנעול דלת בפני לווין,רבא אמר מתניתין דהכא בדיני קנסות ואידך בהודאות והלואות,רב פפא אמר אידי ואידי בהודאה והלואה כאן בדין מרומה כאן בדין שאינו מרומה,כדריש לקיש דריש לקיש רמי כתיב (ויקרא יט, טו) בצדק תשפוט עמיתך וכתיב (דברים טז, כ) צדק צדק תרדף הא כיצד כאן בדין מרומה כאן בדין שאין מרומה,רב אשי אמר מתני׳ כדשנין קראי אחד לדין וא' לפשרה,כדתניא צדק צדק תרדף אחד לדין ואחד לפשרה כיצד שתי ספינות עוברות בנהר ופגעו זה בזה אם עוברות שתיהן שתיהן טובעות בזה אחר זה שתיהן עוברות וכן שני גמלים שהיו עולים במעלות בית חורון ופגעו זה בזה אם עלו שניהן שניהן נופלין בזה אחר זה שניהן עולין,הא כיצד טעונה ושאינה טעונה תידחה שאינה טעונה מפני טעונה קרובה ושאינה קרובה תידחה קרובה מפני שאינה קרובה היו שתיהן קרובות שתיהן רחוקות הטל פשרה ביניהן ומעלות שכר זו לזו,ת"ר צדק צדק תרדף הלך אחר ב"ד יפה אחר רבי אליעזר ללוד אחר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי לברור חיל,תנא קול ריחים בבורני שבוע הבן שבוע הבן אור הנר בברור חיל משתה שם משתה שם,ת"ר צדק צדק תרדף הלך אחר חכמים לישיבה אחר ר' אליעזר ללוד אחר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי לברור חיל אחר רבי יהושע לפקיעין אחר רבן גמליאל ליבנא אחר רבי עקיבא לבני ברק אחר רבי מתיא לרומי אחר רבי חנניא בן תרדיון לסיכני אחר ר' יוסי לציפורי אחר רבי יהודה בן בתירה לנציבין אחר רבי יהושע לגולה אחר רבי לבית שערים אחר חכמים ללשכת הגזית:,דיני ממונות פותחין כו': היכי אמרינן אמר רב יהודה הכי אמרינן להו מי יימר כדקאמריתו,א"ל עולא והא חסמינן להו וליחסמו מי לא תניא רבי שמעון בן אליעזר אומר מסיעין את העדים ממקום למקום כדי שתיטרף דעתן ויחזרו בהן,מי דמי התם ממילא קא מידחו הכא קא דחינן להו בידים,אלא אמר עולא הכי אמרינן יש לך עדים להזימם א"ל רבה וכי פותחין בזכותו של זה שהיא חובתו של זה,ומי הויא חובתו והתנן אין עדים זוממין נהרגין עד שיגמר הדין,הכי אמינא אילו שתיק האי עד דמיגמר דיניה ומייתי עדים ומזים להו הויא ליה חובתו של זה אלא אמר רבה אמרינן ליה יש לך עדים להכחישן,רב כהנא אמר מדבריכם נזדכה פלוני אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו אמרי' ליה אי לא קטלת לא תדחל רב אשי אמר כל מי שיודע לו זכות יבא וילמד עליו,תניא כוותיה דאביי ורבא רבי אומר (במדבר ה, יט) אם לא שכב איש אותך ואם לא שטית וגו' 32b. then if the judges berred they should notneed to bpaythe party they wronged, as they can claim that they were prevented from examining the witnesses effectively. The Gemara answers: If that were to be the ihalakha /i, ball the more so thatthis bwould lock the door in the face ofpotential bborrowers.If people know that the courts are not responsible for an error in judgment, they will not be willing to lend money., bRava says:The ruling of bthe mishna here,that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is stated bwith regard to laws of fines,not standard cases of monetary law. bAnd the othersources, i.e., the mishna in tractate iShevi’itand the ibaraita /i, which do not require inquiry and interrogation, are stated bwith regard tocases of badmissions and loans,in which there is cause to relax the procedures of deliberation, as explained., bRav Pappa says: This and that,i.e., both the mishna here and the other sources, are stated bwith regard tocases of ban admission and a loan.The distinction between them is that the mishna bhere,which rules that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is stated bwith regard toa possibly bfraudulent trial,where the court suspects that one party is attempting to defraud the other party and have witnesses offer false testimony on his own behalf. bThere,in the ibaraitaand in the mishna in tractate iShevi’it /i, which do not require inquiry and interrogation, the ruling is stated bwith regard to a trial thatdoes bnotappear bfraudulent. /b,This distinction is bin accordance withthe statement bof Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish raises a contradictionbetween two verses: It bis writtenin one verse: b“In justice shall you judge your neighbor”(Leviticus 19:15), bandit bis writtenin another verse: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow”(Deuteronomy 16:21), with the repetition indicating that it is not enough to merely judge with justice. He continues: bHowcan bthesetexts be reconciled? bHere,this latter verse is stated bwith regard toa possibly bfraudulent trial,where the court must take extra care to judge with justice; and bthere,that former verse is stated bwith regard to a trial thatdoes bnotappear bfraudulent. /b, bRav Ashi says:The ruling of bthe mishna here,that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is bas we answered,i.e., in accordance with any one of the answers offered by the other iamora’im /i. And those bverseswere not stated with regard to fraudulent trials; rather, boneis stated bwith regard to judgment,in which the court must pursue justice extensively, band oneis stated bwith regard to compromise. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: When the verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow,” onemention of “justice” is stated bwith regard to judgment and oneis stated bwith regard to compromise. How so?Where there are btwo boats traveling on the river and they encounter each other, if both of themattempt to bpass, both of them sink,as the river is not wide enough for both to pass. If they pass bone after the other, both of them pass. And similarly,where there are btwo camels who were ascending the ascent of Beit Ḥoron,where there is a narrow steep path, band they encounter each other, if both of themattempt to bascend, both of them fall.If they ascend bone after the other, both of them ascend. /b, bHowdoes one decide which of them should go first? If there is one boat that is bladen andone boat bthat is not laden,the needs of the one bthat is not laden should be overridden due tothe needs of the one bthat is laden.If there is one boat that is bcloseto its destination bandone boat bthat is not closeto its destination, the needs of the one that is bclose should be overridden due tothe needs of the one bthat is not close.If bboth of them were closeto their destinations, or bboth of them were farfrom their destinations, bimpose a compromise between themto decide which goes first, bandthe owners of the boats bpay a fee to one other,i.e., the owners of the first boat compensate the owner of the boat that waits, for any loss incurred.,§ bThe Sages taught:The verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow.”This teaches that one should bfollow the best,most prestigious, bcourtof the generation. For example, follow bafter Rabbi Eliezer to Lod, after Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai to Beror Ḥayil. /b,The Sages btaught:When the gentile authorities issued decrees outlawing observance of the mitzvot, members of Jewish communities devised clandestine ways of indicating observance of mitzvot to each other. For example: If one produces bthe sound of a millstone inthe city called bBurni,this is tantamount to announcing: bWeek of the son, week of the son,i.e., there will be a circumcision. If one displays the blight of a lamp inthe city called bBeror Ḥayil,this is tantamount to announcing: There is a wedding bfeast there,there is a wedding bfeast there. /b, bThe Sages taught:The verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow.”This teaches that one should bfollow the Sages to the academywhere they are found. For example, follow bafter Rabbi Eliezer to Lod, after Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai to Beror Ḥayil, after Rabbi Yehoshua to Peki’in, after Rabban Gamliel to Yavne, after Rabbi Akiva to Bnei Brak, after Rabbi Matya to Rome [ iRomi /i], after Rabbi Ḥaya ben Teradyon to Sikhnei, after Rabbi Yosei to Tzippori, after Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira to Netzivin, after Rabbi Yehoshua to the exile [ igola /i],i.e., Babylonia, bafter RabbiYehuda HaNasi bto Beit She’arim,and bafter the Sagesin the time of the Temple bto the Chamber of Hewn Stone. /b,§ The mishna teaches that in cases of bmonetary law,the court bopensthe deliberations either with a claim to exempt the accused, or with a claim to find him liable. In cases of capital law, the court opens the deliberations with a claim to acquit the accused, but does not open the deliberations with a claim to find him liable. The Gemara asks: bHow do we saythis opening stage of the deliberations? In other words, with what claim does the court begin deliberating? bRav Yehuda said: We say this tothe witnesses: bWho saysthat the event occurred bas you said?Perhaps you erred?, bUlla said to him: Butby confronting the witnesses in this manner, bwe silence them.The witnesses will think that the court suspects them of lying, and they will not testify. Rav Yehuda said to him: bAnd let them be silenced. Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta9:1): bRabbi Shimon ben Eliezer says:In cases of capital law, the court bbrings the witnesses fromone bplace toanother bplace in order to confuse them so that they will retracttheir testimony if they are lying.,The Gemara rejects this argument: bArethe ihalakhot bcomparable? There,where Rabbi Shimon ben Eliezer says to bring the witnesses from place to place, the witnesses bare repressed by themselves,whereas bhere, we repress them bydirect baction,and that the court should not do., bRather, Ulla says: We say thisto the accused: bDo you have witnesses to determinethat the witnesses who testified against you are bconspiring witnesses? Rabba said to him: But do we openthe deliberations bwitha claim to bacquitthe accused bthat isto bthe liability of thisone, i.e., the witnesses? This claim can lead to the witnesses incurring liability for their testimony.,The Gemara questions Rabba’s assumption: bBut isthis to bthe liability ofthe witnesses? bBut didn’t we learnin a mishna ( iMakkot5b): bConspiring witnesses are not killedfor their testimony buntil the verdictof the one concerning whom they testified bis issued?Therefore, if they will be shown to be conspiring witnesses at this early stage of the proceedings, they will not be liable.,The Gemara restates Rabba’s objection: bThisis what bI say: Ifthe accused bwould be silent until his verdict is issued andthen bbrings witnesses andthe court bdetermines themto be bconspiringwitnesses, it will be found that the statement of the court bisto bthe liability of thisone, i.e., the witnesses. bRather, Rabba says: We say tothe accused: bDo you have witnesses to contradict them?If the first witnesses are contradicted as to the facts of the case, no one is liable., bRav Kahana said:We say to the witnesses: bBased on your statements, so-and-so is acquitted.The court issues a ipro formadeclaration that it is possible to find a reason to acquit based on the testimony of the witnesses, and then they begin the deliberations. bAbaye and Rava both say: We say tothe accused: For example, bif you did not killanyone, bdo not fearthe consequences of these proceedings, as you will be acquitted. bRav Ashi says:The court announces: bWhoever knowsof a reason bto acquitthe accused bshould come and teachthis reason bconcerning him. /b,The Gemara comments: bIt is taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe explanation bof Abaye and Rava. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays:The priest administering the isotarite to the isotasays to her: b“If no man has lain with you and if you have not gone astrayto impurity while under your husband, you shall be free from this water of bitterness that causes the curse. But if you have gone astray while under your husband…” (Numbers 5:19–20). The priest first states the scenario in which the woman is innocent of adultery.
79. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 8.10 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.10. He divides man's life into four quarters thus: Twenty years a boy, twenty years a youth, twenty years a young man, twenty years an old man; and these four periods correspond to the four seasons, the boy to spring, the youth to summer, the young man to autumn, and the old man to winter, meaning by youth one not yet grown up and by a young man a man of mature age. According to Timaeus, he was the first to say, Friends have all things in common and Friendship is equality; indeed, his disciples did put all their possessions into one common stock. For five whole years they had to keep silence, merely listening to his discourses without seeing him, until they passed an examination, and thenceforward they were admitted to his house and allowed to see him. They would never use coffins of cypress, because the sceptre of Zeus was made from it, so we are informed by Hermippus in his second book On Pythagoras.
80. Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, 72 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

81. Origen, Commentary On John, 5.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

82. Origen, Against Celsus, 7.44 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.44. Celsus supposes that we may arrive at a knowledge of God either by combining or separating certain things after the methods which mathematicians call synthesis and analysis, or again by analogy, which is employed by them also, and that in this way we may as it were gain admission to the chief good. But when the Word of God says, No man knows the Father but the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal Him, He declares that no one can know God but by the help of divine grace coming from above, with a certain divine inspiration. Indeed, it is reasonable to suppose that the knowledge of God is beyond the reach of human nature, and hence the many errors into which men have fallen in their views of God. It is, then, through the goodness and love of God to mankind, and by a marvellous exercise of divine grace to those whom He saw in His foreknowledge, and knew that they would walk worthy of Him who had made Himself known to them, and that they would never swerve from a faithful attachment to His service, although they were condemned to death or held up to ridicule by those who, in ignorance of what true religion is, give that name to what deserves to be called anything rather than religion. God doubtless saw the pride and arrogance of those who, with contempt for all others, boast of their knowledge of God, and of their profound acquaintance with divine things obtained from philosophy, but who still, not less even than the most ignorant, run after their images, and temples, and famous mysteries; and seeing this, He has chosen the foolish things of this world - the simplest of Christians, who lead, however, a life of greater moderation and purity than many philosophers- to confound the wise, who are not ashamed to address iimate things as gods or images of the gods. For what reasonable man can refrain from smiling when he sees that one who has learned from philosophy such profound and noble sentiments about God or the gods, turns straightway to images and offers to them his prayers, or imagines that by gazing upon these material things he can ascend from the visible symbol to that which is spiritual and immaterial. But a Christian, even of the common people, is assured that every place forms part of the universe, and that the whole universe is God's temple. In whatever part of the world he is, he prays; but he rises above the universe, shutting the eyes of sense, and raising upwards the eyes of the soul. And he stops not at the vault of heaven; but passing in thought beyond the heavens, under the guidance of the Spirit of God, and having thus as it had gone beyond the visible universe, he offers prayers to God. But he prays for no trivial blessings, for he has learned from Jesus to seek for nothing small or mean, that is, sensible objects, but to ask only for what is great and truly divine; and these things God grants to us, to lead us to that blessedness which is found only with Him through His Son, the Word, who is God.
83. Origen, On Prayer, 2.2, 21.2.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

84. Anon., Assumption of Moses, 11.17

85. Anon., Sententiae Pythagoreorum, 15-16, 10



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(biblical) law, lawlessness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
abba Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 66
agraphon Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 255
alms(giving) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 262, 267, 293, 516, 520
alms Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12, 13, 16, 122, 126, 136, 234
almsgiving, charity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116, 117, 120
ambrose Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 270
ambrose of milan Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 58
amidah Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 95, 244
ancient culture Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205
angel, angelology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 86
angels Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205
antitheses Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 122, 123
apollonius Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 254, 256, 275
apostolic tradition, the Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 58
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 263
athens, gods of Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205
atonement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116, 117
augustine Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
authority of ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 520
babble / babbling Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 270
babbling gentiles Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 273
babbling pagans Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 251
bahr g.j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 179
baptism, johns Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 214
baptism Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 86, 234; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
basil of caesarea Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 272
beatitude, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123
beatitudes, two gospel versions Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 400
beatitudes Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283, 297; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 400
belief, believer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
belief / beliefs Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205
belief and faith Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 296
ben sira Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 86
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
birkat ha-minim Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 86
body Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
body (as detached from the soul) Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 253
boundaries Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 93, 95
brevity Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 256, 270
bribing the gods Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 252
calendar (lunar, solar) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293, 523
christian, authors Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 270
christian, believers Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 253
christian, early Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 270
christianity (early) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 93
christians Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 250
church Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 86
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 263
circumcision Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
cities Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 252
citizens Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 252
community Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 296, 298; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135, 136, 255
compelling the gods Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 251
confession Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
conflict Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29, 93
connection between deeds and consequences Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 126
conversion, process Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283, 297
conversion, psychological aspects Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283, 300
conversion, social/sociological aspects Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295
cosmology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 144
creation Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 66, 137
crucifixion Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 24
cult Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12, 13, 123
cult / cults, acts / practices Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 252
cult / cults, observance / obligations Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205
cult / cults Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 248
cynics Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205
cyprian Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 58, 59
cyril of jerusalem Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 58
daniel Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 244
day of judgement, last judgement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
death of jesus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
decision Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 298
dedication (hanukkah) Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 214
deficiency Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 300
deity Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205, 255
didache, and baptism Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 252
didache Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12, 13, 16, 86; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 86; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 95, 244, 261
disciple, of jesus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 250, 253
disciples of jesus, following jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
disciples of jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12, 135, 137
discourse Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 273
divine, knowledge Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 253
divine Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295, 296, 297
doxology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 234
earth Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 13, 137, 144, 255
easter Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
editing (process) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 267, 520
egyptian literature Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 38
elijah Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205
end of days/last days, eschaton Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
end of days tribulation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
ephesians, letter to the Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29
epictetus Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 244, 261
epiphanius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 523
eschatological prophet, non-eschatological Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
eschatological prophet, not yet eschatology Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
eschatology/eschatological Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 297
eschatology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123, 135, 137
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293, 520, 523
ethical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
ethics Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135, 137
eucharist, eucharist prayers Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
eucharist Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 86
evil Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295, 297, 299; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 66; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 253; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
exception clause Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293
exclusive/exclusivity Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 298
excommunication Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293
faith, faithfulness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
faith Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 126; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
fast Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12, 13, 16, 86, 126, 136, 234; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 86
fast days Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 214
fasting Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116, 120; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 95, 261; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 262, 267, 293, 516, 520, 523
father, title Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 85
father, child relationship Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 66
father, fatherhood, our father' Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 216
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 216
father, in the heavens Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 65, 137
father Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 65, 66, 144
fatherhood of god Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205
flesh Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
forgiveness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 66, 136
friday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293, 523
fulfilment Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 24
gamaliel (gamliel) the elder, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293
gamaliel (gamliel) the younger, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293
gender Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 516, 523
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 267, 293
gentiles, prayer of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 86
gentiles/gentile Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38, 95, 96, 97, 261
gentiles Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 251, 270, 272, 273
gnostic/gnosticism Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 298, 299
goal/telos of philosophical life Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 298, 299
god, care of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 66
god, christian Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 252, 255
god, future of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 137
god, kingdom of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 255
god, of the creation Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 137
god, patience of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 66
god, power of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 137
god, reign of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 66, 137
god, relationship to Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 66
god Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205, 250, 251, 253, 255, 272, 273
god (term) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 66
god as father Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 59, 94, 96, 97, 101
gods Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 251, 252, 253, 254
golden rule Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123
good, of god Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 272
good Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 253
gospel, of matthew Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 120, 122, 123, 126, 135, 136, 137, 234
gospel Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 86
grace Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 13
graeco-roman, context Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 248
graeco-roman, cults Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 248
graeco-roman, literature Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 250
graeco-roman, philosophical traditions Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 252, 273
graeco-roman, philosophy Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 252
graeco-roman, religion Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 251
graeco-roman, texts Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 251
graeco-roman, world Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 270
greek, religion (ancient) Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205, 250
greek, thought Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 256
happiness Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283, 299
heaven, as substitution for the name of god Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 65
heaven Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12, 13, 66, 86, 137, 144, 234, 255
hebrews, letter to the Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
heinemann j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 179
hellenism / hellenistic world, roman Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293, 520
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 267, 516, 523
holy spirit, pentecost Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 59
holy spirit Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
homer, religion Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 252
homer, tradition Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 252
house of prayer Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 101
human being, dear to the gods Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 255
hypocrisy/hypocrites Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16, 234
hypocrites Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38, 58, 59, 95, 96, 97, 244, 261
hypocrites (pharisees) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 267, 293, 516, 523
identity, christian identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 58
identity, identity marker Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
identity, jewish identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
identity, social identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29, 58, 93, 261
impiety Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 252
in-group Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29
incantations Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 248
incarnation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
instructor, title Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 85
isaiah Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205
israel/israelites Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 93, 101, 261
israel Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 66
james, letter of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 100
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 262
jeremiah Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205
jerusalem Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
jesus, as stoic sage Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 275
jesus, discourses of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 81, 85
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116, 117, 118, 120
jesus, historical Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 122
jesus, intercessor/advocate Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
jesus, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135, 137
jesus, prayer model Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116, 117, 118; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29, 95
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 516, 523
jew/s Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 97, 244, 261
jewish, cynic Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205
jewish, philosophers Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205
jewish, text Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 251
jewish-christian tradition, custom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293, 523
jewish other, ritual Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117, 120
jewish prayers/ prayer-practice Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 95
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117, 118
john (the baptist) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 262, 523
john the baptist Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
judaism, rabbinic judaism/rabbinic literature Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
judaism Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 297; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 93, 94, 261
judgement, final (endgericht) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
judgement Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 137
just, the Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 254
justice Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135, 137; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 254
justification Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283
kaddish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 118; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 95
kingdom of god/gods kingdom Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 97, 101
kingdom of god/heaven, sons of the kingdom Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
kingdom of god/heaven Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283, 299
knowledge, divine Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 253
knowledge Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 253, 255
kyrios Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
law divine/mosaic/jewish Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295, 296, 299
laws Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 254
lent Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
logion Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 126, 135
logos Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 272
lord, the, lords prayer Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 253
lords prayer, address of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 66
lords prayer, as community prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
lords prayer, as supplicatory prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 137
lords prayer, function of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12
lords prayer, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 120, 122, 123, 126, 135, 136, 137
lords prayer, practice of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16
lords prayer, setting of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 255
lords prayer, structure of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 120, 122, 123, 126, 136
lords prayer Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 179, 214; Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 102; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116, 117, 118, 120; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38, 59, 93, 95, 97, 244, 261; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 262, 263, 267, 293, 516, 523
love, for humankind/neighbor Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300
love Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123, 135
lucilius Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 253
luke, gospel of Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
macarism Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 297
magic Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 248, 251
magical formulae Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 248
matthaean church, community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293
matthew, distinctives of Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 97, 102
matthew, five discourses Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 400
matthew, gospel of Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 101, 244
matthew Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 248, 250, 251, 252, 272, 273; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 86
matthew (evangelist) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135, 137
melchizedek Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 59
mercy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
messiah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 267
metanoia/metanoeō Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283
mishnah Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 248
monday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 523
moral / morality, corruption Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 252
moral / morality, degeneration Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 251
moral / morality, depravity Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 272
moral / morality, graeco-roman Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 270
moral progress/transformation Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295
moses Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 520
need (material) Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295, 296
neo-platonic Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 272
new testament Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205
ninth of ab Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 214
nonverbal aspects of prayer Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 58, 59
obedience Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 24
offerings Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205, 254, 255
old testament Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 205; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
opponents Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16
origen Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 255
othering Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 95, 96, 97
out-group Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29
pagan/gentile prayer/prayer practice Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 96
pagan / pagans / pagan religion, piety Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 248
pagan / pagans / pagan religion, prayers Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 253
pagan / pagans / pagan religion, worship Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 250
pagan / pagans / pagan religion Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 251
paganism, jewish and early christian caricature of Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 251
parable Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
patriarchs Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 38
paul, epistles / letters of Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 273
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 24
paul Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 273
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293, 520, 523
people of god Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
perfection Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295, 298
peshitta Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 270
petitioners (to the gods) Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 254, 255, 273