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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8258
New Testament, Matthew, 6.5


Καὶ ὅταν προσεύχησθε, οὐκ ἔσεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταί· ὅτι φιλοῦσιν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ ἐν ταῖς γωνίαις τῶν πλατειῶν ἑστῶτες προσεύχεσθαι, ὅπως φανῶσιν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσι τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν.When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

107 results
1. Septuagint, Susanna, 55 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.11, 4.7-4.11, 12.8-12.10 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. 4.9. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 4.11. and for all who practice it charity is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives.
3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. וְאֶתְכֶם לָקַח יְהוָה וַיּוֹצִא אֶתְכֶם מִכּוּר הַבַּרְזֶל מִמִּצְרָיִם לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְעַם נַחֲלָה כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 4.2. לֹא תֹסִפוּ עַל־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם וְלֹא תִגְרְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם׃ 4.2. Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you."
4. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 4.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.16. לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל־תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים לַיְלָה וָיוֹם גַּם־אֲנִי וְנַעֲרֹתַי אָצוּם כֵּן וּבְכֵן אָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־כַדָּת וְכַאֲשֶׁר אָבַדְתִּי אָבָדְתִּי׃ 4.16. ’Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day; I also and my maidens will fast in like manner; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 32.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.1. וְעַתָּה הַנִּיחָה לִּי וְיִחַר־אַפִּי בָהֶם וַאֲכַלֵּם וְאֶעֱשֶׂה אוֹתְךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל׃ 32.1. וַיַּרְא הָעָם כִּי־בֹשֵׁשׁ מֹשֶׁה לָרֶדֶת מִן־הָהָר וַיִּקָּהֵל הָעָם עַל־אַהֲרֹן וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו קוּם עֲשֵׂה־לָנוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ לְפָנֵינוּ כִּי־זֶה מֹשֶׁה הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלָנוּ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לֹא יָדַעְנוּ מֶה־הָיָה לוֹ׃ 32.1. And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mount, the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and said unto him: ‘Up, make us a god who shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what is become of him.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth."
7. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.6. כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃ 6.6. For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings."
8. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 1.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. קוּם לֵךְ אֶל־נִינְוֵה הָעִיר הַגְּדוֹלָה וּקְרָא עָלֶיהָ כִּי־עָלְתָה רָעָתָם לְפָנָי׃ 1.2. ’Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and proclaim against it; for their wickedness is come up before Me.’"
9. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדֹשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְהִוא שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדָּתָה אוֹ חֻפְשָׁה לֹא נִתַּן־לָהּ בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי־לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה׃ 19.2. Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them: Ye shall be holy; for I the LORD your God am holy."
10. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.11, 1.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.11. כִּי מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁמֶשׁ וְעַד־מְבוֹאוֹ גָּדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם וּבְכָל־מָקוֹם מֻקְטָר מֻגָּשׁ לִשְׁמִי וּמִנְחָה טְהוֹרָה כִּי־גָדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 1.14. וְאָרוּר נוֹכֵל וְיֵשׁ בְּעֶדְרוֹ זָכָר וְנֹדֵר וְזֹבֵחַ מָשְׁחָת לַאדֹנָי כִּי מֶלֶךְ גָּדוֹל אָנִי אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וּשְׁמִי נוֹרָא בַגּוֹיִם׃ 1.11. For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same My name is great among the nations; And in every place offerings are presented unto My name, Even pure oblations; For My name is great among the nations, Saith the LORD of hosts." 1.14. But cursed be he that dealeth craftily, Whereas he hath in his flock a male, And voweth, and sacrificeth unto the Lord a blemished thing; For I am a great King, Saith the LORD of hosts, And My name is feared among the nations."
11. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 16.28-16.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.28. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה בְּזֹאת תֵּדְעוּן כִּי־יְהוָה שְׁלָחַנִי לַעֲשׂוֹת אֵת כָּל־הַמַּעֲשִׂים הָאֵלֶּה כִּי־לֹא מִלִּבִּי׃ 16.29. אִם־כְּמוֹת כָּל־הָאָדָם יְמֻתוּן אֵלֶּה וּפְקֻדַּת כָּל־הָאָדָם יִפָּקֵד עֲלֵיהֶם לֹא יְהוָה שְׁלָחָנִי׃ 16.28. And Moses said: ‘Hereby ye shall know that the LORD hath sent me to do all these works, and that I have not done them of mine own mind." 16.29. If these men die the common death of all men, and be visited after the visitation of all men, then the LORD hath not sent Me." 16.30. But if the LORD make a new thing, and the ground open her mouth, and swallow them up, with all that appertain unto them, and they go down alive into the pit, then ye shall understand that these men have despised the LORD.’"
12. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.23-1.24, 4.4, 4.10, 4.20, 5.1, 5.7, 7.1-7.2, 9.1, 22.17, 24.23, 30.1, 31.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.23. תָּשׁוּבוּ לְתוֹכַחְתִּי הִנֵּה אַבִּיעָה לָכֶם רוּחִי אוֹדִיעָה דְבָרַי אֶתְכֶם׃ 1.24. יַעַן קָרָאתִי וַתְּמָאֵנוּ נָטִיתִי יָדִי וְאֵין מַקְשִׁיב׃ 4.4. וַיֹּרֵנִי וַיֹּאמֶר לִי יִתְמָךְ־דְּבָרַי לִבֶּךָ שְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתַי וֶחְיֵה׃ 5.1. בְּנִי לְחָכְמָתִי הַקְשִׁיבָה לִתְבוּנָתִי הַט־אָזְנֶךָ׃ 5.1. פֶּן־יִשְׂבְּעוּ זָרִים כֹּחֶךָ וַעֲצָבֶיךָ בְּבֵית נָכְרִי׃ 5.7. וְעַתָּה בָנִים שִׁמְעוּ־לִי וְאַל־תָּסוּרוּ מֵאִמְרֵי־פִי׃ 7.1. וְהִנֵּה אִשָּׁה לִקְרָאתוֹ שִׁית זוֹנָה וּנְצֻרַת לֵב׃ 7.1. בְּנִי שְׁמֹר אֲמָרָי וּמִצְוֺתַי תִּצְפֹּן אִתָּךְ׃ 7.2. שְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתַי וֶחְיֵה וְתוֹרָתִי כְּאִישׁוֹן עֵינֶיךָ׃ 7.2. צְרוֹר־הַכֶּסֶף לָקַח בְּיָדוֹ לְיוֹם הַכֵּסֶא יָבֹא בֵיתוֹ׃ 9.1. חָכְמוֹת בָּנְתָה בֵיתָהּ חָצְבָה עַמּוּדֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה׃ 9.1. תְּחִלַּת חָכְמָה יִרְאַת יְהוָה וְדַעַת קְדֹשִׁים בִּינָה׃ 22.17. הַט אָזְנְךָ וּשְׁמַע דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים וְלִבְּךָ תָּשִׁית לְדַעְתִּי׃ 24.23. גַּם־אֵלֶּה לַחֲכָמִים הַכֵּר־פָּנִים בְּמִשְׁפָּט בַּל־טוֹב׃ 30.1. דִּבְרֵי אָגוּר בִּן־יָקֶה הַמַּשָּׂא נְאֻם הַגֶּבֶר לְאִיתִיאֵל לְאִיתִיאֵל וְאֻכָל׃ 30.1. אַל־תַּלְשֵׁן עֶבֶד אֶל־אדנו [אֲדֹנָיו] פֶּן־יְקַלֶּלְךָ וְאָשָׁמְתָּ׃ 31.1. דִּבְרֵי לְמוּאֵל מֶלֶךְ מַשָּׂא אֲ‍שֶׁר־יִסְּרַתּוּ אִמּוֹ׃ 31.1. אֵשֶׁת־חַיִל מִי יִמְצָא וְרָחֹק מִפְּנִינִים מִכְרָהּ׃ 1.23. Turn you at my reproof; behold, I will pour out my spirit unto you, I will make known my words unto you." 1.24. Because I have called, and ye refused, I have stretched out my hand, and no man attended," 4.4. And he taught me, and said unto me: ‘Let thy heart hold fast my words, Keep my commandments, and live;" 4.10. Hear, O my son, and receive my sayings; And the years of thy life shall be many." 4.20. My son, attend to my words; Incline thine ear unto my sayings." 5.1. My son, attend unto my wisdom; Incline thine ear to my understanding;" 5.7. Now therefore, O ye children, hearken unto me, And depart not from the words of my mouth." 7.1. My son, keep my words, And lay up my commandments with thee." 7.2. Keep my commandments and live, And my teaching as the apple of thine eye." 9.1. Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars;" 22.17. Incline thine ear, and hear the words of the wise, And apply thy heart unto my knowledge." 24.23. These also are sayings of the wise. To have respect of persons in judgment is not good." 30.1. The words of Agur the son of Jakeh; the burden. The man saith unto Ithiel, unto Ithiel and Ucal:" 31.1. The words of king Lemuel; the burden wherewith his mother corrected him."
13. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 37.13-37.15, 141.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

37.13. אֲדֹנָי יִשְׂחַק־לוֹ כִּי־רָאָה כִּי־יָבֹא יוֹמוֹ׃ 37.14. חֶרֶב פָּתְחוּ רְשָׁעִים וְדָרְכוּ קַשְׁתָּם לְהַפִּיל עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן לִטְבוֹחַ יִשְׁרֵי־דָרֶךְ׃ 37.15. חַרְבָּם תָּבוֹא בְלִבָּם וְקַשְּׁתוֹתָם תִּשָּׁבַרְנָה׃ 141.1. יִפְּלוּ בְמַכְמֹרָיו רְשָׁעִים יַחַד אָנֹכִי עַד־אֶעֱבוֹר׃ 141.1. מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד יְהוָה קְרָאתִיךָ חוּשָׁה לִּי הַאֲזִינָה קוֹלִי בְּקָרְאִי־לָךְ׃ 37.13. The Lord doth laugh at him; for He seeth that his day is coming." 37.14. The wicked have drawn out the sword, and have bent their bow; to cast down the poor and needy, to slay such as are upright in the way;" 37.15. Their sword shall enter into their own heart, and their bows shall be broken." 141.1. A Psalm of David. LORD, I have called Thee; make haste unto me; Give ear unto my voice, when I call unto Thee."
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.15-1.16, 1.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.15. וַתַּעַן חַנָּה וַתֹּאמֶר לֹא אֲדֹנִי אִשָּׁה קְשַׁת־רוּחַ אָנֹכִי וְיַיִן וְשֵׁכָר לֹא שָׁתִיתִי וָאֶשְׁפֹּךְ אֶת־נַפְשִׁי לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 1.16. אַל־תִּתֵּן אֶת־אֲמָתְךָ לִפְנֵי בַּת־בְּלִיָּעַל כִּי־מֵרֹב שִׂיחִי וְכַעְסִי דִּבַּרְתִּי עַד־הֵנָּה׃ 1.26. וַתֹּאמֶר בִּי אֲדֹנִי חֵי נַפְשְׁךָ אֲדֹנִי אֲנִי הָאִשָּׁה הַנִּצֶּבֶת עִמְּכָה בָּזֶה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 1.15. And Ĥanna answered and said, No, my lord, I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit: I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but have poured out my soul before the Lord." 1.16. Take not thy handmaid for a worthless woman: for out of the greatness of my complaint and grief have I been speaking." 1.26. And she said, O my lord, as thy soul lives, my lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying to the Lord."
16. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 1.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.12. וַיִּסְפְּדוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיָּצֻמוּ עַד־הָעָרֶב עַל־שָׁאוּל וְעַל־יְהוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ וְעַל־עַם יְהוָה וְעַל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי נָפְלוּ בֶּחָרֶב׃ 1.12. and they mourned, and wept, and fasted until evening, for Sha᾽ul, and for Yehonatan his son, and for the people of the Lord, and for the house of Yisra᾽el; because they were fallen by the sword."
17. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.11-1.12, 1.15, 1.20, 65.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.11. לָמָּה־לִּי רֹב־זִבְחֵיכֶם יֹאמַר יְהוָה שָׂבַעְתִּי עֹלוֹת אֵילִים וְחֵלֶב מְרִיאִים וְדַם פָּרִים וּכְבָשִׂים וְעַתּוּדִים לֹא חָפָצְתִּי׃ 1.12. כִּי תָבֹאוּ לֵרָאוֹת פָּנָי מִי־בִקֵּשׁ זֹאת מִיֶּדְכֶם רְמֹס חֲצֵרָי׃ 1.15. וּבְפָרִשְׂכֶם כַּפֵּיכֶם אַעְלִים עֵינַי מִכֶּם גַּם כִּי־תַרְבּוּ תְפִלָּה אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ יְדֵיכֶם דָּמִים מָלֵאוּ׃ 65.24. וְהָיָה טֶרֶם־יִקְרָאוּ וַאֲנִי אֶעֱנֶה עוֹד הֵם מְדַבְּרִים וַאֲנִי אֶשְׁמָע׃ 1.11. To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto Me? Saith the LORD; I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams, And the fat of fed beasts; And I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he-goats." 1.12. When ye come to appear before Me, Who hath required this at your hand, To trample My courts?" 1.15. And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide Mine eyes from you; Yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear; Your hands are full of blood." 1.20. But if ye refuse and rebel, Ye shall be devoured with the sword; For the mouth of the LORD hath spoken." 65.24. And it shall come to pass that, before they call, I will answer, And while they are yet speaking, I will hear."
18. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 28.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

28.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא אָמֵן כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה יָקֵם יְהוָה אֶת־דְּבָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נִבֵּאתָ לְהָשִׁיב כְּלֵי בֵית־יְהוָה וְכָל־הַגּוֹלָה מִבָּבֶל אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 28.6. even the prophet Jeremiah said: ‘Amen! the LORD do so! the LORD perform thy words which thou hast prophesied, to bring back the vessels of the LORD’S house, and all them that are carried away captive, from Babylon unto this place!"
19. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 20.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

20.26. וַיַּעֲלוּ כָל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכָל־הָעָם וַיָּבֹאוּ בֵית־אֵל וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיָּצוּמוּ בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא עַד־הָעָרֶב וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלוֹת וּשְׁלָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 20.26. Then all the children of Yisra᾽el, and all the people, went up, and came to the house of God, and wept, and sat there before the Lord, and fasted that day until evening, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the Lord."
20. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 3.22 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.22. וַתְּהִי עָלַי שָׁם יַד־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי קוּם צֵא אֶל־הַבִּקְעָה וְשָׁם אֲדַבֵּר אוֹתָךְ׃ 3.22. And the hand of the LORD came there upon me; and He said unto me: ‘Arise, go forth into the plain, and I will there speak with thee.’"
21. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 5.1-5.3 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.1. בִּרְבוֹת הַטּוֹבָה רַבּוּ אוֹכְלֶיהָ וּמַה־כִּשְׁרוֹן לִבְעָלֶיהָ כִּי אִם־ראית [רְאוּת] עֵינָיו׃ 5.1. אַל־תְּבַהֵל עַל־פִּיךָ וְלִבְּךָ אַל־יְמַהֵר לְהוֹצִיא דָבָר לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי הָאֱלֹהִים בַּשָּׁמַיִם וְאַתָּה עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־כֵּן יִהְיוּ דְבָרֶיךָ מְעַטִּים׃ 5.2. כִּי בָּא הַחֲלוֹם בְּרֹב עִנְיָן וְקוֹל כְּסִיל בְּרֹב דְּבָרִים׃ 5.3. כַּאֲשֶׁר תִּדֹּר נֶדֶר לֵאלֹהִים אַל־תְּאַחֵר לְשַׁלְּמוֹ כִּי אֵין חֵפֶץ בַּכְּסִילִים אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תִּדֹּר שַׁלֵּם׃ 5.1. Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thy heart be hasty to utter a word before God; for God is in heaven, and thou upon earth; therefore let thy words be few." 5.2. For a dream cometh through a multitude of business; And a fool’s voice through a multitude of words." 5.3. When thou vowest a vow unto God, defer not to pay it; for He hath no pleasure in fools; pay that which thou vowest."
22. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.4. וַיָּקָם עַל־מַעֲלֵה הַלְוִיִּם יֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי קַדְמִיאֵל שְׁבַנְיָה בֻּנִּי שֵׁרֵבְיָה בָּנִי כְנָנִי וַיִּזְעֲקוּ בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 9.4. Then stood up upon the platform of the Levites, Jeshua, and Bani, Kadmiel, Shebaniah, Bunni, Sherebiah, Bani, and Chei, and cried with a loud voice unto the LORD their God."
23. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

22a. —for I must speak the truth to you—this, I do declare, was my experience: those who had the most reputation seemed to me to be almost the most deficient, as I investigated at the god’s behest, and others who were of less repute seemed to be superior men in the matter of being sensible. So I must relate to you my wandering as I performed my Herculean labors, so to speak, in order that the oracle might be proved to be irrefutable. For after the public men I went to the poets, those of tragedies, and those of dithyrambs
24. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

715e. when he is young, but at its keenest when he is old. Clin. Very true. Ath. What, then, is to be our next step? May we not assume that our immigrants have arrived and are in the country, and should we not proceed with our address to them? Clin. of course. Ath. Let us, then, speak to them thus:— O men, that God who, as old tradition tells, holdeth the beginning, the end, and the center of all things that exist
25. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

278e. adding this phrase and taking that away, will you not properly address him as poet or writer of speeches or of laws? Phaedrus. Certainly. Socrates. Tell this then to your friend. Phaedrus. But what will you do? For your friend ought not to be passed by. Socrates. What friend? Phaedrus. The fair Isocrates. What message will you give him? What shall we say that he is? Socrates. Isocrates is young yet, Phaedrus;
26. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

27. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

28. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.11, 4.7-4.11, 12.8-12.10 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. 4.9. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 4.11. and for all who practice it charity is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives.
29. Anon., Jubilees, 1.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.19. And they will forget all My law and all My commandments and all My judgments, and will go astray as to new moons, and sabbaths, and festivals, and jubilees, and ordices.
30. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 4.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.3. Owing to all these things I lay upon the ground, and besought God that the Lord would deliver me from her deceit.
31. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 2.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.26. interea, unde isti versus? non enim adgnosco. adgnosco KR 1 (d exp. 2 ) V 1 (d eras. ) a n. G 1 Dicam hercle; etenim recte requiris. videsne abundare me otio? Quid tum? Fuisti saepe, credo, cum Athenis esses, in scholis philosophorum. Vero, ante vero V rec ac libenter quidem. Animadvertebas igitur, etsi tum nemo erat admodum copiosus, verum tamen versus ab is admisceri orationi. Ac ac hac G dyonisio X multos quidem a Dionysio Stoico. Probe dicis. sed is quasi dictata, nullo dilectu, nulla elegantia: delectu K nulla elegantia a e in r. V c eligantia KR c Philo et †proprium nrt sic G et proprium nr t V ( exp. 1 ) et proprium noster R etpũ nr K ( add. 1 au 2, propriŭ ss. 2 ) et proprio numero Sey. et pro nuntiabat numero ( cf. div. 2, 117 ) Po. et lecta poëmata et loco adiungebat. itaque postquam adamavi hanc quasi senilem declamationem, studiose equidem utor nostris poëtis; sed sicubi illi defecerunt—verti enim enim exp. V vet etlam Ha. multa de Graecis, ne quo ornamento in hoc genere disputationis careret Latina oratio. Sed videsne, poëtae quid mali adferant?
32. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 11.17-11.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 11.17-11.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

34. Dead Sea Scrolls, Ben Sira, 31.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

35. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.13-4.26, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

36. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 6.9-6.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.9. כְּעַן מַלְכָּא תְּקִים אֱסָרָא וְתִרְשֻׁם כְּתָבָא דִּי לָא לְהַשְׁנָיָה כְּדָת־מָדַי וּפָרַס דִּי־לָא תֶעְדֵּא׃ 6.11. וְדָנִיֵּאל כְּדִי יְדַע דִּי־רְשִׁים כְּתָבָא עַל לְבַיְתֵהּ וְכַוִּין פְּתִיחָן לֵהּ בְּעִלִּיתֵהּ נֶגֶד יְרוּשְׁלֶם וְזִמְנִין תְּלָתָה בְיוֹמָא הוּא בָּרֵךְ עַל־בִּרְכוֹהִי וּמְצַלֵּא וּמוֹדֵא קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־הֲוָא עָבֵד מִן־קַדְמַת דְּנָה׃ 6.12. אֱדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ הַרְגִּשׁוּ וְהַשְׁכַּחוּ לְדָנִיֵּאל בָּעֵא וּמִתְחַנַּן קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ׃ 6.9. Now, O king, establish the interdict, and sign the writing, that it be not changed, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not.’" 6.10. Wherefore king Darius signed the writing and the interdict." 6.11. And when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house—now his windows were open in his upper chamber toward Jerusalem—and he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime." 6.12. Then these men came tumultuously, and found Daniel making petition and supplication before his God."
37. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.41-1.64 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.41. Then the king wrote to his whole kingdom that all should be one people 1.42. and that each should give up his customs. 1.43. All the Gentiles accepted the command of the king. Many even from Israel gladly adopted his religion; they sacrificed to idols and profaned the sabbath. 1.44. And the king sent letters by messengers to Jerusalem and the cities of Judah; he directed them to follow customs strange to the land 1.45. to forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the sanctuary, to profane sabbaths and feasts 1.46. to defile the sanctuary and the priests 1.47. to build altars and sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to sacrifice swine and unclean animals 1.48. and to leave their sons uncircumcised. They were to make themselves abominable by everything unclean and profane 1.49. so that they should forget the law and change all the ordices. 1.50. And whoever does not obey the command of the king shall die. 1.51. In such words he wrote to his whole kingdom. And he appointed inspectors over all the people and commanded the cities of Judah to offer sacrifice, city by city. 1.52. Many of the people, every one who forsook the law, joined them, and they did evil in the land; 1.53. they drove Israel into hiding in every place of refuge they had. 1.54. Now on the fifteenth day of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-fifth year, they erected a desolating sacrilege upon the altar of burnt offering. They also built altars in the surrounding cities of Judah 1.55. and burned incense at the doors of the houses and in the streets. 1.56. The books of the law which they found they tore to pieces and burned with fire. 1.57. Where the book of the covet was found in the possession of any one, or if any one adhered to the law, the decree of the king condemned him to death. 1.58. They kept using violence against Israel, against those found month after month in the cities. 1.59. And on the twenty-fifth day of the month they offered sacrifice on the altar which was upon the altar of burnt offering. 1.60. According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised 1.61. and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers necks. 1.62. But many in Israel stood firm and were resolved in their hearts not to eat unclean food. 1.63. They chose to die rather than to be defiled by food or to profane the holy covet; and they did die. 1.64. And very great wrath came upon Israel.
38. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

39. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.28, 3.30, 5.5-5.7, 7.14, 12.12, 17.22-17.29, 29.9-29.13, 31.22, 32.9, 34.25-34.26, 35.1-35.7, 37.18, 45.15-45.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.28. Do not disobey the fear of the Lord;do not approach him with a divided mind. 5.5. Do not be so confident of atonement that you add sin to sin. 5.5. A pleasant voice multiplies friends,and a gracious tongue multiplies courtesies. 5.6. Do not say, "His mercy is great,he will forgive the multitude of my sins," for both mercy and wrath are with him,and his anger rests on sinners. 5.6. Let those that are at peace with you be many,but let your advisers be one in a thousand. 5.7. Do not delay to turn to the Lord,nor postpone it from day to day;for suddenly the wrath of the Lord will go forth,and at the time of punishment you will perish. 5.7. When you gain a friend, gain him through testing,and do not trust him hastily. 7.14. Do not prattle in the assembly of the elders,nor repeat yourself in your prayer. 12.12. Do not put him next to you,lest he overthrow you and take your place;do not have him sit at your right,lest he try to take your seat of honor,and at last you will realize the truth of my words,and be stung by what I have said. 17.22. A mans almsgiving is like a signet with the Lord and he will keep a persons kindness like the apple of his eye. 17.23. Afterward he will arise and requite them,and he will bring their recompense on their heads. 17.24. Yet to those who repent he grants a return,and he encourages those whose endurance is failing. 17.25. Turn to the Lord and forsake your sins;pray in his presence and lessen your offenses. 17.26. Return to the Most High and turn away from iniquity,and hate abominations intensely. 17.27. Who will sing praises to the Most High in Hades,as do those who are alive and give thanks? 17.28. From the dead, as from one who does not exist,thanksgiving has ceased;he who is alive and well sings the Lords praises. 17.29. How great is the mercy of the Lord,and his forgiveness for those who turn to him! 29.9. Help a poor man for the commandments sake,and because of his need do not send him away empty. 29.11. Lay up your treasure according to the commandments of the Most High,and it will profit you more than gold. 29.12. Store up almsgiving in your treasury,and it will rescue you from all affliction; 29.13. more than a mighty shield and more than a heavy spear,it will fight on your behalf against your enemy. 31.22. Listen to me, my son, and do not disregard me,and in the end you will appreciate my words. In all your work be industrious,and no sickness will overtake you. 32.9. Among the great do not act as their equal;and when another is speaking, do not babble. 34.25. If a man washes after touching a dead body,and touches it again,what has he gained by his washing? 34.26. So if a man fasts for his sins,and goes again and does the same things,who will listen to his prayer?And what has he gained by humbling himself? 35.1. He who keeps the law makes many offerings;he who heeds the commandments sacrifices a peace offering. 35.1. Give to the Most High as he has given,and as generously as your hand has found. 35.2. He who returns a kindness offers fine flour,and he who gives alms sacrifices a thank offering. 35.2. Mercy is as welcome when he afflicts them as clouds of rain in the time of drought. 35.3. To keep from wickedness is pleasing to the Lord,and to forsake unrighteousness is atonement. 35.4. Do not appear before the Lord empty-handed 35.5. for all these things are to be done because of the commandment. 35.6. The offering of a righteous man anoints the altar,and its pleasing odor rises before the Most High. 35.7. The sacrifice of a righteous man is acceptable,and the memory of it will not be forgotten. 37.18. four turns of fortune appear,good and evil, life and death;and it is the tongue that continually rules them. 45.15. Moses ordained him,and anointed him with holy oil;it was an everlasting covet for him and for his descendants all the days of heaven,to minister to the Lord and serve as priest and bless his people in his name. 45.16. He chose him out of all the living to offer sacrifice to the Lord,incense and a pleasing odor as a memorial portion,to make atonement for the people.
40. Septuagint, Judith, 9.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

9.8. Break their strength by thy might, and bring down their power in thy anger; for they intend to defile thy sanctuary, and to pollute the tabernacle where thy glorious name rests, and to cast down the horn of thy altar with the sword.
41. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 6.9, 6.11, 7.14, 16.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.9. To you then, O monarchs, my words are directed,that you may learn wisdom and not transgress. 6.11. Therefore set your desire on my words;long for them, and you will be instructed. 7.14. for it is an unfailing treasure for men;those who get it obtain friendship with God,commended for the gifts that come from instruction. 16.12. For neither herb nor poultice cured them,but it was thy word, O Lord, which heals all men.
42. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.62-2.63 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.62. Accordingly, on the seventh day there are spread before the people in every city innumerable lessons of prudence, and temperance, and courage, and justice, and all other virtues; during the giving of which the common people sit down, keeping silence and pricking up their ears, with all possible attention, from their thirst for wholesome instruction; but some of those who are very learned explain to them what is of great importance and use, lessons by which the whole of their lives may be improved. 2.63. And there are, as we may say, two most especially important heads of all the innumerable particular lessons and doctrines; the regulating of one's conduct towards God by the rules of piety and holiness, and of one's conduct towards men by the rules of humanity and justice; each of which is subdivided into a great number of subordinate ideas, all praiseworthy.
43. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 31-33, 30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Therefore, during six days, each of these individuals, retiring into solitude by himself, philosophises by himself in one of the places called monasteries, never going outside the threshold of the outer court, and indeed never even looking out. But on the seventh day they all come together as if to meet in a sacred assembly, and they sit down in order according to their ages with all becoming gravity, keeping their hands inside their garments, having their right hand between their chest and their dress, and the left hand down by their side, close to their flank;
44. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.216 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
45. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 7.12-7.13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7.12. What then did he do on this sabbath day? he commanded all the people to assemble together in the same place, and sitting down with one another, to listen to the laws with order and reverence, in order that no one should be ignorant of anything that is contained in them; 7.13. and, in fact, they do constantly assemble together, and they do sit down one with another, the multitude in general in silence, except when it is customary to say any words of good omen, by way of assent to what is being read. And then some priest who is present, or some one of the elders, reads the sacred laws to them, and interprets each of them separately till eventide; and then when separate they depart, having gained some skill in the sacred laws, and having made great advancers towards piety.
46. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 157, 156 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

156. Therefore, he knew that they had synagogues, and that they were in the habit of visiting them, and most especially on the sacred sabbath days, when they publicly cultivate their national philosophy. He knew also that they were in the habit of contributing sacred sums of money from their first fruits and sending them to Jerusalem by the hands of those who were to conduct the sacrifices.
47. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 81-82, 80 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

80. and leaving the logical part of philosophy, as in no respect necessary for the acquisition of virtue, to the word-catchers, and the natural part, as being too sublime for human nature to master, to those who love to converse about high objects (except indeed so far as such a study takes in the contemplation of the existence of God and of the creation of the universe), they devote all their attention to the moral part of philosophy, using as instructors the laws of their country which it would have been impossible for the human mind to devise without divine inspiration.
48. Anon., 2 Baruch, 79-87, 78 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 19-21, 18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

50. Anon., Didache, 1, 1.3, 2, 3, 4, 4.2, 4.10, 4.14, 5, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 9, 9.1, 9.1-10.7, 9.2, 9.4, 9.5, 10, 10.1, 10.5, 10.6, 11, 11.1, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 12, 12.4, 13, 14, 14.3, 15, 15.3, 15.4, 16, 16.3, 16.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1. There are two ways, one of life and one of death; but a great difference between the two ways. The way of life, then, is this: First, you shall love God who made you; second, your neighbour as yourself; and all things whatsoever you would should not occur to you, do not also do to another. And of these sayings the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you. For what reward is there, if you love those who love you? Do not also the Gentiles do the same? But love those who hate you, and you shall not have an enemy. Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts. If someone gives you a blow upon your right cheek, turn to him the other also, and you shall be perfect. If someone impresses you for one mile, go with him two. If someone takes away your cloak, give him also your coat. If someone takes from you what is yours, ask it not back, for indeed you are not able. Give to every one that asks you, and ask it not back; for the Father wills that to all should be given of our own blessings (free gifts). Happy is he that gives according to the commandment; for he is guiltless. Woe to him that receives; for if one having need receives, he is guiltless; but he that receives not having need, shall pay the penalty, why he received and for what, and, coming into straits (confinement), he shall be examined concerning the things which he has done, and he shall not escape thence until he pay back the last farthing. Matthew 5:26 But also now concerning this, it has been said, Let your alms sweat in your hands, until you know to whom you should give.
51. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.1. It is therefore meet that we not only be called Christians, but also be such; even as some persons have the bishop's name on their lips, but in everything act apart from him. Such men appear to me not to keep a good conscience, forasmuch as they do not assemble themselves together lawfully according to commandment.
52. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 10.255 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.255. Accordingly, all the rest took care not to transgress those injunctions, and rested in quiet; but Daniel had no regard to them, but, as he was wont, he stood and prayed to God in the sight of them all;
53. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.209, 2.175 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.209. “There are a people called Jews, who dwell in a city the strongest of all other cities, which the inhabitants call Jerusalem, and are accustomed to rest on every seventh day; on which times they make no use of their arms, nor meddle with husbandry, nor take care of any affairs of life, but spread out their hands in their holy places, and pray till the evening. 2.175. for he did not suffer the guilt of ignorance to go on without punishment, but demonstrated the law to be the best and the most necessary instruction of all others, permitting the people to leave off their other employments, and to assemble together for the hearing of the law, and learning it exactly, and this not once or twice, or oftener, but every week; which thing all the other legislators seem to have neglected. /p
54. Mishnah, Avot, 1.2, 2.1, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Shimon the Righteous was one of the last of the men of the great assembly. He used to say: the world stands upon three things: the Torah, the Temple service, and the practice of acts of piety." 2.1. Rabbi Said: which is the straight path that a man should choose for himself? One which is an honor to the person adopting it, and [on account of which] honor [accrues] to him from others. And be careful with a light commandment as with a grave one, for you did know not the reward for the fulfillment of the commandments. Also, reckon the loss [that may be sustained through the fulfillment] of a commandment against the reward [accruing] thereby, and the gain [that may be obtained through the committing] of a transgression against the loss [entailed] thereby. Apply your mind to three things and you will not come into the clutches of sin: Know what there is above you: an eye that sees, an ear that hears, and all your deeds are written in a book." 2.16. He [Rabbi Tarfon] used to say: It is not your duty to finish the work, but neither are you at liberty to neglect it; If you have studied much Torah, you shall be given much reward. Faithful is your employer to pay you the reward of your labor; And know that the grant of reward unto the righteous is in the age to come."
55. Mishnah, Berachot, 4.2, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.2. Rabbi Nehunia ben Hakaneh used to pray as he entered the Bet Hamidrash and as he left it a short prayer. They said to him: what is the reason for this prayer? He replied: When I enter I pray that that no mishap should occur through me, and when I leave I express thanks for my portion." 5.1. One should not stand up to say Tefillah except in a reverent state of mind. The pious men of old used to wait an hour before praying in order that they might direct their thoughts to God. Even if a king greets him [while praying] he should not answer him: even if a snake is wound round his heel he should not stop."
56. Mishnah, Eduyot, 9.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

57. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. The garments of an am haaretz possess midras-impurity for Pharisees. The garments of Pharisees possess midras-impurity for those who eat terumah. The garments of those who eat terumah possess midras-impurity for [those who eat] sacred things. The garments of [those who eat] sacred things possess midras-impurity for [those who occupy themselves with the waters of] purification. Yose ben Yoezer was the most pious in the priesthood, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who ate] sacred things. Yoha ben Gudgada all his life used to eat [unconsecrated food] in accordance with the purity required for sacred things, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who occupied themselves with the water of] purification."
58. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.2. On Rosh Hodesh and on the intermediate days of festivals four read. They do not add [to this number] nor decrease [from it], nor do they conclude with [a haftarah] from the Prophets. The one who begins the Torah reading and the one who concludes the Torah reading blesses before it and after it. This is the general rule: on any day which has a musaf and is not a festival four read. On a festival five. On Yom Hakippurim six. On Shabbat seven; they may not decrease [from this number] but they may add [to it], and they conclude with [a haftarah] from the Prophets. The one who begins the Torah reading and the one who concludes the Torah reading blesses before it and after it."
59. Mishnah, Middot, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.4. On the south were the wood chamber, the chamber of the exile and the chamber of hewn stones. The wood chamber: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: I forget what it was used for. Abba Shaul says: It was the chamber of the high priest, and it was behind the two of them, and one roof covered all three. In the chamber of the exile there was a fixed cistern, with a wheel over it, and from there water was provided for all of the courtyard. In the chamber of hewn stone the great Sanhedrin of Israel used to sit and judge the priesthood. A priest in whom was found a disqualification used to put on black garments and wrap himself in black and go away. One in whom no disqualification was found used to put on white garments and wrap himself in white and go in and serve along with his brother priests. They used to make a feast because no blemish had been found in the seed of Aaron the priest, and they used to say: Blessed is the Omnipresent, blessed is He, for no blemish has been found in the seed of Aaron. Blessed is He who chose Aaron and his sons to stand to minister before the Lord in the Holy of Holies."
60. Mishnah, Peah, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. These are the things that have no definite quantity: The corners [of the field]. First-fruits; [The offerings brought] on appearing [at the Temple on the three pilgrimage festivals]. The performance of righteous deeds; And the study of the torah. The following are the things for which a man enjoys the fruits in this world while the principal remains for him in the world to come: Honoring one’s father and mother; The performance of righteous deeds; And the making of peace between a person and his friend; And the study of the torah is equal to them all."
61. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.6, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. How was the priestly blessing [pronounced]?In the province (outside of the Temple) it was said as three blessings, but in the Temple as one blessing. In the Temple the name was uttered as it is written, but in the province in its substituted name. In the province the priests raise their hands at the height of their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest who does not raise his hands higher than the frontlet (on his forehead). Rabbi Judah says: even the high priest raises his hands higher than the frontlet, as it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)." 9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
62. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.1, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving." 7.2. They went and stood on the steps of the Sanctuary. The first ones stood at the south side of their fellow priests with five vessels in their hands: one held the teni, the second the kuz, the third the firepan, the fourth the dish, and the fifth the spoon and its covering. They blessed the people with a single blessing, except in the country they recited it as three blessings, in the Temple as one. In the Temple they pronounced the divine name as it is written, but in the country by its substitute. In the country the priests raised their hands as high as their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest, who did not raise his hands above the diadem. Rabbi Judah says: the high priest also raised his hands above the diadem, since it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)."
63. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.8-8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.8. The sin-offering and the certain guilt-offering effect atonement. Death and Yom HaKippurim effect atonement together with repentance. Repentance effects atonement for light transgressions: [the transgression of] positive commandments and negative commandments. And for severer transgressions [repentance] suspends [the divine punishment], until Yom HaKippurim arrives and effects atonement." 8.9. One who says: I shall sin and repent, sin and repent, they do not afford him the opportunity to repent. [If one says]: I shall sin and Yom HaKippurim will atone for me, Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement. For transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow. This was expounded by Rabbi Elazar b. Azariah: “From all your sins before the Lord you shall be clean” (Leviticus 16:30) for transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow.. Rabbi Akiva said: Happy are you, Israel! Who is it before whom you become pure? And who is it that purifies you? Your Father who is in heaven, as it is said: “And I will sprinkle clean water upon you and you shall be clean” (Ezekiel 36:25). And it further says: “O hope (mikveh) of Israel, O Lord” (Jeremiah 17:1--just as a mikveh purifies the unclean, so too does he Holy One, blessed be He, purify Israel."
64. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.6. There were two chambers in the Temple, one the chamber of secret gifts and the other the chamber of the vessels. The chamber of secret gifts: sin-fearing persons used to put their gifts there in secret, and the poor who were descended of the virtuous were secretly supported from them. The chamber of the vessels: whoever offered a vessel as a gift would throw it in, and once in thirty days the treasurers opened it; and any vessel they found in it that was of use for the repair of the temple they left there, but the others were sold and their price went to the chamber of the repair of the temple."
65. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.6-4.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.6. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, because you say that the Holy Scriptures defile the hands, but the books of Homer do not defile the hands. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai said: Have we nothing against the Pharisees but this? Behold they say that the bones of a donkey are clean, yet the bones of Yoha the high priest are unclean. They said to him: according to the affection for them, so is their impurity, so that nobody should make spoons out of the bones of his father or mother. He said to them: so also are the Holy Scriptures according to the affection for them, so is their uncleanness. The books of Homer which are not precious do not defile the hands." 4.7. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you declare an uninterrupted flow of a liquid to be clean. The Pharisees say: we complain against you, Sadducees, that you declare a stream of water which flows from a burial-ground to be clean? The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you say, my ox or donkey which has done injury is liable, yet my male or female slave who has done injury is not liable. Now if in the case of my ox or my donkey for which I am not responsible if they do not fulfill religious duties, yet I am responsible for their damages, in the case of my male or female slave for whom I am responsible to see that they fulfill mitzvot, how much more so that I should be responsible for their damages? They said to them: No, if you argue about my ox or my donkey which have no understanding, can you deduce from there anything concerning a male or female slave who do have understanding? So that if I were to anger either of them and they would go and burn another person's stack, should I be liable to make restitution?"
66. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.5-1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. who by the power of God are guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. 1.6. Wherein you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while, if need be, you have been put to grief in various trials 1.7. that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ -- 1.8. whom not having known you love; in whom, though now you don't see him, yet believing, you rejoice greatly with joy unspeakable and full of glory -- 1.9. receiving the result of your faith, the salvation of your souls. 1.10. Concerning this salvation, the prophets sought and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that would come to you 1.11. searching for who or what kind of time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, pointed to, when he predicted the sufferings of Christ, and the glories that would follow them. 1.12. To them it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to you, did they minister these things, which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent out from heaven; which things angels desire to look into.
67. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.5, 2.8, 4.20, 5.4, 6.2, 6.11, 12.8-12.10, 13.1-13.3, 13.8-13.12, 15.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. that your faith wouldn't stand in the wisdom of men, but in thepower of God. 2.8. which none of the rulers of this worldhas known. For had they known it, they wouldn't have crucified the Lordof glory. 4.20. For the Kingdom ofGod is not in word, but in power. 5.4. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,you being gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our LordJesus Christ 6.2. Don't youknow that the saints will judge the world? And if the world is judgedby you, are you unworthy to judge the smallest matters? 6.11. Such were some of you, but you were washed. But you were sanctified.But you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and in the Spiritof our God. 12.8. For to one is given through theSpirit the word of wisdom, and to another the word of knowledge,according to the same Spirit; 12.9. to another faith, by the sameSpirit; and to another gifts of healings, by the same Spirit; 12.10. and to another workings of miracles; and to another prophecy; and toanother discerning of spirits; to another different kinds of languages;and to another the interpretation of languages. 13.1. If I speak with the languages of men and of angels, but don'thave love, I have become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal. 13.2. If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and allknowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, butdon't have love, I am nothing. 13.3. If I dole out all my goods tofeed the poor, and if I give my body to be burned, but don't have love,it profits me nothing. 13.8. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies,they will be done away with. Where there are various languages, theywill cease. Where there is knowledge, it will be done away with. 13.9. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part; 13.10. but when thatwhich is complete has come, then that which is partial will be doneaway with. 13.11. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I felt as achild, I thought as a child. Now that I have become a man, I have putaway childish things. 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power.
68. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. I desire therefore that the men in every place pray, lifting up holy hands without wrath and doubting.
69. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. the Lord knows how to deliver the godly out of temptation and to keep the unrighteous under punishment for the day of judgment;
70. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 6.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

71. New Testament, Acts, 2.38, 2.44, 3.1, 4.21, 8.16, 8.26, 9.6, 9.28, 9.34, 13.14-13.43, 15.29, 15.33, 18.23, 19.35, 26.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.38. Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 2.44. All who believed were together, and had all things common. 3.1. Peter and John were going up into the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth hour. 4.21. They, when they had further threatened them, let them go, finding no way to punish them, because of the people; for everyone glorified God for that which was done. 8.16. for as yet he had fallen on none of them. They had only been baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. 8.26. But an angel of the Lord spoke to Philip, saying, "Arise, and go toward the south to the way that goes down from Jerusalem to Gaza. This is a desert. 9.6. But rise up, and enter into the city, and you will be told what you must do. 9.28. He was with them going in and going out at Jerusalem 9.34. Peter said to him, "Aeneas, Jesus Christ heals you. Get up and make your bed!" Immediately he arose. 13.14. But they, passing through from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia. They went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak. 13.16. Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, "Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen. 13.17. The God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they stayed as aliens in the land of Egypt , and with an uplifted arm, he led them out of it. 13.18. For about the time of forty years he put up with them in the wilderness. 13.19. When he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he gave them their land for an inheritance, for about four hundred fifty years. 13.20. After these things he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet. 13.21. Afterward they asked for a king, and God gave to them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years. 13.22. When he had removed him, he raised up David to be their king, to whom he also testified, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after my heart, who will do all my will.' 13.23. From this man's seed, God has brought salvation to Israel according to his promise 13.24. before his coming, when John had first preached the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. 13.25. As John was fulfilling his course, he said, 'What do you suppose that I am? I am not he. But behold, one comes after me the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to untie.' 13.26. Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, the word of this salvation is sent out to you. 13.27. For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they didn't know him, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him. 13.28. Though they found no cause for death, they still asked Pilate to have him killed. 13.29. When they had fulfilled all things that were written about him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a tomb. 13.30. But God raised him from the dead 13.31. and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. 13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 13.36. For David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay. 13.37. But he whom God raised up saw no decay. 13.38. Be it known to you therefore, brothers, that through this man is proclaimed to you remission of sins 13.39. and by him everyone who believes is justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses. 13.40. Beware therefore, lest that come on you which is spoken in the prophets: 13.41. 'Behold, you scoffers, and wonder, and perish; For I work a work in your days, A work which you will in no way believe, if one declares it to you.' 13.42. So when the Jews went out of the synagogue, the Gentiles begged that these words might be preached to them the next Sabbath. 13.43. Now when the synagogue broke up, many of the Jews and of the devout proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas; who, speaking to them, urged them to continue in the grace of God. 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 15.33. After they had spent some time there, they were sent back with greetings from the brothers to the apostles. 18.23. Having spent some time there, he departed, and went through the region of Galatia, and Phrygia, in order, establishing all the disciples. 19.35. When the town clerk had quieted the multitude, he said, "You men of Ephesus, what man is there who doesn't know that the city of the Ephesians is temple-keeper of the great goddess Artemis, and of the image which fell down from Zeus? 26.16. But arise, and stand on your feet, for to this end have I appeared to you, to appoint you a servant and a witness both of the things which you have seen, and of the things which I will reveal to you;
72. New Testament, James, 5.12, 5.14, 5.16, 5.19-5.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. But above all things, my brothers, don't swear, neither by heaven, nor by the earth, nor by any other oath; but let your "yes" be "yes," and your "no," "no;" so that you don't fall into hypocrisy. 5.14. Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the assembly, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord 5.16. Confess your offenses to one another, and pray one for another, that you may be healed. The effective, earnest prayer of a righteous man is powerfully effective. 5.19. Brothers, if any among you wanders from the truth, and someone turns him back 5.20. let him know that he who turns a sinner from the error of his way will save a soul from death, and will cover a multitude of sins.
73. New Testament, Colossians, 1.9-1.12, 2.4-2.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For this cause, we also, since the day we heard this, don't cease praying and making requests for you, that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding 1.10. that you may walk worthily of the Lord, to please him in all respects, bearing fruit in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God; 1.11. strengthened with all power, according to the might of his glory, for all endurance and perseverance with joy; 1.12. giving thanks to the Father, who made us fit to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light; 2.4. Now this I say that no one may delude you with persuasiveness of speech. 2.5. For though I am absent in the flesh, yet am I with you in the spirit, rejoicing and seeing your order, and the steadfastness of your faith in Christ.
74. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.3-1.23, 3.14-3.21, 6.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.11. in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his will; 1.12. to the end that we should be to the praise of his glory, we who had before hoped in Christ: 1.13. in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, -- in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise 1.14. who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. 1.15. For this cause I also, having heard of the faith in the Lord Jesus which is among you, and the love which you have toward all the saints 1.16. don't cease to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers 1.17. that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him; 1.18. having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope of his calling, and what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints 1.19. and what is the exceeding greatness of his power toward us who believe, according to that working of the strength of his might 1.20. which he worked in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and made him to sit at his right hand in the heavenly places 1.21. far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 1.22. He put all things in subjection under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things for the assembly 1.23. which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all. 3.14. For this cause, I bow my knees to the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ 3.15. from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named 3.16. that he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, that you may be strengthened with power through his Spirit in the inward man; 3.17. that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; to the end that you, being rooted and grounded in love 3.18. may be strengthened to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth 3.19. and to know Christ's love which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled with all the fullness of God. 3.20. Now to him who is able to do exceedingly abundantly above all that we ask or think, according to the power that works in us 3.21. to him be the glory in the assembly and in Christ Jesus to all generations forever and ever. Amen. 6.18. with all prayer and requests, praying at all times in the Spirit, and being watchful to this end in all perseverance and requests for all the saints:
75. New Testament, Galatians, 2.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision.
76. New Testament, Hebrews, 10.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.22. let's draw near with a true heart in fullness of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and having our body washed with pure water
77. New Testament, Philippians, 1.1, 2.6-2.8, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ; To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the overseers and deacons: 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 4.15. You yourselves also know, you Philippians, that in the beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no assembly had fellowship with me in the matter of giving and receiving but you only.
78. New Testament, Romans, 1.4, 2.29, 8.26, 10.13-10.15, 15.13, 15.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 8.26. In the same way, the Spirit also helps our weaknesses, for we don't know how to pray as we ought. But the Spirit himself makes intercession for us with groanings which can't be uttered. 10.13. For, "Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved. 10.14. How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? How will they believe in him whom they have not heard? How will they hear without a preacher? 10.15. And how will they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: "How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring glad tidings of good things! 15.13. Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that you may abound in hope, in the power of the Holy Spirit. 15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ;
79. New Testament, John, 1.1, 3.31-3.32, 4.23, 9.22, 12.27, 12.42, 13.12-13.17, 14.28, 15.12-15.14, 18.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 3.31. He who comes from above is above all. He who is from the Earth belongs to the Earth, and speaks of the Earth. He who comes from heaven is above all. 3.32. What he has seen and heard, of that he testifies; and no one receives his witness. 4.23. But the hour comes, and now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks such to be his worshippers. 9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 12.27. Now my soul is troubled. What shall I say? 'Father, save me from this time?' But for this cause I came to this time. 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue 13.12. So when he had washed their feet, put his outer garment back on, and sat down again, he said to them, "Do you know what I have done to you? 13.13. You call me, 'Teacher' and 'Lord.' You say so correctly, for so I am. 13.14. If I then, the Lord and the Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another's feet. 13.15. For I have given you an example, that you also should do as I have done to you. 13.16. Most assuredly I tell you, a servant is not greater than his lord, neither one who is sent greater than he who sent him. 13.17. If you know these things, blessed are you if you do them. 14.28. You heard how I told you, 'I go away, and I come to you.' If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I said 'I am going to my Father;' for the Father is greater than I. 15.12. This is my commandment, that you love one another, even as I have loved you. 15.13. Greater love has no one than this, that someone lay down his life for his friends. 15.14. You are my friends, if you do whatever I command you. 18.3. Judas then, having taken a detachment of soldiers and officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, came there with lanterns, torches, and weapons.
80. New Testament, Luke, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.34. Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, seeing I am a virgin?
81. New Testament, Mark, 1.35, 2.16, 2.18-2.22, 3.1-3.6, 4.1-4.34, 5.4, 6.6-6.13, 6.20-6.49, 7.6, 9.1, 9.5, 10.43, 11.17, 11.24-11.25, 12.29-12.31, 12.40, 13.1-13.2, 13.9-13.13, 13.27, 13.31, 14.36, 15.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.35. Early in the night, he rose up and went out, and departed into a deserted place, and prayed there. 2.16. The scribes and the Pharisees, when they saw that he was eating with the sinners and tax collectors, said to his disciples, "Why is it that he eats and drinks with tax collectors and sinners? 2.18. John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting, and they came and asked him, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples don't fast? 2.19. Jesus said to them, "Can the groomsmen fast while the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they can't fast. 2.20. But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then will they fast in that day. 2.21. No one sews a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment, or else the patch shrinks and the new tears away from the old, and a worse hole is made. 2.22. No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins, and the wine pours out, and the skins will be destroyed; but they put new wine into fresh wineskins. 3.1. He entered again into the synagogue, and there was a man there who had his hand withered. 3.2. They watched him, whether he would heal him on the Sabbath day, that they might accuse him. 3.3. He said to the man who had his hand withered, "Stand up. 3.4. He said to them, "Is it lawful on the Sabbath day to do good, or to do harm? To save a life, or to kill?" But they were silent. 3.5. When he had looked around at them with anger, being grieved at the hardening of their hearts, he said to the man, "Stretch out your hand." He stretched it out, and his hand was restored as healthy as the other. 3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 4.1. Again he began to teach by the seaside. A great multitude was gathered to him, so that he entered into a boat in the sea, and sat down. All the multitude were on the land by the sea. 4.2. He taught them many things in parables, and told them in his teaching 4.3. Listen! Behold, the farmer went out to sow 4.4. and it happened, as he sowed, some seed fell by the road, and the birds came and devoured it. 4.5. Others fell on the rocky ground, where it had little soil, and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of soil. 4.6. When the sun had risen, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 4.7. Others fell among the thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 4.8. Others fell into the good ground, and yielded fruit, growing up and increasing. Some brought forth thirty times, some sixty times, and some one hundred times as much. 4.9. He said, "Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear. 4.10. When he was alone, those who were around him with the twelve asked him about the parables. 4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.' 4.13. He said to them, "Don't you understand this parable? How will you understand all of the parables? 4.14. The farmer sows the word. 4.15. These are the ones by the road, where the word is sown; and when they have heard, immediately Satan comes, and takes away the word which has been sown in them. 4.16. These in like manner are those who are sown on the rocky places, who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with joy. 4.17. They have no root in themselves, but are short-lived. When oppression or persecution arises because of the word, immediately they stumble. 4.18. Others are those who are sown among the thorns. These are those who have heard the word 4.19. and the cares of this age, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful. 4.20. These are those which were sown on the good ground: such as hear the word, and accept it, and bear fruit, some thirty times, some sixty times, and some one hundred times. 4.21. He said to them, "Is the lamp brought to be put under a basket or under a bed? Isn't it put on a lampstand? 4.22. For there is nothing hidden, except that it should be made known; neither was anything made secret, but that it should come to light. 4.23. If any man has ears to hear, let him hear. 4.24. He said to them, "Take heed what you hear. With whatever measure you measure, it will be measured to you, and more will be given to you who hear. 4.25. For whoever has, to him will more be given, and he who doesn't have, from him will be taken away even that which he has. 4.26. He said, "The Kingdom of God is as if a man should cast seed on the earth 4.27. and should sleep and rise night and day, and the seed should spring up and grow, he doesn't know how. 4.28. For the earth bears fruit: first the blade, then the ear, then the full grain in the ear. 4.29. But when the fruit is ripe, immediately he puts forth the sickle, because the harvest has come. 4.30. He said, "How will we liken the Kingdom of God? Or with what parable will we illustrate it? 4.31. It's like a grain of mustard seed, which, when it is sown in the earth, though it is less than all the seeds that are on the earth 4.32. yet when it is sown, grows up, and becomes greater than all the herbs, and puts out great branches, so that the birds of the sky can lodge under its shadow. 4.33. With many such parables he spoke the word to them, as they were able to hear it. 4.34. Without a parable he didn't speak to them; but privately to his own disciples he explained all things. 5.4. because he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been torn apart by him, and the fetters broken in pieces. Nobody had the strength to tame him. 6.6. He marveled because of their unbelief. He went around the villages teaching. 6.7. He called to himself the twelve, and began to send them out two by two; and he gave them authority over the unclean spirits. 6.8. He charged them that they should take nothing for their journey, except a staff only: no bread, no wallet, no money in their purse 6.9. but to wear sandals, and not put on two tunics. 6.10. He said to them, "Wherever you enter into a house, stay there until you depart from there. 6.11. Whoever will not receive you nor hear you, as you depart from there, shake off the dust that is under your feet for a testimony against them. Assuredly, I tell you, it will be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for that city! 6.12. They went out and preached that people should repent. 6.13. They cast out many demons, and anointed many with oil who were sick, and healed them. 6.20. for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and kept him safe. When he heard him, he did many things, and he heard him gladly. 6.21. Then a convenient day came, that Herod on his birthday made a supper for his nobles, the high officers, and the chief men of Galilee. 6.22. When the daughter of Herodias herself came in and danced, she pleased Herod and those sitting with him. The king said to the young lady, "Ask me whatever you want, and I will give it to you. 6.23. He swore to her, "Whatever you shall ask of me, I will give you, up to half of my kingdom. 6.24. She went out, and said to her mother, "What shall I ask?"She said, "The head of John the Baptizer. 6.25. She came in immediately with haste to the king, and asked, "I want you to give me right now the head of John the Baptizer on a platter. 6.26. The king was exceedingly sorry, but for the sake of his oaths, and of his dinner guests, he didn't wish to refuse her. 6.27. Immediately the king sent out a soldier of his guard, and commanded to bring John's head, and he went and beheaded him in the prison 6.28. and brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the young lady; and the young lady gave it to her mother. 6.29. When his disciples heard this, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb. 6.30. The apostles gathered themselves together to Jesus, and they told him all things, whatever they had done, and whatever they had taught. 6.31. He said to them, "You come apart into a deserted place, and rest awhile." For there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat. 6.32. They went away in the boat to a desert place by themselves. 6.33. They saw them going, and many recognized him and ran there on foot from all the cities. They arrived before them and came together to him. 6.34. Jesus came out, saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things. 6.35. When it was late in the day, his disciples came to him, and said, "This place is deserted, and it is late in the day. 6.36. Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat. 6.37. But he answered them, "You give them something to eat."They asked him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread, and give them something to eat? 6.38. He said to them, "How many loaves do you have? Go see."When they knew, they said, "Five, and two fish. 6.39. He commanded them that everyone should sit down in groups on the green grass. 6.40. They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties. 6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 6.42. They all ate, and were filled. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 6.44. Those who ate the loaves were five thousand men. 6.45. Immediately he made his disciples get into the boat, and to go ahead to the other side, to Bethsaida, while he himself sent the multitude away. 6.46. After he had taken leave of them, he went up the mountain to pray. 6.47. When evening had come, the boat was in the midst of the sea, and he was alone on the land. 6.48. Seeing them distressed in rowing, for the wind was contrary to them, about the fourth watch of the night he came to them, walking on the sea, and he would have passed by them 6.49. but they, when they saw him walking on the sea, supposed that it was a ghost, and cried out; 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 9.1. He said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, there are some standing here who will in no way taste death, until they see the Kingdom of God come with power. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 10.43. But it shall not be so among you, but whoever wants to become great among you shall be your servant. 11.17. He taught, saying to them, "Isn't it written, 'My house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations?' But you have made it a den of robbers! 11.24. Therefore I tell you, all things whatever you pray and ask for, believe that you receive them, and you shall have them. 11.25. Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone; so that your Father, who is in heaven, may also forgive you your transgressions. 12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these. 12.40. those who devour widows' houses, and for a pretense make long prayers. These will receive greater condemnation. 13.1. As he went out out of the temple, one of his disciples said to him, "Teacher, see what kind of stones and what kind of buildings! 13.2. Jesus said to him, "Do you see these great buildings? There will not be left here one stone on another, which will not be thrown down. 13.9. But watch yourselves, for they will deliver you up to councils. You will be beaten in synagogues. You will stand before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them. 13.10. The gospel must first be preached to all the nations. 13.11. When they lead you away and deliver you up, don't be anxious beforehand, or premeditate what you will say, but say whatever will be given you in that hour. For it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit. 13.12. Brother will deliver up brother to death, and the father his child. Children will rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death. 13.13. You will be hated by all men for my name's sake, but he who endures to the end, the same will be saved. 13.27. Then he will send out his angels, and will gather together his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of the sky. 13.31. Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away. 14.36. He said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. However, not what I desire, but what you desire. 15.34. At the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?" which is, being interpreted, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?
82. New Testament, Matthew, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

83. Polycarp of Smyrna, Letter To The Philippians, 4.3, 9.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

84. Tosefta, Berachot, 3.7, 3.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.7. Rebbi Yehudah said, “When Rebbi Akiva would pray [Shmoneh Esreh] together with the congregation he would finish faster than everyone else. When he would pray by himself a person would leave him on one side [of the room] and when he would come back he would find him on a different side [of the room], because of all of the bending of the knees and bowing that he would do.”" 3.14. Any [holiday] on which there is no Mussaf [prayer] for example, Chanukah and Purim, on Shacharit and Mincha he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh with] eighteen [Berachot (blessings)] and he says [the paragraph] about the occasion in [the Beracha of] Hodaah (Thanks). And if he did not say [the paragraph] about the occasion, he does not have to go back [to the beginning of Shmoneh Esreh]. And any [holiday] which has on it [the] Mussaf [prayer], for example Rosh Chodesh (New Month), and Chol Hamoed (the intermediate days of Sukkot and Pesach), on Shacharit and Mincha10 he would pray [the prayer of Shmoneh Esreh with] eighteen [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph] about the holiness of the day11 in [the Beracha of] Avodah (Temple Service).12 Rebbi Eliezer says, “[he says the paragraph about the holiness of the day] in [the Beracha of] Hodaah, and if he did not say it then he has to go back [to the beginning of Shmoneh Esreh].” In [the] Mussaf [prayer] he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh consisting of] seven [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph about the] holiness of the day in the middle [Beracha]. [On] Shabbat that fell out on Rosh Chodesh or on Chol Hamoed, during Shacharit and during Mincha he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh prayer that consists of] seven [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph about the] occasion in [the Beracha of] Avodah. Rebbi Eliezer says, “[He says the paragraph about the holiness of the day] in [the Beracha of] Hodaah, and if he did not say it then he has to go back [to the beginning of Shmoneh Esreh].” In [the] Mussaf [prayer] he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh consisting of] seven [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph about the] holiness of the day in the middle [Beracha]. On Shabbat, on Yom Tov (Pesach, Shavuot and Sukkot), and on Yom Kippur] he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh consisting of] seven [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph about the] holiness of the day in the middle [Beracha]. Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel and Rebbi Yishmael the son of Rebbi Yocha Ben Beroka say, “Any time that he is supposed to say seven [Berachot in Shmoneh Esreh] he says [the paragraph about the] holiness of the day in the middle [Beracha].”"
85. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

86. Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.5-4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.5. And the Levites with their harps and lyres and cymbals and all manner of musical instruments without number were there, saying, “Behold, bless ye the Lord, all ye servants of the Lord.” Some were saying, Lift up your hands to the sanctuary, and bless ye the Lord. When they parted they said to one another, The Lord bless thee out of Zion, and see thou the good of Jerusalem all the days of thy life. You should see your children's children. The herald cried out: they sounded a plain note, a tremolo, and a plain note. Rabbi Yehudah said: They did not sound less than seven nor more than thirteen times at the opening of the Temple gates. He who blew at their opening did not do so at their closing. Three times they sounded before the altar. He who blew before the altar did not do so on the tenth step, and he who blew on the tenth step did not do so before the altar." 4.6. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the people cease from work. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city to summon those near the city to cease from work. Those near the limits of the city assembled themselves together and came to the schoolhouse. They did not come immediately the trumpets blew, but waited till all were gathered together, and then all came at once. When did they assemble? After one could fill a bottle of water, or fry a fish, or light his lamp. "
87. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 144 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

144. And having fulfilled these sayings, he arose and prayed thus: our Father, which art in heaven: hallowed be thy name: Thy kingdom come: Thy will be done, as in heaven so upon earth: [GIVE the of Syr. day, bread constant us] and forgive us our debts as we also have forgiven our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. My Lord and God, hope and confidence and teacher, thou hast taught me to pray thus, behold, I pray this prayer and fulfil thy commandment: be thou with me unto the end; thou art he that from childhood hast sown life in me and kept me from corruption; thou art he that hast brought me unto the poverty of this world, and exhorted me unto the true riches; thou art he that hast made me known unto myself and showed me that I am thine; and I have kept myself pure from woman, that that which thou requirest be not found in defilement. [At the words 'My Lord and God' begins the double text, represented on the one hand by the MS. U and on the other by the Paris MS. P, and three (partly four) others. These insert the prayer after ch. 167. Their text, I believe, may be the original Greek. I follow it here, repeating the first paragraph.] (144) My Lord and God, my hope and my confidence and my teacher, that hast implanted courage in me, thou didst teach me to pray thus; behold, I pray thy prayer and bring thy will to fulfilment: be thou with me unto the end. Thou art he that from my youth up didst give me patience in temptation and [SOW in] me life and preserve me from corruption; thou art he that didst bring me into the poverty of this world and fill me with the true riches; thou art he that didst show me that I was thine: wherefore I was never joined unto a wife, that the temple worthy of thee might not be found in pollution.
88. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 24.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

24.7. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי מְנַחֵם בְּשֵׁם רַב אָמַר כָּל הָאֻמָנִיּוֹת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לְמָדָם, מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ (ישעיה מד, יא): וְחָרָשִׁים הֵמָּה מֵאָדָם, מֵאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. רַבָּנָן אָמְרִין אֲפִלּוּ סִרְגּוּלוֹ שֶׁל סֵפֶר, אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לְמָדוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ה, א): זֶה סֵפֶר, הוּא וְסִרְגּוּלוֹ. (בראשית ה, א): בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם, הָדָא מְסַיְּעָא לְהַהִיא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה שָׁלשׁ פְּלָאִים נַעֲשׂוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם נִבְרְאוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שִׁמְשׁוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הוֹצִיאוּ תּוֹלָדוֹת. בֶּן עֲזַאי אוֹמֵר זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם, זֶה כְּלַל גָּדוֹל בַּתּוֹרָה, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא יט, יח): וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ, זֶה כְּלַל גָּדוֹל בַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁלֹא תֹאמַר הוֹאִיל וְנִתְבַּזֵּיתִי יִתְבַּזֶה חֲבֵרִי עִמִּי, הוֹאִיל וְנִתְקַלַּלְתִּי יִתְקַלֵּל חֲבֵרִי עִמִּי. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אִם עָשִׂיתָ כֵּן דַּע לְמִי אַתָּה מְבַזֶּה בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אוֹתוֹ. 24.7. Rabbi Tanchuma said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Menachem in the name of Rav said... Ben Azzai said: “These are the generations of Adam\" is a great principle in the Torah. Rabbi Akiva said: This is a great principle of the Torah: \"You shall love your neighbor as yourself\" (Lev. 19:18). Thus, one should not say, “Since I am scorned, I should scorn my fellow as well; since I have been cursed, I will curse my fellow as well.” Rabbi Tanchumah said, if you act thus, realize who it is that you are willing to have humiliated - \"the one who was made in the likeness of God.\" Rabbi Tanchuma says, “If you do so, you should know who are you scorning — ‘in the likeness of God He created him.’”"
89. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 41 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

90. Tertullian, On The Apparel of Women, 2.13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

91. Tertullian, On Prayer, 1.1, 1.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

92. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12a. אלא אי אמרת אהבה רבה הוו אמרי מאי ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו דלמא האי דלא אמרי יוצר אור משום דלא מטא זמן יוצר אור וכי מטא זמן יוצר אור הוו אמרי,ואי מכללא מאי,דאי מכללא לעולם אהבה רבה הוו אמרי וכי מטא זמן יוצר אור הוו אמרי ליה ומאי ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו סדר ברכות:,וקורין עשרת הדברות שמע והיה אם שמוע ויאמר אמת ויציב ועבודה וברכת כהנים.,א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל אף בגבולין בקשו לקרות כן אלא שכבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,תניא נמי הכי ר' נתן אומר בגבולין בקשו לקרות כן אלא שכבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,רבה בב"ח סבר למקבעינהו בסורא א"ל רב חסדא כבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,אמימר סבר למקבעינהו בנהרדעא א"ל רב אשי כבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין:,ובשבת מוסיפין ברכה אחת למשמר היוצא. מאי ברכה אחת א"ר חלבו משמר היוצא אומר למשמר הנכנס מי ששכן את שמו בבית הזה הוא ישכין ביניכם אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות:,מקום שאמרו להאריך: פשיטא היכא דקא נקיט כסא דחמרא בידיה וקסבר דשכרא הוא ופתח ומברך אדעתא דשכרא וסיים בדחמרא יצא דאי נמי אם אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו יצא דהא תנן על כולם אם אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו יצא,אלא היכא דקא נקיט כסא דשכרא בידיה וקסבר דחמרא הוא פתח ובריך אדעתא דחמרא וסיים בדשכרא מאי,בתר עיקר ברכה אזלינן או בתר חתימה אזלינן,ת"ש שחרית פתח ביוצר אור וסיים במעריב ערבים לא יצא פתח במעריב ערבים וסיים ביוצר אור יצא,ערבית פתח במעריב ערבים וסיים ביוצר אור לא יצא פתח ביוצר אור וסיים במעריב ערבים יצא,כללו של דבר הכל הולך אחר החתום,שאני התם דקאמר ברוך יוצר המאורות,הניחא לרב דאמר כל ברכה שאין בה הזכרת השם אינה ברכה שפיר אלא לר' יוחנן דאמר כל ברכה שאין בה מלכות אינה ברכה מאי איכא למימר,אלא כיון דאמר רבה בר עולא כדי להזכיר מדת יום בלילה ומדת לילה ביום כי קאמר ברכה ומלכות מעיקרא אתרוייהו קאמר,ת"ש מסיפא כללו של דבר הכל הולך אחר החתום כללו של דבר לאתויי מאי לאו לאתויי הא דאמרן,לא לאתויי נהמא ותמרי ה"ד אילימא דאכל נהמא וקסבר דתמרי אכל ופתח אדעתא דתמרי וסיים בדנהמא היינו בעיין,לא צריכא כגון דאכל תמרי וקסבר נהמא אכל ופתח בדנהמא וסיים בדתמרי [יצא] דאפילו סיים בדנהמא נמי יצא,מאי טעמא דתמרי נמי מיזן זייני:,אמר רבה בר חיננא סבא משמיה דרב כל שלא אמר אמת ויציב שחרית ואמת ואמונה ערבית לא יצא ידי חובתו שנאמר (תהלים צב, ג) להגיד בבקר חסדך ואמונתך בלילות:,ואמר רבה בר חיננא [סבא] משמיה דרב המתפלל כשהוא כורע כורע בברוך וכשהוא זוקף זוקף בשם,אמר שמואל מאי טעמא דרב דכתיב (תהלים קמו, ח) ה' זוקף כפופים,מיתיבי (מלאכי ב, ה) מפני שמי נחת הוא,מי כתיב בשמי מפני שמי כתיב,אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אוריאן תא ואימא לך מלתא מעלייתא דאמר אבוך הכי אמר אבוך כשהוא כורע כורע בברוך כשהוא זוקף זוקף בשם. 12a. bHowever, if you say that theywould omit: Who creates light, and bwould recite: An abounding love,on bwhatbasis would you conclude that failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother?In that case, one could offer another reason why only a single blessing is recited. bPerhapsthe fact bthat they did not recite: Who creates light was because the time for the recitation of: Who creates light, had not yet arrived,as the sun had yet to rise. The blessings of the priestly watch are recited in the early morning hours, long before sunrise. bHowever,afterward, bwhen the timeto recite: bWho creates light arrived, they would recite it.From the conclusion drawn by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, that failure to recite one of the blessings recited before iShema /idoes not prevent one from reciting the other, it is clear that the blessing recited by the members of the priestly watch was: Who creates light.,As this deductive reasoning seems coherent and convincing, the Gemara asks: bAnd ifthis ihalakhais bbased on inference,and not on an explicit statement, bwhatof it? There seems to be no other way to interpret Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement.,The Gemara answers: bIfthis conclusion bwere based on an inference,one could say that bactually they recited: An abounding love, and when the timeto recite: bWho creates light arrived, they would recite it.In that case, bwhatis the meaning of: Failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother?Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish meant that failure to recite bthecorrect border of the blessingsdoes not prevent one from fulfilling his obligation. Even if one recites: An abounding love before: Who creates light, he fulfills his obligation. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish did not refer to a case where only one of the blessings was recited. Consequently, one cannot infer from his statement his opinion regarding the identity of the single blessing.,The Gemara related above that the priests in the Temple bread the Ten Commandments,along with the sections of iShema /i, iVeHaya im Shamoa /i, iVaYomer /i, True and Firm, iAvoda,and the priestly benediction. /b, bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: Even in the outlying areas,outside the Temple, bthey sought to recitethe Ten Commandments bin this mannerevery day, as they are the basis of the Torah (Rambam), bbut they had already abolishedrecitation of the Ten Commandments bdue to the grievance of the heretics,who argued that the entire Torah, with the exception of the Ten Commandments, did not emanate from God (Jerusalem Talmud). If the Ten Commandments were recited daily, that would lend credence to their claim, so their recitation was expunged from the daily prayers., bThat was also taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Natan says: In the outlying areas, they sought to recitethe Ten Commandments bin this manner, but they had already abolishedtheir recitation bdue to the grievance of the heretics. /b,The Gemara relates that several Sages sought to reinstitute recitation of the Ten Commandments, as bRabba bar bar Ḥana thought to institute this inthe city of bSura,but bRav Ḥisda said to him: They already abolished them due to the grievance of the heretics. /b,So too, bAmeimar thought to institute this inthe city of bNeharde’a. Rav Ashi,the most prominent of the Sages in that generation, bsaid to him: They already abolished them due to the grievance of the heretics. /b,We learned in a mishna in tractate iTamidthat bon Shabbat a single blessing is added tobless bthe outgoing priestly watch.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthat bsingle blessing? Rabbi Ḥelbo said:As they finished their service, bthe outgoing priestly watch would say to the incoming priestly watch: May He who caused His Name to dwell in this house cause love and brotherhood, peace and camaraderie to dwell among you. /b,We learned in the mishna: bWherethe Sages bsaidto recite ba longblessing, one may not shorten it, and vice-versa. The Gemara proceeds to address a particular problem arising from conclusions drawn from this mishna. Before addressing the primary problem, however, a simpler, secondary issue is raised: bObviously, in a case where one took a cup of wine in his hand and thought it was beer, and began reciting the blessing thinking it was beer,i.e., he intended to recite the appropriate blessing on beer: By Whose word all things came to be, bandupon realizing that it was wine, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited over bwine:Who creates the fruit of the vine, bhe fulfilledhis obligation. In that case, beven had he recited: By Whose word all things came to be,as he originally intended, bhewould have bfulfilledhis obligation, bas we learnedin a mishna: bIf onerecited the general blessing: bBy Whose word all things came to be, over allfood items, bhe fulfilledhis obligation after the fact, even if iab initioanother blessing was instituted to recite before eating that food. Therefore, if he reconsidered and concluded the blessing with the ending of the blessing over wine, he fulfilled his obligation., bHowever in a case where one took a cup of beer in his hand and thought it was wine, and began reciting the blessing thinking it was wine,meaning he intended to recite: Who creates the fruit of the vine, bandupon realizing that it was beer bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited over bbeer:By Whose word all things came to be, bwhatis the ihalakha /i?,Ostensibly, this blessing is comprised of two sections. The first section, during which he intended to recite: Who creates the fruit of the vine, cannot fulfill his obligation as it is an inappropriate blessing to recite over beer. However, in the second section he recited: By Whose word all things came to be, the appropriate blessing. The dilemma, then, is: bDo we follow the essenceof the blessing, the first section, bor do we follow the conclusionof the blessing?, bCome and heara proof from what was taught in a ibaraitawith regard to a similar case: If, in bthe morning prayer /b, one bbeganthe blessings prior to the recitation of iShemaappropriately bwith: Who creates light, and concluded withthe formula of the evening prayer: bWho brings on evenings, he did not fulfillhis obligation. However, if one did the opposite, and bcommenced with: Who brings on evenings, and concluded with: Who creates light, he fulfilledhis obligation.,Similarly, if, in bthe evening prayer /b, bone commencedthe recitation of iShema bwith: Who brings on evenings and concluded with: Who creates light, he did not fulfillhis obligation. If bone commenced with: Who creates light and concluded with: Who brings on evenings, he fulfilledhis obligation.,The ibaraitasummarizes that bthe general principle is: Everything follows the conclusionof the blessing. Based on this principle, the question with regard to a blessing recited over food and drink posed above can be resolved.,This proof is rejected: bThere,in the case of the blessing recited over the radiant lights, bit is different, as one recites: Blessed /b…Who bforms the radiant lights,and similarly, in the evening one recites: Blessed…Who brings on evenings. Since these are long blessings that conclude with a second blessing summarizing their content, one could assert that everything follows the conclusion. However, in the case of short blessings, such as: By Whose word all things came to be, or: Who creates the fruit of the vine, ostensibly, if there is a problem with the first part of the blessing, the entire blessing is nullified.,The distinction between the blessing recited over the radiant lights and the blessings recited over food and drink stems from the assumption that the conclusion: Blessed…Who fashions the radiant lights, is a complete, independent blessing. However, this is not necessarily so. bThis works out well according to Rav, who said: Any blessing that does not include mention of God’s name is notconsidered ba blessing,and since: Who creates light, includes God’s name, it constitutes a complete, independent blessing. bHowever, according to Rabbi Yoḥa, who said: Any blessing that does not include mention ofGod’s bsovereignty,i.e., our God, King of the universe, bis notconsidered ba blessing, what can be saidto distinguish between the conclusion of the blessings over food and drink and the blessing over the radiant lights? Since the conclusion: Who creates light, does not mention God’s sovereignty, it does not constitute a complete, independent blessing.,The Gemara responds: bRather,Rabbi Yoḥa also holds that the blessing over the radiant lights is a complete blessing. bSince Rabba bar Ulla said:Who creates darkness, is mentioned during the day and: Rolling away the light before the darkness, is mentioned at night bin order to mention the attribute of day at night and the attribute of night in the day,the beginning of the blessing in which God’s sovereignty is mentioned day and night is appropriate to both day and night, and bwhen one recites the blessingwith God’s name bandmentions God’s bsovereignty at the beginning of the blessing,it refers bto bothday and night. Therefore, no proof can be cited from the blessing over the radiant lights to the blessings recited over food and drink.,The Gemara attempts to cite an additional proof: bCome and hearanother solution based on what we learned bin the latter clauseof the ibaraitacited above: bThe general principle is: Everything follows the conclusionof the blessing. bWhat doesthe phrase: The general principle is, come bto includebeyond the detailed example cited in the ibaraita /i? bDoes it not come to includethe case bthat we stated,that both in the case of a long blessing and the case of a short blessing, the conclusion of the blessing is the determining factor?,The Gemara rejects this: bNo,the principle is cited bto includea case of bbread and dates.The Gemara clarifies: bWhat are the circumstancesof the dilemma with regard to the blessings on these food items? bIf you say thatit is a case bwhere one ate bread and thought that he ate dates, and commencedreciting the blessing bthinking it was dates;then, upon realizing that it was bread, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover bread, isn’t that our dilemma,as this case is identical to the one involving wine and beer?,The Gemara answers: bNo; thisgeneral principle bisonly bnecessaryto teach a special bcase /b, bwhere one ate dates and thought that he ate bread, and commencedreciting the blessing bthinking they were bread.Upon realizing that they were dates, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover dates.In that case bhe fulfilledhis obligation, as beven had he concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover bread, hewould have bfulfilled his obligation. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat had he concluded with the blessing recited over bread he would have fulfilled his obligation to recite a blessing over dates? This is bbecause dates also providea person bsustece.While iab initioone should not recite the blessing for bread over dates, after the fact, if one did so, he fulfilled his obligation. It is with regard to this particular situation that the ibaraitaestablished the principle: Everything follows the conclusion of the blessing. Ultimately, the dilemma regarding a blessing with an inappropriate opening and an appropriate conclusion remains unresolved. brThe Gemara proceeds to discuss the formula for the blessings recited along with iShema /i., bRabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who did not recite: True and Firm [ iemet veyatziv /i]at the beginning of the blessing of redemption that follows iShema bin the morning prayer, and: True and Trustworthy [ iemet ve’emuna /i] in the evening prayer, he did not fulfill his obligation.An allusion to the difference in formulation between morning and evening is, bas it is stated: “To declare Your kindness in the morning and Your faith in the nights”(Psalms 92:3). In the morning, one must mention God’s loving-kindness, while in the evening one is required to emphasize the aspect of faith., bAnd Rabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who is praying, when he bowsin the appropriate places, bhe bows whenhe says: bBlessed, and when hesubsequently bstands upright, he stands upright when he saysGod’s bname. /b, bShmuel,who was Rav’s colleague and significantly outlived him, bsaid: What is Rav’s reasonfor saying that one should stand upright at the mention of God’s name? bAs it is written: “The Lord, who raises the bowed”(Psalms 146:8); one stands upright at the mention of God’s name to recall that it is God who raises the bowed.,The Gemara braises an objectionbased on what we learned in praise of a priest: b“And he was afraid before My name”(Malachi 2:5), indicating that one must be humbled and not upright before God’s name.,The Gemara responds: bIs it written: At My name? Before My name, is written,meaning that one is humbled and bows prior to the mention of God’s name, when he says: Blessed.,The Gemara relates: bShmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of Torah, come and I will tell you a great saying that your father said. Your father said the following: When one bows, he bows whenhe says: bBlessed, and when he stands upright, he stands upright when he saysGod’s bname. /b
93. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. טעו לא ישלמו כל שכן שתנעול דלת בפני לווין,רבא אמר מתניתין דהכא בדיני קנסות ואידך בהודאות והלואות,רב פפא אמר אידי ואידי בהודאה והלואה כאן בדין מרומה כאן בדין שאינו מרומה,כדריש לקיש דריש לקיש רמי כתיב (ויקרא יט, טו) בצדק תשפוט עמיתך וכתיב (דברים טז, כ) צדק צדק תרדף הא כיצד כאן בדין מרומה כאן בדין שאין מרומה,רב אשי אמר מתני׳ כדשנין קראי אחד לדין וא' לפשרה,כדתניא צדק צדק תרדף אחד לדין ואחד לפשרה כיצד שתי ספינות עוברות בנהר ופגעו זה בזה אם עוברות שתיהן שתיהן טובעות בזה אחר זה שתיהן עוברות וכן שני גמלים שהיו עולים במעלות בית חורון ופגעו זה בזה אם עלו שניהן שניהן נופלין בזה אחר זה שניהן עולין,הא כיצד טעונה ושאינה טעונה תידחה שאינה טעונה מפני טעונה קרובה ושאינה קרובה תידחה קרובה מפני שאינה קרובה היו שתיהן קרובות שתיהן רחוקות הטל פשרה ביניהן ומעלות שכר זו לזו,ת"ר צדק צדק תרדף הלך אחר ב"ד יפה אחר רבי אליעזר ללוד אחר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי לברור חיל,תנא קול ריחים בבורני שבוע הבן שבוע הבן אור הנר בברור חיל משתה שם משתה שם,ת"ר צדק צדק תרדף הלך אחר חכמים לישיבה אחר ר' אליעזר ללוד אחר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי לברור חיל אחר רבי יהושע לפקיעין אחר רבן גמליאל ליבנא אחר רבי עקיבא לבני ברק אחר רבי מתיא לרומי אחר רבי חנניא בן תרדיון לסיכני אחר ר' יוסי לציפורי אחר רבי יהודה בן בתירה לנציבין אחר רבי יהושע לגולה אחר רבי לבית שערים אחר חכמים ללשכת הגזית:,דיני ממונות פותחין כו': היכי אמרינן אמר רב יהודה הכי אמרינן להו מי יימר כדקאמריתו,א"ל עולא והא חסמינן להו וליחסמו מי לא תניא רבי שמעון בן אליעזר אומר מסיעין את העדים ממקום למקום כדי שתיטרף דעתן ויחזרו בהן,מי דמי התם ממילא קא מידחו הכא קא דחינן להו בידים,אלא אמר עולא הכי אמרינן יש לך עדים להזימם א"ל רבה וכי פותחין בזכותו של זה שהיא חובתו של זה,ומי הויא חובתו והתנן אין עדים זוממין נהרגין עד שיגמר הדין,הכי אמינא אילו שתיק האי עד דמיגמר דיניה ומייתי עדים ומזים להו הויא ליה חובתו של זה אלא אמר רבה אמרינן ליה יש לך עדים להכחישן,רב כהנא אמר מדבריכם נזדכה פלוני אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו אמרי' ליה אי לא קטלת לא תדחל רב אשי אמר כל מי שיודע לו זכות יבא וילמד עליו,תניא כוותיה דאביי ורבא רבי אומר (במדבר ה, יט) אם לא שכב איש אותך ואם לא שטית וגו' 32b. then if the judges berred they should notneed to bpaythe party they wronged, as they can claim that they were prevented from examining the witnesses effectively. The Gemara answers: If that were to be the ihalakha /i, ball the more so thatthis bwould lock the door in the face ofpotential bborrowers.If people know that the courts are not responsible for an error in judgment, they will not be willing to lend money., bRava says:The ruling of bthe mishna here,that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is stated bwith regard to laws of fines,not standard cases of monetary law. bAnd the othersources, i.e., the mishna in tractate iShevi’itand the ibaraita /i, which do not require inquiry and interrogation, are stated bwith regard tocases of badmissions and loans,in which there is cause to relax the procedures of deliberation, as explained., bRav Pappa says: This and that,i.e., both the mishna here and the other sources, are stated bwith regard tocases of ban admission and a loan.The distinction between them is that the mishna bhere,which rules that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is stated bwith regard toa possibly bfraudulent trial,where the court suspects that one party is attempting to defraud the other party and have witnesses offer false testimony on his own behalf. bThere,in the ibaraitaand in the mishna in tractate iShevi’it /i, which do not require inquiry and interrogation, the ruling is stated bwith regard to a trial thatdoes bnotappear bfraudulent. /b,This distinction is bin accordance withthe statement bof Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish raises a contradictionbetween two verses: It bis writtenin one verse: b“In justice shall you judge your neighbor”(Leviticus 19:15), bandit bis writtenin another verse: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow”(Deuteronomy 16:21), with the repetition indicating that it is not enough to merely judge with justice. He continues: bHowcan bthesetexts be reconciled? bHere,this latter verse is stated bwith regard toa possibly bfraudulent trial,where the court must take extra care to judge with justice; and bthere,that former verse is stated bwith regard to a trial thatdoes bnotappear bfraudulent. /b, bRav Ashi says:The ruling of bthe mishna here,that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is bas we answered,i.e., in accordance with any one of the answers offered by the other iamora’im /i. And those bverseswere not stated with regard to fraudulent trials; rather, boneis stated bwith regard to judgment,in which the court must pursue justice extensively, band oneis stated bwith regard to compromise. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: When the verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow,” onemention of “justice” is stated bwith regard to judgment and oneis stated bwith regard to compromise. How so?Where there are btwo boats traveling on the river and they encounter each other, if both of themattempt to bpass, both of them sink,as the river is not wide enough for both to pass. If they pass bone after the other, both of them pass. And similarly,where there are btwo camels who were ascending the ascent of Beit Ḥoron,where there is a narrow steep path, band they encounter each other, if both of themattempt to bascend, both of them fall.If they ascend bone after the other, both of them ascend. /b, bHowdoes one decide which of them should go first? If there is one boat that is bladen andone boat bthat is not laden,the needs of the one bthat is not laden should be overridden due tothe needs of the one bthat is laden.If there is one boat that is bcloseto its destination bandone boat bthat is not closeto its destination, the needs of the one that is bclose should be overridden due tothe needs of the one bthat is not close.If bboth of them were closeto their destinations, or bboth of them were farfrom their destinations, bimpose a compromise between themto decide which goes first, bandthe owners of the boats bpay a fee to one other,i.e., the owners of the first boat compensate the owner of the boat that waits, for any loss incurred.,§ bThe Sages taught:The verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow.”This teaches that one should bfollow the best,most prestigious, bcourtof the generation. For example, follow bafter Rabbi Eliezer to Lod, after Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai to Beror Ḥayil. /b,The Sages btaught:When the gentile authorities issued decrees outlawing observance of the mitzvot, members of Jewish communities devised clandestine ways of indicating observance of mitzvot to each other. For example: If one produces bthe sound of a millstone inthe city called bBurni,this is tantamount to announcing: bWeek of the son, week of the son,i.e., there will be a circumcision. If one displays the blight of a lamp inthe city called bBeror Ḥayil,this is tantamount to announcing: There is a wedding bfeast there,there is a wedding bfeast there. /b, bThe Sages taught:The verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow.”This teaches that one should bfollow the Sages to the academywhere they are found. For example, follow bafter Rabbi Eliezer to Lod, after Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai to Beror Ḥayil, after Rabbi Yehoshua to Peki’in, after Rabban Gamliel to Yavne, after Rabbi Akiva to Bnei Brak, after Rabbi Matya to Rome [ iRomi /i], after Rabbi Ḥaya ben Teradyon to Sikhnei, after Rabbi Yosei to Tzippori, after Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira to Netzivin, after Rabbi Yehoshua to the exile [ igola /i],i.e., Babylonia, bafter RabbiYehuda HaNasi bto Beit She’arim,and bafter the Sagesin the time of the Temple bto the Chamber of Hewn Stone. /b,§ The mishna teaches that in cases of bmonetary law,the court bopensthe deliberations either with a claim to exempt the accused, or with a claim to find him liable. In cases of capital law, the court opens the deliberations with a claim to acquit the accused, but does not open the deliberations with a claim to find him liable. The Gemara asks: bHow do we saythis opening stage of the deliberations? In other words, with what claim does the court begin deliberating? bRav Yehuda said: We say this tothe witnesses: bWho saysthat the event occurred bas you said?Perhaps you erred?, bUlla said to him: Butby confronting the witnesses in this manner, bwe silence them.The witnesses will think that the court suspects them of lying, and they will not testify. Rav Yehuda said to him: bAnd let them be silenced. Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta9:1): bRabbi Shimon ben Eliezer says:In cases of capital law, the court bbrings the witnesses fromone bplace toanother bplace in order to confuse them so that they will retracttheir testimony if they are lying.,The Gemara rejects this argument: bArethe ihalakhot bcomparable? There,where Rabbi Shimon ben Eliezer says to bring the witnesses from place to place, the witnesses bare repressed by themselves,whereas bhere, we repress them bydirect baction,and that the court should not do., bRather, Ulla says: We say thisto the accused: bDo you have witnesses to determinethat the witnesses who testified against you are bconspiring witnesses? Rabba said to him: But do we openthe deliberations bwitha claim to bacquitthe accused bthat isto bthe liability of thisone, i.e., the witnesses? This claim can lead to the witnesses incurring liability for their testimony.,The Gemara questions Rabba’s assumption: bBut isthis to bthe liability ofthe witnesses? bBut didn’t we learnin a mishna ( iMakkot5b): bConspiring witnesses are not killedfor their testimony buntil the verdictof the one concerning whom they testified bis issued?Therefore, if they will be shown to be conspiring witnesses at this early stage of the proceedings, they will not be liable.,The Gemara restates Rabba’s objection: bThisis what bI say: Ifthe accused bwould be silent until his verdict is issued andthen bbrings witnesses andthe court bdetermines themto be bconspiringwitnesses, it will be found that the statement of the court bisto bthe liability of thisone, i.e., the witnesses. bRather, Rabba says: We say tothe accused: bDo you have witnesses to contradict them?If the first witnesses are contradicted as to the facts of the case, no one is liable., bRav Kahana said:We say to the witnesses: bBased on your statements, so-and-so is acquitted.The court issues a ipro formadeclaration that it is possible to find a reason to acquit based on the testimony of the witnesses, and then they begin the deliberations. bAbaye and Rava both say: We say tothe accused: For example, bif you did not killanyone, bdo not fearthe consequences of these proceedings, as you will be acquitted. bRav Ashi says:The court announces: bWhoever knowsof a reason bto acquitthe accused bshould come and teachthis reason bconcerning him. /b,The Gemara comments: bIt is taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe explanation bof Abaye and Rava. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays:The priest administering the isotarite to the isotasays to her: b“If no man has lain with you and if you have not gone astrayto impurity while under your husband, you shall be free from this water of bitterness that causes the curse. But if you have gone astray while under your husband…” (Numbers 5:19–20). The priest first states the scenario in which the woman is innocent of adultery.
94. Eusebius of Caesarea, De Laudibus Constantini, 11 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

95. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 7.15.4, 7.30.19, 10.4.14 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

7.15.4. When he came out from the tribunal, Theotecnus, the bishop there, took him aside and conversed with him, and taking his hand led him into the church. And standing with him within, in the sanctuary, he raised his cloak a little, and pointed to the sword that hung by his side; and at the same time he placed before him the Scripture of the divine Gospels, and told him to choose which of the two he wished. And without hesitation he reached forth his right hand, and took the divine Scripture. Hold fast then, says Theotecnus to him, hold fast to God, and strengthened by him may thou obtain what you have chosen, and go in peace. 7.30.19. But as Paul refused to surrender the church building, the Emperor Aurelian was petitioned; and he decided the matter most equitably, ordering the building to be given to those to whom the bishops of Italy and of the city of Rome should adjudge it. Thus this man was driven out of the church, with extreme disgrace, by the worldly power. 10.4.14. But when maligt envy and the evil-loving demon nearly burst with anger at such grace and kindness, and turned against us all his death-dealing forces, and when, at first, like a dog gone mad which gnashes his teeth at the stones thrown at him, and pours out his rage against his assailants upon the iimate missiles, he leveled his ferocious madness at the stones of the sanctuaries and at the lifeless material of the houses, and desolated the churches, — at least as he supposed — and then emitted terrible hissings and snake-like sounds, now by the threats of impious tyrants, and again by the blasphemous edicts of profane rulers, vomiting forth death, moreover, and infecting with his deleterious and soul-destroying poisons the souls captured by him, and almost slaying them by his death-fraught sacrifices of dead idols, and causing every beast in the form of man and every kind of savage to assault us — then, indeed, the 'Angel of the great Council,' the great Captain of God after the mightiest soldiers of his kingdom had displayed sufficient exercise through patience and endurance in everything, suddenly appeared anew, and blotted out and annihilated his enemies and foes, so that they seemed never to have had even a name.
96. Origen, Against Celsus, 7.44 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.44. Celsus supposes that we may arrive at a knowledge of God either by combining or separating certain things after the methods which mathematicians call synthesis and analysis, or again by analogy, which is employed by them also, and that in this way we may as it were gain admission to the chief good. But when the Word of God says, No man knows the Father but the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal Him, He declares that no one can know God but by the help of divine grace coming from above, with a certain divine inspiration. Indeed, it is reasonable to suppose that the knowledge of God is beyond the reach of human nature, and hence the many errors into which men have fallen in their views of God. It is, then, through the goodness and love of God to mankind, and by a marvellous exercise of divine grace to those whom He saw in His foreknowledge, and knew that they would walk worthy of Him who had made Himself known to them, and that they would never swerve from a faithful attachment to His service, although they were condemned to death or held up to ridicule by those who, in ignorance of what true religion is, give that name to what deserves to be called anything rather than religion. God doubtless saw the pride and arrogance of those who, with contempt for all others, boast of their knowledge of God, and of their profound acquaintance with divine things obtained from philosophy, but who still, not less even than the most ignorant, run after their images, and temples, and famous mysteries; and seeing this, He has chosen the foolish things of this world - the simplest of Christians, who lead, however, a life of greater moderation and purity than many philosophers- to confound the wise, who are not ashamed to address iimate things as gods or images of the gods. For what reasonable man can refrain from smiling when he sees that one who has learned from philosophy such profound and noble sentiments about God or the gods, turns straightway to images and offers to them his prayers, or imagines that by gazing upon these material things he can ascend from the visible symbol to that which is spiritual and immaterial. But a Christian, even of the common people, is assured that every place forms part of the universe, and that the whole universe is God's temple. In whatever part of the world he is, he prays; but he rises above the universe, shutting the eyes of sense, and raising upwards the eyes of the soul. And he stops not at the vault of heaven; but passing in thought beyond the heavens, under the guidance of the Spirit of God, and having thus as it had gone beyond the visible universe, he offers prayers to God. But he prays for no trivial blessings, for he has learned from Jesus to seek for nothing small or mean, that is, sensible objects, but to ask only for what is great and truly divine; and these things God grants to us, to lead us to that blessedness which is found only with Him through His Son, the Word, who is God.
97. Origen, On Prayer, 2.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

98. Anon., Apostolic Constitutions, 7.45 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

99. Augustine, On The Work of Monks, 28.36 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

100. Theodoret of Cyrus, Religious History, 4.6, 15.2, 21.8 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

101. Jerome, Letters, 58.7.2, 82.6.1, 125.7.1 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

102. Jerome, Letters, 58.7.2, 82.6.1, 125.7.1 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

103. Jerome, Letters, 58.7.2, 82.6.1, 125.7.1 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

104. Anon., Assumption of Moses, 11.17

105. Anon., 4 Baruch, 3.10

3.10. And the Lord said to him: Take them and consign them to the earth, saying: Hear, Earth, the voice of your creator who formed you in the abundance of waters, who sealed you with seven seals for seven epochs, and after this you will receive your ornaments (?) --
106. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 14.8

107. Julianus Pomerius, De Vita Contemplativa Libri Tres, 2.24.2



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(biblical) law, lawlessness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
acts, prayers in temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
adjudication, city-gate Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
agraphon Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 255
alexander jannaeus Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 56
alms(giving) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 262, 267, 293, 515, 516, 520
alms Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12, 13, 16, 122, 126, 136, 234
almsgiving, charity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116, 117, 120
ambrose of milan Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 58
amida (see also prayer) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 265
amidah Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 95, 244
amoraim, amoraic period Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 269
ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in matthew Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 273
antiochus iv epiphanes, persecutions Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
antitheses Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 122, 123
antithesis Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 189
apollo of bawit Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 189
apostolic fathers, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513
apostolic tradition, the Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 58
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 263
atonement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116, 117
augustine Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
authority of ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 520
babblers Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 244
bahr g.j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 179
bank (in synagogue) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
baptism, baptismal formula Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 241
baptism, johns Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 214
baptism Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 234, 235; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 241, 261; Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 142
beatitude, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123
beatitudes, two gospel versions Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 400
beatitudes Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283, 297; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 400
belief, believer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136, 277
belief and faith Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 296
bet hillel Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 56
bet midrash (rabbinic academy), torah study Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
bet shammai Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 56
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
birkat ha-minim Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 86; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 269
birkath ha-mazon Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
body Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
boundaries Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 93, 95
calendar (lunar, solar) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293, 523
christ Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 277
christianity (early) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 93
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 263
circumcision Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 132; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 212, 260, 261
city-gate, forerunner of synagogue, susannah (book) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
clement, second Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513
clement of alexandria Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 61
codex vaticanus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 247
community Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 296, 298; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135, 136, 255, 277
community prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 269, 292
confession Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
conflict Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29, 93
connection between deeds and consequences Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 126
constantine Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 61
conversion, process Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283, 297
conversion, psychological aspects Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283, 300
conversion, social/sociological aspects Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295
crates (pseudo-) Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 142
cult Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12, 13, 123
cyprian Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 58, 59, 61
cyril of jerusalem Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 58
daniel Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 212, 244
david/davidic king Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
david Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 102
day of judgement, last judgement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
death of jesus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
decision Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 298
decorations (in synagogue) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
dedication (hanukkah) Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 214
deficiency Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 300
devotional practices (graeco-roman) Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 244
diakonoi Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513
didache, and baptism Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 252
didache Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12, 13, 16, 235; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 86; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 95, 241, 244, 260, 261
didascalia apostolorum, christian gatherings in Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 277
disciple, of jesus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 244
disciples of jesus, following jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
disciples of jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12, 135
disputes, schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 269
divine Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295, 296, 297
doxology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 234, 235
earth Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 13, 255
easter Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
editing (process) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 267, 292, 520
egyptian literature Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 38
elders, at city-gate Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
eli (priest) Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 247
end of days/last days, eschaton Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
end of days tribulation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
ephesians, letter to the Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29
epictetus Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 244, 260, 261
epiphanius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 523
episcopoi Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513
eschatological prophet, non-eschatological Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
eschatological prophet, not yet eschatology Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
eschatology/eschatological Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 297
eschatology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123, 135
essenes Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 188
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292, 293, 520, 523
ethical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
ethics Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
eucharist, eucharist prayers Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260, 261
eucharist Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 61; Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 142
eusebius Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 61
evil Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295, 297, 299; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120; Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 142
exception clause Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292, 293
exclusive/exclusivity Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 298
excommunication Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293
faith, faithfulness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
faith Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 126; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
fast Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12, 13, 16, 126, 136, 234, 235; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 86
fast days Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 214
fasting Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 132; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116, 120; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 95, 241, 261; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 262, 267, 293, 516, 520, 523
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 325
feminism Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 325
flesh Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
food laws Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 132
forgiveness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
friday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293, 523
gamaliel (gamliel) the elder, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293
gamaliel (gamliel) the younger, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 269, 293
gender Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 516, 523
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 267, 293
gentiles, in christian discourse Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 132
gentiles/gentile Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38, 95, 260, 261
gentiles Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 244, 247
gnostic/gnosticism Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 298, 299
goal/telos of philosophical life Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 298, 299
god, kingdom of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 255
god as father Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 59, 61, 94, 212
golden rule Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123
gospel, of matthew Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 120, 122, 123, 126, 135, 136, 234, 235
gospel Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 86
grace Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 13
happiness Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283, 299
harmony Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 142
heaven Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12, 13, 234, 255
heavenly voice (at jesus baptism) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 212
hebrew language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 269
hebrews, letter to the Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
heinemann j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 179
high priest Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292, 293, 520
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 267, 292, 516, 523
holy spirit Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 241, 261
household/station codes (haustafeln) Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 142
hymn Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 277
hymnography, hymnograph Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 277
hymnology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 277
hypocrisy/hypocrites Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16, 234, 235
hypocrites Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 244, 247; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38, 58, 59, 95, 241, 244, 260, 261
hypocrites (pharisees) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 267, 293, 515, 516, 523
identity, christian identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 58
identity, identity marker Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
identity, jewish identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
identity, social identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29, 58, 93, 212, 241, 260, 261
ignatius Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 142
in-group Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29
incarnation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
integrity Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 220
israel/israelites Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 93, 212, 261
james, letter of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 100
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 262
jerusalem Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116, 117, 118, 120
jesus, historical Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 122
jesus, in matthew Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 293
jesus, intercessor/advocate Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
jesus, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
jesus, prayer and Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 293
jesus, prayer model Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
jesus Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 220; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116, 117, 118; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29, 95
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 516, 523
jew/s Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 212, 244, 260, 261
jewish, piety Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 247
jewish-christian tradition, custom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292, 293, 515, 523
jewish other, ritual Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117, 120
jewish prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 269
jewish prayers/ prayer-practice Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 95
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117, 118
jews Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 244
job, book of Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 220
john (the baptist) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 262, 523
john the baptist Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 293; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38, 212
judaism, rabbinic judaism/rabbinic literature Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
judaism Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 297; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 247; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 93, 94, 260, 261
judgement, final (endgericht) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
justice Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
justification Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283
kaddish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 118; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 95
kingdom of god/gods kingdom Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
kingdom of god/heaven, sons of the kingdom Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
kingdom of god/heaven Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283, 299
kingdom of god Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 220
kingdom of heaven Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292, 515
kyrios Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
law divine/mosaic/jewish Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295, 296, 299
lent Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
leviticus, study of Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
light Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 279
liturgical expressions/elements, luke, gospel of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 279
liturgy Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 244
lod, lydda Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
logion Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 126, 135
lord, the, lords prayer Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 244, 247
lords prayer, address of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 277
lords prayer, as community prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
lords prayer, function of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12
lords prayer, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 120, 122, 123, 126, 135, 136
lords prayer, practice of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16, 235
lords prayer, setting of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 255
lords prayer, structure of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 120, 122, 123, 126, 136
lords prayer, transmission of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 235
lords prayer Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 179, 214; Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 102; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116, 117, 118, 120; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38, 59, 93, 95, 212, 244, 260, 261; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 262, 263, 265, 267, 269, 292, 293, 516, 523
love, for humankind/neighbor Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300
love Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123, 135
luke, gospel of Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38
luke, using matthew Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 105
luke Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 244
macarism Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 297
matthaean church, community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293
matthew, distinctives of Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 97, 102, 103, 104, 105
matthew, five discourses Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 400
matthew, gospel of Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38, 93, 94, 95, 244
matthew, prayer Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41, 168
matthew, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
matthew Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 86
matthew (evangelist) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
meal, common Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
mercy Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 198
messiah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 267
metanoia/metanoeō Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283
metaphor Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 325
midrash, and synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
midrash, and targum Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
midrash, study of Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
migdal (magdala) synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
milan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
monday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 523
moral progress/transformation Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295
moses Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 38; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 520
mother, motherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 325
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 277, 293
need (material) Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295, 296
nepotian Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 189
new testament Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 220; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 244
ninth of ab Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 214
nonverbal aspects of prayer Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 58, 59, 61
obedience/disobedience Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 142
old testament Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 212, 261
opponents Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16
origen Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 255; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 265
orphism, our father Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 244
othering Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 235; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 95
others Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
out-group Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 29
palestine Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 247
parable Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
parents Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 325
passion, narrative Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 277
passion Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 277
patriarchs Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 38
patristic tradition Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 277
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293, 520, 523
people of god Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
perfection Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295, 298
petitions of the lords prayer, sixth Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 277
petitions of the lords prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
pharisaic tradition/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292, 293
pharisaism Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 247
pharisee, teaching of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12
pharisees, proto-pharisees Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 214
pharisees, torah-sages, pharisaic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 118
pharisees Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 189; Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 86
philosophy, philosophical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 297
piety, deeds of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 116, 117, 120
piety, trilogy of pious actions →alms, fast, prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12, 13, 16, 126, 136
piety Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 12, 13, 126, 135, 136
piety / pious Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 244, 247
pliny the younger Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41
polemic Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16
polycarp Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 142
poor Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 283
porneia (zenut, unchastity) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 520
prayer, communal, public Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
prayer, communal vs. individual Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 41, 168
prayer, effect of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 13
prayer, instructions about Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 255
prayer, of an individual Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 277
prayer, practice of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
prayer, pre- Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 168
prayer, teaching of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 255
prayer/praying, direction Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 58
prayer/praying, inner room (ταμεῖον) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 58, 59