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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8258
New Testament, Matthew, 6.14


Ἐὰν γὰρ ἀφῆτε τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τὰ παραπτώματα αὐτῶν, ἀφήσει καὶ ὑμῖν ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος·For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

56 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.11, 4.7-4.11, 12.8-12.10 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. 4.9. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 4.11. and for all who practice it charity is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 15.2, 32.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.2. לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תֹאכֲלֶנּוּ שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה אַתָּה וּבֵיתֶךָ׃ 15.2. וְזֶה דְּבַר הַשְּׁמִטָּה שָׁמוֹט כָּל־בַּעַל מַשֵּׁה יָדוֹ אֲשֶׁר יַשֶּׁה בְּרֵעֵהוּ לֹא־יִגֹּשׂ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאֶת־אָחִיו כִּי־קָרָא שְׁמִטָּה לַיהוָה׃ 32.6. הֲ־לַיְהוָה תִּגְמְלוּ־זֹאת עַם נָבָל וְלֹא חָכָם הֲלוֹא־הוּא אָבִיךָ קָּנֶךָ הוּא עָשְׂךָ וַיְכֹנְנֶךָ׃ 15.2. And this is the manner of the release: every creditor shall release that which he hath lent unto his neighbour; he shall not exact it of his neighbour and his brother; because the LORD’S release hath been proclaimed." 32.6. Do ye thus requite the LORD, O foolish people and unwise? Is not He thy father that hath gotten thee? Hath He not made thee, and established thee?"
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 4.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.16. לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל־תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים לַיְלָה וָיוֹם גַּם־אֲנִי וְנַעֲרֹתַי אָצוּם כֵּן וּבְכֵן אָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־כַדָּת וְכַאֲשֶׁר אָבַדְתִּי אָבָדְתִּי׃ 4.16. ’Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day; I also and my maidens will fast in like manner; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.14, 32.32, 33.20, 34.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 32.32. וְעַתָּה אִם־תִּשָּׂא חַטָּאתָם וְאִם־אַיִן מְחֵנִי נָא מִסִּפְרְךָ אֲשֶׁר כָּתָבְתָּ׃ 34.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֲדֹנָי יֵלֶךְ־נָא אֲדֹנָי בְּקִרְבֵּנוּ כִּי עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹרֶף הוּא וְסָלַחְתָּ לַעֲוֺנֵנוּ וּלְחַטָּאתֵנוּ וּנְחַלְתָּנוּ׃ 3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’" 32.32. Yet now, if Thou wilt forgive their sin—; and if not, blot me, I pray Thee, out of Thy book which Thou hast written.’" 33.20. And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’" 34.9. And he said: ‘If now I have found grace in Thy sight, O Lord, let the Lord, I pray Thee, go in the midst of us; for it is a stiffnecked people; and pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us for Thine inheritance.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.27, 5.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 5.1. זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֹתוֹ׃ 5.1. וַיְחִי אֱנוֹשׁ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־קֵינָן חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 5.1. This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.2, 19.18-19.19, 20.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדֹשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְהִוא שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדָּתָה אוֹ חֻפְשָׁה לֹא נִתַּן־לָהּ בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי־לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 20.26. וִהְיִיתֶם לִי קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה וָאַבְדִּל אֶתְכֶם מִן־הָעַמִּים לִהְיוֹת לִי׃ 19.2. Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them: Ye shall be holy; for I the LORD your God am holy." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together." 20.26. And ye shall be holy unto Me; for I the LORD am holy, and have set you apart from the peoples, that ye should be Mine."
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.23-1.24, 4.4, 4.10, 4.20, 5.1, 5.7, 7.1-7.2, 9.1, 22.17, 24.23, 30.1, 31.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.23. תָּשׁוּבוּ לְתוֹכַחְתִּי הִנֵּה אַבִּיעָה לָכֶם רוּחִי אוֹדִיעָה דְבָרַי אֶתְכֶם׃ 1.24. יַעַן קָרָאתִי וַתְּמָאֵנוּ נָטִיתִי יָדִי וְאֵין מַקְשִׁיב׃ 4.4. וַיֹּרֵנִי וַיֹּאמֶר לִי יִתְמָךְ־דְּבָרַי לִבֶּךָ שְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתַי וֶחְיֵה׃ 5.1. בְּנִי לְחָכְמָתִי הַקְשִׁיבָה לִתְבוּנָתִי הַט־אָזְנֶךָ׃ 5.1. פֶּן־יִשְׂבְּעוּ זָרִים כֹּחֶךָ וַעֲצָבֶיךָ בְּבֵית נָכְרִי׃ 5.7. וְעַתָּה בָנִים שִׁמְעוּ־לִי וְאַל־תָּסוּרוּ מֵאִמְרֵי־פִי׃ 7.1. וְהִנֵּה אִשָּׁה לִקְרָאתוֹ שִׁית זוֹנָה וּנְצֻרַת לֵב׃ 7.1. בְּנִי שְׁמֹר אֲמָרָי וּמִצְוֺתַי תִּצְפֹּן אִתָּךְ׃ 7.2. שְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתַי וֶחְיֵה וְתוֹרָתִי כְּאִישׁוֹן עֵינֶיךָ׃ 7.2. צְרוֹר־הַכֶּסֶף לָקַח בְּיָדוֹ לְיוֹם הַכֵּסֶא יָבֹא בֵיתוֹ׃ 9.1. חָכְמוֹת בָּנְתָה בֵיתָהּ חָצְבָה עַמּוּדֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה׃ 9.1. תְּחִלַּת חָכְמָה יִרְאַת יְהוָה וְדַעַת קְדֹשִׁים בִּינָה׃ 22.17. הַט אָזְנְךָ וּשְׁמַע דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים וְלִבְּךָ תָּשִׁית לְדַעְתִּי׃ 24.23. גַּם־אֵלֶּה לַחֲכָמִים הַכֵּר־פָּנִים בְּמִשְׁפָּט בַּל־טוֹב׃ 30.1. דִּבְרֵי אָגוּר בִּן־יָקֶה הַמַּשָּׂא נְאֻם הַגֶּבֶר לְאִיתִיאֵל לְאִיתִיאֵל וְאֻכָל׃ 30.1. אַל־תַּלְשֵׁן עֶבֶד אֶל־אדנו [אֲדֹנָיו] פֶּן־יְקַלֶּלְךָ וְאָשָׁמְתָּ׃ 31.1. דִּבְרֵי לְמוּאֵל מֶלֶךְ מַשָּׂא אֲ‍שֶׁר־יִסְּרַתּוּ אִמּוֹ׃ 31.1. אֵשֶׁת־חַיִל מִי יִמְצָא וְרָחֹק מִפְּנִינִים מִכְרָהּ׃ 1.23. Turn you at my reproof; behold, I will pour out my spirit unto you, I will make known my words unto you." 1.24. Because I have called, and ye refused, I have stretched out my hand, and no man attended," 4.4. And he taught me, and said unto me: ‘Let thy heart hold fast my words, Keep my commandments, and live;" 4.10. Hear, O my son, and receive my sayings; And the years of thy life shall be many." 4.20. My son, attend to my words; Incline thine ear unto my sayings." 5.1. My son, attend unto my wisdom; Incline thine ear to my understanding;" 5.7. Now therefore, O ye children, hearken unto me, And depart not from the words of my mouth." 7.1. My son, keep my words, And lay up my commandments with thee." 7.2. Keep my commandments and live, And my teaching as the apple of thine eye." 9.1. Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars;" 22.17. Incline thine ear, and hear the words of the wise, And apply thy heart unto my knowledge." 24.23. These also are sayings of the wise. To have respect of persons in judgment is not good." 30.1. The words of Agur the son of Jakeh; the burden. The man saith unto Ithiel, unto Ithiel and Ucal:" 31.1. The words of king Lemuel; the burden wherewith his mother corrected him."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 37.11, 68.6, 103.3, 103.6, 103.12, 103.17-103.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

37.11. וַעֲנָוִים יִירְשׁוּ־אָרֶץ וְהִתְעַנְּגוּ עַל־רֹב שָׁלוֹם׃ 68.6. אֲבִי יְתוֹמִים וְדַיַּן אַלְמָנוֹת אֱלֹהִים בִּמְעוֹן קָדְשׁוֹ׃ 103.3. הַסֹּלֵחַ לְכָל־עֲוֺנֵכִי הָרֹפֵא לְכָל־תַּחֲלֻאָיְכִי׃ 103.6. עֹשֵׂה צְדָקוֹת יְהוָה וּמִשְׁפָּטִים לְכָל־עֲשׁוּקִים׃ 103.12. כִּרְחֹק מִזְרָח מִמַּעֲרָב הִרְחִיק מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־פְּשָׁעֵינוּ׃ 103.17. וְחֶסֶד יְהוָה מֵעוֹלָם וְעַד־עוֹלָם עַל־יְרֵאָיו וְצִדְקָתוֹ לִבְנֵי בָנִים׃ 103.18. לְשֹׁמְרֵי בְרִיתוֹ וּלְזֹכְרֵי פִקֻּדָיו לַעֲשׂוֹתָם׃ 37.11. But the humble shall inherit the land, and delight themselves in the abundance of peace." 68.6. A father of the fatherless, and a judge of the widows, Is God in His holy habitation." 103.3. Who forgiveth all thine iniquity; Who healeth all Thy diseases;" 103.6. The LORD executeth righteousness, And acts of justice for all that are oppressed." 103.12. As far as the east is from the west, So far hath He removed our transgressions from us." 103.17. But the mercy of the LORD is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear Him, And His righteousness unto children's children;" 103.18. To such as keep His covet, And to those that remember His precepts to do them."
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 1.12, 7.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.12. וַיִּסְפְּדוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיָּצֻמוּ עַד־הָעָרֶב עַל־שָׁאוּל וְעַל־יְהוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ וְעַל־עַם יְהוָה וְעַל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי נָפְלוּ בֶּחָרֶב׃ 7.14. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 1.12. and they mourned, and wept, and fasted until evening, for Sha᾽ul, and for Yehonatan his son, and for the people of the Lord, and for the house of Yisra᾽el; because they were fallen by the sword." 7.14. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:"
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.15, 1.20, 6.1, 63.15-63.16, 64.7, 65.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.15. וּבְפָרִשְׂכֶם כַּפֵּיכֶם אַעְלִים עֵינַי מִכֶּם גַּם כִּי־תַרְבּוּ תְפִלָּה אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ יְדֵיכֶם דָּמִים מָלֵאוּ׃ 6.1. בִּשְׁנַת־מוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ עֻזִּיָּהוּ וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־אֲדֹנָי יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא רָם וְנִשָּׂא וְשׁוּלָיו מְלֵאִים אֶת־הַהֵיכָל׃ 6.1. הַשְׁמֵן לֵב־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאָזְנָיו הַכְבֵּד וְעֵינָיו הָשַׁע פֶּן־יִרְאֶה בְעֵינָיו וּבְאָזְנָיו יִשְׁמָע וּלְבָבוֹ יָבִין וָשָׁב וְרָפָא לוֹ׃ 63.15. הַבֵּט מִשָּׁמַיִם וּרְאֵה מִזְּבֻל קָדְשְׁךָ וְתִפְאַרְתֶּךָ אַיֵּה קִנְאָתְךָ וּגְבוּרֹתֶךָ הֲמוֹן מֵעֶיךָ וְרַחֲמֶיךָ אֵלַי הִתְאַפָּקוּ׃ 63.16. כִּי־אַתָּה אָבִינוּ כִּי אַבְרָהָם לֹא יְדָעָנוּ וְיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יַכִּירָנוּ אַתָּה יְהוָה אָבִינוּ גֹּאֲלֵנוּ מֵעוֹלָם שְׁמֶךָ׃ 64.7. וְעַתָּה יְהוָה אָבִינוּ אָתָּה אֲנַחְנוּ הַחֹמֶר וְאַתָּה יֹצְרֵנוּ וּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדְךָ כֻּלָּנוּ׃ 65.24. וְהָיָה טֶרֶם־יִקְרָאוּ וַאֲנִי אֶעֱנֶה עוֹד הֵם מְדַבְּרִים וַאֲנִי אֶשְׁמָע׃ 1.15. And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide Mine eyes from you; Yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear; Your hands are full of blood." 1.20. But if ye refuse and rebel, Ye shall be devoured with the sword; For the mouth of the LORD hath spoken." 6.1. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple." 63.15. Look down from heaven, and see, even from Thy holy and glorious habitation; Where is Thy zeal and Thy mighty acts, The yearning of Thy heart and Thy compassions, Now restrained toward me?" 63.16. For Thou art our Father; for Abraham knoweth us not, and Israel doth not acknowledge us; Thou, O LORD, art our Father, Our Redeemer from everlasting is Thy name." 64.7. But now, O LORD, Thou art our Father; we are the clay, and Thou our potter, and we all are the work of Thy hand." 65.24. And it shall come to pass that, before they call, I will answer, And while they are yet speaking, I will hear."
12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 3.3, 3.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.3. וַיִּמָּנְעוּ רְבִבִים וּמַלְקוֹשׁ לוֹא הָיָה וּמֵצַח אִשָּׁה זוֹנָה הָיָה לָךְ מֵאַנְתְּ הִכָּלֵם׃ 3.19. וְאָנֹכִי אָמַרְתִּי אֵיךְ אֲשִׁיתֵךְ בַּבָּנִים וְאֶתֶּן־לָךְ אֶרֶץ חֶמְדָּה נַחֲלַת צְבִי צִבְאוֹת גּוֹיִם וָאֹמַר אָבִי תקראו־[תִּקְרְאִי־] לִי וּמֵאַחֲרַי לֹא תשובו [תָשׁוּבִי׃] 3.3. Therefore the showers have been withheld, and there hath been no latter rain; yet thou hadst a harlot’s forehead, thou refusedst to be ashamed." 3.19. But I said: ‘How would I put thee among the sons, And give thee a pleasant land, The goodliest heritage of the nations! ’ And I said: ‘Thou shalt call Me, My father; And shalt not turn away from following Me.’"
13. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 20.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

20.26. וַיַּעֲלוּ כָל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכָל־הָעָם וַיָּבֹאוּ בֵית־אֵל וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיָּצוּמוּ בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא עַד־הָעָרֶב וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלוֹת וּשְׁלָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 20.26. Then all the children of Yisra᾽el, and all the people, went up, and came to the house of God, and wept, and sat there before the Lord, and fasted that day until evening, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the Lord."
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 17.13, 22.10 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.13. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־אָסִיר מֵעִמּוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר הֲסִירוֹתִי מֵאֲשֶׁר הָיָה לְפָנֶיךָ׃ 17.13. I will be to him for a father, and he shall be to Me for a son; and I will not take My mercy away from him, as I took it from him that was before thee;" 22.10. He shall build a house for My name; and he shall be to Me for a son, and I will be to him for a father; and I will establish the throne of his kingdom over Israel for ever."
15. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 5.1 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.1. בִּרְבוֹת הַטּוֹבָה רַבּוּ אוֹכְלֶיהָ וּמַה־כִּשְׁרוֹן לִבְעָלֶיהָ כִּי אִם־ראית [רְאוּת] עֵינָיו׃ 5.1. אַל־תְּבַהֵל עַל־פִּיךָ וְלִבְּךָ אַל־יְמַהֵר לְהוֹצִיא דָבָר לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי הָאֱלֹהִים בַּשָּׁמַיִם וְאַתָּה עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־כֵּן יִהְיוּ דְבָרֶיךָ מְעַטִּים׃ 5.1. Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thy heart be hasty to utter a word before God; for God is in heaven, and thou upon earth; therefore let thy words be few."
16. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

23c. on account of my service to the god.And in addition to these things, the young men who have the most leisure, the sons of the richest men, accompany me of their own accord, find pleasure in hearing people being examined, and often imitate me themselves, and then they undertake to examine others; and then, I fancy, they find a great plenty of people who think they know something, but know little or nothing. As a result, therefore, those who are examined by them are angry with me, instead of being angry with themselves, and say that Socrates is a most abominable person
17. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

715e. when he is young, but at its keenest when he is old. Clin. Very true. Ath. What, then, is to be our next step? May we not assume that our immigrants have arrived and are in the country, and should we not proceed with our address to them? Clin. of course. Ath. Let us, then, speak to them thus:— O men, that God who, as old tradition tells, holdeth the beginning, the end, and the center of all things that exist
18. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

278e. adding this phrase and taking that away, will you not properly address him as poet or writer of speeches or of laws? Phaedrus. Certainly. Socrates. Tell this then to your friend. Phaedrus. But what will you do? For your friend ought not to be passed by. Socrates. What friend? Phaedrus. The fair Isocrates. What message will you give him? What shall we say that he is? Socrates. Isocrates is young yet, Phaedrus;
19. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

20. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

21. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.11, 4.7-4.11, 12.8-12.10 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. 4.9. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 4.11. and for all who practice it charity is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives.
22. Anon., Testament of Gad, 6.1-6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. AND now, my children, I exhort you, love ye each one his brother, and put away hatred from your hearts, love one another in deed, and in word, and in the inclination of the soul. 6.2. For in the presence of my father I spake peaceably to Joseph; and when I had gone out, the spirit of hatred darkened my mind, and stirred up my soul to slay him. 6.3. Love ye one another from the heart; and if a man sin against thee, speak peaceably to him, and in thy soul hold not guile; and if he repent and confess, forgive him. 6.4. But if he deny it, do not get into a passion with him, lest catching the poison from thee he take to swearing and so thou sin doubly. 6.5. Let not another man hear thy secrets when engaged in legal strife, lest he come to hate thee and become thy enemy, and commit a great sin against thee; for ofttimes he addresseth thee guilefully or busieth himself about thee with wicked intent. 6.6. And though he deny it and yet have a sense of shame when reproved, give over reproving him. For be who denieth may repent so as not again to wrong thee; yea, he may also honour thee, and fear and be at peace with thee. 6.7. And if he be shameless and persist in his wrong-doing, even so forgive him from the heart, and leave to God the avenging.
23. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 18.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

18.2. And if any one seeketh to do evil unto you, do well unto him, and pray for him, and ye shall be redeemed of the Lord from all evil.
24. Anon., Testament of Zebulun, 8.1-8.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 2.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.26. interea, unde isti versus? non enim adgnosco. adgnosco KR 1 (d exp. 2 ) V 1 (d eras. ) a n. G 1 Dicam hercle; etenim recte requiris. videsne abundare me otio? Quid tum? Fuisti saepe, credo, cum Athenis esses, in scholis philosophorum. Vero, ante vero V rec ac libenter quidem. Animadvertebas igitur, etsi tum nemo erat admodum copiosus, verum tamen versus ab is admisceri orationi. Ac ac hac G dyonisio X multos quidem a Dionysio Stoico. Probe dicis. sed is quasi dictata, nullo dilectu, nulla elegantia: delectu K nulla elegantia a e in r. V c eligantia KR c Philo et †proprium nrt sic G et proprium nr t V ( exp. 1 ) et proprium noster R etpũ nr K ( add. 1 au 2, propriŭ ss. 2 ) et proprio numero Sey. et pro nuntiabat numero ( cf. div. 2, 117 ) Po. et lecta poëmata et loco adiungebat. itaque postquam adamavi hanc quasi senilem declamationem, studiose equidem utor nostris poëtis; sed sicubi illi defecerunt—verti enim enim exp. V vet etlam Ha. multa de Graecis, ne quo ornamento in hoc genere disputationis careret Latina oratio. Sed videsne, poëtae quid mali adferant?
26. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 11.17-11.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 11.17-11.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Dead Sea Scrolls, Ben Sira, 31.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 9.3-9.6, 10.5-10.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.20. Daniel spoke and said: Blessed be the name of God From everlasting even unto everlasting; For wisdom and might are His;"
31. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 3.19, 3.50, 3.60 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.19. It is not on the size of the army that victory in battle depends, but strength comes from Heaven. 3.50. and they cried aloud to Heaven, saying, "What shall we do with these?Where shall we take them? 3.60. But as his will in heaven may be, so he will do.
32. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.28, 3.30, 7.14, 8.5, 12.12, 28.2, 29.9-29.13, 31.22, 35.1-35.7, 37.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.28. Do not disobey the fear of the Lord;do not approach him with a divided mind. 7.14. Do not prattle in the assembly of the elders,nor repeat yourself in your prayer. 8.5. Do not reproach a man who is turning away from sin;remember that we all deserve punishment. 12.12. Do not put him next to you,lest he overthrow you and take your place;do not have him sit at your right,lest he try to take your seat of honor,and at last you will realize the truth of my words,and be stung by what I have said. 28.2. Forgive your neighbor the wrong he has done,and then your sins will be pardoned when you pray. 28.2. for its yoke is a yoke of iron,and its fetters are fetters of bronze; 29.9. Help a poor man for the commandments sake,and because of his need do not send him away empty. 29.11. Lay up your treasure according to the commandments of the Most High,and it will profit you more than gold. 29.12. Store up almsgiving in your treasury,and it will rescue you from all affliction; 29.13. more than a mighty shield and more than a heavy spear,it will fight on your behalf against your enemy. 31.22. Listen to me, my son, and do not disregard me,and in the end you will appreciate my words. In all your work be industrious,and no sickness will overtake you. 35.1. He who keeps the law makes many offerings;he who heeds the commandments sacrifices a peace offering. 35.1. Give to the Most High as he has given,and as generously as your hand has found. 35.2. He who returns a kindness offers fine flour,and he who gives alms sacrifices a thank offering. 35.2. Mercy is as welcome when he afflicts them as clouds of rain in the time of drought. 35.3. To keep from wickedness is pleasing to the Lord,and to forsake unrighteousness is atonement. 35.4. Do not appear before the Lord empty-handed 35.5. for all these things are to be done because of the commandment. 35.6. The offering of a righteous man anoints the altar,and its pleasing odor rises before the Most High. 35.7. The sacrifice of a righteous man is acceptable,and the memory of it will not be forgotten. 37.18. four turns of fortune appear,good and evil, life and death;and it is the tongue that continually rules them.
33. Anon., Didache, 1.5, 3.7, 6.2, 6.3, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 9.1-10.7, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 15.3, 15.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Mishnah, Avot, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Shimon the Righteous was one of the last of the men of the great assembly. He used to say: the world stands upon three things: the Torah, the Temple service, and the practice of acts of piety."
35. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.9. One who says: I shall sin and repent, sin and repent, they do not afford him the opportunity to repent. [If one says]: I shall sin and Yom HaKippurim will atone for me, Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement. For transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow. This was expounded by Rabbi Elazar b. Azariah: “From all your sins before the Lord you shall be clean” (Leviticus 16:30) for transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow.. Rabbi Akiva said: Happy are you, Israel! Who is it before whom you become pure? And who is it that purifies you? Your Father who is in heaven, as it is said: “And I will sprinkle clean water upon you and you shall be clean” (Ezekiel 36:25). And it further says: “O hope (mikveh) of Israel, O Lord” (Jeremiah 17:1--just as a mikveh purifies the unclean, so too does he Holy One, blessed be He, purify Israel."
36. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.6. There were two chambers in the Temple, one the chamber of secret gifts and the other the chamber of the vessels. The chamber of secret gifts: sin-fearing persons used to put their gifts there in secret, and the poor who were descended of the virtuous were secretly supported from them. The chamber of the vessels: whoever offered a vessel as a gift would throw it in, and once in thirty days the treasurers opened it; and any vessel they found in it that was of use for the repair of the temple they left there, but the others were sold and their price went to the chamber of the repair of the temple."
37. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.5-1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. who by the power of God are guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. 1.6. Wherein you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while, if need be, you have been put to grief in various trials 1.7. that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ -- 1.8. whom not having known you love; in whom, though now you don't see him, yet believing, you rejoice greatly with joy unspeakable and full of glory -- 1.9. receiving the result of your faith, the salvation of your souls. 1.10. Concerning this salvation, the prophets sought and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that would come to you 1.11. searching for who or what kind of time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, pointed to, when he predicted the sufferings of Christ, and the glories that would follow them. 1.12. To them it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to you, did they minister these things, which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent out from heaven; which things angels desire to look into.
38. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 3.10-3.15, 13.9-13.10, 15.50 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. According to the grace of Godwhich was given to me, as a wise master builder I laid a foundation,and another builds on it. But let each man be careful how he builds onit. 3.11. For no one can lay any other foundation than that which hasbeen laid, which is Jesus Christ. 3.12. But if anyone builds on thefoundation with gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay, or stubble; 3.13. each man's work will be revealed. For the Day will declare it,because it is revealed in fire; and the fire itself will test what sortof work each man's work is. 3.14. If any man's work remains which hebuilt on it, he will receive a reward. 3.15. If any man's work isburned, he will suffer loss, but he himself will be saved, but asthrough fire. 13.9. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part; 13.10. but when thatwhich is complete has come, then that which is partial will be doneaway with. 15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption.
39. New Testament, Acts, 9.28, 15.29 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.28. He was with them going in and going out at Jerusalem 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell.
40. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.4, 1.8, 4.2, 5.1, 5.7, 5.13, 6.16, 7.10, 7.15, 11.16, 19.4, 21.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. John, to the seven assemblies that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from God, who is and who was and who is to come; and from the seven Spirits who are before his throne; 1.8. I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, "who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty. 4.2. Immediately I was in the Spirit. Behold, there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting on the throne 5.1. I saw, in the right hand of him who sat on the throne, a book written inside and outside, sealed shut with seven seals. 5.7. Then he came, and he took it out of the right hand of him who sat on the throne. 5.13. I heard every created thing which is in heaven, on the earth, under the earth, on the sea, and everything in them, saying, "To him who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb be the blessing, the honor, the glory, and the dominion, forever and ever! Amen. 6.16. They told the mountains and the rocks, "Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him who sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb 7.10. They cried with a loud voice, saying, "Salvation be to our God, who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb! 7.15. Therefore they are before the throne of God, they serve him day and night in his temple. He who sits on the throne will spread his tent over them. 11.16. The twenty-four elders, who sit before God's throne on their thrones, fell on their faces and worshiped God 19.4. The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God who sits on the throne, saying, "Amen! Hallelujah! 21.5. He who sits on the throne said, "Behold, I am making all things new." He said, "Write, for these words of God are faithful and true.
41. New Testament, James, 2.13-2.16, 3.13, 3.17-3.18, 4.6, 5.9, 5.12, 5.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. For judgment is without mercy to him who has shown no mercy. Mercy triumphs over judgment. 2.14. What good is it, my brothers, if a man says he has faith, but has no works? Can that faith save him? 2.15. And if a brother or sister is naked and in lack of daily food 2.16. and one of you tells them, "Go in peace, be warmed and filled;" and yet you didn't give them the things the body needs, what good is it? 3.13. Who is wise and understanding among you? Let him show by his good conduct that his deeds are done in gentleness of wisdom. 3.17. But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceful, gentle, reasonable, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy. 3.18. Now the fruit of righteousness is sown in peace by those who make peace. 4.6. But he gives more grace. Therefore it says, "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble. 5.9. Don't grumble, brothers, against one another, so that you won't be judged. Behold, the judge stands at the door. 5.12. But above all things, my brothers, don't swear, neither by heaven, nor by the earth, nor by any other oath; but let your "yes" be "yes," and your "no," "no;" so that you don't fall into hypocrisy. 5.15. and the prayer of faith will heal him who is sick, and the Lord will raise him up. If he has committed sins, he will be forgiven.
42. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.3-1.14, 4.1-4.16, 4.25-4.30, 6.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.11. in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his will; 1.12. to the end that we should be to the praise of his glory, we who had before hoped in Christ: 1.13. in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, -- in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise 1.14. who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. 4.1. I therefore, the prisoner in the Lord, beg you to walk worthily of the calling with which you were called 4.2. with all lowliness and humility, with longsuffering, bearing with one another in love; 4.3. being eager to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. 4.4. There is one body, and one Spirit, even as you also were called in one hope of your calling; 4.5. one Lord, one faith, one baptism 4.6. one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in us all. 4.7. But to each one of us was the grace given according to the measure of the gift of Christ. 4.8. Therefore he says, "When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men. 4.9. Now this, "He ascended," what is it but that he also first descended into the lower parts of the earth? 4.10. He who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things. 4.11. He gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, shepherds and teachers; 4.12. for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ; 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; 4.14. that we may no longer be children, tossed back and forth and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in craftiness, after the wiles of error; 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.16. from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love. 4.25. Therefore, putting away falsehood, speak truth each one with his neighbor. For we are members one of another. 4.26. Be angry, and don't sin." Don't let the sun go down on your wrath 4.27. neither give place to the devil. 4.28. Let him who stole steal no more; but rather let him labor, working with his hands the thing that is good, that he may have something to give to him who has need. 4.29. Let no corrupt speech proceed out of your mouth, but such as is good for building up as the need may be, that it may give grace to those who hear. 4.30. Don't grieve the Holy Spirit of God, in whom you were sealed for the day of redemption. 6.9. You masters, do the same things to them, and give up threatening, knowing that he who is both their Master and yours is in heaven, and there is no partiality with him.
43. New Testament, Philippians, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.15. You yourselves also know, you Philippians, that in the beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no assembly had fellowship with me in the matter of giving and receiving but you only.
44. New Testament, Romans, 2.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God.
45. New Testament, John, 2.16, 3.35, 4.21, 4.23, 5.17-5.23, 5.26, 5.43, 6.32, 6.38, 6.40-6.42, 6.44-6.46, 6.50-6.51, 6.58, 8.19, 8.49, 9.22, 10.25, 10.29-10.30, 10.38, 11.41-11.42, 12.27, 12.42, 14.6-14.13, 15.1, 15.8, 16.23-16.28, 17.1, 17.5, 17.11, 17.15, 17.21, 17.24-17.25, 18.3, 20.17, 20.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. To those who sold the doves, he said, "Take these things out of here! Don't make my Father's house a marketplace! 3.35. The Father loves the Son, and has given all things into his hand. 4.21. Jesus said to her, "Woman, believe me, the hour comes, when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, will you worship the Father. 4.23. But the hour comes, and now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks such to be his worshippers. 5.17. But Jesus answered them, "My Father is still working, so I am working, too. 5.18. For this cause therefore the Jews sought all the more to kill him, because he not only broke the Sabbath, but also called God his own Father, making himself equal with God. 5.19. Jesus therefore answered them, "Most assuredly, I tell you, the Son can do nothing of himself, but what he sees the Father doing. For whatever things he does, these the Son also does likewise. 5.20. For the Father has affection for the Son, and shows him all things that he himself does. He will show him greater works than these, that you may marvel. 5.21. For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son also gives life to whom he desires. 5.22. For the Father judges no one, but he has given all judgment to the Son 5.23. that all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. He who doesn't honor the Son doesn't honor the Father who sent him. 5.26. For as the Father has life in himself, even so he gave to the Son also to have life in himself. 5.43. I have come in my Father's name, and you don't receive me. If another comes in his own name, you will receive him. 6.32. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly, I tell you, it wasn't Moses who gave you the bread out of heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread out of heaven. 6.38. For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him who sent me. 6.40. This is the will of the one who sent me, that everyone who sees the Son, and believes in him, should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day. 6.41. The Jews therefore murmured concerning him, because he said, "I am the bread which came down out of heaven. 6.42. They said, "Isn't this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How then does he say, 'I have come down out of heaven?' 6.44. No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up in the last day. 6.45. It is written in the prophets, 'They will all be taught by God.' Therefore everyone who hears from the Father, and has learned, comes to me. 6.46. Not that anyone has seen the Father, except he who is from God. He has seen the Father. 6.50. This is the bread which comes down out of heaven, that anyone may eat of it and not die. 6.51. I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh. 6.58. This is the bread which came down out of heaven -- not as our fathers ate the manna, and died. He who eats this bread will live forever. 8.19. They said therefore to him, "Where is your Father?"Jesus answered, "You know neither me, nor my Father. If you knew me, you would know my Father also. 8.49. Jesus answered, "I don't have a demon, but I honor my Father, and you dishonor me. 9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 10.25. Jesus answered them, "I told you, and you don't believe. The works that I do in my Father's name, these testify about me. 10.29. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all. No one is able to snatch them out of my Father's hand. 10.30. I and the Father are one. 10.38. But if I do them, though you don't believe me, believe the works; that you may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in the Father. 11.41. So they took away the stone from the place where the dead man was lying. Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, "Father, I thank you that you listened to me. 11.42. I know that you always listen to me, but because of the multitude that stands around I said this, that they may believe that you sent me. 12.27. Now my soul is troubled. What shall I say? 'Father, save me from this time?' But for this cause I came to this time. 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue 14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 14.7. If you had known me, you would have known my Father also. From now on, you know him, and have seen him. 14.8. Philip said to him, "Lord, show us the Father, and that will be enough for us. 14.9. Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, 'Show us the Father?' 14.10. Don't you believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I tell you, I speak not from myself; but the Father who lives in me does his works. 14.11. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me; or else believe me for the very works' sake. 14.12. Most assuredly I tell you, he who believes in me, the works that I do, he will do also; and greater works than these will he do; because I am going to my Father. 14.13. Whatever you will ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. 15.1. I am the true vine, and my Father is the farmer. 15.8. In this is my Father glorified, that you bear much fruit; and so you will be my disciples. 16.23. In that day you will ask me no questions. Most assuredly I tell you, whatever you may ask of the Father in my name, he will give it to you. 16.24. Until now, you have asked nothing in my name. Ask, and you will receive, that your joy may be made full. 16.25. I have spoken these things to you in figures of speech. But the time is coming when I will no more speak to you in figures of speech, but will tell you plainly about the Father. 16.26. In that day you will ask in my name; and I don't say to you, that I will pray to the Father for you 16.27. for the Father himself loves you, because you have loved me, and have believed that I came forth from God. 16.28. I came out from the Father, and have come into the world. Again, I leave the world, and go to the Father. 17.1. Jesus said these things, and lifting up his eyes to heaven, he said, "Father, the time has come. Glorify your Son, that your Son may also glorify you; 17.5. Now, Father, glorify me with your own self with the glory which I had with you before the world existed. 17.11. I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, keep them through your name which you have given me, that they may be one, even as we are. 17.15. I pray not that you would take them from the world, but that you would keep them from the evil one. 17.21. that they may all be one; even as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be one in us; that the world may believe that you sent me. 17.24. Father, I desire that they also whom you have given me be with me where I am, that they may see my glory, which you have given me, for you loved me before the foundation of the world. 17.25. Righteous Father, the world hasn't known you, but I knew you; and these knew that you sent me. 18.3. Judas then, having taken a detachment of soldiers and officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, came there with lanterns, torches, and weapons. 20.17. Jesus said to her, "Don't touch me, for I haven't yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brothers, and tell them, 'I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.' 20.21. Jesus therefore said to them again, "Peace be to you. As the Father has sent me, even so I send you.
46. New Testament, Luke, 2.49, 3.21, 5.16, 6.12-6.16, 6.20-6.26, 6.31, 6.36-6.38, 6.42-6.43, 7.41-7.42, 8.11-8.12, 9.18-9.22, 9.28-9.29, 10.22, 11.1-11.13, 12.56, 13.15, 17.3, 17.6, 18.1-18.14, 21.31, 22.29, 22.32, 23.34, 23.46, 24.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.49. He said to them, "Why were you looking for me? Didn't you know that I must be in my Father's house? 3.21. Now it happened, when all the people were baptized, Jesus also had been baptized, and was praying. The sky was opened 5.16. But he withdrew himself into the desert, and prayed. 6.12. It happened in these days, that he went out to the mountain to pray, and he continued all night in prayer to God. 6.13. When it was day, he called his disciples, and from them he chose twelve, whom he also named apostles: 6.14. Simon, whom he also named Peter; Andrew, his brother; James; John; Philip; Bartholomew; 6.15. Matthew; Thomas; James, the son of Alphaeus; Simon, who was called the Zealot; 6.16. Judas the son of James; and Judas Iscariot, who also became a traitor. 6.20. He lifted up his eyes to his disciples, and said, "Blessed are you poor, For yours is the Kingdom of God. 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake. 6.23. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. 6.24. But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 6.25. Woe to you, you who are full now! For you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now! For you will mourn and weep. 6.26. Woe, when men speak well of you! For their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets. 6.31. As you would like people to do to you, do exactly so to them. 6.36. Therefore be merciful, Even as your Father is also merciful. 6.37. Don't judge, And you won't be judged. Don't condemn, And you won't be condemned. Set free, And you will be set free. 6.38. Give, and it will be given to you: good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over, will be given to you. For with the same measure you measure it will be measured back to you. 6.42. Or how can you tell your brother, 'Brother, let me remove the speck of chaff that is in your eye,' when you yourself don't see the beam that is in your own eye? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye. 6.43. For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. 7.41. A certain lender had two debtors. The one owed five hundred denarii, and the other fifty. 7.42. When they couldn't pay, he forgave them both. Which of them therefore will love him most? 8.11. Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God. 8.12. Those along the road are those who hear, then the devil comes, and takes away the word from their heart, that they may not believe and be saved. 9.18. It happened, as he was praying alone, that the disciples were with him, and he asked them, "Who do the multitudes say that I am? 9.19. They answered, "'John the Baptizer,' but others say, 'Elijah,' and others, that one of the old prophets is risen again. 9.20. He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?"Peter answered, "The Christ of God. 9.21. But he warned them, and commanded them to tell this to no one 9.22. saying, "The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up. 9.28. It happened about eight days after these sayings, that he took with him Peter, John, and James, and went up onto the mountain to pray. 9.29. As he was praying, the appearance of his face was altered, and his clothing became white and dazzling. 10.22. Turning to the disciples, he said, "All things have been delivered to me by my Father. No one knows who the Son is, except the Father, and who the Father is, except the Son, and he to whomever the Son desires to reveal him. 11.1. It happened, that when he finished praying in a certain place, one of his disciples said to him, "Lord, teach us to pray, just as John also taught his disciples. 11.2. He said to them, "When you pray, say, 'Our Father in heaven, May your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come. May your will be done on Earth, as it is in heaven. 11.3. Give us day by day our daily bread. 11.4. Forgive us our sins, For we ourselves also forgive everyone who is indebted to us. Bring us not into temptation, But deliver us from the evil one.' 11.5. He said to them, "Which of you, if you go to a friend at midnight, and tell him, 'Friend, lend me three loaves of bread 11.6. for a friend of mine has come to me from a journey, and I have nothing to set before him,' 11.7. and he from within will answer and say, 'Don't bother me. The door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed. I can't get up and give it to you'? 11.8. I tell you, although he will not rise and give it to him because he is his friend, yet because of his persistence, he will get up and give him as many as he needs. 11.9. I tell you, keep asking, and it will be given you. Keep seeking, and you will find. Keep knocking, and it will be opened to you. 11.10. For everyone who asks receives. He who seeks finds. To him who knocks it will be opened. 11.11. Which of you fathers, if your son asks for bread, will give him a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, he won't give him a snake instead of a fish, will he? 11.12. Or if he asks for an egg, he won't give him a scorpion, will he? 11.13. If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him? 12.56. You hypocrites! You know how to interpret the appearance of the earth and the sky, but how is it that you don't interpret this time? 13.15. Therefore the Lord answered him, "You hypocrites! Doesn't each one of you free his ox or his donkey from the stall on the Sabbath, and lead him away to water? 17.3. Be careful. If your brother sins against you, rebuke him. If he repents, forgive him. 17.6. The Lord said, "If you had faith like a grain of mustard seed, you would tell this sycamore tree, 'Be uprooted, and be planted in the sea,' and it would obey you. 18.1. He also spoke a parable to them that they must always pray, and not give up 18.2. saying, "There was a judge in a certain city who didn't fear God, and didn't respect man. 18.3. A widow was in that city, and she often came to him, saying, 'Defend me from my adversary!' 18.4. He wouldn't for a while, but afterward he said to himself, 'Though I neither fear God, nor respect man 18.5. yet because this widow bothers me, I will defend her, or else she will wear me out by her continual coming.' 18.6. The Lord said, "Listen to what the unrighteous judge says. 18.7. Won't God avenge his elect, who are crying out to him day and night, and yet he exercises patience with them? 18.8. I tell you that he will avenge them quickly. Nevertheless, when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith on the earth? 18.9. He spoke also this parable to certain people who were convinced of their own righteousness, and who despised all others. 18.10. Two men went up into the temple to pray; one was a Pharisee, and the other was a tax collector. 18.11. The Pharisee stood and prayed to himself like this: 'God, I thank you, that I am not like the rest of men, extortioners, unrighteous, adulterers, or even like this tax collector. 18.12. I fast twice a week. I give tithes of all that I get.' 18.13. But the tax collector, standing far away, wouldn't even lift up his eyes to heaven, but beat his breast, saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!' 18.14. I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other; for everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but he who humbles himself will be exalted. 21.31. Even so you also, when you see these things happening, know that the Kingdom of God is near. 22.29. I confer on you a kingdom, even as my Father conferred on me 22.32. but I prayed for you, that your faith wouldn't fail. You, when once you have turned again, establish your brothers. 23.34. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they don't know what they are doing."Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots. 23.46. Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said, "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!" Having said this, he breathed his last. 24.49. Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high.
47. New Testament, Mark, 1.4, 1.35, 2.18-2.22, 6.46, 7.6, 9.5, 9.29, 11.23-11.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.35. Early in the night, he rose up and went out, and departed into a deserted place, and prayed there. 2.18. John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting, and they came and asked him, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples don't fast? 2.19. Jesus said to them, "Can the groomsmen fast while the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they can't fast. 2.20. But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then will they fast in that day. 2.21. No one sews a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment, or else the patch shrinks and the new tears away from the old, and a worse hole is made. 2.22. No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins, and the wine pours out, and the skins will be destroyed; but they put new wine into fresh wineskins. 6.46. After he had taken leave of them, he went up the mountain to pray. 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 9.29. He said to them, "This kind can come out by nothing, except by prayer and fasting. 11.23. For most assuredly I tell you, whoever may tell this mountain, 'Be taken up and cast into the sea,' and doesn't doubt in his heart, but believes that what he says is happening; he shall have whatever he says. 11.24. Therefore I tell you, all things whatever you pray and ask for, believe that you receive them, and you shall have them. 11.25. Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone; so that your Father, who is in heaven, may also forgive you your transgressions.
48. New Testament, Matthew, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, 5.29, 5.30, 5.31, 5.32, 5.33, 5.34, 5.35, 5.36, 5.37, 5.38, 5.39, 5.40, 5.41, 5.42, 5.43, 5.44, 5.45, 5.46, 5.47, 5.48, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.19-7.12, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.25, 6.26, 6.27, 6.28, 6.29, 6.30, 6.31, 6.32, 6.33, 6.34, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 8, 8.3, 9, 9.14, 10, 10.17, 10.32, 10.33, 11, 11.25, 11.27, 11.29, 11.30, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 12.13, 12.14, 12.39, 12.50, 13, 13.31, 13.33, 13.45, 13.52, 14, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 16.6, 16.17, 16.18, 16.19, 17.20, 18, 18.10, 18.14, 18.17, 18.18, 18.19, 18.23, 18.24, 18.25, 18.28, 18.30, 18.34, 18.35, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 20.1, 20.23, 21.21, 21.22, 22.2, 22.18, 22.36, 23, 23.1, 23.2, 23.3, 23.4, 23.5, 23.6, 23.7, 23.8, 23.9, 23.10, 23.11, 23.12, 23.13, 23.14, 23.15, 23.16, 23.17, 23.18, 23.19, 23.20, 23.21, 23.22, 23.23, 23.24, 23.25, 23.26, 23.27, 23.28, 23.29, 23.30, 23.31, 23.32, 23.33, 24, 24.12, 24.30, 24.33, 24.35, 25, 25.1, 25.34, 25.35, 28.18, 28.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

49. Polycarp of Smyrna, Letter To The Philippians, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

50. Tosefta, Berachot, 3.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.7. Rebbi Yehudah said, “When Rebbi Akiva would pray [Shmoneh Esreh] together with the congregation he would finish faster than everyone else. When he would pray by himself a person would leave him on one side [of the room] and when he would come back he would find him on a different side [of the room], because of all of the bending of the knees and bowing that he would do.”"
51. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 41 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

52. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.22.1, 4.9.2, 4.20.5, 5.9.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

53. Babylonian Talmud, Betzah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. דקמתקן מנא באור נמי קא מתקן מנא תני ר' חייא חותכה באור בפי שתי נרות אמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב מוחטין את הפתילה ביום טוב מאי מוחטין אמר רב חנינא בר שלמיא (משמיה דרב) לעדויי חושכא,תני בר קפרא ו' דברים נאמרו בפתילה ג' להחמיר וג' להקל להחמיר אין גודלין אותה לכתחלה ביו"ט ואין מהבהבין אותה באור ואין חותכין אותה לשנים להקל ממעכה ביד ושורה בשמן וחותכה באור בפי שתי נרות,ואמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב עתירי בבל יורדי גיהנם הם כי הא דשבתאי בר מרינוס אקלע לבבל בעא מנייהו עסקא ולא יהבו ליה מזוני מיזן נמי לא זינוהו,אמר הני מערב רב קא אתו דכתיב (דברים יג, יח) ונתן לך רחמים ורחמך כל המרחם על הבריות בידוע שהוא מזרעו של אברהם אבינו וכל מי שאינו מרחם על הבריות בידוע שאינו מזרעו של אברהם אבינו,ואמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב כל המצפה על שלחן אחרים עולם חשך בעדו שנאמר (איוב טו, כג) נודד הוא ללחם איה ידע כי נכון בידו יום חשך רב חסדא אמר אף חייו אינן חיים,ת"ר ג' חייהן אינם חיים ואלו הן המצפה לשלחן חבירו ומי שאשתו מושלת עליו ומי שיסורין מושלין בגופו ויש אומרים אף מי שאין לו אלא חלוק אחד ות"ק אפשר דמעיין במניה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין שוברין את החרס ואין חותכין הנייר לצלות בו מליח,ואין גורפין תנור וכירים אבל מכבשין,ואין מקיפין שתי חביות לשפות עליהן את הקדרה ואין סומכין את הקדרה בבקעת וכן בדלת ואין מנהיגין את הבהמה במקל ביום טוב ורבי אלעזר בר' שמעון מתיר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט משם דקא מתקן מנא,ואין גורפין תנור וכירים תני רב חייא בר יוסף קמיה דרב נחמן ואם אי אפשר לאפות אלא אם כן גורפו מותר דביתהו דר' חייא נפל לה אריחא בתנורא ביומא טבא אמר לה ר' חייא חזי דאנא רפתא מעלייתא בעינא א"ל רבא לשמעיה טוי לי בר אווזא ואזדהר מחרוכא,א"ל רבינא לרב אשי אמר לן רב אחא מהוצל דמר שרקין ליה תנורא ביומא טבא אמר ליה אנן ארקתא דפרת סמכינן והנ"מ הוא דצייריה מאתמול אמר רבינא וקטמא שרי:,ואין מקיפין שתי חביות: אמר רב נחמן אבנים של בית הכסא מותר לצדדן ביום טוב איתיביה רבה לרב נחמן אין מקיפין שתי חביות לשפות עליהן את הקדרה אמר ליה שאני התם משום דקא עביד אהלא,א"ל רבה זוטא לרב אשי אלא מעתה בנה אצטבא ביו"ט דלא עביד אהלא הכי נמי דשרי א"ל התם בנין קבע אסרה תורה בנין עראי לא אסרה תורה וגזרו רבנן על בנין עראי משום בנין קבע והכא משום כבודו לא גזרו ביה רבנן,אמר רב יהודה האי מדורתא מלמעלה למטה שרי מלמטה למעלה אסור 32b. Is it because bhethereby bmends a vessel?If so, when one cuts it bin the fire, he is also preparing a vesselfor use. bRabbi Ḥiyya taughtin explanation: bHe cuts it by fire in the mouth of two candles.In other words, he does not simply cut a wick, but rather inserts a long wick into two lamps, which he subsequently lights in the middle. This indeed leads to the formation of two separate wicks, but only as a result of kindling two lamps. bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: One may imoḥeta wick on a Festival.The term imoḥetwas unknown, and the Gemara therefore asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the word imoḥet /i? Rav Ḥanina bar Shelemya said in the name of Rav: To remove the dark;in other words, it is permitted to remove the burnt, charcoaled section to make the lamp shine more brightly., bBar Kappara taught: Six matters were stated with regard tothe ihalakhotof ba wickon a Festival, bthreeof which bare to be stringent and threeof which bare to be lenient.The three ihalakhot bto be stringentare: bOne may not spinor twist bit iab initioon a Festival, and one may not singe it in firebefore lighting it so that it will burn well, band one may not cut it into two.The three ihalakhot bto be lenientare: bOne may crush it by hand,as although it is prohibited to twist it into a wick, one may adjust its shape in an unusual manner; band one may soak it in oilso that it will later burn well; band one may cut it by fire in the mouth of two candles. /b,§ After citing one teaching in the name of Rav Natan bar Abba, the Gemara quotes a few more statements attributed to the same scholar. Since he is not mentioned often, Rav Natan’s teachings are arranged together, so that they can be remembered more easily. bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: The wealthyJews bof Babylonia will descend to Gehennabecause they do not have compassion on others. This is illustrated by incidents bsuch as this: Shabbetai bar Marinus happened to come to Babylonia. He requestedtheir participation in ba business venture,to lend him money and receive half the profits in return, band they did not giveit to bhim.Furthermore, when he asked them bto sustain him with food, they likewise refused to sustain him. /b, bHe said: Thesewealthy people are not descendants of our forefathers, bbut they came from the mixed multitude, as it is written: “And show you compassion, and have compassion upon you,and multiply you, as He has sworn to your fathers” (Deuteronomy 13:18), from which it is derived: bAnyone who has compassionfor God’s bcreatures, it is known that he is of the descendants of Abraham, our father, and anyone who does not have compassionfor God’s bcreatures, it is known that he is not of the descendants of Abraham, our father.Since these wealthy Babylonians do not have compassion on people, clearly they are not descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.,This is another teaching that bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: Whoever looks to the table of othersfor his sustece, bthe world is dark for him.Everything looks bleak and hopeless to him, bfor it is stated: “He wanders abroad for bread: Where is it? He knows the day of darkness is ready at his hand”(Job 15:23). bRav Ḥisda said: Even his life is no life,as he receives no satisfaction from it.,In support of this last claim, the Gemara cites a ibaraitain which bthe Sages taught:There are bthreewhose blives are not lives, and they are as follows: One who looks to the table of othersfor his sustece; band one whose wife rulesover bhim; and one whose body is ruled by suffering. And some say: Even one who has only one robe.Since he cannot wash it properly, he suffers from lice and dirt. The Gemara comments: bAnd the first itanna /i,who did not include such a person, maintains: bIt is possiblefor him bto examine his clothesand remove the lice, which would alleviate his suffering., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne may not break earthenwareon a Festival. bAnd one may not cut paper in order to roast saltedfish bon it.Earthenware shards or pieces of paper that have been soaked in water were placed on the metal surface or in the oven in which the fish was roasted, so that it would not be burned by the heat., bAnd one may not sweep outanything that has fallen into ban oven or stovethat interferes with the baking, such as plaster. bBut one may press downand flatten any accumulated dust and ashes at the bottom of the oven, which might prevent it from lighting properly., bAnd one may not draw two barrels togetherin order bto place a pot on them,so that its contents will be cooked by a fire lit between the barrels. bAnd one may not prop a potthat does not stand straight bwith a piece of wood,in order to prevent it from falling. bAnd similarly, with a door. And one may not lead an animal with a stickin the public domain bon a Festival; and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, permitsit., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the issue of breaking earthenware and cutting paper, the Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonfor this prohibition? bBecause oneis thereby bpreparing a vesselfor use.,It was taught in the mishna: bAnd one may not sweep out an oven or stove. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef taught before Rav Naḥman: And if it is not possible to bake unless one sweeps it out, it is permitted.The Gemara relates an incident with regard bto the wife of Rabbi Ḥiyya: A part of a brick fell intoher boven on a Festival,preventing her from baking. bRav Ḥiyya said to her: See,you should know that bI want good-quality bread.He thereby stated that it would be impossible unless she removed the brick, making it permissible for her to do so. Similarly, bRava said to his attendant: Roast for me a duckin an oven, band be careful not to singeit. He thereby implied that the attendant may remove all impediments from the oven in order to fulfill this requirement because otherwise it would not be possible to cook without singeing.,In a related case, bRavina said to Rav Ashi: Rav Aḥa from Hutzal said to us that the master,Rav Ashi, allows his attendants bto plasterthe mouth of bthe oven for him on a Festival.This was done in order to ensure that the roasted or cooked dish would be fully prepared. Why does this not constitute the prohibited labor of kneading on a Festival? bHe said to him: We rely on the bank of the EuphratesRiver. We avoid the labor of kneading by taking sufficiently kneaded mud from the riverbank. The Gemara comments: bAnd this applies only when one wrappedor made some mark on the mud bthe day before,so that it not be imuktze /i. bRavina said: Andas for kneading with bashesfor this purpose, it is bpermitted,since the labor of kneading does not apply to ashes.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bOne may not draw two barrels togetherin order to place a pot on them. bRav Naḥman said:With regard to large bstones of a lavatory,upon which one sits to attend to his needs, bit is permitted to put them togetherin the proper manner, so that they may be used bon a Festival. Rabba raised an objection to Rav Naḥman:Wasn’t it taught that bone may not draw two barrels togetherin order bto place a pot on them?This seems to indicate that any arrangement resembling building is prohibited. bHe said to him: There,with regard to barrels, bit is different, because one makes a tent.It is not the drawing of the barrels close together that is prohibited. Rather, the placement of the pot over them forms a kind of covering, which is similar to building a tent., bRabba the Younger,so called to distinguish him from the more famous iamoraknown as Rabba, bsaid to Rav Ashi: However, ifthat is bso,then if, bon a Festival, one builta solid bbench [ iitztaba /i],without a gap below the seat, a situation in which bone does not make a tent, so too,will you say bthat it is permitted? He said to him:The two cases are not comparable: bThere,with regard to a proper construction, such as a bench, bthe Torah prohibitederecting ba permanent construction,but bthe Torah did not prohibiterecting ba temporary construction. The Sages,however, bdecreed againstcreating ba temporary constructionon a Festival bdue to a permanent construction.However, bhere,with regard to a lavatory, bdue to the dignityof the user, bthe Sages did not decree with regard to it. /b, bRav Yehuda said:With regard to bthis bonfire,in which the wood is arranged in the form of a house, if one arranges it bfrom above to below it is permitted,as this is not the regular manner of building. However, if one prepares it in the usual fashion, bfrom below to above, it is prohibited,for this is considered building.
54. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. אי הכי מאי איריא הכונס את הבתולה אפי' כונס את האלמנה נמי,הכא טריד והכא לא טריד,אי משום טרדא אפילו טבעה ספינתו בים נמי אלמה אמר רבי אבא בר זבדא אמר רב אבל חייב בכל מצות האמורות בתורה חוץ מן התפילין שהרי נאמר בהן פאר שנאמר (יחזקאל כד, יז) פארך חבוש עליך וגו',אמרי התם טרדא דרשות הכא טרדא דמצוה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big רחץ לילה הראשון שמתה אשתו אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאבל אסור לרחוץ אמר להם איני כשאר בני אדם אסטניס אני,וכשמת טבי עבדו קבל עליו תנחומין אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאין מקבלין תנחומין על העבדים אמר להם אין טבי עבדי כשאר כל העבדים כשר היה,חתן אם רוצה לקרות קרית שמע לילה הראשון קורא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא כל הרוצה ליטול את השם יטול:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט דרבן (שמעון בן) גמליאל קסבר אנינות לילה דרבנן דכתיב (עמוס ח, י) ואחריתה כיום מר ובמקום אסטניס לא גזרו ביה רבנן: ,וכשמת טבי עבדו וכו':,ת"ר עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ותנחומי אבלים,מעשה ומתה שפחתו של רבי אליעזר נכנסו תלמידיו לנחמו כיון שראה אותם עלה לעלייה ועלו אחריו נכנס לאנפילון נכנסו אחריו נכנס לטרקלין נכנסו אחריו אמר להם כמדומה אני שאתם נכוים בפושרים עכשיו אי אתם נכוים אפילו בחמי חמין לא כך שניתי לכם עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ולא תנחומי אבלים אלא מה אומרים עליהם כשם שאומרים לו לאדם על שורו ועל חמורו שמתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך כך אומרים לו על עבדו ועל שפחתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך,תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין מספידין אותן ר' יוסי אומר אם עבד כשר הוא אומרים עליו הוי איש טוב ונאמן ונהנה מיגיעו אמרו לו אם כן מה הנחת לכשרים:,ת"ר אין קורין אבות אלא לשלשה ואין קורין אמהות אלא לארבע,אבות מאי טעמא אילימא משום דלא ידעינן אי מראובן קא אתינן אי משמעון קא אתינן אי הכי אמהות נמי לא ידעינן אי מרחל קא אתינן אי מלאה קא אתינן אלא עד הכא חשיבי טפי לא חשיבי,תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין קורין אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית ושל ר"ג היו קורים אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית,מעשה לסתור משום דחשיבי:,א"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים סג, ה) כן אברכך בחיי בשמך אשא כפי כן אברכך בחיי זו ק"ש בשמך אשא כפי זו תפלה ואם עושה כן עליו הכתוב אומר (תהלים סג, ו) כמו חלב ודשן תשבע נפשי ולא עוד אלא שנוחל שני עולמים העוה"ז והעולם הבא שנאמר (תהלים סג, ו) ושפתי רננות יהלל פי:,ר' אלעזר בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתשכן בפורינו אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות ותרבה גבולנו בתלמידים ותצליח סופנו אחרית ותקוה ותשים חלקנו בגן עדן ותקננו בחבר טוב ויצר טוב בעולמך ונשכים ונמצא יחול לבבנו ליראה את שמך ותבא לפניך קורת נפשנו לטובה.,רבי יוחנן בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתציץ בבשתנו ותביט ברעתנו ותתלבש ברחמיך ותתכסה בעזך ותתעטף בחסידותך ותתאזר בחנינותך ותבא לפניך מדת טובך וענותנותך.,ר' זירא בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שלא נחטא ולא נבוש ולא נכלם מאבותינו,ר' חייא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתהא תורתך אומנותנו ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו.,רב בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתתן לנו חיים ארוכים חיים של שלום חיים של טובה חיים של ברכה חיים של פרנסה חיים של חלוץ עצמות חיים שיש בהם יראת חטא חיים שאין בהם בושה וכלימה חיים של עושר וכבוד חיים שתהא בנו אהבת תורה ויראת שמים חיים שתמלא לנו את כל משאלות לבנו לטובה.,רבי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו שתצילנו מעזי פנים ומעזות פנים מאדם רע ומפגע רע מיצר רע מחבר רע משכן רע ומשטן המשחית ומדין קשה ומבעל דין קשה בין שהוא בן ברית בין שאינו בן ברית,ואע"ג דקיימי קצוצי עליה דרבי.,רב ספרא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתשים שלום 16b. The Gemara questions this: bIf so, why discussa case of bone who is marrying a virginin particular? bEven one who is marrying a widowis performing a mitzva and should balsobe exempt.,The Gemara responds that nevertheless, there is a distinction between one marrying a virgin and one marrying a widow. bHere,in the case of one who marries a virgin, the groom is bpreoccupiedby his thoughts, bwhile here,in the case of one who marries a widow, bhe is not preoccupied. /b,The Gemara challenges: bIfa groom is exempt from the recitation of iShemasimply bdue to preoccupation,then bevenone who is preoccupied because bhis ship sank at sea shouldbe exempt. If so, bwhy then did Rabbi Abba bar Zavda saythat bRav said: A mourner is obligated in all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah except forthe mitzva to don bphylacteries, asthe term bsplendor is statedwith regard to phylacteries, bas it is statedthat the prophet Ezekiel was prohibited to mourn and was told: b“Bind your splendor upon yourself”(Ezekiel 24:17). If even a mourner, who is pained and preoccupied, is obligated to recite iShema /i, clearly preoccupation has no bearing upon one’s obligation.,The Gemara responds: Nevertheless, there is a distinction between the cases. bThere,it is a case of bpreoccupation with a voluntaryact, as there is no mitzva to be preoccupied with his mourning, but bhere,in the case of a groom, the cause of bthe preoccupation isthe bmitzvaitself., strongMISHNA: /strong The mishna relates another episode portraying unusual conduct by Rabban Gamliel. bHe bathed on the first night after his wife died. His students said to him:Have byounot btaught us, our teacher, that a mourner is prohibited to bathe?He answered them: bI am not like other people, I am delicate [ iistenis /i].For me, not bathing causes actual physical distress, and even a mourner need not suffer physical distress as part of his mourning.,Another exceptional incident is related: bAnd when his slave, Tavi, died,Rabban Gamliel baccepted condolences for hisdeath as one would for a close family member. bHis students said to him: Have younot btaught us, our teacher, that one does not accept condolences forthe death of bslaves?Rabban Gamliel said to his students: bMy slave, Tavi, is not like all the rest of the slaves, he was virtuousand it is appropriate to accord him the same respect accorded to a family member.,With regard to the recitation of iShemaon one’s wedding night, the Sages said that bif,despite his exemption, ba groom wishes to recite iShemaon the first night,he may do so. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Not everyone who wishes to assume the reputationof a God-fearing person bmay assumeit, and consequently, not everyone who wishes to recite iShemaon his wedding night may do so., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to Rabban Gamliel’s bathing on the first night after the death of his wife, the Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat bRabban Gamlieldid not practice the customs of mourning after his wife died? The Gemara answers: bHe holds thatacute mourning [ ianinut /i] is in effect only on the day of the death itself, but bacute mourning at night isonly bby rabbinic law, as it is written:“And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentations; I will bring sackcloth upon your loins and baldness upon every head; and I will make you like a mourner for an only child, band the end will be like a bitter day”(Amos 8:10). Therefore, by Torah law one’s acute mourning is only during the day, like a bitter day, while the acute mourning at night that follows is only rabbinic. bAnd in the case of a delicate person, the Sages did not issue a decreethat one should afflict himself during the period of acute mourning.,We learned in our mishna that: bWhen his servant, Tavi, died,Rabban Gamliel accepted condolences for him., bThe Sagestaught in a ibaraita /i: For bslaves and maidservantswho die, bone does not stand in a rowof comforters to console the mourners, band one recites neither the blessing of the mourners nor the consolation of the mourners. /b, bAn incidentis related that when bRabbi Eliezer’s maidservant died, his students entered to console him. When he saw themapproaching bhe went up to the second floor, and they went up after him. He entered the gatehouse [ ianpilon /i], and they entered after him. He entered the banquet hall [ iteraklin /i],and bthey entered after him.Having seen them follow him everywhere, bhe said to them: It seems to me that you would be burned by lukewarm water,meaning that you could take a hint and when I went up to the second floor, you would understand that I did not wish to receive your consolations. bNowI see that byou are not even burned by boiling hot water. Did I not teach you the following:For bslaves and maidservantswho die, bone does not stand in a rowof comforters to console the mourners, band one neither recites the blessing of the mourners nordoes he recite bthe consolation of the mourners,as the relationship between master and slave is not like a familial relationship? bRather, what does one say about themwhen they die? bJust as we say to a person about his ox or donkey which died: May the Omnipresent replenish your loss, so too do we say for one’s slave or maidservantwho died: bMay the Omnipresent replenish your loss,as the connection between a master and his slave is only ficial in nature., bIt was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne does not eulogize slaves and maidservants. Rabbi Yosei says: If he was a virtuous servant, one recites over hima eulogy of sorts: bAlas, a good and loyal man who enjoyedthe fruits bof his hard labor. They said to him: If so, whatpraise bhave you left for virtuousJews? A Jewish person would be proud to be eulogized in that manner., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may only call threepeople bpatriarchs,Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but not Jacob’s children. bAnd one may only call fourpeople bmatriarchs,Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this exclusivity with regard to the bPatriarchs? If you saythat it is bbecause we do not know whether we descend from Reuben or from Simon,so we cannot accurately say our father Reuben, for example, bif so,with regard to the Matriarchs as well, bwe do not know whether we descend from Rachel or from Leah,and we should not call Rachel and Leah matriarchs either. bInstead,the reason the sons of Jacob are not called patriarchs is not for that reason, but because buntilJacob bthey are significantenough to be referred to as patriarchs, but bbeyondJacob, bthey are not significantenough to be referred to as patriarchs.,This serves as an introduction; although older people are often referred to with the honorific: Father so-and-so, bit was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne may not refer to slaves and maidservants as father [ iabba /i] so-and-so or mother [ iimma /i] so-and-so. But they would callthe slaves and maidservants bof Rabban Gamliel “father so-and-so” and “mother so-and-so.” /b,The Gemara asks: Is a bstorycited in order bto contradictthe previously stated ihalakha /i? The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction; rather, bbecauseRabban Gamliel’s servants bwere significant,they were addressed with these honorifics.,The Gemara cites an aggadic statement concerning prayer and the recitation of iShema /i. bRabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “So I will bless You as I live, to Your name I will raise my hands”(Psalms 63:5)? bSo I will bless You as I live, refers to the recitation of iShema /i,and bto Your name I will raise my hands, refers tothe iAmida bprayer,which is characterized as lifting one’s hands to God. bAnd if one does so,recites iShemaand prays, bthe verse says about him: “As with fat and marrow, my soul will be satisfied”(Psalms 63:6). bAnd not onlydoes he receive this reward, bbut he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “With lips of joys [ ireot /i], my mouth praises You”(Psalms 63:6). The plural, joys, refers to two joys, that of this world and that of the World-to-Come.,The Gemara describes how bafter Rabbi Elazar concluded his prayer, he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bto cause to dwell in our lot love and brotherhood, peace and friendship. br bAnd may You make our borders rich in disciples br band cause us to ultimately succeed,that we will have a good bend and hope. br bAnd may You set our portion in the Garden of Eden, br band may You establish for us a good companion and a good inclination in Your world. br bAnd may we rise early and find the aspiration of our hearts to fear Your name, br band may the satisfaction of our souls come before You,i.e., may You hear our prayers that we may have spiritual contentment in this world bfor the best. /b,Similarly, the Gemara recounts that bafter Rabbi Yoḥa concluded his prayer, he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You look upon our shame and behold our plight, br bthat You clothe Yourself in Your mercy, br band cover Yourself with Your might, br bthat You wrap Yourself in Your loving-kindness, br band gird Yourself with Your grace, br band may Your attributes of goodness and humility come before You. /b,Similarly, bafter Rabbi Zeira concluded his prayers he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat we not sin or shame ourselves, br band that we not disgrace ourselves before our forefathers, brin the sense that our actions should not disgrace the actions of our forefathers., bAfter Rabbi Ḥiyya prayed he said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat Your Torah should be our vocation, br band may our heart not become faint nor our eyes dim. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rav said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You grant us long life, a life of peace, br ba life of goodness, a life of blessing, br ba life of sustece, a life of freedom of movementfrom place to place, where we are not tied to one place, br ba life of dread of sin, a life without shame and disgrace, br ba life of wealth and honor, br ba life in which we have love of Torah and reverence for Heaven, br ba life in which You fulfill all the desires of our heart for good. /b, bAfter his prayer, RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, and God of our forefathers, br bthat You save us from the arrogant and from arrogancein general, br bfrom a bad man, from a bad mishap, br bfrom an evil instinct, from a bad companion, br bfrom a bad neighbor, from the destructive Satan, br bfrom a harsh trial and from a harsh opponent, br bwhether he is a member of the covet,a Jew, br bor whether he is not a member of the covet. /b, bAndthe Gemara notes that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would recite this prayer every day bdespite the fact thatroyal bofficers stoodwatch bover RabbiYehuda HaNasi for his protection; nevertheless, he prayed to avoid conflict or hindrance resulting from arrogance., bAfter his prayer, Rav Safra said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, that You establish peace /b
55. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

49a. שמבזבזין דין אביהם לעתיד לבוא אומרים לפניו רבונו של עולם מאחר שאתה עתיד ליפרע מהן למה הקהיתה שיניהם בם,אמר ר' אילעא בר יברכיה אלמלא תפלתו של דוד היו כל ישראל מוכרי רבב שנאמר (תהלים ט, כא) שיתה ה' מורה להם וא"ר אילעא בר יברכיה אלמלא תפלתו של חבקוק היו ב' תלמידי חכמים מתכסים בטלית אחת ועוסקין בתורה שנאמר (חבקוק ג, ב) ה' שמעתי שמעך יראתי ה' פעלך בקרב שנים חייהו אל תקרא בקרב שנים אלא בקרוב שנים,ואמר ר' אילעא בר יברכיה שני תלמידי חכמים המהלכין בדרך ואין ביניהן דברי תורה ראוין לישרף באש שנאמר (מלכים ב ב, יא) ויהי המה הולכים הלוך ודבר והנה רכב אש וגו' טעמא דאיכא דיבור הא ליכא דיבור ראוין לישרף,וא"ר אילעא בר יברכיה שני ת"ח הדרין בעיר אחת ואין נוחין זה לזה בהלכה אחד מת ואחד גולה שנאמר (דברים ד, מב) לנוס שמה רוצח אשר ירצח את רעהו בבלי דעת ואין דעת אלא תורה שנאמר (הושע ד, ו) נדמו עמי מבלי הדעת,אמר ר' יהודה בריה דר' חייא כל ת"ח העוסק בתורה מתוך הדחק תפלתו נשמעת שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, יט) כי עם בציון ישב בירושלים בכה לא תבכה חנון יחנך לקול זעקך כשמעתו ענך וכתיב בתריה (ישעיהו ל, כ) ונתן ה' לכם לחם צר ומים לחץ,ר' אבהו אומר משביעין אותו מזיו שכינה שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, כ) והיו עיניך רואות את מוריך ר' אחא בר חנינא אמר אף אין הפרגוד ננעל בפניו. שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, כ) ולא יכנף עוד מוריך,רשב"ג אומר משום ר' יהושע מיום שחרב בהמ"ק אין וכו' אמר רבא בכל יום ויום מרובה קללתו משל חבירו שנאמר (דברים כח, סז) בבקר תאמר מי יתן ערב ובערב תאמר מי יתן בקר הי בקר אילימא בקר דלמחר מי ידע מאי הוי אלא דחליף,ואלא עלמא אמאי קא מקיים אקדושה דסידרא ואיהא שמיה רבא דאגדתא שנא' (איוב י, כב) ארץ עפתה כמו אופל צלמות ולא סדרים הא יש סדרים תופיע מאופל,ולא ירד טל לברכה וניטל טעם פירות וכו' תניא ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר טהרה בטלה טעם וריח מעשר ביטל שומן דגן,רב הונא אשכח תומרתא דחינוניתא שקלה כרכה בסודריה אתא רבה בריה א"ל מורחינא ריחא דחינוניתא א"ל בני טהרה יש בך יהבה ניהליה אדהכי אתא אבא בריה שקלה יהבה ניהליה א"ל בני שמחת את לבי והקהיתה את שיני היינו דאמרי אינשי רחמי דאבא אבני רחמי דבני אבני דהוו ליה,רב אחא בר יעקב איטפל ביה ברב יעקב בר ברתיה כי גדל א"ל אשקיין מיא אמר לו לאו בריך אנא והיינו דאמרי אינשי רבי רבי בר ברתך אנא, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בפולמוס של אספסיינוס גזרו על עטרות חתנים ועל האירוס,בפולמוס של טיטוס גזרו על עטרות כלות ושלא ילמד אדם את בנו יוונית,בפולמוס האחרון גזרו שלא תצא הכלה באפריון בתוך העיר ורבותינו התירו שתצא הכלה באפריון בתוך העיר,משמת ר"מ בטלו מושלי משלים משמת בן עזאי בטלו השקדנים משמת בן זומא בטלו הדרשנים משמת ר"ע בטל כבוד התורה משמת ר' חנינא בן דוסא בטלו אנשי מעשה משמת ר' יוסי קטנתא פסקו חסידים ולמה נקרא שמו קטנתא שהיה קטנתא של חסידים,משמת רבי יוחנן בן זכאי בטל זיו החכמה משמת ר"ג הזקן בטל כבוד התורה ומתה טהרה ופרישות משמת רבי ישמעאל בן פאבי בטלה זיו הכהונה משמת רבי בטל ענוה ויראת חטא,[ big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר] ר' פנחס בן יאיר אומר משחרב בהמ"ק בושו חברים ובני חורין וחפו ראשם ונדלדלו אנשי מעשה וגברו בעלי זרוע ובעלי לשון ואין דורש ואין מבקש ואין שואל,על מי לנו להשען על אבינו שבשמים,ר"א הגדול אומר מיום שחרב בית המקדש שרו חכימיא למהוי כספריא וספריא כחזניא וחזניא כעמא דארעא ועמא דארעא 49a. bwho plunder,i.e., destroy, btheir fathers’ future judgment.When God sits in judgment of their parents, these children bsay before Him: Master of the Universe, because You were destined to exact punishment fromour fathers in the World-to-Come for their wickedness, bwhy did You blunt their teeth withthe death of their children in their lifetimes? In this way, the death of their children atones for the fathers.,§ bRabbi Ile’a bar Yeverekhya says: If it were not for the prayer of Davidfor Israel to have sustece, ball Israel would be sellers of fat [ irevav /i],i.e., involved in debased occupations, bas it is stated: “Place for them mastery, O Lord”(Psalms 9:21), that is, may God grant them dignity. bAnd Rabbi Ile’a bar Yeverekhyaalso bsays: If it were not for the prayer of Habakkuk, two Torah scholars would have to cover themselves with a single cloakdue to poverty band engage in Torah studydressed that way, bas it is stated: “Lord, I heard Your report and was afraid; O Lord, revive Your work in the midst of the years”(Habakkuk 3:2). bDo not read: “In the midst [ ibekerev /i] of the years [ ishanim /i],” but in the closeness [ ibikrov /i] of two [ ishenayim /i].In other words, Habakkuk prayed that God would nullify His decree of two Torah scholars having to share a single cloak., bAnd Rabbi Ile’a bar Yeverekhya says:In the case of btwo Torah scholars who are walking along the way and there are no words of Torah between them,but they are conversing about other matters, bthey are deserving of being burned in fire. As it is statedwith regard to Elijah and his disciple Elisha: b“And it was as they walked along, talking, that behold, there appeared a chariot of fireand horses of fire, which parted them both asunder” (II Kings 2:11). bThe reasonthey were not burned by the chariot of fire is bthat there was speechexchanged between them, which presumably was words of Torah, bbut if there had been no speech, theywould have been bdeserving of being burnedby the chariot., bAnd Rabbi Ile’a bar Yeverekhya says:If there are btwo Torah scholars who reside in the same city and they are not pleasant to each other with regard to ihalakha /i,but are constantly fighting, boneof them will bdie andthe other bonewill be bexiled. Asit bis stated: “That the manslayer might flee there, who slays his neighbor without knowledge”(Deuteronomy 4:42), band “knowledge”means bnothing otherthan bTorah, as it is stated: “My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge”(Hosea 4:6)., bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, says:With regard to bany Torah scholar who engages in Torahstudy bwhile experiencing the pressureof poverty, bhis prayer is listened to, as it is stated: “For, O people that dwells in Zion at Jerusalem, you shall weep no more; He will surely be gracious to you at the voice of your cry. When He shall hear, He will answer you”(Isaiah 30:19), band after it is written: “And the Lord shall give you sparse bread and scant water”(Isaiah 30:20). This verse indicates that those who sit and study Torah, that is, the people who dwell in Zion, and eat bread sparingly, will have their prayers answered by God., bRabbi Abbahu says:A Torah scholar who engages in Torah study despite economic pressures bis satiated with the glory of the Divine Presence, as it is statedin the same verse, above: b“And your eyes shall behold your Teacher.” Rabbi Aḥa, son of Ḥanina, said: Even theconcealing bpartition[ipargod/b] before the Divine Presence bis not locked before him, as it is stated: “And your Teacher shall not hide Himself anymore”(Isaiah 30:20).,§ The mishna states that bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua: From the day that the Temple was destroyed, there is noday that does not include some form of curse. bRava says: Each and every day is more cursed than the previous one, as it is statedin the chapter detailing the curses in the book of Deuteronomy: b“In the morning you will say, would that it were evening, and in the evening you will say, would that it were morning”(Deuteronomy 28:67). It is unclear bwhich morningthe verse means. bIf we saythat in the evening he will wish it would be bthe following morning, does he know what will bethe outcome of the next morning, which would cause him to yearn for its arrival? bRather,it must mean the morning bthat has passed;that is, in the evening they will pine for the previous morning, because their situation is continuously worsening.,The Gemara poses a question: bButif everything is deteriorating, bwhy does the worldcontinue to bexist?The Gemara answers: bBy the sanctification thatis said in the borderof prayers, after the passage that begins: And a redeemer shall come to Israel, which includes the recitation and translation of the sanctification said by the angels, bandby the response: bLet His great namebe blessed, etc., which is recited after the study bof iaggada /i. As it is stated: “A land of thick darkness, as darkness itself; a land of the shadow of death, without any order”(Job 10:22). bTherefore,it can be inferred from this verse that if bthere are ordersof prayer and study, the land bshall appear fromamidst bthe darkness. /b,§ The mishna taught that since the destruction of the Temple, bdew has not descended for a blessing, and the taste has been removed from fruit. It is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says:The lost bpurity has removed the taste and the aroma;the btithesthat were not separated bhave removed the fat of grain. /b,The Gemara relates that bRav Huna found a fragrant date. He took it and wrapped it in his shawl. Rabba, his son, cameand bsaid to him: I smell the aroma of a fragrantdate. Rav Huna bsaid to him: My son, there isclearly bpurity in you,as you were able to notice the fragrance. bHe gave it to him. Meanwhile, Abba,Rabba’s bson, arrived.Rabba btookthe date and bgave it tohim. Rav Huna bsaid toRabba: bMy son, you have made my heart rejoicewith your purity, band you have blunted my teeth,by showing your preference for your own son. The Gemara comments: bThisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: The love of a father is for the sons; the love of the sons is for their own sons,more than for their father.,The Gemara relates another incident: bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov took care of Rav Ya’akov, the son of his daughter,who was an orphan. bWhenthe grandchild bgrew up,his grandfather once bsaid to him: Give me water to drink. He said to him: I am not your son,and I am not obligated in your honor as a son must honor his father. The Gemara again comments: bAnd thisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: Raise, raiseyour grandchild, but in the end he will retort: bI am the son of your daughter,and I do not have to take care of you., strongMISHNA: /strong bIn the war [ ipulemus /i] of Vespasianthe Sages bdecreed upon the crowns of bridegrooms,i.e., that bridegrooms may no longer wear crowns, band upon the drums,meaning they also banned the playing of drums., bIn the war of Titus theyalso bdecreed upon the crowns of brides, andthey decreed bthat a person should not teach his son Greek. /b, bIn the last war,meaning the bar Kokheva revolt, bthey decreed that a bride may not go out in a palanquin inside the city, but our Sages permitted a bride to go out in a palanquin inside the city,as this helps the bride maintain her modesty.,The mishna lists more things that ceased: bFromthe time bwhen Rabbi Meir died, those who relate parables ceased; fromthe time bwhen ben Azzai died, the diligent ceased; fromthe time bwhen ben Zoma died, the exegetists ceased; fromthe time bwhen Rabbi Akiva died, the honor of the Torah ceased; fromthe time bwhen Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa died, the men ofwondrous baction ceased; fromthe time bwhen Rabbi Yosei the Small died, the pious were no more. And why was he called the Small? Because he was the smallest of the pious,meaning he was one of the least important of the pious men., bFromthe time bwhen Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai died, the glory of wisdom ceased; fromthe time bwhen Rabban Gamliel the Elder died, the honor of the Torah ceased, and purity and asceticism died. Fromthe time bwhen Rabbi Yishmael ben Pavi died, the glory of the priesthood ceased; fromthe time bwhen RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdied, humility and fear of sin ceased. /b,gemara bThe Sages taught: Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir says: Fromthe time bwhen theSecond bTemple was destroyed, the iḥaverimand free menof noble lineage bwere ashamed, and their heads were coveredin shame, band men of action dwindled, and violent and smooth-talking men gained the upper hand, and none seek, and none ask, and none inquireof the fear of Heaven., bUpon whomis there bfor us to rely?Only bupon our Father in Heaven. /b, bRabbi Eliezer the Great says: From the day theSecond bTemple was destroyed,the generations have deteriorated: bScholars have begun to become like scribesthat teach children, band scribes have become like beadles, and beadles have become like ignoramuses, and ignoramuses /b
56. Anon., 4 Ezra, 8.20

8.20. O Lord who inhabitest eternity, whose eyes are exalted and whose upper chambers are in the air


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(biblical) law,lawlessness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 135
(simon) peter Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 148
accuracy of transmission,comparisons of different versions Galinsky (2016), Memory in Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 312
adam O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 256
akiva,rabbi Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 238
alms(giving) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 262, 267, 293, 516, 520
alms Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12, 13, 16, 122, 126, 136, 234
almsgiving,charity Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 115, 117, 120
amida (see also prayer) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 265
angels O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 256
antitheses Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 122, 123
aphorisms Galinsky (2016), Memory in Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 312
aramaic Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 263
atonement Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 117
authority of ~ Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 520
baptism Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 234
baptism and salvation O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 255, 256
beatitude,matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 123
beatitudes,apostolic fathers Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 441
beatitudes,irenaeus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 441
beatitudes,reception history Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 441
beatitudes,two gospel versions Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 400
beatitudes Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 283, 297; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 400, 441
belief,believer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 136
belief and faith Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 296
bestiality Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146, 238
binaries,of creation Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146
birkat ha-minim Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 86
body,resurrection of O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 256
boundaries Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 283
bread,of life Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 177
bread Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 97
calendar (lunar,solar) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 293, 523
canaan and canaanites Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 133
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 263
community Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 296, 298; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 135, 136
compassion,conversion,significance of deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 243
compassion deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 243
connection between deeds and consequences Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 126
conversion,process Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 283, 297
conversion,psychological aspects Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 283, 300
conversion,social/sociological aspects Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 295
cosmology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 144, 149
covenant,covenantal Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 115
creation,binaries of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146
cult Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12, 13, 123
day of judgement,last judgement Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
dead sea scrolls vii Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119
debts Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 97
decision Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 298
deficiency Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 300
demon,demonology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200
didache,and baptism Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 252
didache Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12, 13, 16; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 86
disciples of jesus,following jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 135
disciples of jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12, 135, 200
divine Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 295, 296, 297
doxology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 234
earth Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 13, 144, 149, 205
editing (process) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 267, 520
end of days/last days,eschaton Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
end of days tribulation Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
epiphanius Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 523
eschatology,eschatological,belonging to the end-of-days,messianic age Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
eschatology/eschatological Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 297
eschatology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 123, 135, 149
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 293, 520, 523
eternity O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 256
ethics Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 135
eucharist O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 255
evil Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 295, 297, 299; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119, 120
exception clause Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 293
exclusive/exclusivity Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 298
excommunication Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 293
exodus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 97
faith,faithfulness Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 117
faith,lack of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200
faith,prayer of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200
faith Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 126
faith and works O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 255, 256
fantastic creatures,philo on Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 238
fast Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12, 13, 16, 126, 136, 200, 234; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 86
fasting Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 115, 120; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 262, 267, 293, 516, 520, 523
father,child relationship Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 218
father,fatherhood,our father' Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 216
father,fatherhood Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 216
father,in the heavens Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 65, 177, 200
father Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 65, 144, 148, 149, 177, 200, 218
foreknowledge,divine O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 256
forgiveness,among believers deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 243
forgiveness,gods deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 243
forgiveness,of sins Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 97, 200, 205
forgiveness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 97, 136, 200, 205
formation of christian ethos deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 243
friday (fast/festival day) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 293, 523
friendship,with saints O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 255, 256
gamaliel (gamliel) the elder,r. Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 293
gamaliel (gamliel) the younger,r. Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 293
gender,essentialism Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146
gentile Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 516, 523
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 267, 293
gnostic/gnosticism Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 298, 299
goal/telos of philosophical life Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 298, 299
god,holiness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 205
god,holiness of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 133
god,justice of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 205
god,kingdom of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 205
god,nature of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 205
god,power of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200
god,relationship to Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 218
golden rule Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 123
gospel,of john Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 177
gospel,of mark Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200
gospel,of matthew Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 120, 122, 123, 126, 135, 136, 234
gospel Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 86
grace Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 13, 205
gymnasiarch,quorum of ten Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 590
gymnasiarch,rabbinic literature Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 590
happiness Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 283, 299
hartin,patrick Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 232
healing Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200
heaven,as substitution for the name of god Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 65
heaven,kingdom of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 148
heaven,lord of (and earth) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 149
heaven,master in Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 148
heaven Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12, 13, 144, 148, 149, 177, 234
hillel the elder Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 293, 520
historical tradition Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 267, 516, 523
holiness,separation as Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 133
huqim (statutes) Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 133, 238
hybrids,possibility of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 238
hypocrisy/hypocrites Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 16, 234
hypocrites (pharisees) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 267, 293, 516, 523
intermarriage, Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 133, 146, 238
irenaeus,against heresies Bird and Harrower (2021), The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers, 77
irenaeus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 441
israel,the people of,redemption/restoration of,the kingdom of,israelite Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119
james (brother of jesus) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 262
jesus,divine status Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 115, 117, 118, 119, 120
jesus,historical Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 122
jesus,johannine Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 177
jesus,lieblingspsalm of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 205
jesus,matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 135, 149
jesus,ministry of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 205
jesus,origin of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 177
jesus,relationship of to god Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 149, 177
jesus,will of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 205
jesus Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 115, 117, 118
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 516, 523
jewish-christian tradition,custom Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 293, 523
jewish christians,jewish-christian Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 115
jewish other,ritual Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 117, 120
jewishness,hybridity and Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146
jews,jewry,jewish,jewish matrix,jewish setting,anti-jewish,non-jewish Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 115, 117, 118, 119
jews,vs. non-jews Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 238
john (evangelist),johannine language Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 177
john (evangelist),johannine prayers Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 177
john (evangelist),johannine theology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 177
john (evangelist),johannine vernacular Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 177
john (the baptist) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 262, 523
judaism Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 297
judgement,final (endgericht) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 136
justice Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 135, 205
justification Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 283; O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 255, 256
kaddish Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 118
kilayim,and homosexuality Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146
kilayim,as transgression Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146
kilayim,in sifra Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 133
kilayim,intermarriage as Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 133, 146
kilayim,justifications for,lack of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 133
kilayim,moralizing view of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146
kilayim,non-jewish use of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 238
kilayim,statutes Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 133, 238
kingdom Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 205
kingdom of god/heaven,sons of the kingdom Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
kingdom of god/heaven Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 283, 299
koy Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146
kyrios Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 135
law divine/mosaic/jewish Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 295, 296, 299
logion Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 126, 135
lords prayer,address of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 218
lords prayer,addressee of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 218
lords prayer,as community prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 136
lords prayer,content of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 218
lords prayer,didactic of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 218
lords prayer,function of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12, 218
lords prayer,gift of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 218
lords prayer,hermeneutics of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 218
lords prayer,matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 120, 122, 123, 126, 135, 136
lords prayer,practice of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 16, 218
lords prayer,prayerer of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 218
lords prayer,recipients of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 218
lords prayer,structure of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 120, 122, 123, 126, 136
lords prayer Pierce et al. (2022), Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature, 102; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 117, 118, 119, 120; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 262, 263, 265, 267, 293, 516, 523
love,double-love precept Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 115
love,for humankind/neighbor Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300
love-your-enemy Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 119
love Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 123, 135
macarism Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 297
matrilineal principle Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146
matthaean church,community Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 293
matthew,distinctives of Pierce et al. (2022), Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature, 97, 102
matthew,five discourses Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 400
matthew Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 86
matthew (evangelist) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 135
meier,john p. Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 232
mercy Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 205
messiah Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 267
metanoia/metanoeō Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 283
minim (species) Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146
minotaurs Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 238
monday (fast/festival day) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 523
moral progress/transformation Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 295
moses Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 520
natural law Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146
need (material) Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 295, 296
new person deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 243
non-jews,intermarriage with Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 133, 146, 238
old person deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 243
opponents Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 16
origen Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 265
parable Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 135
paul Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 133, 238
paul (saul) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 293, 520, 523
perfection Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 295, 298
petitions of the lords prayer,fifth Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200, 205
petitions of the lords prayer,first Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 177, 205
petitions of the lords prayer,fourth Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200, 205
petitions of the lords prayer,second Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 205
petitions of the lords prayer,third Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 205
petitions of the lords prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 136, 205
pharisaic tradition/halakha Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 293
pharisee,teaching of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12
pharisee Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 148
pharisees,torah-sages,pharisaic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 115, 118
pharisees Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 86
philo of alexandria,moralizing kilayim Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146, 238
philo of alexandria Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 238
philosophy,philosophical Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 297
piety,deeds of Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 115, 117, 120
piety,trilogy of pious actions →alms,fast,prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12, 13, 16, 126, 136
piety Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12, 13, 126, 135, 136
pistis,apistia Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200
pistis,oligopistia Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200
pistis,power of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200
pistis Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200, 205
polemic Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 16
poor Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 283
porneia (zenut,unchastity) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 520
power Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 149, 205
prayer,addressee of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 177
prayer,content of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 218
prayer,effect of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 13, 218
prayer,formalization Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 590
prayer,intercessory Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200
prayer,lack of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200
prayer,practice of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 136, 177
prayer,public Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 177
prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12, 13, 16, 126, 136, 200, 205, 234; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 86; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 115, 117, 119, 120
predestination O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 256
priest Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 296
proseuche Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 200
psalms Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 117
psychological Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 283
punishment Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 117, 120
purgatory O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 255
purity,genealogical Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146
qaddish,and study Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 590
qaddish,quorum Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 590
qumran,qumranic,anti-qumranic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 115, 117
qumran community Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 133, 146; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 523
rabbi (title) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 293, 520
rabbinic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 115, 117, 118, 119
reason Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 135
reciprocity Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 298
relationship Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300
religion,religious Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 283, 295, 296, 297, 299
remission,of debt Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 97
renunciation Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 297
repentance,return to god Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 117
reward Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
rhetoric,rhetorical Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 267
righteousness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12, 205
righteousness of god Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 299
ritual,practice of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12, 13
ritual Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12, 13, 16
sabbath Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 520
sabbatical year/sabbath year Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 97
sadducees,teaching of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 12
satan,devil,belial,melkhiresha,evil one,angel of darkness Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
scribe,scribal sage Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 148
second temple period,jewry,tradition Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 115, 118, 119
seeing god,beatitudes,irenaeus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 441
seeing god Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 441
seeking/searching Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 299
self-preservation Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 298, 299
separation,holiness as Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 133
separatism Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 133
sermon of the mount,redaction of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 120, 122, 123, 126
sermon of the mount,structure of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 120, 122, 123, 126, 135, 136