Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8258
New Testament, Matthew, 5.44


Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς·But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

95 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.16 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.16. Give of your bread to the hungry, and of your clothing to the naked. Give all your surplus to charity, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you made it.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, a b c d\n0 "32.4" "32.4" "32 4" \n1 18.15 18.15 18 15 \n2 24 24 24 None\n3 24.1 24.1 24 1 \n4 24.2 24.2 24 2 \n5 24.3 24.3 24 3 \n6 24.4 24.4 24 4 \n7 28.1 28.1 28 1 \n8 28.48 28.48 28 48 \n9 28.6 28.6 28 6 \n10 30.11 30.11 30 11 \n11 30.12 30.12 30 12 \n12 30.13 30.13 30 13 \n13 30.14 30.14 30 14 \n14 5.1 5.1 5 1 \n15 5.10 5.10 5 10 \n16 5.11 5.11 5 11 \n17 5.12 5.12 5 12 \n18 5.13 5.13 5 13 \n19 5.14 5.14 5 14 \n20 5.15 5.15 5 15 \n21 5.16 5.16 5 16 \n22 5.17 5.17 5 17 \n23 5.18 5.18 5 18 \n24 5.19 5.19 5 19 \n25 5.2 5.2 5 2 \n26 5.20 5.20 5 20 \n27 5.21 5.21 5 21 \n28 5.3 5.3 5 3 \n29 5.4 5.4 5 4 \n30 5.5 5.5 5 5 \n31 5.6 5.6 5 6 \n32 5.7 5.7 5 7 \n33 5.8 5.8 5 8 \n34 5.9 5.9 5 9 \n35 8.3 8.3 8 3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.19-4.20, 20.1-20.17, 21.12, 21.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.1. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ 20.1. וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר׃ 20.2. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 20.2. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃ 20.3. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ 20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ 20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 20.6. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָי׃ 20.7. לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־שֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא׃ 20.8. זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ 20.9. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ 20.11. כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃ 20.12. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 20.13. לֹא תִּרְצָח׃ לֹא תִּנְאָף׃ לֹא תִּגְנֹב׃ לֹא־תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁקֶר׃ 20.14. לֹא תַחְמֹד בֵּית רֵעֶךָ לֹא־תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ וְשׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ׃ 20.15. וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃ 20.16. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה דַּבֵּר־אַתָּה עִמָּנוּ וְנִשְׁמָעָה וְאַל־יְדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ אֱלֹהִים פֶּן־נָמוּת׃ 20.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל־פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ׃ 21.12. מַכֵּה אִישׁ וָמֵת מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 21.21. אַךְ אִם־יוֹם אוֹ יוֹמַיִם יַעֲמֹד לֹא יֻקַּם כִּי כַסְפּוֹ הוּא׃ 4.20. And Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon an ass, and he returned to the land of Egypt; and Moses took the rod of God in his hand." 20.1. And God spoke all these words, saying:" 20.2. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 20.3. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;" 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;" 20.6. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments." 20.7. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain." 20.8. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy." 20.9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 20.10. but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates;" 20.11. for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." 20.12. Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 20.13. Thou shalt not murder. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour." 20.14. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house; thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s." 20.15. And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off." 20.16. And they said unto Moses: ‘Speak thou with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die.’" 20.17. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not.’" 21.12. He that smiteth a man, so that he dieth, shall surely be put to death." 21.21. Notwithstanding if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished; for he is his money."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1, 3.5, 9.6, 18.21-18.22, 20.12, 43.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.5. כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טוֹב וָרָע׃ 9.6. שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם׃ 18.21. אֵרֲדָה־נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה הַכְּצַעֲקָתָהּ הַבָּאָה אֵלַי עָשׂוּ כָּלָה וְאִם־לֹא אֵדָעָה׃ 18.22. וַיִּפְנוּ מִשָּׁם הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיֵּלְכוּ סְדֹמָה וְאַבְרָהָם עוֹדֶנּוּ עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 20.12. וְגַם־אָמְנָה אֲחֹתִי בַת־אָבִי הִוא אַךְ לֹא בַת־אִמִּי וַתְּהִי־לִי לְאִשָּׁה׃ 43.32. וַיָּשִׂימוּ לוֹ לְבַדּוֹ וְלָהֶם לְבַדָּם וְלַמִּצְרִים הָאֹכְלִים אִתּוֹ לְבַדָּם כִּי לֹא יוּכְלוּן הַמִּצְרִים לֶאֱכֹל אֶת־הָעִבְרִים לֶחֶם כִּי־תוֹעֵבָה הִוא לְמִצְרָיִם׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 3.5. for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil.’" 9.6. Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man." 18.21. I will go down now, and see whether they have done altogether according to the cry of it, which is come unto Me; and if not, I will know.’" 18.22. And the men turned from thence, and went toward Sodom; but Abraham stood yet before the LORD." 20.12. And moreover she is indeed my sister, the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and so she became my wife." 43.32. And they set on for him by himself, and for them by themselves, and for the Egyptians, that did eat with him, by themselves; because the Egyptians might not eat bread with the Hebrews; for that is an abomination unto the Egyptians."
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 2.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.15. וּפָקַדְתִּי עָלֶיהָ אֶת־יְמֵי הַבְּעָלִים אֲשֶׁר תַּקְטִיר לָהֶם וַתַּעַד נִזְמָהּ וְחֶלְיָתָהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי מְאַהֲבֶיהָ וְאֹתִי שָׁכְחָה נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 2.15. And I will visit upon her the days of the Baalim, Wherein she offered unto them, And decked herself with her ear-rings and her jewels, And went after her lovers, And forgot Me, saith the LORD."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.2, 19.17-19.18, 24.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדֹשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְהִוא שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדָּתָה אוֹ חֻפְשָׁה לֹא נִתַּן־לָהּ בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי־לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה׃ 19.17. לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 24.17. וְאִישׁ כִּי יַכֶּה כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 19.2. Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them: Ye shall be holy; for I the LORD your God am holy." 19.17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 24.17. And he that smiteth any man mortally shall surely be put to death."
7. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.3. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ לְגוֹיִם עֲצֻמִים עַד־רָחוֹק וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבֹתֵיהֶם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשְׂאוּ גּוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּן עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 4.3. And He shall judge between many peoples, And shall decide concerning mighty nations afar off; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more."
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 4.25-4.26, 6.6-6.8, 6.27-6.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.25. עֵינֶיךָ לְנֹכַח יַבִּיטוּ וְעַפְעַפֶּיךָ יַיְשִׁרוּ נֶגְדֶּךָ׃ 4.26. פַּלֵּס מַעְגַּל רַגְלֶךָ וְכָל־דְּרָכֶיךָ יִכֹּנוּ׃ 6.6. לֵךְ־אֶל־נְמָלָה עָצֵל רְאֵה דְרָכֶיהָ וַחֲכָם׃ 6.7. אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לָהּ קָצִין שֹׁטֵר וּמֹשֵׁל׃ 6.8. תָּכִין בַּקַּיִץ לַחְמָהּ אָגְרָה בַקָּצִיר מַאֲכָלָהּ׃ 6.27. הֲיַחְתֶּה אִישׁ אֵשׁ בְּחֵיקוֹ וּבְגָדָיו לֹא תִשָּׂרַפְנָה׃ 6.28. אִם־יְהַלֵּךְ אִישׁ עַל־הַגֶּחָלִים וְרַגְלָיו לֹא תִכָּוֶינָה׃ 6.29. כֵּן הַבָּא אֶל־אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ לֹא יִנָּקֶה כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהּ׃ 4.25. Let thine eyes look right on, And let thine eyelids look straight before thee." 4.26. Make plain the path of thy feet, And let all thy ways be established." 6.6. Go to the ant, thou sluggard; Consider her ways, and be wise;" 6.7. Which having no chief, Overseer, or ruler," 6.8. Provideth her bread in the summer, And gatherest her food in the harvest." 6.27. Can a man take fire in his bosom, And his clothes not be burned?" 6.28. Or can one walk upon hot coals, And his feet not be scorched?" 6.29. So he that goeth in to his neighbour’s wife; Whosoever toucheth her shall not go unpunished."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.8, 10.2, 84.11, 127.2, 148.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.8. שְׁאַל מִמֶּנִּי וְאֶתְּנָה גוֹיִם נַחֲלָתֶךָ וַאֲחֻזָּתְךָ אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 10.2. בְּגַאֲוַת רָשָׁע יִדְלַק עָנִי יִתָּפְשׂוּ בִּמְזִמּוֹת זוּ חָשָׁבוּ׃ 84.11. כִּי טוֹב־יוֹם בַּחֲצֵרֶיךָ מֵאָלֶף בָּחַרְתִּי הִסְתּוֹפֵף בְּבֵית אֱלֹהַי מִדּוּר בְּאָהֳלֵי־רֶשַׁע׃ 127.2. שָׁוְא לָכֶם מַשְׁכִּימֵי קוּם מְאַחֲרֵי־שֶׁבֶת אֹכְלֵי לֶחֶם הָעֲצָבִים כֵּן יִתֵּן לִידִידוֹ שֵׁנָא׃ 148.3. הַלְלוּהוּ שֶׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ הַלְלוּהוּ כָּל־כּוֹכְבֵי אוֹר׃ 2.8. Ask of Me, and I will give the nations for thine inheritance, and the ends of the earth for thy possession." 10.2. Through the pride of the wicked the poor is hotly pursued, They are taken in the devices that they have imagined." 84.11. For a day in Thy courts is better than a thousand; I had rather stand at the threshold of the house of my God, than to dwell in the tents of wickedness." 127.2. It is vain for you that ye rise early, and sit up late, Ye that eat the bread of toil; So He giveth unto His beloved in sleep." 148.3. Praise ye Him, sun and moon; Praise Him, all ye stars of light."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 2.10, 19.19-19.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.19. וַיֵּלֶךְ מִשָּׁם וַיִּמְצָא אֶת־אֱלִישָׁע בֶּן־שָׁפָט וְהוּא חֹרֵשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר צְמָדִים לְפָנָיו וְהוּא בִּשְׁנֵים הֶעָשָׂר וַיַּעֲבֹר אֵלִיָּהוּ אֵלָיו וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אַדַּרְתּוֹ אֵלָיו׃ 19.21. וַיָּשָׁב מֵאַחֲרָיו וַיִּקַּח אֶת־צֶמֶד הַבָּקָר וַיִּזְבָּחֵהוּ וּבִכְלִי הַבָּקָר בִּשְּׁלָם הַבָּשָׂר וַיִּתֵּן לָעָם וַיֹּאכֵלוּ וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ וַיְשָׁרְתֵהוּ׃ 2.10. And David slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city of David." 19.19. So he departed thence, and found Elisha the son of Shaphat, who was plowing, with twelve yoke of oxen before him, and he with the twelfth; and Elijah passed over unto him, and cast his mantle upon him." 19.20. And he left the oxen, and ran after Elijah, and said: ‘Let me, I pray thee, kiss my father and my mother, and then I will follow thee.’ And he said unto him: ‘Go back; for what have I done to thee?’" 19.21. And he returned from following him, and took the yoke of oxen, and slew them, and boiled their flesh with the instruments of the oxen, and gave unto the people, and they did eat. Then he arose, and went after Elijah, and ministered unto him."
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 24.13, 25.11, 25.13-25.14, 25.18, 25.21-25.22, 25.24-25.31, 25.33-25.35, 25.39 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.13. יִשְׁפֹּט יְהוָה בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶךָ וּנְקָמַנִי יְהוָה מִמֶּךָּ וְיָדִי לֹא תִהְיֶה־בָּךְ׃ 25.11. וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶת־לַחְמִי וְאֶת־מֵימַי וְאֵת טִבְחָתִי אֲשֶׁר טָבַחְתִּי לְגֹזְזָי וְנָתַתִּי לַאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַעְתִּי אֵי מִזֶּה הֵמָּה׃ 25.18. וַתְּמַהֵר אבוגיל [אֲבִיגַיִל] וַתִּקַּח מָאתַיִם לֶחֶם וּשְׁנַיִם נִבְלֵי־יַיִן וְחָמֵשׁ צֹאן עשוות [עֲשׂוּיֹת] וְחָמֵשׁ סְאִים קָלִי וּמֵאָה צִמֻּקִים וּמָאתַיִם דְּבֵלִים וַתָּשֶׂם עַל־הַחֲמֹרִים׃ 25.21. וְדָוִד אָמַר אַךְ לַשֶּׁקֶר שָׁמַרְתִּי אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר לָזֶה בַּמִּדְבָּר וְלֹא־נִפְקַד מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ מְאוּמָה וַיָּשֶׁב־לִי רָעָה תַּחַת טוֹבָה׃ 25.22. כֹּה־יַעֲשֶׂה אֱלֹהִים לְאֹיְבֵי דָוִד וְכֹה יֹסִיף אִם־אַשְׁאִיר מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ עַד־הַבֹּקֶר מַשְׁתִּין בְּקִיר׃ 25.24. וַתִּפֹּל עַל־רַגְלָיו וַתֹּאמֶר בִּי־אֲנִי אֲדֹנִי הֶעָוֺן וּתְדַבֶּר־נָא אֲמָתְךָ בְּאָזְנֶיךָ וּשְׁמַע אֵת דִּבְרֵי אֲמָתֶךָ׃ 25.25. אַל־נָא יָשִׂים אֲדֹנִי אֶת־לִבּוֹ אֶל־אִישׁ הַבְּלִיַּעַל הַזֶּה עַל־נָבָל כִּי כִשְׁמוֹ כֶּן־הוּא נָבָל שְׁמוֹ וּנְבָלָה עִמּוֹ וַאֲנִי אֲמָתְךָ לֹא רָאִיתִי אֶת־נַעֲרֵי אֲדֹנִי אֲשֶׁר שָׁלָחְתָּ׃ 25.26. וְעַתָּה אֲדֹנִי חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אֲשֶׁר מְנָעֲךָ יְהוָה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהוֹשֵׁעַ יָדְךָ לָךְ וְעַתָּה יִהְיוּ כְנָבָל אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהַמְבַקְשִׁים אֶל־אֲדֹנִי רָעָה׃ 25.27. וְעַתָּה הַבְּרָכָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר־הֵבִיא שִׁפְחָתְךָ לַאדֹנִי וְנִתְּנָה לַנְּעָרִים הַמִּתְהַלְּכִים בְּרַגְלֵי אֲדֹנִי׃ 25.28. שָׂא נָא לְפֶשַׁע אֲמָתֶךָ כִּי עָשֹׂה־יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי בַּיִת נֶאֱמָן כִּי־מִלְחֲמוֹת יְהוָה אֲדֹנִי נִלְחָם וְרָעָה לֹא־תִמָּצֵא בְךָ מִיָּמֶיךָ׃ 25.29. וַיָּקָם אָדָם לִרְדָפְךָ וּלְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־נַפְשֶׁךָ וְהָיְתָה נֶפֶשׁ אֲדֹנִי צְרוּרָה בִּצְרוֹר הַחַיִּים אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְאֵת נֶפֶשׁ אֹיְבֶיךָ יְקַלְּעֶנָּה בְּתוֹךְ כַּף הַקָּלַע׃ 25.31. וְלֹא תִהְיֶה זֹאת לְךָ לְפוּקָה וּלְמִכְשׁוֹל לֵב לַאדֹנִי וְלִשְׁפָּךְ־דָּם חִנָּם וּלְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֲדֹנִי לוֹ וְהֵיטִב יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־אֲמָתֶךָ׃ 25.33. וּבָרוּךְ טַעְמֵךְ וּבְרוּכָה אָתְּ אֲשֶׁר כְּלִתִנִי הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהֹשֵׁעַ יָדִי לִי׃ 25.34. וְאוּלָם חַי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר מְנָעַנִי מֵהָרַע אֹתָךְ כִּי לוּלֵי מִהַרְתְּ ותבאתי [וַתָּבֹאת] לִקְרָאתִי כִּי אִם־נוֹתַר לְנָבָל עַד־אוֹר הַבֹּקֶר מַשְׁתִּין בְּקִיר׃ 25.35. וַיִּקַּח דָּוִד מִיָּדָהּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־הֵבִיאָה לוֹ וְלָהּ אָמַר עֲלִי לְשָׁלוֹם לְבֵיתֵךְ רְאִי שָׁמַעְתִּי בְקוֹלֵךְ וָאֶשָּׂא פָּנָיִךְ׃ 25.39. וַיִּשְׁמַע דָּוִד כִּי מֵת נָבָל וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר רָב אֶת־רִיב חֶרְפָּתִי מִיַּד נָבָל וְאֶת־עַבְדּוֹ חָשַׂךְ מֵרָעָה וְאֵת רָעַת נָבָל הֵשִׁיב יְהוָה בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיְדַבֵּר בַּאֲבִיגַיִל לְקַחְתָּהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 24.13. The Lord judge between me and thee, and the Lord avenge me of thee; but my hand shall not be upon thee." 25.11. Shall I then take my bread, and my water, and the fresh meat that I have killed for my shearers, and give it to men from I know not where?" 25.18. Then Avigayil made haste, and took two hundred loaves, and two bottles of wine, and five sheep ready prepared, and five measures of parched corn, and a hundred clusters of raisins, and two hundred cakes of figs, and laid them on asses." 25.21. Now David was saying, Surely in vain have I guarded all that this fellow has in the wilderness, so that nothing of his possessions was missing: and he has rendered me evil for good." 25.22. So and more also do God to the enemies of David, if I leave alive of all his people by the morning light so much as a single man." 25.24. and fell at his feet, and said, Upon me, my lord, upon me let this iniquity be: and let thy handmaid, I pray thee, speak in thy ears, and hear the words of thy handmaid." 25.25. Let not my lord, I pray thee, take heed of this worthless fellow, Naval: for as his name is, so is he; Naval is his name, and folly is with him: but I thy handmaid did not see the young men of my lord, whom thou didst send." 25.26. Now therefore, my lord, as the Lord lives, and as thy soul lives, seeing the Lord has prevented thee from coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thy own hand, now let thy enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Naval." 25.27. And now this blessing which thy handmaid has brought to my lord, let it be given to the young men that follow my lord." 25.28. I pray thee, forgive the trespass of thy handmaid: for the Lord will certainly make my lord a sure house; because my lord fights the battles of the Lord, and evil has not been found in thee all thy days." 25.29. Though a man rises to pursue thee, and to seek thy soul: yet the soul of my lord shall be bound in the bond of life with the Lord thy God; and the souls of thy enemies, them shall he sling out, as out of the hollow of a sling." 25.30. And it shall come to pass, when the Lord shall have done to my lord according to all the good that he has spoken concerning thee, and shall have appointed thee ruler over Yisra᾽el;" 25.31. that this shall not be a cause of stumbling to thee, nor offence of heart to my lord, that thou hast shed blood causelessly, or that my lord has avenged himself: and the Lord shall deal well with my lord, and thou shalt remember thy handmaid." 25.33. and blessed be thy discretion, and blessed be thou who hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood, and from avenging myself with my own hand." 25.34. For in very deed, as the Lord God of Yisra᾽el lives, who has kept me back from hurting thee, if thou hadst not hastened and come to meet me, surely there had not been left to Naval by the morning light so much as a single man!" 25.35. So David received of her hand that which she had brought him, and said to her, Go up in peace to thy house; see, I have hearkened to thy voice, and have granted thy request." 25.39. And when David heard that Naval was dead, he said, Blessed be the Lord, that has pleaded the cause of my reproach from the hand of Naval, and has kept his servant from evil: for the Lord has requited the wickedness of Naval upon his own head. And David sent and spoke with Avigayil, to take her to him to wife."
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.10-2.11, 2.13, 4.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.11. וַיְהִי הֵמָּה הֹלְכִים הָלוֹךְ וְדַבֵּר וְהִנֵּה רֶכֶב־אֵשׁ וְסוּסֵי אֵשׁ וַיַּפְרִדוּ בֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַל אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּסְעָרָה הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 2.13. וַיָּרֶם אֶת־אַדֶּרֶת אֵלִיָּהוּ אֲשֶׁר נָפְלָה מֵעָלָיו וַיָּשָׁב וַיַּעֲמֹד עַל־שְׂפַת הַיַּרְדֵּן׃ 4.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לְגֵיחֲזִי חֲגֹר מָתְנֶיךָ וְקַח מִשְׁעַנְתִּי בְיָדְךָ וָלֵךְ כִּי־תִמְצָא אִישׁ לֹא תְבָרְכֶנּוּ וְכִי־יְבָרֶכְךָ אִישׁ לֹא תַעֲנֶנּוּ וְשַׂמְתָּ מִשְׁעַנְתִּי עַל־פְּנֵי הַנָּעַר׃ 2.10. And he said: ‘Thou hast asked a hard thing; nevertheless, if thou see me when I am taken from thee, it shall be so unto thee; but if not, it shall not be so.’" 2.11. And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both assunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." 2.13. He took up also the mantle of Elijah that fell from him, and went back, and stood by the bank of the Jordan." 4.29. Then he said to Gehazi: ‘Gird up thy loins, and take my staff in thy hand, and go thy way; if thou meet any man, salute him not; and if any salute thee, answer him not; and lay my staff upon the face of the child.’"
13. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 3.4, 3.6 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3.4. הֲיִשְׁאַג אַרְיֵה בַּיַּעַר וְטֶרֶף אֵין לוֹ הֲיִתֵּן כְּפִיר קוֹלוֹ מִמְּעֹנָתוֹ בִּלְתִּי אִם־לָכָד׃ 3.6. אִם־יִתָּקַע שׁוֹפָר בְּעִיר וְעָם לֹא יֶחֱרָדוּ אִם־תִּהְיֶה רָעָה בְּעִיר וַיהוָה לֹא עָשָׂה׃ 3.4. Will a lion roar in the forest, When he hath no prey? Will a young lion give forth his voice out of his den, If he have taken nothing?" 3.6. Shall the horn be blown in a city, And the people not tremble? Shall evil befall a city, And the LORD hath not done it?"
14. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.4, 45.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.4. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 45.7. יוֹצֵר אוֹר וּבוֹרֵא חֹשֶׁךְ עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם וּבוֹרֵא רָע אֲנִי יְהוָה עֹשֶׂה כָל־אֵלֶּה׃ 2.4. And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more." 45.7. I form the light, and create darkness; I make peace, and create evil; I am the LORD, that doeth all these things."
15. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 50.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

50.29. הַשְׁמִיעוּ אֶל־בָּבֶל רַבִּים כָּל־דֹּרְכֵי קֶשֶׁת חֲנוּ עָלֶיהָ סָבִיב אַל־יְהִי־[לָהּ] פְּלֵטָה שַׁלְּמוּ־לָהּ כְּפָעֳלָהּ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר עָשְׂתָה עֲשׂוּ־לָהּ כִּי אֶל־יְהוָה זָדָה אֶל־קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 50.29. Call together the archers against Babylon, All them that bend the bow; Encamp against her round about, Let none thereof escape; Recompense her according to her work, According to all that she hath done, do unto her: For she hath been arrogant against the LORD, Against the Holy One of Israel. ."
16. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 33.11 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

33.11. אֱמֹר אֲלֵיהֶם חַי־אָנִי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אִם־אֶחְפֹּץ בְּמוֹת הָרָשָׁע כִּי אִם־בְּשׁוּב רָשָׁע מִדַּרְכּוֹ וְחָיָה שׁוּבוּ שׁוּבוּ מִדַּרְכֵיכֶם הָרָעִים וְלָמָּה תָמוּתוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 33.11. Say unto them: As I live, saith the Lord GOD, I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but that the wicked turn from his way and live; turn ye, turn ye from your evil ways; for why will ye die, O house of Israel?"
17. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

21c. thinking that there, if anywhere, I should prove the utterance wrong and should show the oracle This man is wiser than I, but you said I was wisest. So examining this man—for I need not call him by name, but it was one of the public men with regard to whom I had this kind of experience, men of Athens —and conversing with him, this man seemed to me to seem to be wise to many other people and especially to himself, but not to be so; and then I tried to show him that he thought
18. Plato, Crito, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

49c. Crito. Apparently not. Socrates. Well, Crito, ought one to do evil or not? Crito. Certainly not, Socrates. Socrates. Well, then, is it right to requite evil with evil, as the world says it is, or not right? Crito. Not right, certainly. Socrates. For doing evil to people is the same thing as wronging them. Crito. That is true. Socrates. Then we ought neither to requite wrong with wrong nor to do evil to anyone, no matter what he may have done to us.
19. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

715e. when he is young, but at its keenest when he is old. Clin. Very true. Ath. What, then, is to be our next step? May we not assume that our immigrants have arrived and are in the country, and should we not proceed with our address to them? Clin. of course. Ath. Let us, then, speak to them thus:— O men, that God who, as old tradition tells, holdeth the beginning, the end, and the center of all things that exist
20. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

21. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

22. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.16 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.16. Give of your bread to the hungry, and of your clothing to the naked. Give all your surplus to charity, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you made it.
23. Anon., 1 Enoch, 46.8, 91.12, 94.1, 94.7, 95.3, 95.5-95.7, 97.10, 103.11, 108.7 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

46.8. And they persecute the houses of His congregations, And the faithful who hang upon the name of the Lord of Spirits. 91.12. And after that there shall be another, the eighth week, that of righteousness, And a sword shall be given to it that a righteous judgement may be executed on the oppressors, And sinners shall be delivered into the hands of the righteous. 94.1. And now I say unto you, my sons, love righteousness and walk therein; For the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation, But the paths of unrighteousness shall suddenly be destroyed and vanish. 94.1. Thus I speak and declare unto you: He who hath created you will overthrow you, And for your fall there shall be no compassion, And your Creator will rejoice at your destruction. 94.7. Woe to those who build their houses with sin; For from all their foundations shall they be overthrown, And by the sword shall they fall. [And those who acquire gold and silver in judgement suddenly shall perish.] 95.3. Fear not the sinners, ye righteous; For again will the Lord deliver them into your hands, That ye may execute judgement upon them according to your desires. 95.5. Woe to you who requite your neighbour with evil; For ye shall be requited according to your works. 95.6. Woe to you, lying witnesses, And to those who weigh out injustice, For suddenly shall ye perish. 95.7. Woe to you, sinners, for ye persecute the righteous; For ye shall be delivered up and persecuted because of injustice, And heavy shall its yoke be upon you. 103.11. We hoped to be the head and have become the tail: We have toiled laboriously and had no satisfaction in our toil; And we have become the food of the sinners and the unrighteous, And they have laid their yoke heavily upon us. 108.7. of the prophets-(even) the things that shall be. For some of them are written and inscribed above in the heaven, in order that the angels may read them and know that which shall befall the sinners, and the spirits of the humble, and of those who have afflicted their bodies, and been recompensed
24. Anon., Jubilees, 23.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

23.24. Then they will say: "The days of the forefathers were many (even), unto a thousand years, and were good; but, behold, the days of our life, if a man hath lived many, are three score years and ten, and, if he is strong, four score years, and those evil
25. Anon., Testament of Benjamin, 6.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.5. The good mind hath not two tongues, of blessing and of cursing, of contumely and of honor, of sorrow and of joy, of quietness and of confusion, of hypocrisy and of truth, [of poverty and of wealth]; but it hath one disposition, uncorrupt and pure, concerning all men.
26. Anon., Testament of Gad, 6.1-6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. AND now, my children, I exhort you, love ye each one his brother, and put away hatred from your hearts, love one another in deed, and in word, and in the inclination of the soul. 6.2. For in the presence of my father I spake peaceably to Joseph; and when I had gone out, the spirit of hatred darkened my mind, and stirred up my soul to slay him. 6.3. Love ye one another from the heart; and if a man sin against thee, speak peaceably to him, and in thy soul hold not guile; and if he repent and confess, forgive him. 6.4. But if he deny it, do not get into a passion with him, lest catching the poison from thee he take to swearing and so thou sin doubly. 6.5. Let not another man hear thy secrets when engaged in legal strife, lest he come to hate thee and become thy enemy, and commit a great sin against thee; for ofttimes he addresseth thee guilefully or busieth himself about thee with wicked intent. 6.6. And though he deny it and yet have a sense of shame when reproved, give over reproving him. For be who denieth may repent so as not again to wrong thee; yea, he may also honour thee, and fear and be at peace with thee. 6.7. And if he be shameless and persist in his wrong-doing, even so forgive him from the heart, and leave to God the avenging.
27. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 18.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

18.2. And if any one seeketh to do evil unto you, do well unto him, and pray for him, and ye shall be redeemed of the Lord from all evil.
28. Anon., Testament of Zebulun, 8.1-8.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Anon., Testament of Judah, 23.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.14-7.19, 9.2-9.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 7.14-7.19, 9.2-9.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q174 (The Florilegium) 195, 199, 339, 1.11-1.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

34. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 4.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.2. He dared to designate as a plotter against the government the man who was the benefactor of the city, the protector of his fellow countrymen, and a zealot for the laws.'
35. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 8.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.5. Do not reproach a man who is turning away from sin;remember that we all deserve punishment.
36. Septuagint, Judith, 4.2, 5.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.2. they were therefore very greatly terrified at his approach, and were alarmed both for Jerusalem and for the temple of the Lord their God. 5.18. But when they departed from the way which he had appointed for them, they were utterly defeated in many battles and were led away captive to a foreign country; the temple of their God was razed to the ground, and their cities were captured by their enemies.
37. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 19.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

19.14. Others had refused to receive strangers when they came to them,but these made slaves of guests who were their benefactors.
38. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 6.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.24. You are committing treason and surpassing tyrants in cruelty; and even me, your benefactor, you are now attempting to deprive of dominion and life by secretly devising acts of no advantage to the kingdom.
39. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 4.116 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

4.116. And Babylon, great to see but small to fight
40. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 149 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

149. And yet if ever there was a man to whom it was proper that new and unprecedented honours should be voted, it was certainly fitting that such should be decreed to him, not only because he was as it were the origin and fountain of the family of Augustus, not because he was the first, and greatest, and universal benefactor, having, instead of the multitude of governors who existed before, entrusted the common vessel of the state to himself as one pilot of admirable skill in the science of government to steer and govern; for the verse, "The government of many is not Good," is very properly expressed, since a multitude of votes is the cause of every variety of evil; but also because the whole of the rest of the habitable world had decreed him honours equal to those of the Olympian gods.
41. Anon., Didache, 1.2-1.6, 2.2, 2.4-2.5, 2.7, 3.1-3.10, 5.1-5.2, 6.1-6.3, 10.5-10.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1. There are two ways, one of life and one of death; but a great difference between the two ways. The way of life, then, is this: First, you shall love God who made you; second, your neighbour as yourself; and all things whatsoever you would should not occur to you, do not also do to another. And of these sayings the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you. For what reward is there, if you love those who love you? Do not also the Gentiles do the same? But love those who hate you, and you shall not have an enemy. Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts. If someone gives you a blow upon your right cheek, turn to him the other also, and you shall be perfect. If someone impresses you for one mile, go with him two. If someone takes away your cloak, give him also your coat. If someone takes from you what is yours, ask it not back, for indeed you are not able. Give to every one that asks you, and ask it not back; for the Father wills that to all should be given of our own blessings (free gifts). Happy is he that gives according to the commandment; for he is guiltless. Woe to him that receives; for if one having need receives, he is guiltless; but he that receives not having need, shall pay the penalty, why he received and for what, and, coming into straits (confinement), he shall be examined concerning the things which he has done, and he shall not escape thence until he pay back the last farthing. Matthew 5:26 But also now concerning this, it has been said, Let your alms sweat in your hands, until you know to whom you should give.
42. Epictetus, Discourses, 3.22, 3.22.54 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

43. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 8.119 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.119. Now when this divine appearance was seen, the people supposed it to be a demonstration of God’s abode in the temple, and were pleased with it, and fell down upon the ground and worshipped. Upon which the king began to bless God, and exhorted the multitude to do the same, as now having sufficient indications of God’s favorable disposition to them;
44. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.128, 2.135, 2.139 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.135. They dispense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without [swearing by] God is already condemned. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous;
45. Mishnah, Avot, 1.2, 2.4, 3.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Shimon the Righteous was one of the last of the men of the great assembly. He used to say: the world stands upon three things: the Torah, the Temple service, and the practice of acts of piety." 2.4. He used to say: do His will as though it were your will, so that He will do your will as though it were His. Set aside your will in the face of His will, so that he may set aside the will of others for the sake of your will. Hillel said: do not separate yourself from the community, Do not trust in yourself until the day of your death, Do not judge not your fellow man until you have reached his place. Do not say something that cannot be understood [trusting] that in the end it will be understood. Say not: ‘when I shall have leisure I shall study;’ perhaps you will not have leisure." 3.14. He used to say:Beloved is man for he was created in the image [of God]. Especially beloved is he for it was made known to him that he had been created in the image [of God], as it is said: “for in the image of God He made man” (Genesis 9:6). Beloved are Israel in that they were called children to the All-Present. Especially beloved are they for it was made known to them that they are called children of the All-Present, as it is said: “your are children to the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 14:1). Beloved are Israel in that a precious vessel was given to them. Especially beloved are they for it was made known to them that the desirable instrument, with which the world had been created, was given to them, as it is said: “for I give you good instruction; forsake not my teaching” (Proverbs 4:2)."
46. Mishnah, Peah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. It happened that Rabbi Shimon of Mitzpah planted his field [with two different kinds] and came before Rabban Gamaliel. They both went up to the Chamber of Hewn Stone and asked [about the law]. Nahum the scribe said: I have a tradition from Rabbi Meyasha, who received it from Abba, who received it from the pairs [of sage], who received it from the prophets, a halakhah of Moses from Sinai, that one who plants his field with two species of wheat, if he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah, but if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs."
47. Mishnah, Yevamot, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. Beth Shammai permits the rival wives to the surviving brothers, and Beth Hillel prohibits them. If they perform the halitzah, Beth Shammai disqualifies them from marrying a priest, and Beth Hillel makes the eligible. If they performed yibbum, Beth Shammai makes them eligible [to marry a priest], and Beth Hillel disqualifies them. Though these forbid and these permit, and these disqualify and these make eligible, Beth Shammai did not refrain from marrying women from [the families of] Beth Hillel, nor did Beth Hillel [refrain from marrying women] from [the families of] Beth Shammai. [With regard to] purity and impurity, which these declare pure and the others declare impure, neither of them refrained from using the utensils of the others for the preparation of food that was ritually clean."
48. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.9. One who says: I shall sin and repent, sin and repent, they do not afford him the opportunity to repent. [If one says]: I shall sin and Yom HaKippurim will atone for me, Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement. For transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow. This was expounded by Rabbi Elazar b. Azariah: “From all your sins before the Lord you shall be clean” (Leviticus 16:30) for transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow.. Rabbi Akiva said: Happy are you, Israel! Who is it before whom you become pure? And who is it that purifies you? Your Father who is in heaven, as it is said: “And I will sprinkle clean water upon you and you shall be clean” (Ezekiel 36:25). And it further says: “O hope (mikveh) of Israel, O Lord” (Jeremiah 17:1--just as a mikveh purifies the unclean, so too does he Holy One, blessed be He, purify Israel."
49. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.7. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you declare an uninterrupted flow of a liquid to be clean. The Pharisees say: we complain against you, Sadducees, that you declare a stream of water which flows from a burial-ground to be clean? The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you say, my ox or donkey which has done injury is liable, yet my male or female slave who has done injury is not liable. Now if in the case of my ox or my donkey for which I am not responsible if they do not fulfill religious duties, yet I am responsible for their damages, in the case of my male or female slave for whom I am responsible to see that they fulfill mitzvot, how much more so that I should be responsible for their damages? They said to them: No, if you argue about my ox or my donkey which have no understanding, can you deduce from there anything concerning a male or female slave who do have understanding? So that if I were to anger either of them and they would go and burn another person's stack, should I be liable to make restitution?"
50. New Testament, 1 John, 1.1, 3.9, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. That which was from the beginning, that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes, that which we saw, and our hands touched, concerning the Word of life 3.9. Whoever is born of God doesn't commit sin, because his seed remains in him; and he can't sin, because he is born of God. 5.14. This is the boldness which we have toward him, that, if we ask anything according to his will, he listens to us.
51. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.5-1.12, 1.14-1.16, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. who by the power of God are guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. 1.6. Wherein you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while, if need be, you have been put to grief in various trials 1.7. that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ -- 1.8. whom not having known you love; in whom, though now you don't see him, yet believing, you rejoice greatly with joy unspeakable and full of glory -- 1.9. receiving the result of your faith, the salvation of your souls. 1.10. Concerning this salvation, the prophets sought and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that would come to you 1.11. searching for who or what kind of time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, pointed to, when he predicted the sufferings of Christ, and the glories that would follow them. 1.12. To them it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to you, did they minister these things, which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent out from heaven; which things angels desire to look into. 1.14. as children of obedience, not conforming yourselves according to your former lusts as in your ignorance 1.15. but just as he who called you is holy, you yourselves also be holy in all of your behavior; 1.16. because it is written, "You shall be holy; for I am holy. 3.9. not rendering evil for evil, or reviling for reviling; but instead blessing; knowing that to this were you called, that you may inherit a blessing.
52. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 4.12, 4.16, 5.4, 6.1, 6.7, 6.9, 6.11, 7.10-7.11, 7.16, 8.1, 8.7, 10.1-10.5, 11.1, 12.3, 12.8-12.10, 13.1-13.3, 13.8-13.12, 15.9, 15.28, 15.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.12. We toil,working with our own hands. Being reviled, we bless. Being persecuted,we endure. 4.16. I beg you therefore, be imitators of me. 5.4. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,you being gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our LordJesus Christ 6.1. Dare any of you, having a matter against his neighbor, go tolaw before the unrighteous, and not before the saints? 6.7. Therefore it is already altogether a defect in you, that you havelawsuits one with another. Why not rather be wronged? Why not rather bedefrauded? 6.9. Or don't you know that the unrighteouswill not inherit the Kingdom of God? Don't be deceived. Neither thesexually immoral, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor male prostitutes,nor homosexuals 6.11. Such were some of you, but you were washed. But you were sanctified.But you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and in the Spiritof our God. 7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.11. (but if she departs, let her remain unmarried, or else be reconciled toher husband), and that the husband not leave his wife. 7.16. For how do you know,wife, whether you will save your husband? Or how do you know, husband,whether you will save your wife? 8.1. Now concerning things sacrificed to idols: We know that we allhave knowledge. Knowledge puffs up, but love builds up. 8.7. However, that knowledgeisn't in all men. But some, with consciousness of the idol until now,eat as of a thing sacrificed to an idol, and their conscience, beingweak, is defiled. 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 10.3. andall ate the same spiritual food; 10.4. and all drank the samespiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them,and the rock was Christ. 10.5. However with most of them, God was notwell pleased, for they were overthrown in the wilderness. 11.1. Be imitators of me, even as I also am of Christ. 12.3. Therefore Imake known to you that no man speaking by God's Spirit says, "Jesus isaccursed." No one can say, "Jesus is Lord," but by the Holy Spirit. 12.8. For to one is given through theSpirit the word of wisdom, and to another the word of knowledge,according to the same Spirit; 12.9. to another faith, by the sameSpirit; and to another gifts of healings, by the same Spirit; 12.10. and to another workings of miracles; and to another prophecy; and toanother discerning of spirits; to another different kinds of languages;and to another the interpretation of languages. 13.1. If I speak with the languages of men and of angels, but don'thave love, I have become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal. 13.2. If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and allknowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, butdon't have love, I am nothing. 13.3. If I dole out all my goods tofeed the poor, and if I give my body to be burned, but don't have love,it profits me nothing. 13.8. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies,they will be done away with. Where there are various languages, theywill cease. Where there is knowledge, it will be done away with. 13.9. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part; 13.10. but when thatwhich is complete has come, then that which is partial will be doneaway with. 13.11. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I felt as achild, I thought as a child. Now that I have become a man, I have putaway childish things. 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known. 15.9. For I am the least of theapostles, who is not worthy to be called an apostle, because Ipersecuted the assembly of God. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly.
53. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 3.4, 3.7, 5.12, 5.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.4. For most assuredly, when we were with you, we told you beforehand that we are to suffer affliction, even as it happened, and you know. 3.7. for this cause, brothers, we were comforted over you in all our distress and affliction through your faith. 5.12. But we beg you, brothers, to know those who labor among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you 5.15. See that no one returns evil for evil to anyone, but always follow after that which is good, for one another, and for all.
54. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 2.9, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. In the same way, that women also adorn themselves in decent clothing, with modesty and propriety; not just with braided hair, gold, pearls, or expensive clothing; 5.6. But she who gives herself to pleasure is dead while she lives.
55. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 5.16-5.17, 6.16, 11.13-11.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

56. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.9. not because we don't have the right, but to make ourselves an example to you, that you should imitate us.
57. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 3.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.12. Yes, and all who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus will suffer persecution.
58. New Testament, Acts, 1.6-1.9, 1.11, 3.22-3.26, 5.34, 7.37, 7.52, 9.4-9.5, 9.28, 13.44, 16.32-16.34, 22.4, 22.7-22.8, 23.6-23.10, 26.11, 26.14-26.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.6. Therefore, when they had come together, they asked him, "Lord, are you now restoring the kingdom to Israel? 1.7. He said to them, "It isn't for you to know times or seasons which the Father has set within His own authority. 1.8. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come on you. You will be witnesses to me in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the uttermost parts of the earth. 1.9. When he had said these things, as they were looking, he was taken up, and a cloud received him out of their sight. 1.11. who also said, "You men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the sky? This Jesus, who was received up from you into the sky will come back in the same way as you saw him going into the sky. 3.22. For Moses indeed said to the fathers, 'The Lord God will raise up a prophet to you from among your brothers, like me. You shall listen to him in all things whatever he says to you. 3.23. It will be, that every soul that will not listen to that prophet will be utterly destroyed from among the people.' 3.24. Yes, and all the prophets from Samuel and those who followed after, as many as have spoken, they also told of these days. 3.25. You are the sons of the prophets, and of the covet which God made with our fathers, saying to Abraham, 'In your seed will all the families of the earth be blessed.' 3.26. God, having raised up his servant, Jesus, sent him to you first, to bless you, in turning away everyone of you from your wickedness. 5.34. But one stood up in the council, a Pharisee named Gamaliel, a teacher of the law, honored by all the people, and commanded to take the apostles out a little while. 7.37. This is that Moses, who said to the children of Israel , 'The Lord God will raise up a prophet to you from among your brothers, like me.' 7.52. Which of the prophets didn't your fathers persecute? They killed those who foretold the coming of the Righteous One, of whom you have now become betrayers and murderers. 9.4. He fell on the earth, and heard a voice saying to him, "Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? 9.5. He said, "Who are you, Lord?"The Lord said, "I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting. 9.28. He was with them going in and going out at Jerusalem 13.44. The next Sabbath almost the whole city was gathered together to hear the word of God. 16.32. They spoke the word of the Lord to him, and to all who were in his house. 16.33. He took them the same hour of the night, and washed their stripes, and was immediately baptized, he and all his household. 16.34. He brought them up into his house, and set food before them, and rejoiced greatly, with all his household, having believed in God. 22.4. I persecuted this Way to the death, binding and delivering into prisons both men and women. 22.7. I fell to the ground, and heard a voice saying to me, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?' 22.8. I answered, 'Who are you, Lord?' He said to me, 'I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom you persecute.' 23.6. But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, "Men and brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. Concerning the hope and resurrection of the dead I am being judged! 23.7. When he had said this, an argument arose between the Pharisees and Sadducees, and the assembly was divided. 23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these. 23.9. A great clamor arose, and some of the scribes of the Pharisees part stood up, and contended, saying, "We find no evil in this man. But if a spirit or angel has spoken to him, let's not fight against God! 23.10. When a great argument arose, the commanding officer, fearing that Paul would be torn in pieces by them, commanded the soldiers to go down and take him by force from among them, and bring him into the barracks. 26.11. Punishing them often in all the synagogues, I tried to make them blaspheme. Being exceedingly enraged against them, I persecuted them even to foreign cities. 26.14. When we had all fallen to the earth, I heard a voice saying to me in the Hebrew language, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? It is hard for you to kick against the goads.' 26.15. I said, 'Who are you, Lord?' "He said, 'I am Jesus, whom you persecute.
59. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.9, 3.8, 3.12, 6.10, 7.1-7.8, 11.18, 14.10, 18.4-18.5, 18.21-18.22, 19.2, 21.6, 21.22, 22.12, 22.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. I John, your brother and partner with you in oppression, kingdom, and perseverance in Christ Jesus, was on the isle that is called Patmos because of God's Word and the testimony of Jesus Christ. 3.8. I know your works (behold, I have set before you an open door, which no one can shut), that you have a little power, and kept my word, and didn't deny my name. 3.12. He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will go out from there no more. I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from my God, and my own new name. 6.10. They cried with a loud voice, saying, "How long, Master, the holy and true, do you not judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth? 7.1. After this, I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, so that no wind would blow on the earth, or on the sea, or on any tree. 7.2. I saw another angel ascend from the sunrise, having the seal of the living God. He cried with a loud voice to the four angels to whom it was given to harm the earth and the sea 7.3. saying, "Don't harm the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, until we have sealed the bondservants of our God on their foreheads! 7.4. I heard the number of those who were sealed, one hundred forty-four thousand, sealed out of every tribe of the children of Israel: 7.5. of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand, of the tribe of Reuben twelve thousand, of the tribe of Gad twelve thousand 7.6. of the tribe of Asher twelve thousand, of the tribe of Naphtali twelve thousand, of the tribe of Manasseh twelve thousand 7.7. of the tribe of Simeon twelve thousand, of the tribe of Levi twelve thousand, of the tribe of Issachar twelve thousand 7.8. of the tribe of Zebulun twelve thousand, of the tribe of Joseph twelve thousand, of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand. 11.18. The nations were angry, and your wrath came, as did the time for the dead to be judged, and to give your servants the prophets, their reward, as well as the saints, and those who fear your name, the small and the great; and to destroy those who destroy the earth. 14.10. he also will drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is prepared unmixed in the cup of his anger. He will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb. 18.4. I heard another voice from heaven, saying, "Come forth, my people, out of her, that you have no participation in her sins, and that you don't receive of her plagues 18.5. for her sins have reached to the sky, and God has remembered her iniquities. 18.21. A mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone and cast it into the sea, saying, "Thus with violence will Babylon, the great city, be thrown down, and will be found no more at all. 18.22. The voice of harpers and minstrels and flute players and trumpeters will be heard no more at all in you. No craftsman, of whatever craft, will be found any more at all in you. The sound of a mill will be heard no more at all in you. 19.2. for true and righteous are his judgments. For he has judged the great prostitute, her who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality, and he has avenged the blood of his servants at her hand. 21.6. He said to me, "It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give freely to him who is thirsty from the spring of the water of life. 21.22. I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God, the Almighty, and the Lamb, are its temple. 22.12. Behold, I come quickly. My reward is with me, to repay to each man according to his work. 22.17. The Spirit and the bride say, "Come!" He who hears, let him say, "Come!" He who is thirsty, let him come. He who desires, let him take the water of life freely.
60. New Testament, James, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. But above all things, my brothers, don't swear, neither by heaven, nor by the earth, nor by any other oath; but let your "yes" be "yes," and your "no," "no;" so that you don't fall into hypocrisy.
61. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15, 2.6-2.7, 3.10, 3.18-3.19, 3.21-3.22, 3.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 2.6. As therefore you received Christ Jesus, the Lord, walk in him 2.7. rooted and built up in him, and established in the faith, even as you were taught, abounding in it in thanksgiving. 3.10. and have put on the new man, that is being renewed in knowledge after the image of his Creator 3.18. Wives, be in subjection to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord. 3.19. Husbands, love your wives, and don't be bitter against them. 3.21. Fathers, don't provoke your children, so that they won't be discouraged. 3.22. Servants, obey in all things those who are your masters according to the flesh, not just when they are looking, as men-pleasers, but in singleness of heart, fearing God. 3.24. knowing that from the Lord you will receive the reward of the inheritance; for you serve the Lord Christ.
62. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.3-1.14, 4.20-4.21, 4.32, 5.1-5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.11. in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his will; 1.12. to the end that we should be to the praise of his glory, we who had before hoped in Christ: 1.13. in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, -- in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise 1.14. who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. 4.20. But you did not learn Christ that way; 4.21. if indeed you heard him, and were taught in him, even as truth is in Jesus: 4.32. And be kind to one another, tenderhearted, forgiving each other, just as God also in Christ forgave you. 5.1. Be therefore imitators of God, as beloved children. 5.2. Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling fragrance. 5.3. But sexual immorality, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not even be mentioned among you, as becomes saints; 5.4. nor filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not appropriate; but rather giving of thanks. 5.5. Know this for sure, that no sexually immoral person, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the Kingdom of Christ and God. 5.6. Let no one deceive you with empty words. For because of these things, the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 5.7. Therefore don't be partakers with them. 5.8. For you were once darkness, but are now light in the Lord. Walk as children of light 5.9. for the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth 5.10. proving what is well-pleasing to the Lord. 5.11. Have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather even reprove them. 5.12. For the things which are done by them in secret, it is a shame even to speak of. 5.13. But all things, when they are reproved, are revealed by the light, for everything that is revealed is light. 5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you.
63. New Testament, Galatians, 1.6-1.9, 1.13, 1.23, 4.29, 5.11, 6.2, 6.12, 6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. I marvel that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ to a different gospel; 1.7. and there isn'tanother gospel. Only there are some who trouble you, and want topervert the gospel of Christ. 1.8. But even though we, or an angelfrom heaven, should preach to you any gospel other than that which wepreached to you, let him be cursed. 1.9. As we have said before, so Inow say again: if any man preaches to you any gospel other than thatwhich you received, let him be cursed. 1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.23. but they only heard: "He who once persecuted us nowpreaches the faith that he once tried to destroy. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 5.11. But I, brothers, if I still preach circumcision, why am Istill persecuted? Then the stumbling-block of the cross has beenremoved. 6.2. Bear one another'sburdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ. 6.12. As many as desire to look good in the flesh, they compel you tobe circumcised; only that they may not be persecuted for the cross ofChrist. 6.15. For in Christ Jesus neitheris circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation.
64. New Testament, Philippians, 1.12, 1.14, 3.1, 3.13, 3.17, 3.21, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. Now I desire to have you know, brothers, that the things which happened to me have turned out rather to the progress of the gospel; 1.14. and that most of the brothers in the Lord, being confident through my bonds, are more abundantly bold to speak the word of God without fear. 3.1. Finally, my brothers, rejoice in the Lord. To write the same things to you, to me indeed is not tiresome, but for you it is safe. 3.13. Brothers, I don't regard myself as yet having taken hold, but one thing I do. Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before 3.17. Brothers, be imitators together of me, and note those who walk this way, even as you have us for an example. 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself. 4.1. Therefore, my brothers, beloved and longed for, my joy and crown, so stand firm in the Lord, my beloved.
65. New Testament, Romans, 2.17-2.24, 8.2, 8.16, 10.6-10.8, 11.32, 11.36, 12.9-12.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.17. Indeed you bear the name of a Jew, and rest on the law, and glory in God 2.18. and know his will, and approve the things that are excellent, being instructed out of the law 2.19. and are confident that you yourself are a guide of the blind, a light to those who are in darkness 2.20. a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of babies, having in the law the form of knowledge and of the truth. 2.21. You therefore who teach another, don't you teach yourself? You who preach that a man shouldn't steal, do you steal? 2.22. You who say a man shouldn't commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 2.23. You who glory in the law, through your disobedience of the law do you dishonor God? 2.24. For "the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you," just as it is written. 8.2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death. 8.16. The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God; 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 11.32. For God has shut up all to disobedience, that he might have mercy on all. 11.36. For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things. To him be the glory for ever! Amen. 12.9. Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor that which is evil. Cling to that which is good. 12.10. In love of the brothers be tenderly affectionate one to another; in honor preferring one another; 12.11. not lagging in diligence; fervent in spirit; serving the Lord; 12.12. rejoicing in hope; enduring in troubles; continuing steadfastly in prayer; 12.13. contributing to the needs of the saints; given to hospitality. 12.14. Bless those who persecute you; bless, and don't curse. 12.15. Rejoice with those who rejoice. Weep with those who weep. 12.16. Be of the same mind one toward another. Don't set your mind on high things, but associate with the humble. Don't be wise in your own conceits. 12.17. Repay no one evil for evil. Respect what is honorable in the sight of all men. 12.18. If it is possible, as much as it is up to you, be at peace with all men. 12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 12.20. Therefore "If your enemy is hungry, feed him. If he is thirsty, give him a drink. For in doing so, you will heap coals of fire on his head. 12.21. Don't be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.
66. New Testament, Titus, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.8. This saying is faithful, and concerning these things I desire that you affirm confidently, so that those who have believed God may be careful to maintain good works. These things are good and profitable to men;
67. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.18, 3.1-3.2, 4.14, 4.34, 5.16, 5.41-5.44, 7.50-7.51, 8.42, 10.38, 13.34-13.35, 14.26, 15.20, 17.21-17.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. 1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 3.1. Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. 3.2. The same came to him by night, and said to him, "Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him. 4.14. but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst again; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life. 4.34. Jesus said to them, "My food is to do the will of him who sent me, and to accomplish his work. 5.16. For this cause the Jews persecuted Jesus, and sought to kill him, because he did these things on the Sabbath. 5.41. I don't receive glory from men. 5.42. But I know you, that you don't have God's love in yourselves. 5.43. I have come in my Father's name, and you don't receive me. If another comes in his own name, you will receive him. 5.44. How can you believe, who receive glory from one another, and you don't seek the glory that comes from the only God? 7.50. Nicodemus (he who came to him by night, being one of them) said to them 7.51. Does our law judge a man, unless it first hears from him personally and knows what he does? 8.42. Therefore Jesus said to them, "If God were your Father, you would love me, for I came out and have come from God. For I haven't come of myself, but he sent me. 10.38. But if I do them, though you don't believe me, believe the works; that you may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in the Father. 13.34. A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, just like I have loved you; that you also love one another. 13.35. By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another. 14.26. But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and will remind you of all that I said to you. 15.20. Remember the word that I said to you: 'A servant is not greater than his lord.' If they persecuted me, they will also persecute you. If they kept my word, they will keep yours also. 17.21. that they may all be one; even as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be one in us; that the world may believe that you sent me. 17.22. The glory which you have given me, I have given to them; that they may be one, even as we are one; 17.23. I in them, and you in me, that they may be perfected into one; that the world may know that you sent me, and loved them, even as you loved me.
68. New Testament, Luke, 1.75, 4.1-4.29, 5.24, 6.20-6.49, 7.11-7.17, 8.8, 9.51-9.52, 9.59-9.62, 10.5, 10.38-10.42, 11.2, 11.37-11.52, 12.33, 14.26, 16.16, 16.18, 17.23, 18.19-18.20, 21.12, 22.25, 22.54, 22.63-22.71, 23.43, 24.15-24.17, 24.25-24.27, 24.44-24.51 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.75. In holiness and righteousness before him all the days of our life. 4.1. Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness 4.2. for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 4.3. The devil said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread. 4.4. Jesus answered him, saying, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.' 4.5. The devil, leading him up on a high mountain, showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 4.6. The devil said to him, "I will give you all this authority, and their glory, for it has been delivered to me; and I give it to whomever I want. 4.7. If you therefore will worship before me, it will all be yours. 4.8. Jesus answered him, "Get behind me Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.9. He led him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down from here 4.10. for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you, to guard you;' 4.11. and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, Lest perhaps you dash your foot against a stone.' 4.12. Jesus answering, said to him, "It has been said, 'You shall not tempt the Lord your God.' 4.13. When the devil had completed every temptation, he departed from him until another time. 4.14. Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee, and news about him spread through all the surrounding area. 4.15. He taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian. 4.28. They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. 4.29. They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff. 5.24. But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins" (he said to the paralyzed man), "I tell you, arise, and take up your cot, and go to your house. 6.20. He lifted up his eyes to his disciples, and said, "Blessed are you poor, For yours is the Kingdom of God. 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake. 6.23. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. 6.24. But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 6.25. Woe to you, you who are full now! For you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now! For you will mourn and weep. 6.26. Woe, when men speak well of you! For their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets. 6.27. But I tell you who hear: love your enemies, do good to those who hate you 6.28. bless those who curse you, and pray for those who insult you. 6.29. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak, don't withhold your coat also. 6.30. Give to everyone who asks you, and don't ask him who takes away your goods to give them back again. 6.31. As you would like people to do to you, do exactly so to them. 6.32. If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 6.33. If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 6.34. If you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners, to receive back as much. 6.35. But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind toward the unthankful and evil. 6.36. Therefore be merciful, Even as your Father is also merciful. 6.37. Don't judge, And you won't be judged. Don't condemn, And you won't be condemned. Set free, And you will be set free. 6.38. Give, and it will be given to you: good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over, will be given to you. For with the same measure you measure it will be measured back to you. 6.39. He spoke a parable to them. "Can the blind guide the blind? Won't they both fall into a pit? 6.40. A disciple is not above his teacher, but everyone when he is fully trained will be like his teacher. 6.41. Why do you see the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye, but don't consider the beam that is in your own eye? 6.42. Or how can you tell your brother, 'Brother, let me remove the speck of chaff that is in your eye,' when you yourself don't see the beam that is in your own eye? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye. 6.43. For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. 6.44. For each tree is known by its own fruit. For people don't gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. 6.45. The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings out that which is good, and the evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart brings out that which is evil, for out of the abundance of the heart, his mouth speaks. 6.46. Why do you call me, 'Lord, Lord,' and don't do the things which I say? 6.47. Everyone who comes to me, and hears my words, and does them, I will show you who he is like. 6.48. He is like a man building a house, who dug and went deep, and laid a foundation on the rock. When a flood arose, the stream broke against that house, and could not shake it, because it was founded on the rock. 6.49. But he who hears, and doesn't do, is like a man who built a house on the earth without a foundation, against which the stream broke, and immediately it fell, and the ruin of that house was great. 7.11. It happened soon afterwards, that he went to a city called Nain. Many of his disciples, along with a great multitude, went with him. 7.12. Now when he drew near to the gate of the city, behold, one who was dead was carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow. Many people of the city were with her. 7.13. When the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said to her, "Don't cry. 7.14. He came near and touched the coffin, and the bearers stood still. He said, "Young man, I tell you, arise! 7.15. He who was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he gave him to his mother. 7.16. Fear took hold of all, and they glorified God, saying, "A great prophet has arisen among us!" and, "God has visited his people! 7.17. This report went out concerning him in the whole of Judea, and in all the surrounding region. 8.8. Other fell into the good ground, and grew, and brought forth fruit one hundred times." As he said these things, he called out, "He who has ears to hear, let him hear! 9.51. It came to pass, when the days were near that he should be taken up, he intently set his face to go to Jerusalem 9.52. and sent messengers before his face. They went, and entered into a village of the Samaritans, so as to prepare for him. 9.59. He said to another, "Follow me!"But he said, "Lord, allow me first to go and bury my father. 9.60. But Jesus said to him, "Leave the dead to bury their own dead, but you go and announce the Kingdom of God. 9.61. Another also said, "I want to follow you, Lord, but first allow me to bid farewell to those who are at my house. 9.62. But Jesus said to him, "No one, having put his hand to the plow, and looking back, is fit for the Kingdom of God. 10.5. Into whatever house you enter, first say, 'Peace be to this house.' 10.38. It happened as they went on their way, he entered into a certain village, and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house. 10.39. She had a sister called Mary, who also sat at Jesus' feet, and heard his word. 10.40. But Martha was distracted with much serving, and she came up to him, and said, "Lord, don't you care that my sister left me to serve alone? Ask her therefore to help me. 10.41. Jesus answered her, "Martha, Martha, you are anxious and troubled about many things 10.42. but one thing is needed. Mary has chosen the good part, which will not be taken away from her. 11.2. He said to them, "When you pray, say, 'Our Father in heaven, May your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come. May your will be done on Earth, as it is in heaven. 11.37. Now as he spoke, a certain Pharisee asked him to dine with him. He went in, and sat at the table. 11.38. When the Pharisee saw it, he marveled that he had not first washed himself before dinner. 11.39. The Lord said to him, "Now you Pharisees cleanse the outside of the cup and of the platter, but your inward part is full of extortion and wickedness. 11.40. You foolish ones, didn't he who made the outside make the inside also? 11.41. But give for gifts to the needy those things which are within, and behold, all things will be clean to you. 11.42. But woe to you Pharisees! For you tithe mint and rue and every herb, but you bypass justice and the love of God. You ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 11.43. Woe to you Pharisees! For you love the best seats in the synagogues, and the greetings in the marketplaces. 11.44. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like hidden graves, and the men who walk over them don't know it. 11.45. One of the lawyers answered him, "Teacher, in saying this you insult us also. 11.46. He said, "Woe to you lawyers also! For you load men with burdens that are difficult to carry, and you yourselves won't even lift one finger to help carry those burdens. 11.47. Woe to you! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and your fathers killed them. 11.48. So you testify and consent to the works of your fathers. For they killed them, and you build their tombs. 11.49. Therefore also the wisdom of God said, 'I will send to them prophets and apostles; and some of them they will kill and persecute 11.50. that the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation; 11.51. from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah, who perished between the altar and the sanctuary.' Yes, I tell you, it will be required of this generation. 11.52. Woe to you lawyers! For you took away the key of knowledge. You didn't enter in yourselves, and those who were entering in, you hindered. 12.33. Sell that which you have, and give gifts to the needy. Make for yourselves purses which don't grow old, a treasure in the heavens that doesn't fail, where no thief approaches, neither moth destroys. 14.26. If anyone comes to me, and doesn't hate his own father, mother, wife, children, brothers, and sisters, yes, and his own life also, he can't be my disciple. 16.16. The law and the prophets were until John. From that time the gospel of the Kingdom of God is preached, and everyone is forcing his way into it. 16.18. Everyone who divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery. He who marries one who is divorced from a husband commits adultery. 17.23. They will tell you, 'Look, here!' or 'Look, there!' Don't go away, nor follow after them 18.19. Jesus asked him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good, except one -- God. 18.20. You know the commandments: 'Don't commit adultery,' 'Don't murder,' 'Don't steal,' 'Don't give false testimony,' 'Honor your father and your mother.' 21.12. But before all these things, they will lay their hands on you and will persecute you, delivering you up to synagogues and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for my name's sake. 22.25. He said to them, "The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them, and those who have authority over them are called 'benefactors.' 22.54. They seized him, and led him away, and brought him into the high priest's house. But Peter followed from a distance. 22.63. The men who held Jesus mocked him and beat him. 22.64. Having blindfolded him, they struck him on the face and asked him, "Prophesy! Who is the one who struck you? 22.65. They spoke many other things against him, insulting him. 22.66. As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying 22.67. If you are the Christ, tell us."But he said to them, "If I tell you, you won't believe 22.68. and if I ask, you will in no way answer me or let me go. 22.69. From now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God. 22.70. They all said, "Are you then the Son of God?"He said to them, "You say it, because I AM. 22.71. They said, "Why do we need any more witness? For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth! 23.43. Jesus said to him, "Assuredly I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise. 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled. 24.45. Then he opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures. 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem. 24.48. You are witnesses of these things. 24.49. Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high. 24.50. He led them out as far as Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. 24.51. It happened, while he blessed them, that he withdrew from them, and was carried up into heaven.
69. New Testament, Mark, 1.1-1.11, 1.22, 4.1-4.13, 6.20-6.49, 7.21, 9.1, 10.2-10.12, 10.18-10.19, 10.27, 11.24-11.25, 12.28-12.34, 13.9-13.13, 14.53, 14.55-14.65 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you. 1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins. 1.6. John was clothed with camel's hair and a leather belt around his loins. He ate locusts and wild honey. 1.7. He preached, saying, "After me comes he who is mightier than I, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 1.9. It happened in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized by John in the Jordan. 1.10. Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 1.22. They were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes. 4.1. Again he began to teach by the seaside. A great multitude was gathered to him, so that he entered into a boat in the sea, and sat down. All the multitude were on the land by the sea. 4.2. He taught them many things in parables, and told them in his teaching 4.3. Listen! Behold, the farmer went out to sow 4.4. and it happened, as he sowed, some seed fell by the road, and the birds came and devoured it. 4.5. Others fell on the rocky ground, where it had little soil, and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of soil. 4.6. When the sun had risen, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 4.7. Others fell among the thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 4.8. Others fell into the good ground, and yielded fruit, growing up and increasing. Some brought forth thirty times, some sixty times, and some one hundred times as much. 4.9. He said, "Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear. 4.10. When he was alone, those who were around him with the twelve asked him about the parables. 4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.' 4.13. He said to them, "Don't you understand this parable? How will you understand all of the parables? 6.20. for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and kept him safe. When he heard him, he did many things, and he heard him gladly. 6.21. Then a convenient day came, that Herod on his birthday made a supper for his nobles, the high officers, and the chief men of Galilee. 6.22. When the daughter of Herodias herself came in and danced, she pleased Herod and those sitting with him. The king said to the young lady, "Ask me whatever you want, and I will give it to you. 6.23. He swore to her, "Whatever you shall ask of me, I will give you, up to half of my kingdom. 6.24. She went out, and said to her mother, "What shall I ask?"She said, "The head of John the Baptizer. 6.25. She came in immediately with haste to the king, and asked, "I want you to give me right now the head of John the Baptizer on a platter. 6.26. The king was exceedingly sorry, but for the sake of his oaths, and of his dinner guests, he didn't wish to refuse her. 6.27. Immediately the king sent out a soldier of his guard, and commanded to bring John's head, and he went and beheaded him in the prison 6.28. and brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the young lady; and the young lady gave it to her mother. 6.29. When his disciples heard this, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb. 6.30. The apostles gathered themselves together to Jesus, and they told him all things, whatever they had done, and whatever they had taught. 6.31. He said to them, "You come apart into a deserted place, and rest awhile." For there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat. 6.32. They went away in the boat to a desert place by themselves. 6.33. They saw them going, and many recognized him and ran there on foot from all the cities. They arrived before them and came together to him. 6.34. Jesus came out, saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things. 6.35. When it was late in the day, his disciples came to him, and said, "This place is deserted, and it is late in the day. 6.36. Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat. 6.37. But he answered them, "You give them something to eat."They asked him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread, and give them something to eat? 6.38. He said to them, "How many loaves do you have? Go see."When they knew, they said, "Five, and two fish. 6.39. He commanded them that everyone should sit down in groups on the green grass. 6.40. They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties. 6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 6.42. They all ate, and were filled. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 6.44. Those who ate the loaves were five thousand men. 6.45. Immediately he made his disciples get into the boat, and to go ahead to the other side, to Bethsaida, while he himself sent the multitude away. 6.46. After he had taken leave of them, he went up the mountain to pray. 6.47. When evening had come, the boat was in the midst of the sea, and he was alone on the land. 6.48. Seeing them distressed in rowing, for the wind was contrary to them, about the fourth watch of the night he came to them, walking on the sea, and he would have passed by them 6.49. but they, when they saw him walking on the sea, supposed that it was a ghost, and cried out; 7.21. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts 9.1. He said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, there are some standing here who will in no way taste death, until they see the Kingdom of God come with power. 10.2. Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? 10.3. He answered, "What did Moses command you? 10.4. They said, "Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her. 10.5. But Jesus said to them, "For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. 10.6. But from the beginning of the creation, 'God made them male and female. 10.7. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will join to his wife 10.8. and the two will become one flesh,' so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. 10.9. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate. 10.10. In the house, his disciples asked him again about the same matter. 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery. 10.18. Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good except one -- God. 10.19. You know the commandments: 'Do not murder,' 'Do not commit adultery,' 'Do not steal,' 'Do not give false testimony,' 'Do not defraud,' 'Honor your father and mother.' 10.27. Jesus, looking at them, said, "With men it is impossible, but not with God, for all things are possible with God. 11.24. Therefore I tell you, all things whatever you pray and ask for, believe that you receive them, and you shall have them. 11.25. Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone; so that your Father, who is in heaven, may also forgive you your transgressions. 12.28. One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all? 12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these. 12.32. The scribe said to him, "Truly, teacher, you have said well that he is one, and there is none other but he 12.33. and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbor as himself, is more important than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. 12.34. When Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, "You are not far from the Kingdom of God."No one dared ask him any question after that. 13.9. But watch yourselves, for they will deliver you up to councils. You will be beaten in synagogues. You will stand before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them. 13.10. The gospel must first be preached to all the nations. 13.11. When they lead you away and deliver you up, don't be anxious beforehand, or premeditate what you will say, but say whatever will be given you in that hour. For it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit. 13.12. Brother will deliver up brother to death, and the father his child. Children will rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death. 13.13. You will be hated by all men for my name's sake, but he who endures to the end, the same will be saved. 14.53. They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him. 14.55. Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none. 14.56. For many gave false testimony against him, and their testimony didn't agree with each other. 14.57. Some stood up, and gave false testimony against him, saying 14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.' 14.59. Even so, their testimony did not agree. 14.60. The high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer? What is it which these testify against you? 14.61. But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky. 14.63. The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses? 14.64. You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?" They all condemned him to be worthy of death. 14.65. Some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to beat him with fists, and to tell him, "Prophesy!" The officers struck him with the palms of their hands.
70. New Testament, Matthew, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

71. Polycarp of Smyrna, Letter To The Philippians, 12.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

72. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

73. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 3.16 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

74. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 24.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

24.7. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי מְנַחֵם בְּשֵׁם רַב אָמַר כָּל הָאֻמָנִיּוֹת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לְמָדָם, מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ (ישעיה מד, יא): וְחָרָשִׁים הֵמָּה מֵאָדָם, מֵאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. רַבָּנָן אָמְרִין אֲפִלּוּ סִרְגּוּלוֹ שֶׁל סֵפֶר, אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לְמָדוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ה, א): זֶה סֵפֶר, הוּא וְסִרְגּוּלוֹ. (בראשית ה, א): בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם, הָדָא מְסַיְּעָא לְהַהִיא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה שָׁלשׁ פְּלָאִים נַעֲשׂוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם נִבְרְאוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שִׁמְשׁוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הוֹצִיאוּ תּוֹלָדוֹת. בֶּן עֲזַאי אוֹמֵר זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם, זֶה כְּלַל גָּדוֹל בַּתּוֹרָה, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא יט, יח): וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ, זֶה כְּלַל גָּדוֹל בַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁלֹא תֹאמַר הוֹאִיל וְנִתְבַּזֵּיתִי יִתְבַּזֶה חֲבֵרִי עִמִּי, הוֹאִיל וְנִתְקַלַּלְתִּי יִתְקַלֵּל חֲבֵרִי עִמִּי. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אִם עָשִׂיתָ כֵּן דַּע לְמִי אַתָּה מְבַזֶּה בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אוֹתוֹ. 24.7. Rabbi Tanchuma said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Menachem in the name of Rav said... Ben Azzai said: “These are the generations of Adam\" is a great principle in the Torah. Rabbi Akiva said: This is a great principle of the Torah: \"You shall love your neighbor as yourself\" (Lev. 19:18). Thus, one should not say, “Since I am scorned, I should scorn my fellow as well; since I have been cursed, I will curse my fellow as well.” Rabbi Tanchumah said, if you act thus, realize who it is that you are willing to have humiliated - \"the one who was made in the likeness of God.\" Rabbi Tanchuma says, “If you do so, you should know who are you scorning — ‘in the likeness of God He created him.’”"
75. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 122 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

76. Aristides of Athens, Apology, 15.5-15.7, 15.9, 17.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

77. Athenagoras, Apology Or Embassy For The Christians, 2.1-2.2, 2.6, 10.2, 11.1-11.3, 17.1, 18.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

78. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 7.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

79. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.13.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

80. Minucius Felix, Octavius, 38, 37 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

81. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 4.16.2, 4.16.10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

82. Theophilus, To Autolycus, 1.14, 2.9, 2.14, 2.22, 2.26, 2.34-2.35, 2.38, 3.9, 3.11, 3.13, 3.25 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.14. Therefore, do not be sceptical, but believe; for I myself also used to disbelieve that this would take place, but now, having taken these things into consideration, I believe. At the same time, I met with the sacred Scriptures of the holy prophets, who also by the Spirit of God foretold the things that have already happened, just as they came to pass, and the things now occurring as they are now happening, and things future in the order in which they shall be accomplished. Admitting, therefore, the proof which events happening as predicted afford, I do not disbelieve, but I believe, obedient to God, whom, if you please, do you also submit to, believing Him, lest if now you continue unbelieving, you be convinced hereafter, when you are tormented with eternal punishments; which punishments, when they had been foretold by the prophets, the later-born poets and philosophers stole from the holy Scriptures, to make their doctrines worthy of credit. Yet these also have spoken beforehand of the punishments that are to light upon the profane and unbelieving, in order that none be left without a witness, or be able to say, We have not heard, neither have we known. But do you also, if you please, give reverential attention to the prophetic Scriptures, and they will make your way plainer for escaping the eternal punishments, and obtaining the eternal prizes of God. For He who gave the mouth for speech, and formed the ear to hear, and made the eye to see, will examine all things, and will judge righteous judgment, rendering merited awards to each. To those who by patient continuance in well-doing Romans 2:7 seek immortality, He will give life everlasting, joy, peace, rest, and abundance of good things, which neither has eye seen, nor ear heard, nor has it entered into the heart of man to conceive. 1 Corinthians 2:9 But to the unbelieving and despisers, who obey not the truth, but are obedient to unrighteousness, when they shall have been filled with adulteries and fornications, and filthiness, and covetousness, and unlawful idolatries, there shall be anger and wrath, tribulation and anguish, Romans 2:8-9 and at the last everlasting fire shall possess such men. Since you said, Show me your God, this is my God, and I counsel you to fear Him and to trust Him. 2.9. But men of God carrying in them a holy spirit and becoming prophets, being inspired and made wise by God, became God-taught, and holy, and righteous. Wherefore they were also deemed worthy of receiving this reward, that they should become instruments of God, and contain the wisdom that is from Him, through which wisdom they uttered both what regarded the creation of the world and all other things. For they predicted also pestilences, and famines, and wars. And there was not one or two, but many, at various times and seasons among the Hebrews; and also among the Greeks there was the Sibyl; and they all have spoken things consistent and harmonious with each other, both what happened before them and what happened in their own time, and what things are now being fulfilled in our own day: wherefore we are persuaded also concerning the future things that they will fall out, as also the first have been accomplished. 2.14. Consider, further, their variety, and diverse beauty, and multitude, and how through them resurrection is exhibited, for a pattern of the resurrection of all men which is to be. For who that considers it will not marvel that a fig-tree is produced from a fig-seed, or that very huge trees grow from the other very little seeds? And we say that the world resembles the sea. For as the sea, if it had not had the influx and supply of the rivers and fountains to nourish it, would long since have been parched by reason of its saltness; so also the world, if it had not had the law of God and the prophets flowing and welling up sweetness, and compassion, and righteousness, and the doctrine of the holy commandments of God, would long before now have come to ruin, by reason of the wickedness and sin which abound in it. And as in the sea there are islands, some of them habitable, and well-watered, and fruitful, with havens and harbours in which the storm-tossed may find refuge - so God has given to the world which is driven and tempest-tossed by sins, assemblies - we mean holy churches - in which survive the doctrines of the truth, as in the island-harbours of good anchorage; and into these run those who desire to be saved, being lovers of the truth, and wishing to escape the wrath and judgment of God. And as, again, there are other islands, rocky and without water, and barren, and infested by wild beasts, and uninhabitable, and serving only to injure navigators and the storm-tossed, on which ships are wrecked, and those driven among them perish - so there are doctrines of error- I mean heresies - which destroy those who approach them. For they are not guided by the word of truth; but as pirates, when they have filled their vessels, drive them on the fore-mentioned places, that they may spoil them: so also it happens in the case of those who err from the truth, that they are all totally ruined by their error. 2.22. You will say, then, to me: You said that God ought not to be contained in a place, and how do you now say that He walked in Paradise? Hear what I say. The God and Father, indeed, of all cannot be contained, and is not found in a place, for there is no place of His rest; but His Word, through whom He made all things, being His power and His wisdom, assuming the person of the Father and Lord of all, went to the garden in the person of God, and conversed with Adam. For the divine writing itself teaches us that Adam said that he had heard the voice. But what else is this voice but the Word of God, who is also His Son? Not as the poets and writers of myths talk of the sons of gods begotten from intercourse [with women], but as truth expounds, the Word, that always exists, residing within the heart of God. For before anything came into being He had Him as a counsellor, being His own mind and thought. But when God wished to make all that He determined on, He begot this Word, uttered, the first-born of all creation, not Himself being emptied of the Word [Reason], but having begotten Reason, and always conversing with His Reason. And hence the holy writings teach us, and all the spirit-bearing [inspired] men, one of whom, John, says, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, John 1:1 showing that at first God was alone, and the Word in Him. Then he says, The Word was God; all things came into existence through Him; and apart from Him not one thing came into existence. The Word, then, being God, and being naturally produced from God, whenever the Father of the universe wills, He sends Him to any place; and He, coming, is both heard and seen, being sent by Him, and is found in a place. 2.26. And God showed great kindness to man in this, that He did not allow him to remain in sin for ever; but, as it were, by a kind of banishment, cast him out of Paradise, in order that, having by punishment expiated, within an appointed time, the sin, and having been disciplined, he should afterwards be restored. Wherefore also, when man had been formed in this world, it is mystically written in Genesis, as if he had been twice placed in Paradise; so that the one was fulfilled when he was placed there, and the second will be fulfilled after the resurrection and judgment. For just as a vessel, when on being fashioned it has some flaw, is remoulded or remade, that it may become new and entire; so also it happens to man by death. For somehow or other he is broken up, that he may rise in the resurrection whole; I mean spotless, and righteous, and immortal. And as to God's calling, and saying, Where are you, Adam? God did this, not as if ignorant of this; but, being long-suffering, He gave him an opportunity of repentance and confession. 2.34. And, for the rest, would that in a kindly spirit you would investigate divine things - I mean the things that are spoken by the prophets- in order that, by comparing what is said by us with the utterances of the others, you may be able to discover the truth. We have shown from their own histories, which they have compiled, that the names of those who are called gods, are found to be the names of men who lived among them, as we have shown above. And to this day their images are daily fashioned, idols, the works of men's hands. And these the mass of foolish men serve, while they reject the maker and fashioner of all things and the nourisher of all breath of life, giving credit to vain doctrines through the deceitfulness of the senseless tradition received from their fathers. But God at least, the Father and Creator of the universe, did not abandon mankind, but gave a law, and sent holy prophets to declare and teach the race of men, that each one of us might awake and understand that there is one God. And they also taught us to refrain from unlawful idolatry, and adultery, and murder, fornication, theft, avarice, false swearing, wrath, and every incontinence and uncleanness; and that whatever a man would not wish to be done to himself, he should not do to another; and thus he who acts righteously shall escape the eternal punishments, and be thought worthy of the eternal life from God. 2.35. The divine law, then, not only forbids the worshipping of idols, but also of the heavenly bodies, the sun, the moon, or the other stars; yea, not heaven, nor earth, nor the sea, nor fountains, nor rivers, must be worshipped, but we must serve in holiness of heart and sincerity of purpose only the living and true God, who also is Maker of the universe. Wherefore says the holy law: You shall not commit adultery; you shall not steal; you shall not bear false witness; you shall not desire your neighbour's wife. So also the prophets. Solomon indeed teaches us that we must not sin with so much as a turn of the eye, saying, Let your eyes look right on, and let your eyelids look straight before you. Proverbs 4:25 And Moses, who himself also was a prophet, says, concerning the sole government of God: Your God is He who establishes the heaven, and forms the earth, whose hands have brought forth all the host of heaven; and He has not set these things before you that you should go after them. Deuteronomy 4:19 And Isaiah himself also says: Thus says the Lord God who established the heavens, and founded the earth and all that is therein, and gives breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein. This is the Lord your God. Isaiah 42:5 And again, through him He says: I have made the earth, and man upon it. I by my hand have established the heavens. Isaiah 45:12 And in another chapter, This is your God, who created the ends of the earth; He hungers not, neither is weary, and there is no searching of His understanding. Isaiah 40:28 So, too, Jeremiah says: Who has made the earth by His power, and established the world by His wisdom, and by His discretion has stretched out the heavens, and a mass of water in the heavens, and He caused the clouds to ascend from the ends of the earth; He made lightnings with rain, and brought forth winds out of His treasures. Jeremiah 10:12-13 One can see how consistently and harmoniously all the prophets spoke, having given utterance through one and the same spirit concerning the unity of God, and the creation of the world, and the formation of man. Moreover, they were in sore travail, bewailing the godless race of men, and they reproached those, who seemed to be wise, for their error and hardness of heart. Jeremiah, indeed, said: Every man is brutishly gone astray from the knowledge of Him; every founder is confounded by his graven images; in vain the silversmith makes his molten images; there is no breath in them: in the day of their visitation they shall perish. Jeremiah 51:17-18 The same, too, says David: They are corrupt, they have done abominable works; there is none that does good, no, not one; they have all gone aside, they have together become profitless. So also Habakkuk: What profits the graven image that he has graven it a lying image? Woe to him that says to the stone, Awake; and to the wood, Arise. Habakkuk 2:18 Likewise spoke the other prophets of the truth. And why should I recount the multitude of prophets, who are numerous, and said ten thousand things consistently and harmoniously? For those who desire it, can, by reading what they uttered, accurately understand the truth, and no longer be carried away by opinion and profitless labour. These, then, whom we have already mentioned, were prophets among the Hebrews, - illiterate, and shepherds, and uneducated. 2.38. But what matters it whether they were before or after them? Certainly they did at all events utter things confirmatory of the prophets. Concerning the burning up of the world, Malachi the prophet foretold: The day of the Lord comes as a burning oven, and shall consume all the wicked. Malachi 4:1 And Isaiah: For the wrath of God is as a violent hail-storm, and as a rushing mountain torrent. Isaiah 30:30 The Sibyl, then, and the other prophets, yea, and the poets and philosophers, have clearly taught both concerning righteousness, and judgment, and punishment; and also concerning providence, that God cares for us, not only for the living among us, but also for those that are dead: though, indeed, they said this unwillingly, for they were convinced by the truth. And among the prophets indeed, Solomon said of the dead, There shall be healing to your flesh, and care taken of your bones. Proverbs 3:8 And the same says David, The bones which You have broken shall rejoice. And in agreement with these sayings was that of Timocles:- The dead are pitied by the loving God. And the writers who spoke of a multiplicity of gods came at length to the doctrine of the unity of God, and those who asserted chance spoke also of providence; and the advocates of impunity confessed there would be a judgment, and those who denied that there is a sensation after death acknowledged that there is. Homer, accordingly, though he had said - Like fleeting vision passed the soul away, says in another place:- To Hades went the disembodied soul; And again:- That I may quickly pass through Hades' gates, Me bury. And as regards the others whom you have read, I think you know with sufficient accuracy how they have expressed themselves. But all these things will every one understand who seeks the wisdom of God, and is well pleasing to Him through faith and righteousness and the doing of good works. For one of the prophets whom we already mentioned, Hosea by name, said, Who is wise, and he shall understand these things? prudent, and he shall know them? For the ways of the Lord are right, and the just shall walk in them: but the transgressors shall fall therein. Hosea 14:9 He, then, who is desirous of learning, should learn much. Endeavour therefore to meet [with me] more frequently, that, by hearing the living voice, you may accurately ascertain the truth. 3.9. Now we also confess that God exists, but that He is one, the creator, and maker, and fashioner of this universe; and we know that all things are arranged by His providence, but by Him alone. And we have learned a holy law; but we have as lawgiver Him who is really God, who teaches us to act righteously, and to be pious, and to do good. And concerning piety He says, You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make unto you any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: you shall not bow down yourself to them, nor serve them: for I am the Lord your God. Exodus 20:3 And of doing good He said: Honour your father and your mother; that it may be well with you, and that your days may be long in the land which I the Lord God give you. Again, concerning righteousness: You shall not commit adultery. You shall not kill. You shall not steal. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour. You shall not covet your neighbour's wife, you shall not covet your neighbour's house, nor his land, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his beast of burden, nor any of his cattle, nor anything that is your neighbour's. You shall not wrest the judgment of the poor in his cause. Exodus 23:6 From every unjust matter keep you far. The innocent and righteous you shall not slay; you shall not justify the wicked; and you shall not take a gift, for gifts blind the eyes of them that see and pervert righteous words. of this divine law, then, Moses, who also was God's servant, was made the minister both to all the world, and chiefly to the Hebrews, who were also called Jews, whom an Egyptian king had in ancient days enslaved, and who were the righteous seed of godly and holy men - Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob. God, being mindful of them, and doing marvellous and strange miracles by the hand of Moses, delivered them, and led them out of Egypt, leading them through what is called the desert; whom He also settled again in the land of Canaan, which afterwards was called jud a, and gave them a law, and taught them these things. of this great and wonderful law, which tends to all righteousness, the ten heads are such as we have already rehearsed. 3.11. And when the people transgressed the law which had been given to them by God, God being good and pitiful, unwilling to destroy them, in addition to His giving them the law, afterwards sent forth also prophets to them from among their brethren, to teach and remind them of the contents of the law, and to turn them to repentance, that they might sin no more. But if they persisted in their wicked deeds, He forewarned them that they should be delivered into subjection to all the kingdoms of the earth; and that this has already happened them is manifest. Concerning repentance, then, Isaiah the prophet, generally indeed to all, but expressly to the people, says: Seek the Lord while He may be found, call upon Him while He is near: let the wicked forsake his ways, and the unrighteous man his thoughts: and let him return unto the Lord his God, and he will find mercy, for He will abundantly pardon. Isaiah 55:6 And another prophet, Ezekiel, says: If the wicked will turn from all his sins that he has committed, and keep all My statutes, and do that which is right in My sight, he shall surely live, he shall not die. All his transgressions that he has committed, they shall not be mentioned unto him; but in his righteousness that he has done he shall live: for I desire not the death of the sinner, says the Lord, but that he turn from his wicked way, and live. Ezekiel 18:21 Again Isaiah: You who take deep and wicked counsel, turn, that you may be saved. Isaiah 31:6 And another prophet, Jeremiah: Turn to the Lord your God, as a grape-gatherer to his basket, and you shall find mercy. Jeremiah 6:9 Many therefore, yea rather, countless are the sayings in the Holy Scriptures regarding repentance, God being always desirous that the race of men turn from all their sins. 3.13. And concerning chastity, the holy word teaches us not only not to sin in act, but not even in thought, not even in the heart to think of any evil, nor look on another man's wife with our eyes to lust after her. Solomon, accordingly, who was a king and a prophet, said: Let your eyes look right on, and let your eyelids look straight before you: make straight paths for your feet. Proverbs 4:25 And the voice of the Gospel teaches still more urgently concerning chastity, saying: Whosoever looks on a woman who is not his own wife, to lust after her, has committed adultery with her already in his heart. Matthew 5:28 And he that marries, says [the Gospel], her that is divorced from her husband, commits adultery; and whosoever puts away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causes her to commit adultery. Matthew 5:32 Because Solomon says: Can a man take fire in his bosom, and his clothes not be burned? Or can one walk upon hot coals, and his feet not be burned? So he that goes in to a married woman shall not be innocent. Proverbs 6:27-29 3.25. And after the judges they had kings, the first named Saul, who reigned 20 years; then David, our forefather, who reigned 40 years. Accordingly, there are to the reign of David [from Isaac] 496 years. And after these kings Solomon reigned, who also, by the will of God, was the first to build the temple in Jerusalem; he reigned 40 years. And after him Rehoboam, 17 years; and after him Abias, 7 years; and after him Asa, 41 years; and after him Jehoshaphat, 25 years; and after him Joram, 8 years; and after him Ahaziah, 1 year; and after him Athaliah, 6 years; and after her Josiah, 40 years; and after him Amaziah, 39 years; and after him Uzziah, 52 years; and after him Jotham, 16 years; and after him Ahaz, 17 years; and after him Hezekiah, 29 years; and after him Manasseh, 55 years; and after him Amon, 2 years; and after him Josiah, 31 years; and after him Jehoahaz, 3 months; and after him Jehoiakim, 11 years. Then another Jehoiakim, 3 months 10 days; and after him Zedekiah, 11 years. And after these kings, the people, continuing in their sins, and not repenting, the king of Babylon, named Nebuchadnezzar, came up into Jud a, according to the prophecy of Jeremiah. He transferred the people of the Jews to Babylon, and destroyed the temple which Solomon had built. And in the Babylonian banishment the people passed 70 years. Until the sojourning in the land of Babylon, there are therefore, in all, 4954 years 6 months and 10 days. And according as God had, by the prophet Jeremiah, foretold that the people should be led captive to Babylon, in like manner He signified beforehand that they should also return into their own land after 70 years. These 70 years then being accomplished, Cyrus becomes king of the Persians, who, according to the prophecy of Jeremiah, issued a decree in the second year of his reign, enjoining by his edict that all Jews who were in his kingdom should return to their own country, and rebuild their temple to God, which the fore-mentioned king of Babylon had demolished. Moreover, Cyrus, in compliance with the instructions of God, gave orders to his own bodyguards, Sabessar and Mithridates, that the vessels which had been taken out of the temple of Jud a by Nebuchadnezzar should be restored, and placed again in the temple. In the second year, therefore, of Darius are fulfilled the 70 years which were foretold by Jeremiah.
83. Babylonian Talmud, Betzah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. דקמתקן מנא באור נמי קא מתקן מנא תני ר' חייא חותכה באור בפי שתי נרות אמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב מוחטין את הפתילה ביום טוב מאי מוחטין אמר רב חנינא בר שלמיא (משמיה דרב) לעדויי חושכא,תני בר קפרא ו' דברים נאמרו בפתילה ג' להחמיר וג' להקל להחמיר אין גודלין אותה לכתחלה ביו"ט ואין מהבהבין אותה באור ואין חותכין אותה לשנים להקל ממעכה ביד ושורה בשמן וחותכה באור בפי שתי נרות,ואמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב עתירי בבל יורדי גיהנם הם כי הא דשבתאי בר מרינוס אקלע לבבל בעא מנייהו עסקא ולא יהבו ליה מזוני מיזן נמי לא זינוהו,אמר הני מערב רב קא אתו דכתיב (דברים יג, יח) ונתן לך רחמים ורחמך כל המרחם על הבריות בידוע שהוא מזרעו של אברהם אבינו וכל מי שאינו מרחם על הבריות בידוע שאינו מזרעו של אברהם אבינו,ואמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב כל המצפה על שלחן אחרים עולם חשך בעדו שנאמר (איוב טו, כג) נודד הוא ללחם איה ידע כי נכון בידו יום חשך רב חסדא אמר אף חייו אינן חיים,ת"ר ג' חייהן אינם חיים ואלו הן המצפה לשלחן חבירו ומי שאשתו מושלת עליו ומי שיסורין מושלין בגופו ויש אומרים אף מי שאין לו אלא חלוק אחד ות"ק אפשר דמעיין במניה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין שוברין את החרס ואין חותכין הנייר לצלות בו מליח,ואין גורפין תנור וכירים אבל מכבשין,ואין מקיפין שתי חביות לשפות עליהן את הקדרה ואין סומכין את הקדרה בבקעת וכן בדלת ואין מנהיגין את הבהמה במקל ביום טוב ורבי אלעזר בר' שמעון מתיר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט משם דקא מתקן מנא,ואין גורפין תנור וכירים תני רב חייא בר יוסף קמיה דרב נחמן ואם אי אפשר לאפות אלא אם כן גורפו מותר דביתהו דר' חייא נפל לה אריחא בתנורא ביומא טבא אמר לה ר' חייא חזי דאנא רפתא מעלייתא בעינא א"ל רבא לשמעיה טוי לי בר אווזא ואזדהר מחרוכא,א"ל רבינא לרב אשי אמר לן רב אחא מהוצל דמר שרקין ליה תנורא ביומא טבא אמר ליה אנן ארקתא דפרת סמכינן והנ"מ הוא דצייריה מאתמול אמר רבינא וקטמא שרי:,ואין מקיפין שתי חביות: אמר רב נחמן אבנים של בית הכסא מותר לצדדן ביום טוב איתיביה רבה לרב נחמן אין מקיפין שתי חביות לשפות עליהן את הקדרה אמר ליה שאני התם משום דקא עביד אהלא,א"ל רבה זוטא לרב אשי אלא מעתה בנה אצטבא ביו"ט דלא עביד אהלא הכי נמי דשרי א"ל התם בנין קבע אסרה תורה בנין עראי לא אסרה תורה וגזרו רבנן על בנין עראי משום בנין קבע והכא משום כבודו לא גזרו ביה רבנן,אמר רב יהודה האי מדורתא מלמעלה למטה שרי מלמטה למעלה אסור 32b. Is it because bhethereby bmends a vessel?If so, when one cuts it bin the fire, he is also preparing a vesselfor use. bRabbi Ḥiyya taughtin explanation: bHe cuts it by fire in the mouth of two candles.In other words, he does not simply cut a wick, but rather inserts a long wick into two lamps, which he subsequently lights in the middle. This indeed leads to the formation of two separate wicks, but only as a result of kindling two lamps. bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: One may imoḥeta wick on a Festival.The term imoḥetwas unknown, and the Gemara therefore asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the word imoḥet /i? Rav Ḥanina bar Shelemya said in the name of Rav: To remove the dark;in other words, it is permitted to remove the burnt, charcoaled section to make the lamp shine more brightly., bBar Kappara taught: Six matters were stated with regard tothe ihalakhotof ba wickon a Festival, bthreeof which bare to be stringent and threeof which bare to be lenient.The three ihalakhot bto be stringentare: bOne may not spinor twist bit iab initioon a Festival, and one may not singe it in firebefore lighting it so that it will burn well, band one may not cut it into two.The three ihalakhot bto be lenientare: bOne may crush it by hand,as although it is prohibited to twist it into a wick, one may adjust its shape in an unusual manner; band one may soak it in oilso that it will later burn well; band one may cut it by fire in the mouth of two candles. /b,§ After citing one teaching in the name of Rav Natan bar Abba, the Gemara quotes a few more statements attributed to the same scholar. Since he is not mentioned often, Rav Natan’s teachings are arranged together, so that they can be remembered more easily. bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: The wealthyJews bof Babylonia will descend to Gehennabecause they do not have compassion on others. This is illustrated by incidents bsuch as this: Shabbetai bar Marinus happened to come to Babylonia. He requestedtheir participation in ba business venture,to lend him money and receive half the profits in return, band they did not giveit to bhim.Furthermore, when he asked them bto sustain him with food, they likewise refused to sustain him. /b, bHe said: Thesewealthy people are not descendants of our forefathers, bbut they came from the mixed multitude, as it is written: “And show you compassion, and have compassion upon you,and multiply you, as He has sworn to your fathers” (Deuteronomy 13:18), from which it is derived: bAnyone who has compassionfor God’s bcreatures, it is known that he is of the descendants of Abraham, our father, and anyone who does not have compassionfor God’s bcreatures, it is known that he is not of the descendants of Abraham, our father.Since these wealthy Babylonians do not have compassion on people, clearly they are not descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.,This is another teaching that bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: Whoever looks to the table of othersfor his sustece, bthe world is dark for him.Everything looks bleak and hopeless to him, bfor it is stated: “He wanders abroad for bread: Where is it? He knows the day of darkness is ready at his hand”(Job 15:23). bRav Ḥisda said: Even his life is no life,as he receives no satisfaction from it.,In support of this last claim, the Gemara cites a ibaraitain which bthe Sages taught:There are bthreewhose blives are not lives, and they are as follows: One who looks to the table of othersfor his sustece; band one whose wife rulesover bhim; and one whose body is ruled by suffering. And some say: Even one who has only one robe.Since he cannot wash it properly, he suffers from lice and dirt. The Gemara comments: bAnd the first itanna /i,who did not include such a person, maintains: bIt is possiblefor him bto examine his clothesand remove the lice, which would alleviate his suffering., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne may not break earthenwareon a Festival. bAnd one may not cut paper in order to roast saltedfish bon it.Earthenware shards or pieces of paper that have been soaked in water were placed on the metal surface or in the oven in which the fish was roasted, so that it would not be burned by the heat., bAnd one may not sweep outanything that has fallen into ban oven or stovethat interferes with the baking, such as plaster. bBut one may press downand flatten any accumulated dust and ashes at the bottom of the oven, which might prevent it from lighting properly., bAnd one may not draw two barrels togetherin order bto place a pot on them,so that its contents will be cooked by a fire lit between the barrels. bAnd one may not prop a potthat does not stand straight bwith a piece of wood,in order to prevent it from falling. bAnd similarly, with a door. And one may not lead an animal with a stickin the public domain bon a Festival; and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, permitsit., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the issue of breaking earthenware and cutting paper, the Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonfor this prohibition? bBecause oneis thereby bpreparing a vesselfor use.,It was taught in the mishna: bAnd one may not sweep out an oven or stove. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef taught before Rav Naḥman: And if it is not possible to bake unless one sweeps it out, it is permitted.The Gemara relates an incident with regard bto the wife of Rabbi Ḥiyya: A part of a brick fell intoher boven on a Festival,preventing her from baking. bRav Ḥiyya said to her: See,you should know that bI want good-quality bread.He thereby stated that it would be impossible unless she removed the brick, making it permissible for her to do so. Similarly, bRava said to his attendant: Roast for me a duckin an oven, band be careful not to singeit. He thereby implied that the attendant may remove all impediments from the oven in order to fulfill this requirement because otherwise it would not be possible to cook without singeing.,In a related case, bRavina said to Rav Ashi: Rav Aḥa from Hutzal said to us that the master,Rav Ashi, allows his attendants bto plasterthe mouth of bthe oven for him on a Festival.This was done in order to ensure that the roasted or cooked dish would be fully prepared. Why does this not constitute the prohibited labor of kneading on a Festival? bHe said to him: We rely on the bank of the EuphratesRiver. We avoid the labor of kneading by taking sufficiently kneaded mud from the riverbank. The Gemara comments: bAnd this applies only when one wrappedor made some mark on the mud bthe day before,so that it not be imuktze /i. bRavina said: Andas for kneading with bashesfor this purpose, it is bpermitted,since the labor of kneading does not apply to ashes.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bOne may not draw two barrels togetherin order to place a pot on them. bRav Naḥman said:With regard to large bstones of a lavatory,upon which one sits to attend to his needs, bit is permitted to put them togetherin the proper manner, so that they may be used bon a Festival. Rabba raised an objection to Rav Naḥman:Wasn’t it taught that bone may not draw two barrels togetherin order bto place a pot on them?This seems to indicate that any arrangement resembling building is prohibited. bHe said to him: There,with regard to barrels, bit is different, because one makes a tent.It is not the drawing of the barrels close together that is prohibited. Rather, the placement of the pot over them forms a kind of covering, which is similar to building a tent., bRabba the Younger,so called to distinguish him from the more famous iamoraknown as Rabba, bsaid to Rav Ashi: However, ifthat is bso,then if, bon a Festival, one builta solid bbench [ iitztaba /i],without a gap below the seat, a situation in which bone does not make a tent, so too,will you say bthat it is permitted? He said to him:The two cases are not comparable: bThere,with regard to a proper construction, such as a bench, bthe Torah prohibitederecting ba permanent construction,but bthe Torah did not prohibiterecting ba temporary construction. The Sages,however, bdecreed againstcreating ba temporary constructionon a Festival bdue to a permanent construction.However, bhere,with regard to a lavatory, bdue to the dignityof the user, bthe Sages did not decree with regard to it. /b, bRav Yehuda said:With regard to bthis bonfire,in which the wood is arranged in the form of a house, if one arranges it bfrom above to below it is permitted,as this is not the regular manner of building. However, if one prepares it in the usual fashion, bfrom below to above, it is prohibited,for this is considered building.
84. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. אי הכי מאי איריא הכונס את הבתולה אפי' כונס את האלמנה נמי,הכא טריד והכא לא טריד,אי משום טרדא אפילו טבעה ספינתו בים נמי אלמה אמר רבי אבא בר זבדא אמר רב אבל חייב בכל מצות האמורות בתורה חוץ מן התפילין שהרי נאמר בהן פאר שנאמר (יחזקאל כד, יז) פארך חבוש עליך וגו',אמרי התם טרדא דרשות הכא טרדא דמצוה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big רחץ לילה הראשון שמתה אשתו אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאבל אסור לרחוץ אמר להם איני כשאר בני אדם אסטניס אני,וכשמת טבי עבדו קבל עליו תנחומין אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאין מקבלין תנחומין על העבדים אמר להם אין טבי עבדי כשאר כל העבדים כשר היה,חתן אם רוצה לקרות קרית שמע לילה הראשון קורא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא כל הרוצה ליטול את השם יטול:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט דרבן (שמעון בן) גמליאל קסבר אנינות לילה דרבנן דכתיב (עמוס ח, י) ואחריתה כיום מר ובמקום אסטניס לא גזרו ביה רבנן: ,וכשמת טבי עבדו וכו':,ת"ר עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ותנחומי אבלים,מעשה ומתה שפחתו של רבי אליעזר נכנסו תלמידיו לנחמו כיון שראה אותם עלה לעלייה ועלו אחריו נכנס לאנפילון נכנסו אחריו נכנס לטרקלין נכנסו אחריו אמר להם כמדומה אני שאתם נכוים בפושרים עכשיו אי אתם נכוים אפילו בחמי חמין לא כך שניתי לכם עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ולא תנחומי אבלים אלא מה אומרים עליהם כשם שאומרים לו לאדם על שורו ועל חמורו שמתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך כך אומרים לו על עבדו ועל שפחתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך,תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין מספידין אותן ר' יוסי אומר אם עבד כשר הוא אומרים עליו הוי איש טוב ונאמן ונהנה מיגיעו אמרו לו אם כן מה הנחת לכשרים:,ת"ר אין קורין אבות אלא לשלשה ואין קורין אמהות אלא לארבע,אבות מאי טעמא אילימא משום דלא ידעינן אי מראובן קא אתינן אי משמעון קא אתינן אי הכי אמהות נמי לא ידעינן אי מרחל קא אתינן אי מלאה קא אתינן אלא עד הכא חשיבי טפי לא חשיבי,תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין קורין אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית ושל ר"ג היו קורים אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית,מעשה לסתור משום דחשיבי:,א"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים סג, ה) כן אברכך בחיי בשמך אשא כפי כן אברכך בחיי זו ק"ש בשמך אשא כפי זו תפלה ואם עושה כן עליו הכתוב אומר (תהלים סג, ו) כמו חלב ודשן תשבע נפשי ולא עוד אלא שנוחל שני עולמים העוה"ז והעולם הבא שנאמר (תהלים סג, ו) ושפתי רננות יהלל פי:,ר' אלעזר בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתשכן בפורינו אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות ותרבה גבולנו בתלמידים ותצליח סופנו אחרית ותקוה ותשים חלקנו בגן עדן ותקננו בחבר טוב ויצר טוב בעולמך ונשכים ונמצא יחול לבבנו ליראה את שמך ותבא לפניך קורת נפשנו לטובה.,רבי יוחנן בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתציץ בבשתנו ותביט ברעתנו ותתלבש ברחמיך ותתכסה בעזך ותתעטף בחסידותך ותתאזר בחנינותך ותבא לפניך מדת טובך וענותנותך.,ר' זירא בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שלא נחטא ולא נבוש ולא נכלם מאבותינו,ר' חייא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתהא תורתך אומנותנו ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו.,רב בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתתן לנו חיים ארוכים חיים של שלום חיים של טובה חיים של ברכה חיים של פרנסה חיים של חלוץ עצמות חיים שיש בהם יראת חטא חיים שאין בהם בושה וכלימה חיים של עושר וכבוד חיים שתהא בנו אהבת תורה ויראת שמים חיים שתמלא לנו את כל משאלות לבנו לטובה.,רבי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו שתצילנו מעזי פנים ומעזות פנים מאדם רע ומפגע רע מיצר רע מחבר רע משכן רע ומשטן המשחית ומדין קשה ומבעל דין קשה בין שהוא בן ברית בין שאינו בן ברית,ואע"ג דקיימי קצוצי עליה דרבי.,רב ספרא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתשים שלום 16b. The Gemara questions this: bIf so, why discussa case of bone who is marrying a virginin particular? bEven one who is marrying a widowis performing a mitzva and should balsobe exempt.,The Gemara responds that nevertheless, there is a distinction between one marrying a virgin and one marrying a widow. bHere,in the case of one who marries a virgin, the groom is bpreoccupiedby his thoughts, bwhile here,in the case of one who marries a widow, bhe is not preoccupied. /b,The Gemara challenges: bIfa groom is exempt from the recitation of iShemasimply bdue to preoccupation,then bevenone who is preoccupied because bhis ship sank at sea shouldbe exempt. If so, bwhy then did Rabbi Abba bar Zavda saythat bRav said: A mourner is obligated in all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah except forthe mitzva to don bphylacteries, asthe term bsplendor is statedwith regard to phylacteries, bas it is statedthat the prophet Ezekiel was prohibited to mourn and was told: b“Bind your splendor upon yourself”(Ezekiel 24:17). If even a mourner, who is pained and preoccupied, is obligated to recite iShema /i, clearly preoccupation has no bearing upon one’s obligation.,The Gemara responds: Nevertheless, there is a distinction between the cases. bThere,it is a case of bpreoccupation with a voluntaryact, as there is no mitzva to be preoccupied with his mourning, but bhere,in the case of a groom, the cause of bthe preoccupation isthe bmitzvaitself., strongMISHNA: /strong The mishna relates another episode portraying unusual conduct by Rabban Gamliel. bHe bathed on the first night after his wife died. His students said to him:Have byounot btaught us, our teacher, that a mourner is prohibited to bathe?He answered them: bI am not like other people, I am delicate [ iistenis /i].For me, not bathing causes actual physical distress, and even a mourner need not suffer physical distress as part of his mourning.,Another exceptional incident is related: bAnd when his slave, Tavi, died,Rabban Gamliel baccepted condolences for hisdeath as one would for a close family member. bHis students said to him: Have younot btaught us, our teacher, that one does not accept condolences forthe death of bslaves?Rabban Gamliel said to his students: bMy slave, Tavi, is not like all the rest of the slaves, he was virtuousand it is appropriate to accord him the same respect accorded to a family member.,With regard to the recitation of iShemaon one’s wedding night, the Sages said that bif,despite his exemption, ba groom wishes to recite iShemaon the first night,he may do so. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Not everyone who wishes to assume the reputationof a God-fearing person bmay assumeit, and consequently, not everyone who wishes to recite iShemaon his wedding night may do so., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to Rabban Gamliel’s bathing on the first night after the death of his wife, the Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat bRabban Gamlieldid not practice the customs of mourning after his wife died? The Gemara answers: bHe holds thatacute mourning [ ianinut /i] is in effect only on the day of the death itself, but bacute mourning at night isonly bby rabbinic law, as it is written:“And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentations; I will bring sackcloth upon your loins and baldness upon every head; and I will make you like a mourner for an only child, band the end will be like a bitter day”(Amos 8:10). Therefore, by Torah law one’s acute mourning is only during the day, like a bitter day, while the acute mourning at night that follows is only rabbinic. bAnd in the case of a delicate person, the Sages did not issue a decreethat one should afflict himself during the period of acute mourning.,We learned in our mishna that: bWhen his servant, Tavi, died,Rabban Gamliel accepted condolences for him., bThe Sagestaught in a ibaraita /i: For bslaves and maidservantswho die, bone does not stand in a rowof comforters to console the mourners, band one recites neither the blessing of the mourners nor the consolation of the mourners. /b, bAn incidentis related that when bRabbi Eliezer’s maidservant died, his students entered to console him. When he saw themapproaching bhe went up to the second floor, and they went up after him. He entered the gatehouse [ ianpilon /i], and they entered after him. He entered the banquet hall [ iteraklin /i],and bthey entered after him.Having seen them follow him everywhere, bhe said to them: It seems to me that you would be burned by lukewarm water,meaning that you could take a hint and when I went up to the second floor, you would understand that I did not wish to receive your consolations. bNowI see that byou are not even burned by boiling hot water. Did I not teach you the following:For bslaves and maidservantswho die, bone does not stand in a rowof comforters to console the mourners, band one neither recites the blessing of the mourners nordoes he recite bthe consolation of the mourners,as the relationship between master and slave is not like a familial relationship? bRather, what does one say about themwhen they die? bJust as we say to a person about his ox or donkey which died: May the Omnipresent replenish your loss, so too do we say for one’s slave or maidservantwho died: bMay the Omnipresent replenish your loss,as the connection between a master and his slave is only ficial in nature., bIt was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne does not eulogize slaves and maidservants. Rabbi Yosei says: If he was a virtuous servant, one recites over hima eulogy of sorts: bAlas, a good and loyal man who enjoyedthe fruits bof his hard labor. They said to him: If so, whatpraise bhave you left for virtuousJews? A Jewish person would be proud to be eulogized in that manner., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may only call threepeople bpatriarchs,Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but not Jacob’s children. bAnd one may only call fourpeople bmatriarchs,Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this exclusivity with regard to the bPatriarchs? If you saythat it is bbecause we do not know whether we descend from Reuben or from Simon,so we cannot accurately say our father Reuben, for example, bif so,with regard to the Matriarchs as well, bwe do not know whether we descend from Rachel or from Leah,and we should not call Rachel and Leah matriarchs either. bInstead,the reason the sons of Jacob are not called patriarchs is not for that reason, but because buntilJacob bthey are significantenough to be referred to as patriarchs, but bbeyondJacob, bthey are not significantenough to be referred to as patriarchs.,This serves as an introduction; although older people are often referred to with the honorific: Father so-and-so, bit was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne may not refer to slaves and maidservants as father [ iabba /i] so-and-so or mother [ iimma /i] so-and-so. But they would callthe slaves and maidservants bof Rabban Gamliel “father so-and-so” and “mother so-and-so.” /b,The Gemara asks: Is a bstorycited in order bto contradictthe previously stated ihalakha /i? The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction; rather, bbecauseRabban Gamliel’s servants bwere significant,they were addressed with these honorifics.,The Gemara cites an aggadic statement concerning prayer and the recitation of iShema /i. bRabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “So I will bless You as I live, to Your name I will raise my hands”(Psalms 63:5)? bSo I will bless You as I live, refers to the recitation of iShema /i,and bto Your name I will raise my hands, refers tothe iAmida bprayer,which is characterized as lifting one’s hands to God. bAnd if one does so,recites iShemaand prays, bthe verse says about him: “As with fat and marrow, my soul will be satisfied”(Psalms 63:6). bAnd not onlydoes he receive this reward, bbut he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “With lips of joys [ ireot /i], my mouth praises You”(Psalms 63:6). The plural, joys, refers to two joys, that of this world and that of the World-to-Come.,The Gemara describes how bafter Rabbi Elazar concluded his prayer, he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bto cause to dwell in our lot love and brotherhood, peace and friendship. br bAnd may You make our borders rich in disciples br band cause us to ultimately succeed,that we will have a good bend and hope. br bAnd may You set our portion in the Garden of Eden, br band may You establish for us a good companion and a good inclination in Your world. br bAnd may we rise early and find the aspiration of our hearts to fear Your name, br band may the satisfaction of our souls come before You,i.e., may You hear our prayers that we may have spiritual contentment in this world bfor the best. /b,Similarly, the Gemara recounts that bafter Rabbi Yoḥa concluded his prayer, he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You look upon our shame and behold our plight, br bthat You clothe Yourself in Your mercy, br band cover Yourself with Your might, br bthat You wrap Yourself in Your loving-kindness, br band gird Yourself with Your grace, br band may Your attributes of goodness and humility come before You. /b,Similarly, bafter Rabbi Zeira concluded his prayers he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat we not sin or shame ourselves, br band that we not disgrace ourselves before our forefathers, brin the sense that our actions should not disgrace the actions of our forefathers., bAfter Rabbi Ḥiyya prayed he said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat Your Torah should be our vocation, br band may our heart not become faint nor our eyes dim. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rav said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You grant us long life, a life of peace, br ba life of goodness, a life of blessing, br ba life of sustece, a life of freedom of movementfrom place to place, where we are not tied to one place, br ba life of dread of sin, a life without shame and disgrace, br ba life of wealth and honor, br ba life in which we have love of Torah and reverence for Heaven, br ba life in which You fulfill all the desires of our heart for good. /b, bAfter his prayer, RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, and God of our forefathers, br bthat You save us from the arrogant and from arrogancein general, br bfrom a bad man, from a bad mishap, br bfrom an evil instinct, from a bad companion, br bfrom a bad neighbor, from the destructive Satan, br bfrom a harsh trial and from a harsh opponent, br bwhether he is a member of the covet,a Jew, br bor whether he is not a member of the covet. /b, bAndthe Gemara notes that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would recite this prayer every day bdespite the fact thatroyal bofficers stoodwatch bover RabbiYehuda HaNasi for his protection; nevertheless, he prayed to avoid conflict or hindrance resulting from arrogance., bAfter his prayer, Rav Safra said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, that You establish peace /b
85. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

96b. ומי סליק נבוכד נצר לירושלים והכתיב (מלכים ב כה, ו) ויעלו אותו אל מלך בבל רבלתה ואמר ר' אבהו זו אנטוכיא רב חסדא ורב יצחק בר אבודימי חד אמר דמות דיוקנו היתה חקוקה לו על מרכבתו וחד אמר אימה יתירה היתה לו ממנו ודומה כמי שעומד לפניו,אמר רבא טעין תלת מאה כודנייתא נרגא דפרזלא דשליט בפרזלא שדר ליה נבוכדנצר לנבוזראדן כולהו בלעתינהו חד דשא דירושלם שנאמר (תהלים עד, ו) פתוחיה יחד בכשיל וכילפות יהלומון בעי למיהדר אמר מסתפינא דלא ליעבדו בי כי היכי דעבדו בסנחריב,נפקא קלא ואמר שוור בר שוור נבוזראדן שוור דמטא זימנא דמקדשא חריב והיכלא מיקלי פש ליה חד נרגא אתא מחייה בקופא ואיפתח שנאמר (תהלים עד, ה) יודע כמביא למעלה בסבך עץ קרדומות,הוה קטיל ואזל עד דמטא להיכלא אדליק ביה נורא גבה היכלא דרכו ביה מן שמיא שנאמר (איכה א, טו) גת דרך ה' לבתולת בת יהודה קא זיחא דעתיה נפקא בת קלא ואמרה ליה עמא קטילא קטלת היכלא קליא קלית קימחא טחינא טחינת שנאמר (ישעיהו מז, ב) קחי רחים וטחני קמח גלי צמתך חשפי שובל גלי שוק עברי נהרות חטים לא נאמר אלא קמח,חזא דמיה דזכריה דהוה קא רתח אמר להו מאי האי אמרו ליה דם זבחים הוא דאישתפיך אמר להו אייתי ואנסי אי מדמו כסי ולא אידמו אמר להו גלו לי ואי לא סריקנא לכו לבשרייכו במסריקא דפרזלא,אמרו ליה האי כהן ונביא הוא דאינבי להו לישראל בחורבנא דירושלם וקטלוהו אמר להו אנא מפייסנא ליה אייתי רבנן קטיל עילויה ולא נח אייתי דרדקי דבי רב קטיל עילויה ולא נח אייתי פרחי כהונה קטיל עילויה ולא נח עד די קטל עילויה תשעין וארבעה ריבוא ולא נח,קרב לגביה אמר זכריה זכריה טובים שבהן איבדתים ניחא לך דאיקטלינהו לכולהו מיד נח הרהר תשובה בדעתיה אמר מה הם שלא איבדו אלא נפש אחת כך ההוא גברא מה תיהוי עליה ערק שדר פורטיתא לביתיה ואיתגייר,תנו רבנן נעמן גר תושב היה נבוזר אדן גר צדק היה מבני בניו של סיסרא למדו תורה בירושלים מבני בניו של סנחריב לימדו תורה ברבים ומאן נינהו שמעיה ואבטליון,מבני בניו של המן למדו תורה בבני ברק ואף מבני בניו של אותו רשע ביקש הקב"ה להכניסן תחת כנפי השכינה אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם מי שהחריב את ביתך ושרף את היכלך תכניס תחת כנפי השכינה היינו דכתיב (ירמיהו נא, ט) רפינו את בבל ולא נרפתה עולא אמר זה נבוכדנצר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר אלו נהרות בבל ותרגמה דצינייתא (צרידתא) דבבלאי,אמר עולא עמון ומואב שיבבי בישי דירושלם הוו כיון דשמעינהו לנביאי דקא מיתנבאי לחורבנא דירושלם שלחו לנבוכדנצר פוק ותא אמר מסתפינא דלא ליעבדו לי כדעבדו בקמאי,שלחו ליה (משלי ז, יט) כי אין האיש בביתו הלך בדרך מרחוק ואין איש אלא הקדוש ברוך הוא שנאמר (שמות טו, ג) ה' איש מלחמה שלח להו בקריבא הוא ואתי שלחו ליה הלך בדרך מרחוק שלח להו אית להו צדיקי דבעו רחמי ומייתו ליה,שלחו ליה (משלי ז, כ) צרור הכסף לקח בידו ואין כסף אלא צדיקים שנאמר (הושע ג, ב) ואכרה לי בחמשה עשר כסף וחומר שעורים ולתך שעורים,שלח להו הדרי רשיעי בתשובה ובעו רחמי ומייתו ליה שלחו ליה כבר קבע להן זמן שנאמר (משלי ז, כ) ליום הכסא יבא (לביתו אין כסא אלא זמן שנאמר (תהלים פא, ד) בכסה ליום חגנו שלח להו סיתווא הוא ולא מצינא דאתי מתלגא וממיטרא,שלחו ליה תא אשינא דטורא שנאמר (ישעיהו טז, א) שלחו כר מושל ארץ מסלע מדברה אל הר בת ציון שלח להו אי אתינא לית לי דוכתא דיתיבנא ביה שלחו ליה קברות שלהם מעולין מפלטירין שלך דכתיב (ירמיהו ח, א) בעת ההיא נאום ה' יוציאו את עצמות מלכי יהודה ואת עצמות שריו ואת עצמות הכהנים ואת עצמות הנביאים ואת עצמות יושבי ירושלים מקבריהם ושטחום לשמש ולירח ולכל צבא השמים אשר אהבום ואשר עבדום ואשר הלכו אחריהם,אמר ליה רב נחמן לרבי יצחק מי שמיע לך אימת אתי בר נפלי אמר ליה מאן בר נפלי א"ל משיח משיח בר נפלי קרית ליה א"ל אין דכתיב (עמוס ט, יא) ביום ההוא אקים 96b. The Gemara asks: bAnd did Nebuchadnezzar ascend to Jerusalem? But isn’t it writtenwith regard to Zedekiah: “And they took the king, band brought him up to the king of Babylonia, to Riblah”(II Kings 25:6), band Rabbi Abbahu says: Thisplace called Riblah is a reference to bAntioch.Apparently, Nebuchadnezzar was in Antioch, not in Jerusalem. bRav Ḥisda and Rav Yitzḥak bar Avudimiresolved this apparent contradiction. bOne says: An image ofNebuchadnezzar’s blikeness was engraved onNebuzaradan’s bchariot,and he regarded that image as though Nebuchadnezzar were actually there. bAnd one says:Nebuzaradan bwas in extreme fear ofNebuchadnezzar, band it was as thoughNebuzaradan bwasalways bstanding beforeNebuchadnezzar. That is an example of the honor of a servant to his master mentioned in the verse.,§ The Gemara proceeds to discuss the role of Nebuzaradan in the destruction of the Temple. bRava says: Nebuchadnezzar sent to Nebuzaradan three hundred mules laden with iron axes that cut iron. All of them were incapacitatedin the attempt to breach bone gate of Jerusalem, as it is stated: “And now they pound its carved work together with hatchet and with hammers”(Psalms 74:6). Nebuzaradan bsought to returnto Babylonia and bsaid: I am afraid.I want to ensure bthat they will not do to me just as they did to Sennacherib,whose downfall was in Jerusalem.,A Divine bVoice emerged and said: Leaper, son of a leaper; Nebuzaradan, takethe bleap, as the time has arrived for the Temple to be destroyed and the Sanctuary to burn. One ax remained for himto use. bHe went and struckthe gate bwith the dull endof the ax band it opened, as it is stated: “He became known as the wielder of axes upward in a thicket of trees”(Psalms 74:5). At the appropriate time the gate was breached as though the ax were cutting trees., bHe was proceeding and killing until he reached the Sanctuary.When he reached the Sanctuary, bhe ignited a fire in it. The Sanctuary rose,seeking to enter Heaven so that it would not burn. bThey trod upon it from Heavenand returned it to its place, bas it is stated: “The Lord has trodden the virgin, the daughter of Judah, as in a winepress”(Lamentations 1:15). Nebuzaradan bbecame haughty,taking pride in his conquest. bA Divine Voice emerged and said to him:Your haughtiness is unwarranted, as byou killed a nationthat was already bdead, you burned a Sanctuarythat was already bburned,and byou ground flourthat was already bground, as it is statedwith regard to Babylonia: b“Take millstones and grind flour; uncover your locks, tuck up the train, uncover the leg, pass over rivers”(Isaiah 47:2). bIt was not stated:Grind bwheat, but“grind bflour,”indicating that all the destruction had already been wrought by God, and the role played by the enemy was insignificant.,When he reached the Sanctuary, bhe saw the blood of Zechariahthe priest bboiling.It had not calmed since he was killed in the Temple (see II Chronicles 24:20–22). Nebuzaradan bsaid tothe priests there: bWhat is this? They said to him: It is the blood of offerings that was spilled.Nebuzaradan bsaid to them: Bringanimals band I will testto determine bifthe blood of the animals bis similarto the blood that is boiling. bHe slaughteredthe animals bandtheir blood bwas not similarto the boiling blood. Nebuzaradan bsaid tothe priests: bRevealthe source of that blood bto me, and if not I will comb your flesh with an iron comb. /b,The priests bsaid toNebuzaradan: bThisblood bisthe blood of ba priest and a prophet who prophesied for the Jewish people with regard to the destruction of Jerusalem and whom they killed. He said tothe priests: bI will pacifythe blood so the boiling will stop. bHe brought the Sagesand bkilled them overthe blood bandits boiling bdid not cease. He brought schoolchildrenand bkilled them overthe blood bandits boiling bdid not cease. He brought young priestsand bkilled them overthe blood bandits boiling bdid not cease.He continued killing buntil he killed 940,000people boverthe blood, bandits boiling bdid not cease. /b,Nebuzaradan bapproachedthe blood and bsaid: Zechariah, Zechariah, the worthy among them I killedon your behalf. bIs it satisfactory for you that I kill them all? Immediatelythe boiling bceased.Nebuzaradan bcontemplated repentance. He said: If they, who caused only one person to perish,gained atonement only after all bthiskilling, then with regard to bthat man,referring to himself, bwhat will berequired bfor himto gain atonement? bHe desertedhis army and bdispatcheda last bwill to his house and converted. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bNaamanthe Aramean (see II Kings, chapter 5) bwas a iger toshav /i,meaning that he accepted upon himself to refrain from idol worship but did not convert to Judaism. bNebuzaradan wasa completely brighteous convert. Among the descendants of Sisera(see Judges, chapter 4) were those who bstudied Torah in Jerusalem. Among the descendants of Sennacheribwere those who btaught Torah in public.The Gemara asks: bAnd who are they?The Gemara answers: They were bShemaya and Avtalyon. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bAmong the descendants of Hamanwere those who bstudied Torah in Bnei Brak. And even among the descendants of that wickedperson, Nebuchadnezzar, were those whom bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to bring beneath the wings of the Divine Presenceand have them convert. bThe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe:The bone who destroyed Your House and burned Your Sanctuary,will bYou introducehim bbeneath the wings of the Divine Presence?The Gemara explains: bThat isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “We have healed Babylonia, but she is not healed”(Jeremiah 51:9). bUlla says: Thisverse bisa reference to bNebuchadnezzar,none of whose children converted. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says:This is not a reference to a person; rather, bthese are the rivers of Babylonia, and interpret itas referring to bthe bitter saltwater rivers of Babylonia. /b,§ On a related note, the Gemara describes the events that led to the destruction of the Temple. bUlla says: Ammon and Moab were bad neighbors of Jerusalem. Once they heard the prophets who prophesied about the destruction of the Jerusalem, they sent to Nebuchadnezzar: Emergefrom your dwelling place band comeconquer them. Nebuchadnezzar bsaidto them: bI am afraid.I want to ensure bthat they will not do to me just as they did tomy bpredecessors. /b,Ammon and Moab bsent to himthat it is written: b“For the iishis not at home; he is gone on a long journey”(Proverbs 7:19), band iish /iis referring to bnoone bbut the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “The Lord is an iishof war”(Exodus 15:3). Nebuchadnezzar bsent to themis response: bHe is in a nearbylocation, band He will come.They bsent toNebuchadnezzar: b“He has gone on a journey from afar”(Proverbs 7:19). Nebuchadnezzar bsaid to them: They have righteousamong them bwho will pray for mercy and bring Himto return.,Ammon and Moab bsent toNebuchadnezzar: b“He has taken a bundle of ikesefwith him”(Proverbs 7:20), band ikesef /iis referring to bnothing other than the righteous, as it is stated: “So I bought her to me for fifteen pieces of ikesefand for a ikorof barley and a half- ikorof barley”(Hosea 3:2). The inference is that God acquired the congregation of Israel due to the presence of righteous people among them, and Ammon and Moab sent a message to Nebuchadnezzar that God had already taken the righteous and they no longer offered protection.,Nebuchadnezzar bsent to them:Perhaps bthe wicked will repentand become righteous band they will pray for mercy and they will bring Himto return. Ammon and Moab bsent toNebuchadnezzar: bGod already designated the time of theirredemption, bas it is stated: “On the day of the ikeseh /i, He will come home”(Proverbs 7:20), and ikeseh /iis referring to bnothing other thana designated btime, as it is stated:“Sound a ishofarat the New Moon, bat the ikesehon the day of our feast”(Psalms 81:4). Since there is a time designated for redemption, until then you can do as you please. Nebuchadnezzar bsent to them: It is winternow band I cannot comeand conquer Jerusalem bdue to the snow and the rain. /b,Ammon and Moab bsent to him: Come on the peaks of mountains,where the rain does not pool, bas it is stated: “Send the lamb to the ruler of the land from the peaks of the wilderness to the mount of the daughter of Zion”(Isaiah 16:1). Nebuchadnezzar bsent to them: If I cometo Jerusalem, bIwill bhave no place to dwellwhile laying siege to the city. Ammon and Moab bsent to him: Their burial caves are superior to your palaces,and you can clear the caves and dwell there, bas it is written: “At that time, says the Lord, they shall remove the bones of the kings of Judea, and the bones of his princes, and the bones of the priests, and the bones of the prophets and the bones of the inhabitants of Jerusalem from their graves; and they shall spread them before the sun and the moon and all of the hosts of heaven, whom they have loved, and whom they have served, and after whom they have walked”(Jeremiah 8:1–2). Ultimately Nebuchadnezzar came to conquer Judea and removed the corpses to make room for his army.,§ bRav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: Have you heard when the son of giants [ ibar niflei /i] will come?Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid to him: Whois bthe son of giants?Rav Naḥman bsaid to him:He is the bMessiah.Rabbi Yitzḥak asked him: Do byou call the Messiah son of giants?Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Yes, as it is written: “On that day I will establish /b
86. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7a. נימרינהו לתרוייהו אל ההודאות ורוב ההודאות,אמר ר' אבהו גדול יום הגשמים מתחיית המתים דאילו תחיית המתים לצדיקים ואילו גשמים בין לצדיקים בין לרשעים ופליגא דרב יוסף דאמר רב יוסף מתוך שהיא שקולה כתחיית המתים קבעוה בתחיית המתים,אמר רב יהודה גדול יום הגשמים כיום שניתנה בו תורה שנא' (דברים לב, ב) יערף כמטר לקחי ואין לקח אלא תורה שנא' (משלי ד, ב) כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו רבא אמר יותר מיום שניתנה בו תורה שנאמר יערף כמטר לקחי מי נתלה במי הוי אומר קטן נתלה בגדול,רבא רמי כתיב יערף כמטר לקחי וכתיב תזל כטל אמרתי אם תלמיד חכם הגון הוא כטל ואם לאו עורפהו כמטר,תניא היה ר' בנאה אומר כל העוסק בתורה לשמה תורתו נעשית לו סם חיים שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה ואומר (משלי ג, ח) רפאות תהי לשרך ואומר (משלי ח, לה) כי מוצאי מצא חיים וכל העוסק בתורה שלא לשמה נעשית לו סם המות שנאמר יערף כמטר לקחי ואין עריפה אלא הריגה שנאמר (דברים כא, ד) וערפו שם את העגלה בנחל,א"ל ר' ירמיה לר' זירא ליתי מר ליתני א"ל חלש לבאי ולא יכילנא לימא מר מילתא דאגדתא א"ל הכי אמר ר' יוחנן מאי דכתיב (דברים כ, יט) כי האדם עץ השדה וכי אדם עץ שדה הוא,אלא משום דכתיב (דברים כ, יט) כי ממנו תאכל ואותו לא תכרת וכתיב אותו תשחית וכרת הא כיצד אם ת"ח הגון הוא ממנו תאכל ואותו לא תכרת ואם לאו אותו תשחית וכרת,אמר רבי חמא (אמר רבי) חנינא מאי דכתיב (משלי כז, יז) ברזל בברזל יחד לומר לך מה ברזל זה אחד מחדד את חבירו אף שני תלמידי חכמים מחדדין זה את זה בהלכה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה למה נמשלו דברי תורה כאש שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' לומר לך מה אש אינו דולק יחידי אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין ביחידי,והיינו דאמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו נ, לו) חרב אל הבדים ונואלו חרב על שונאיהן של תלמידי חכמים שעוסקין בד בבד בתורה ולא עוד אלא שמטפשין שנאמר ונואלו,ולא עוד אלא שחוטאין כתיב הכא ונואלו וכתיב התם (במדבר יב, יא) אשר נואלנו ואשר חטאנו ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו יט, יג) נואלו שרי צוען [וגו'] והתעו את מצרים,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק למה נמשלו דברי תורה כעץ שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה לומר לך מה עץ קטן מדליק את הגדול אף תלמידי חכמים קטנים מחדדים את הגדולים והיינו דאמר ר' חנינא הרבה למדתי מרבותי ומחבירי יותר מרבותי ומתלמידי יותר מכולן,רבי חנינא בר פפא רמי כתיב (ישעיהו כא, יד) לקראת צמא התיו מים וכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים אם תלמיד הגון הוא לקראת צמא התיו מים ואי לא הוי כל צמא לכו למים,רבי חנינא בר חמא רמי כתיב (משלי ה, טז) יפוצו מעינותיך חוצה וכתיב (משלי ה, יז) יהיו לך לבדך אם תלמיד הגון הוא יפוצו מעינותיך חוצה ואם לאו יהיו לך לבדך,(ואמר) רבי חנינא בר אידי למה נמשלו דברי תורה למים דכתיב הוי כל צמא לכו למים לומר לך מה מים מניחין מקום גבוה והולכין למקום נמוך אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין אלא במי שדעתו שפלה,ואמר רבי אושעיא למה נמשלו דברי תורה לשלשה משקין הללו במים וביין ובחלב דכתיב הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) לכו שברו ואכלו ולכו שברו בלא כסף ובלא מחיר יין וחלב לומר לך מה שלשה משקין הללו אין מתקיימין אלא בפחות שבכלים אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין אלא במי שדעתו שפלה,כדאמרה ליה ברתיה דקיסר לר' יהושע בן חנניה אי חכמה מפוארה בכלי מכוער אמר לה אביך רמי חמרא במני דפחרא אמרה ליה אלא במאי נירמי אמר לה אתון דחשביתו רמו במאני דהבא וכספא,אזלה ואמרה ליה לאבוה רמייא לחמרא במני דהבא וכספא ותקיף אתו ואמרו ליה אמר לה לברתיה מאן אמר לך הכי אמרה ליה רבי יהושע בן חנניה קריוהו אמר ליה אמאי אמרת לה הכי אמר ליה כי היכי דאמרה לי אמרי לה והא איכא שפירי דגמירי 7a. bwe will recite them both: God of thanksgivings, and: Abundant thanksgivings. /b,§ The Gemara cites statements in praise of rainfall. bRabbi Abbahu said: The day of rain is greater than the resurrection of the dead.The reason is that bwhile the resurrection of the deadbenefits only bthe righteous, rainbenefits bboth the righteous and the wicked.The Gemara comments: bAndthis statement bdisagrees withthe opinion of bRav Yosef, as Rav Yosef said: Sincerainfall bis equivalent to the resurrection of the dead,the Sages bestablishedits recitation binthe second blessing of the iAmida /i, the blessing of bthe resurrection of the dead.According to Rav Yosef, rainfall is the equivalent to, but not superior to, the resurrection of the dead.,Similarly, bRav Yehuda said: The day of the rains is as great as the dayon which bthe Torah was given, as it is stated: “My doctrine [ ilikḥi /i] shall drop as the rain”(Deuteronomy 32:2), band ilekaḥmeans nothing otherthan bTorah, as it is stated: “For I give you good doctrine [ ilekaḥ /i]; do not forsake My Torah”(Proverbs 4:2). bRava said:Rainfall is even bgreater than the day on which the Torah was given, as it is stated: “My doctrine shall drop as the rain,”and when one makes a comparison, bwhichobject bismade bdependent upon which? You must saythat bthe lesserobject bis dependent upon the greaterone. If Torah is compared to rain, it follows that rain is greater than Torah.,The Gemara cites another interpretation of the verse from Deuteronomy. bRava raised a contradiction:At the beginning of the verse bit is written: “My doctrine shall drop [ iya’arof /i] as the rain,”in a harsh manner, bandyet later in the verse, bit is written: “My speech shall distill as the dew,”in a gentle tone. He resolves this apparent contradiction as follows: bIf he is a worthy Torah scholar,the Torah flows through him blike the dew, but ifhe is bnotworthy, bit snaps his neck [ iorfehu /i] like thepowerful brain. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Bena’a would say: Anyone who engages in Torah for its own sake, his Torahstudy bwill be an elixir of life for him, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them who lay hold upon it”(Proverbs 3:18), band it says: “It shall be health to your navel”(Proverbs 3:8), band it says: “For whoever finds Me finds life”(Proverbs 8:35). bAnd anyone who engages in Torah not for its own sake,e.g., for self-aggrandizement, his Torah bwill be an elixir of death for him, as it is stated: “My doctrine shall drop [ iya’arof] as the rain,” and iarifa /imeans bnothing otherthan bkilling, as it is stated: “And they shall break the heifer’s neck [ iarefu /i] there in the valley”(Deuteronomy 21:4)., bRabbi Yirmeyaonce bsaid to Rabbi Zeira: Let the Master come and teacha halakhic discourse. Rabbi Zeira bsaid to him: My heart is weak and I cannotstrain myself over a halakhic discourse. Rabbi Yirmeya replied to him: In that case, blet the Master tell us a matter of iaggada /i,which does not require as much effort. Rabbi Zeira bsaid to himthat bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For man is a tree of the field”(Deuteronomy 20:19)? bAnd is manactually ba tree of the field? /b, bRather,it is bbecause it is writtenearlier in the same verse: b“You may eat of them but you may not cut them down,” and it is writtenin the next verse: b“Them you may destroy and cut down”(Deuteronomy 20:20). This indicates that there are certain trees which may be cut down, while others may not be destroyed. bHow so? If a Torah scholar is worthy: “You may eat of them but you may not cut them down,” but ifhe is bnotworthy: b“He you may destroy and cut down.” /b,The Gemara cites other expositions that deal with Torah study. bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Iron sharpens iron,so a man sharpens the countece of his friend” (Proverbs 27:17)? This verse comes bto tell youthat bjust aswith bthese iron implements, one sharpens the otherwhen they are rubbed against each other, bso too,when bTorah scholarsstudy together, they bsharpen one another in ihalakha /i. /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: Why are matters of Torah compared to fire, as it is stated: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord”(Jeremiah 23:29)? bTo tell you: Just as fire does not ignitein ba lonestick of wood but in a pile of kindling, bso too, matters of Torah are not retainedand understood properly by ba lonescholar who studies by himself, but by a group of Sages., bAnd this is what Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “A sword is upon the boasters [ ihabaddim /i], and they shall become fools [ inoalu /i]”(Jeremiah 50:36)? This verse can be interpreted homiletically: There is a bsword upon the enemies of Torah scholars,a euphemism for Torah scholars themselves, bwho sit alone [ ibad bevad /i] and study Torah. And not only that, butthose who study by themselves bgrow foolishfrom their solitary Torah study, bas it is stated: “And they shall become fools.” /b, bAnd not only that, but they sin, as it is written here: “And they shall become fools,” and it is written there: “For that we have done foolishly [ inoalnu /i] and for that we have sinned”(Numbers 12:11). bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that it is derived bfrom here: “The princes of Zoan have become fools [ inoalu /i]…they have caused Egypt to go astray”(Isaiah 19:13)., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Why are Torah matters likened to a tree, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them who lay hold upon it”(Proverbs 3:18)? This verse comes bto tell youthat bjust as a smallpiece of bwood can ignite a large piece, so too, minor Torah scholars can sharpen greatTorah scholars and enable them to advance in their studies. bAnd this is what Rabbi Ḥanina said: I have learned much from my teachers and even more from my friends, but from my studentsI have learned bmore thanfrom ball of them. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa raised a contradiction.In one verse bit is written: “To him who is thirsty bring water”(Isaiah 21:14), which indicates that the one who has water must bring it to the thirsty person, band it is writtenelsewhere: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1), from which it may be inferred that the thirsty person must seek out water himself. Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa resolves this apparent contradiction by explaining that bif he is a worthy studentthe teacher must seek him out, as in b“to him who is thirsty bring water,” but ifthe student is bnotworthy, then b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,”i.e., this student must seek out a teacher himself., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama raisedanother bcontradiction.In one verse bit is written: “Let your springs be dispersed abroad”(Proverbs 5:16), whereas in the next verse bit is written: “Let them be your own”(Proverbs 5:17). Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama explains: bIf the studentsitting before you bis worthy,then b“Let your springs be dispersed abroad,”as you should teach him, but bifhe is bnotworthy, then b“Let them be your own.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Ḥanina bar Idi said: Why are matters of Torah likened to water, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1)? This verse comes bto tell you: Just as water leaves a high place and flows to a low place, so too, Torah matters are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly,i.e., a humble person., bAnd Rabbi Oshaya said: Why are matters of Torah likened to these three liquids: To water, wine and milk? As it is writtenwith regard to water: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,” and it is writtenin the same verse: b“Come, buy and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price.”This verse comes bto tell you: Just as these three liquids can be retained only in the least of vessels,e.g., clay pots, but not vessels of silver and gold, as they will spoil, bso too, matters of Torah are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly. /b,The Gemara cites a related incident: This bis as the daughter of theRoman bemperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya,who was an ugly man: bWoe to glorious wisdomsuch as yours, which is contained bin an ugly vessel.Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to her,in a seemingly unrelated response: Does byour father keep his wine insimple bclay vessels?The emperor’s daughter bsaid to him: Rather, in what,then, bshould he keep it?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to her: You, who are so important,should bput it in vessels of gold and silver. /b,The emperor’s daughter bwent and saidthis bto her father. He put the wine in vessels of gold and silver and it turned sour.When his advisors bcame and told the emperorthat the wine had turned sour, bhe said tohis daughter: bWho told youto do bthis?His daughter bresponded: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya.The emperor bsummoned himand bsaid to him: Why did you say this to her?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to him: Just as she said to me, so I said say to her,to demonstrate to her that fine material is best preserved in the least of vessels. The emperor said to him: bBut there are handsome people who are learned. /b
87. Origen, Commentary On John, 20.33, 20.106, 20.147-20.148 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

88. Origen, Against Celsus, 7.58 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.58. Let us now consider what follows. They have also, says he, a precept to this effect, that we ought not to avenge ourselves on one who injures us, or, as he expresses it, 'Whosoever shall strike you on the one cheek, turn to him the other also.' This is an ancient saying, which had been admirably expressed long before, and which they have only reported in a coarser way. For Plato introduces Socrates conversing with Crito as follows: 'Must we never do injustice to any?' 'Certainly not.' 'And since we must never do injustice, must we not return injustice for an injustice that has been done to us, as most people think?' 'It seems to me that we should not.' 'But tell me, Crito, may we do evil to any one or not?' 'Certainly not, O Socrates.' 'Well, is it just, as is commonly said, for one who has suffered wrong to do wrong in return, or is it unjust?' 'It is unjust. Yes; for to do harm to a man is the same as to do him injustice.' 'You speak truly. We must then not do injustice in return for injustice, nor must we do evil to any one, whatever evil we may have suffered from him.' Thus Plato speaks; and he adds, 'Consider, then, whether you are at one with me, and whether, starting from this principle, we may not come to the conclusion that it is never right to do injustice, even in return for an injustice which has been received; or whether, on the other hand, you differ from me, and do not admit the principle from which we started. That has always been my opinion, and is so still.' Such are the sentiments of Plato, and indeed they were held by divine men before his time. But let this suffice as one example of the way in which this and other truths have been borrowed and corrupted. Any one who wishes can easily by searching find more of them.
89. Origen, On Prayer, 22.3 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

90. Augustine, Reply To Faustus, 19.2-19.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

91. John Chrysostom, Homilies On John, 3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

92. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.50, 7.60-7.61

7.50. For this reason the Most High has made not one world but two. 7.60. So also will be the judgment which I have promised; for I will rejoice over the few who shall be saved, because it is they who have made my glory to prevail now, and through them my name has now been honored. 7.61. And I will not grieve over the multitude of those who perish; for it is they who are now like a mist, and are similar to a flame and smoke -- they are set on fire and burn hotly, and are extinguished.
93. Anon., 4 Baruch, 3.8, 3.14

3.8. And Jeremiah said: Behold, Lord, now we know that you are delivering the city into the hands of its enemies, and they will take the people away to Babylon. What do you want me to do with the holy vessels of the temple service? 3.14. And the Lord said to Jeremiah: Send him to the vineyard of Agrippa, and I will hide him in the shadow of the mountain until I cause the people to return to the city.
94. Anon., Epistle To Diognetus, 5.11, 12.5

95. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 188-207, 227-228, 187

187. Taking an opportunity afforded by a pause in the banquet the king asked the envoy who sat in the seat of honour (for they were arranged according to seniority), How he could keep his kingdom


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(biblical) law, lawlessness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
abigail Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 541
abraham, descent from Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
abu khdeir mohammed Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 289
acts of the apostles, recurrent reference in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 495
addas (disciple of mani) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 602
adimantius Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 174
adoption as sons, moral endeavour Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 102
adultery Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
afterlife, eschatological punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 281
against adimantus (augustine) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 602
ages of the world Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 190
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25
alexandrian Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 92
alms Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 231, 232; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 122, 136
almsgiving, charity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
angels, of retribution Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 210
anger Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 44
antioch, syria Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 207
antitheses, marcions Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 205, 282
antitheses Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 602; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 122, 123, 127, 129
antitheses (addas) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 602
aphorism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 48
apologetics, christian, matthew's moses typology as" Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 495
apologists, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 549
apostle/apostles, paul the apostle Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 231, 233
apostles Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 210
appearance Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 139
aramaic Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 101
aristides of athens Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 97
asceticism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 48
assmann, jan Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257
athenagoras Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 97, 105; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 829, 835
augustine of hippo, against adimantus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 602
augustine of hippo, on manichaeans Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 602
augustus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 201
authority, human vs. divine/scriptural Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
authority, of oral law Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
authority, of scripture Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
baptism Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 231
basil the great Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 207
beatitude, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123
beatitudes, reception history Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 474
beatitudes, two gospel versions Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 400
beatitudes, wesley, j. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 474
beatitudes Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 400, 474
behaviour Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 292, 294
belief, believer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
believers church Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 918
benefactor Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 182
benefactors Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 228
betz, hans dieter Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 137
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107, 112
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 139
blood Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 210
bloodguilt Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 541
body (as detached from the soul) Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 201
book about the two classes (liber de duobus gradibus) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 602
boundaries Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 93
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 139
breviary Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 541
caesars denarius Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 48
catchword Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 228
child, childhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 273
children, of abraham Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
children, of the devil Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
children Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 97
christ Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 233
christian, artisans Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 105
christian, believers/faithful Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 105
christian, critique of traditional gods Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 97
christian, doctrine Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 105
christian, ethos Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 105
christian judaism Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 26
christianisation Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 182
christianity Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 26, 92
christianity (early) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 93
christians, hope Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 97
christians, maltreatment Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 105
christians, resurrection Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 97
christology, christological, high christology, lower christology Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
cinna Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 201
clement of alexandria Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 829, 835
clothing Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
commandments Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 231, 232, 246
community, christian Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127, 132
community Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291, 293; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 129, 135, 136
complaint Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 281
confession Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291
conflict Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 93
constantine, emperor Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 207
constantinople (byzantium) Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 207
constantius ii, emperor Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 207
conversion, process Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291, 293
conversion, social/sociological aspects Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291, 292, 293, 294, 295
covenant Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 139
creation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 139
creator, new creation Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 273
cross Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 139
cult Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123
cursus publicus Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 97
cynics, ethics Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 201
cynics Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 201
damascus document Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
david, his narratives Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 541
david, his story Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 541
david Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 541
day of atonement Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
day of judgement, last judgement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
dead sea scrolls vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108, 119
death, way of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245, 246
decalogue Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245, 246, 247
deeds Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 210
deficiency Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291
desire Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 292, 293, 294
desires, abandonment of Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 219
desires Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 219, 231, 233, 238
devil, children of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
didache, use of luke Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 100
didache Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 256
disciple Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 120
disciples of jesus, following jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121, 132, 135
disciples of jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121, 132, 135
disputes, schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25
dittography Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 281
divine Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295
divorce, law/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
divorce Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
divorce bill Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
doctrine, christian Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 829
double love commandment Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 231, 232, 245, 246
drinking Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
economics, extortion Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 120
economics, requisition (angareia) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 120
economics Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 120
egypt Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 97
eighth day Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 139
elites Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 97
elpis Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 238
emotion/emotional Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 293
empire Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 210
end of days/last days, eschaton Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108, 120
end of days tribulation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
enemies, clemency toward ones, love of ones Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 133
enemies, clemency toward ones, prayer of forgiveness for ones Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 133
enemies Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 228
enemy love and the dying forgiveness prayer Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 111
epictetus Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 182; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 256
epistle to diognetus, use of the new testament Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 316
epithymia Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 219
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
eschatology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123, 135; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 139
eschaton Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 210
essenes Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25
ethical teachings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245, 246, 247
ethics Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 273; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135; Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 829
ethos Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 201
eucharist, eucharist prayers Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 256
eucharist Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
evil, actions Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
evil Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 292, 293, 294, 295; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 201; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 119, 120; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 219, 233, 238
exception clause Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
exclusive/exclusivity Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 294
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture, jesus command of scriptural exegesis Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108, 112
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
exegesis, in theophilus Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 218
exegesis Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 219, 231, 233, 238
exhortations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 231, 232, 247
exiles, assyrian Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257
exodus, recurrent reference in matthew narrative to Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 494, 495
ezra Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257
faith, faithfulness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
faith Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
fast Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
fasting Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
father, addressing god as Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 109
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 273
fatigue, editorial, and theology Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 176
fatigue, editorial, as christian distinctive Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 176
faustus of milevus, rejection of the old testament Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 174
festivals, non-christian, in early christian literature Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 44
first day of the week Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 139
food Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
forgiveness, among believers deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 246
forgiveness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 231
forgiveness prayer and the sermon on the mount/plain Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 111
fredriksen, p. Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 174
fulfillment Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
fulfilment Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 139
galen Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 829, 835
galilee, galilean Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
gentleness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
germanicus Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 97
gifts Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 231
gnostics/gnostic Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 233, 238
god, as father deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 246
god, father Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 105
god, omniscience of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
god, one and only god Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 97
god, perfection of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 129
god, will of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 219, 231, 233, 238
god Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 201
god as father Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 94
gods Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 201
golden rule Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 232, 245, 246; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121, 123; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
goldstein, baruch Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 289
good, the Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 294
good Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 201
gospel, of matthew Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 120, 121, 122, 123, 127, 129, 132, 135, 136
gospels Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 232, 246; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 231, 233
grammatical archive, commentarial strategies, clarity/clarification (σαφήνεια/σαφηνίζειν) Ward, Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian (2022) 95, 96
grammatical archive, commentarial strategies, coherence (ἀκολουθία) Ward, Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian (2022) 96
grammatical archive, commentarial strategies Ward, Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian (2022) 95, 96
greco-roman world, culture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
grief Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
grounds for divorce Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
group boundaries deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 246
guilt Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
hadrian Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 105
halakha, and scripture Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
halivni, david weiss Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 136
happiness Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 293
hatred (of enemies, outsiders) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
health Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
heart (καρδία) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
heaven Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 210
heavenly/angelic redeemer v-vi Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
hebrew bible/old testament, manichaean rejection of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 602
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture, abolishing scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture, fulfilling scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
hebrew language Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 541
hebrews Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 71
hellenistic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 292
heracleon Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 102
hermeneutics, hermeneutical key Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25, 99
holiness deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 246
holy spirit Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 835; Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 109
homer Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 835
honesty Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 129
honor Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121
hospitium, law of Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 97
hospitium Nasrallah, Archaeology and the Letters of Paul (2019) 97
humility Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
identity, identity marker Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 256
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 93, 256
image of god Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 228
imitatio christi Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 133
immersion Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
immutability, of divine law, and rabbinic rejection of Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 288
innovation through exegesis in rabbinic sources, through legislation in rabbinic sources' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 288
institutes, of gaius Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 288
intercessory prayer Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 238
interpreter of the torah, as messianic function, jesus as Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107, 108, 141
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 119
israel/israelites Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 93, 256
israel Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
jacob Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 71
james, term brothers in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 229
jesus, and torah observance Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
jesus, as a prophetic anointed of the spirit Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
jesus, as bearer of gods logos Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
jesus, as the anointed one, the messiah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
jesus, as torah-righteous, torah-sage Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
jesus, demonic power attributed to Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107, 108, 112, 119, 120, 141
jesus, historical Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 122
jesus, in matthew Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 286, 289
jesus, kingly/davidic messiahship/descent Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
jesus, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121, 127, 129, 135
jesus, priestly (aaronic) connection Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
jesus, rejection of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 127
jesus, will of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 129
jesus-centered tradition Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
jesus (of nazareth) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257
jesus christ Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 198, 207; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 48
jesus logia Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 48
jesus movement Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 231
jew(ish), pharisees Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
jew(ish), scribes Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
jewish, cynic Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 201
jewish community, manichaean rejection of Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 174
jewish other, religious sensitivity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
jewish other, ritual Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
jewish people Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 218
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 119
jews (jewish people), as chrysostoms audience Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 127
jews (jewish people), as literalist christians Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
jews (jewish people), as resistors of divine things Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
jews (jewish people), jesus rejected by Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 127
jews (jewish people), vainglory of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 127
jews (jewish people), worldliness of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 127
john chrysostom, audience of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 127
john chrysostom Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 127; Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 207; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 71
john the baptist Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 286
jordan river Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
joseph (patriarch) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 71