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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8258
New Testament, Matthew, 5.43-5.48


Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου καὶ μισήσεις τὸν ἐχθρόν σου.You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.'


Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς·But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you


ὅπως γένησθε υἱοὶ τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν τοῦ ἐν οὐρανοῖς, ὅτι τὸν ἥλιον αὐτοῦ ἀνατέλλει ἐπὶ πονηροὺς καὶ ἀγαθοὺς καὶ βρέχει ἐπὶ δικαίους καὶ ἀδίκους.that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust.


ἐὰν γὰρ ἀγαπήσητε τοὺς ἀγαπῶντας ὑμᾶς, τίνα μισθὸν ἔχετε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ τελῶναι τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν;For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same?


καὶ ἐὰν ἀσπάσησθε τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὑμῶν μόνον, τί περισσὸν ποιεῖτε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ ἐθνικοὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν;If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same?


Ἔσεσθε οὖν ὑμεῖς τέλειοι ὡς ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος τέλειός ἐστιν.Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

68 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, a b c d\n0 "32.4" "32.4" "32 4" \n1 18.15 18.15 18 15 \n2 18.16 18.16 18 16 \n3 24 24 24 None\n4 24.1 24.1 24 1 \n5 24.2 24.2 24 2 \n6 24.3 24.3 24 3 \n7 24.4 24.4 24 4 \n8 30.11 30.11 30 11 \n9 30.12 30.12 30 12 \n10 30.13 30.13 30 13 \n11 30.14 30.14 30 14 \n12 5.1 5.1 5 1 \n13 5.10 5.10 5 10 \n14 5.11 5.11 5 11 \n15 5.12 5.12 5 12 \n16 5.13 5.13 5 13 \n17 5.14 5.14 5 14 \n18 5.15 5.15 5 15 \n19 5.16 5.16 5 16 \n20 5.17 5.17 5 17 \n21 5.18 5.18 5 18 \n22 5.19 5.19 5 19 \n23 5.2 5.2 5 2 \n24 5.20 5.20 5 20 \n25 5.21 5.21 5 21 \n26 5.3 5.3 5 3 \n27 5.4 5.4 5 4 \n28 5.5 5.5 5 5 \n29 5.6 5.6 5 6 \n30 5.7 5.7 5 7 \n31 5.8 5.8 5 8 \n32 5.9 5.9 5 9 \n33 8.3 8.3 8 3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.22, 2.1-2.2, 2.14, 4.19-4.20, 20.1-20.17, 21.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.22. וַיְצַו פַּרְעֹה לְכָל־עַמּוֹ לֵאמֹר כָּל־הַבֵּן הַיִּלּוֹד הַיְאֹרָה תַּשְׁלִיכֻהוּ וְכָל־הַבַּת תְּחַיּוּן׃ 2.1. וַיִגְדַּל הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּבִאֵהוּ לְבַת־פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי־לָהּ לְבֵן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מֹשֶׁה וַתֹּאמֶר כִּי מִן־הַמַּיִם מְשִׁיתִהוּ׃ 2.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ אִישׁ מִבֵּית לֵוִי וַיִּקַּח אֶת־בַּת־לֵוִי׃ 2.2. וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתֵּרֶא אֹתוֹ כִּי־טוֹב הוּא וַתִּצְפְּנֵהוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה יְרָחִים׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־בְּנֹתָיו וְאַיּוֹ לָמָּה זֶּה עֲזַבְתֶּן אֶת־הָאִישׁ קִרְאֶן לוֹ וְיֹאכַל לָחֶם׃ 2.14. וַיֹּאמֶר מִי שָׂמְךָ לְאִישׁ שַׂר וְשֹׁפֵט עָלֵינוּ הַלְהָרְגֵנִי אַתָּה אֹמֵר כַּאֲשֶׁר הָרַגְתָּ אֶת־הַמִּצְרִי וַיִּירָא מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמַר אָכֵן נוֹדַע הַדָּבָר׃ 20.1. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ 20.1. וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר׃ 20.2. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 20.2. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃ 20.3. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ 20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ 20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 20.6. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָי׃ 20.7. לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־שֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא׃ 20.8. זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ 20.9. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ 20.11. כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃ 20.12. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 20.13. לֹא תִּרְצָח׃ לֹא תִּנְאָף׃ לֹא תִּגְנֹב׃ לֹא־תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁקֶר׃ 20.14. לֹא תַחְמֹד בֵּית רֵעֶךָ לֹא־תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ וְשׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ׃ 20.15. וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃ 20.16. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה דַּבֵּר־אַתָּה עִמָּנוּ וְנִשְׁמָעָה וְאַל־יְדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ אֱלֹהִים פֶּן־נָמוּת׃ 20.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל־פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ׃ 21.12. מַכֵּה אִישׁ וָמֵת מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 1.22. And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying: ‘Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall save alive.’" 2.1. And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a daughter of Levi." 2.2. And the woman conceived, and bore a son; and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months." 2.14. And he said: ‘Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us? thinkest thou to kill me, as thou didst kill the Egyptian?’ And Moses feared, and said: ‘Surely the thing is known.’" 4.20. And Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon an ass, and he returned to the land of Egypt; and Moses took the rod of God in his hand." 20.1. And God spoke all these words, saying:" 20.2. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 20.3. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;" 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;" 20.6. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments." 20.7. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain." 20.8. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy." 20.9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 20.10. but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates;" 20.11. for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." 20.12. Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 20.13. Thou shalt not murder. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour." 20.14. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house; thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s." 20.15. And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off." 20.16. And they said unto Moses: ‘Speak thou with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die.’" 20.17. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not.’" 21.12. He that smiteth a man, so that he dieth, shall surely be put to death."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.5, 12.7, 15.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.5. כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טוֹב וָרָע׃ 12.7. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלָיו׃ 15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 3.5. for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil.’" 12.7. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said: ‘Unto thy seed will I give this land’; and he builded there an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him." 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 2.15, 6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.15. וּפָקַדְתִּי עָלֶיהָ אֶת־יְמֵי הַבְּעָלִים אֲשֶׁר תַּקְטִיר לָהֶם וַתַּעַד נִזְמָהּ וְחֶלְיָתָהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי מְאַהֲבֶיהָ וְאֹתִי שָׁכְחָה נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 6.6. כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃ 2.15. And I will visit upon her the days of the Baalim, Wherein she offered unto them, And decked herself with her ear-rings and her jewels, And went after her lovers, And forgot Me, saith the LORD." 6.6. For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.2, 19.17-19.18, 24.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדֹשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְהִוא שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדָּתָה אוֹ חֻפְשָׁה לֹא נִתַּן־לָהּ בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי־לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה׃ 19.17. לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 24.17. וְאִישׁ כִּי יַכֶּה כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 19.2. Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them: Ye shall be holy; for I the LORD your God am holy." 19.17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 24.17. And he that smiteth any man mortally shall surely be put to death."
6. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.3. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ לְגוֹיִם עֲצֻמִים עַד־רָחוֹק וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבֹתֵיהֶם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשְׂאוּ גּוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּן עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 4.3. And He shall judge between many peoples, And shall decide concerning mighty nations afar off; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.7, 95.7-95.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 95.7. כִּי הוּא אֱלֹהֵינוּ וַאֲנַחְנוּ עַם מַרְעִיתוֹ וְצֹאן יָדוֹ הַיּוֹם אִם־בְּקֹלוֹ תִשְׁמָעוּ׃ 95.8. אַל־תַּקְשׁוּ לְבַבְכֶם כִּמְרִיבָה כְּיוֹם מַסָּה בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 95.9. אֲשֶׁר נִסּוּנִי אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בְּחָנוּנִי גַּם־רָאוּ פָעֳלִי׃ 95.11. אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי בְאַפִּי אִם־יְבֹאוּן אֶל־מְנוּחָתִי׃ 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 95.7. For He is our God, And we are the people of His pasture, and the flock of His hand. To-day, if ye would but hearken to His voice!" 95.8. 'Harden not your heart, as at Meribah, As in the day of Massah in the wilderness;" 95.9. When your fathers tried Me, Proved Me, even though they saw My work." 95.10. For forty years was I wearied with that generation, And said: It is a people that do err in their heart, And they have not known My ways;" 95.11. Wherefore I swore in My wrath, That they should not enter into My arest.'"
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 2.10, 19.19-19.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.19. וַיֵּלֶךְ מִשָּׁם וַיִּמְצָא אֶת־אֱלִישָׁע בֶּן־שָׁפָט וְהוּא חֹרֵשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר צְמָדִים לְפָנָיו וְהוּא בִּשְׁנֵים הֶעָשָׂר וַיַּעֲבֹר אֵלִיָּהוּ אֵלָיו וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אַדַּרְתּוֹ אֵלָיו׃ 19.21. וַיָּשָׁב מֵאַחֲרָיו וַיִּקַּח אֶת־צֶמֶד הַבָּקָר וַיִּזְבָּחֵהוּ וּבִכְלִי הַבָּקָר בִּשְּׁלָם הַבָּשָׂר וַיִּתֵּן לָעָם וַיֹּאכֵלוּ וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ וַיְשָׁרְתֵהוּ׃ 2.10. And David slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city of David." 19.19. So he departed thence, and found Elisha the son of Shaphat, who was plowing, with twelve yoke of oxen before him, and he with the twelfth; and Elijah passed over unto him, and cast his mantle upon him." 19.20. And he left the oxen, and ran after Elijah, and said: ‘Let me, I pray thee, kiss my father and my mother, and then I will follow thee.’ And he said unto him: ‘Go back; for what have I done to thee?’" 19.21. And he returned from following him, and took the yoke of oxen, and slew them, and boiled their flesh with the instruments of the oxen, and gave unto the people, and they did eat. Then he arose, and went after Elijah, and ministered unto him."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.10-2.11, 2.13, 4.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.11. וַיְהִי הֵמָּה הֹלְכִים הָלוֹךְ וְדַבֵּר וְהִנֵּה רֶכֶב־אֵשׁ וְסוּסֵי אֵשׁ וַיַּפְרִדוּ בֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַל אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּסְעָרָה הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 2.13. וַיָּרֶם אֶת־אַדֶּרֶת אֵלִיָּהוּ אֲשֶׁר נָפְלָה מֵעָלָיו וַיָּשָׁב וַיַּעֲמֹד עַל־שְׂפַת הַיַּרְדֵּן׃ 4.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לְגֵיחֲזִי חֲגֹר מָתְנֶיךָ וְקַח מִשְׁעַנְתִּי בְיָדְךָ וָלֵךְ כִּי־תִמְצָא אִישׁ לֹא תְבָרְכֶנּוּ וְכִי־יְבָרֶכְךָ אִישׁ לֹא תַעֲנֶנּוּ וְשַׂמְתָּ מִשְׁעַנְתִּי עַל־פְּנֵי הַנָּעַר׃ 2.10. And he said: ‘Thou hast asked a hard thing; nevertheless, if thou see me when I am taken from thee, it shall be so unto thee; but if not, it shall not be so.’" 2.11. And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both assunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." 2.13. He took up also the mantle of Elijah that fell from him, and went back, and stood by the bank of the Jordan." 4.29. Then he said to Gehazi: ‘Gird up thy loins, and take my staff in thy hand, and go thy way; if thou meet any man, salute him not; and if any salute thee, answer him not; and lay my staff upon the face of the child.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.4, 28.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.4. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 28.16. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי יִסַּד בְּצִיּוֹן אָבֶן אֶבֶן בֹּחַן פִּנַּת יִקְרַת מוּסָד מוּסָּד הַמַּאֲמִין לֹא יָחִישׁ׃ 2.4. And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more." 28.16. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, A tried stone, a costly corner-stone of sure foundation; He that believeth shall not make haste."
11. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 31.31-31.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 31.32. לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.34. וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃ 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;" 31.32. not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD." 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;" 31.34. and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more."
12. Homer, Odyssey, 6.184-6.185 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

13. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 41-48, 40 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

21c. thinking that there, if anywhere, I should prove the utterance wrong and should show the oracle This man is wiser than I, but you said I was wisest. So examining this man—for I need not call him by name, but it was one of the public men with regard to whom I had this kind of experience, men of Athens —and conversing with him, this man seemed to me to seem to be wise to many other people and especially to himself, but not to be so; and then I tried to show him that he thought
15. Plato, Crito, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

49c. Crito. Apparently not. Socrates. Well, Crito, ought one to do evil or not? Crito. Certainly not, Socrates. Socrates. Well, then, is it right to requite evil with evil, as the world says it is, or not right? Crito. Not right, certainly. Socrates. For doing evil to people is the same thing as wronging them. Crito. That is true. Socrates. Then we ought neither to requite wrong with wrong nor to do evil to anyone, no matter what he may have done to us.
16. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

715e. when he is young, but at its keenest when he is old. Clin. Very true. Ath. What, then, is to be our next step? May we not assume that our immigrants have arrived and are in the country, and should we not proceed with our address to them? Clin. of course. Ath. Let us, then, speak to them thus:— O men, that God who, as old tradition tells, holdeth the beginning, the end, and the center of all things that exist
17. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

18. Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus, 8.7.28 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.7.28. Remember also this last word of mine, he said: if you do good to your friends, you will also be able to punish your enemies. And now farewell, my children, and say farewell to your mother as from me. And to all my friends, both present and absent, I bid farewell. After these words, he shook hands with them all, covered himself over, and so died. delSpan spanTo=
19. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

20. Anon., Testament of Benjamin, 6.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.5. The good mind hath not two tongues, of blessing and of cursing, of contumely and of honor, of sorrow and of joy, of quietness and of confusion, of hypocrisy and of truth, [of poverty and of wealth]; but it hath one disposition, uncorrupt and pure, concerning all men.
21. Anon., Testament of Gad, 6.1-6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. AND now, my children, I exhort you, love ye each one his brother, and put away hatred from your hearts, love one another in deed, and in word, and in the inclination of the soul. 6.2. For in the presence of my father I spake peaceably to Joseph; and when I had gone out, the spirit of hatred darkened my mind, and stirred up my soul to slay him. 6.3. Love ye one another from the heart; and if a man sin against thee, speak peaceably to him, and in thy soul hold not guile; and if he repent and confess, forgive him. 6.4. But if he deny it, do not get into a passion with him, lest catching the poison from thee he take to swearing and so thou sin doubly. 6.5. Let not another man hear thy secrets when engaged in legal strife, lest he come to hate thee and become thy enemy, and commit a great sin against thee; for ofttimes he addresseth thee guilefully or busieth himself about thee with wicked intent. 6.6. And though he deny it and yet have a sense of shame when reproved, give over reproving him. For be who denieth may repent so as not again to wrong thee; yea, he may also honour thee, and fear and be at peace with thee. 6.7. And if he be shameless and persist in his wrong-doing, even so forgive him from the heart, and leave to God the avenging.
22. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 18.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

18.2. And if any one seeketh to do evil unto you, do well unto him, and pray for him, and ye shall be redeemed of the Lord from all evil.
23. Anon., Testament of Zebulun, 8.1-8.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.14-7.19, 9.2-9.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 7.14-7.19, 9.2-9.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q174 (The Florilegium) 195, 199, 339, 1.11-1.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.3, 1.9-1.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 6.16, 8.5, 25.7-25.11, 30.6, 40.18-40.20, 40.23, 40.25-40.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.5. Do not reproach a man who is turning away from sin;remember that we all deserve punishment. 25.7. With nine thoughts I have gladdened my heart,and a tenth I shall tell with my tongue:a man rejoicing in his children;a man who lives to see the downfall of his foes; 25.8. happy is he who lives with an intelligent wife,and he who has not made a slip with his tongue,and he who has not served a man inferior to himself; 25.9. happy is he who has gained good sense,and he who speaks to attentive listeners. 25.11. The fear of the Lord surpasses everything;to whom shall be likened the one who holds it fast? 30.6. he has left behind him an avenger against his enemies,and one to repay the kindness of his friends. 40.18. Life is sweet for the self-reliant and the worker,but he who finds treasure is better off than both. 40.19. Children and the building of a city establish a mans name,but a blameless wife is accounted better than both. 40.23. A friend or a companion never meets one amiss,but a wife with her husband is better than both. 40.25. Gold and silver make the foot stand sure,but good counsel is esteemed more than both. 40.26. Riches and strength lift up the heart,but the fear of the Lord is better than both. There is no loss in the fear of the Lord,and with it there is no need to seek for help. 40.27. The fear of the Lord is like a garden of blessing,and covers a man better than any glory.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.31 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.31. He, then, being a sovereign of this character, and having conceived a great admiration for and love of the legislation of Moses, conceived the idea of having our laws translated into the Greek language; and immediately he sent out ambassadors to the high-priest and king of Judea, for they were the same person.
30. Anon., Didache, 1.2-1.6, 2.2, 2.4-2.5, 2.7, 3.1-3.10, 5.1-5.2, 6.1-6.3, 10.5-10.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1. There are two ways, one of life and one of death; but a great difference between the two ways. The way of life, then, is this: First, you shall love God who made you; second, your neighbour as yourself; and all things whatsoever you would should not occur to you, do not also do to another. And of these sayings the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you. For what reward is there, if you love those who love you? Do not also the Gentiles do the same? But love those who hate you, and you shall not have an enemy. Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts. If someone gives you a blow upon your right cheek, turn to him the other also, and you shall be perfect. If someone impresses you for one mile, go with him two. If someone takes away your cloak, give him also your coat. If someone takes from you what is yours, ask it not back, for indeed you are not able. Give to every one that asks you, and ask it not back; for the Father wills that to all should be given of our own blessings (free gifts). Happy is he that gives according to the commandment; for he is guiltless. Woe to him that receives; for if one having need receives, he is guiltless; but he that receives not having need, shall pay the penalty, why he received and for what, and, coming into straits (confinement), he shall be examined concerning the things which he has done, and he shall not escape thence until he pay back the last farthing. Matthew 5:26 But also now concerning this, it has been said, Let your alms sweat in your hands, until you know to whom you should give.
31. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.8.14, 2.135, 2.139 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.135. They dispense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without [swearing by] God is already condemned. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous;
32. Mishnah, Avot, 1.2, 2.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Shimon the Righteous was one of the last of the men of the great assembly. He used to say: the world stands upon three things: the Torah, the Temple service, and the practice of acts of piety." 2.4. He used to say: do His will as though it were your will, so that He will do your will as though it were His. Set aside your will in the face of His will, so that he may set aside the will of others for the sake of your will. Hillel said: do not separate yourself from the community, Do not trust in yourself until the day of your death, Do not judge not your fellow man until you have reached his place. Do not say something that cannot be understood [trusting] that in the end it will be understood. Say not: ‘when I shall have leisure I shall study;’ perhaps you will not have leisure."
33. Mishnah, Peah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. It happened that Rabbi Shimon of Mitzpah planted his field [with two different kinds] and came before Rabban Gamaliel. They both went up to the Chamber of Hewn Stone and asked [about the law]. Nahum the scribe said: I have a tradition from Rabbi Meyasha, who received it from Abba, who received it from the pairs [of sage], who received it from the prophets, a halakhah of Moses from Sinai, that one who plants his field with two species of wheat, if he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah, but if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs."
34. Mishnah, Yevamot, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. Beth Shammai permits the rival wives to the surviving brothers, and Beth Hillel prohibits them. If they perform the halitzah, Beth Shammai disqualifies them from marrying a priest, and Beth Hillel makes the eligible. If they performed yibbum, Beth Shammai makes them eligible [to marry a priest], and Beth Hillel disqualifies them. Though these forbid and these permit, and these disqualify and these make eligible, Beth Shammai did not refrain from marrying women from [the families of] Beth Hillel, nor did Beth Hillel [refrain from marrying women] from [the families of] Beth Shammai. [With regard to] purity and impurity, which these declare pure and the others declare impure, neither of them refrained from using the utensils of the others for the preparation of food that was ritually clean."
35. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.9. One who says: I shall sin and repent, sin and repent, they do not afford him the opportunity to repent. [If one says]: I shall sin and Yom HaKippurim will atone for me, Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement. For transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow. This was expounded by Rabbi Elazar b. Azariah: “From all your sins before the Lord you shall be clean” (Leviticus 16:30) for transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow.. Rabbi Akiva said: Happy are you, Israel! Who is it before whom you become pure? And who is it that purifies you? Your Father who is in heaven, as it is said: “And I will sprinkle clean water upon you and you shall be clean” (Ezekiel 36:25). And it further says: “O hope (mikveh) of Israel, O Lord” (Jeremiah 17:1--just as a mikveh purifies the unclean, so too does he Holy One, blessed be He, purify Israel."
36. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.7. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you declare an uninterrupted flow of a liquid to be clean. The Pharisees say: we complain against you, Sadducees, that you declare a stream of water which flows from a burial-ground to be clean? The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you say, my ox or donkey which has done injury is liable, yet my male or female slave who has done injury is not liable. Now if in the case of my ox or my donkey for which I am not responsible if they do not fulfill religious duties, yet I am responsible for their damages, in the case of my male or female slave for whom I am responsible to see that they fulfill mitzvot, how much more so that I should be responsible for their damages? They said to them: No, if you argue about my ox or my donkey which have no understanding, can you deduce from there anything concerning a male or female slave who do have understanding? So that if I were to anger either of them and they would go and burn another person's stack, should I be liable to make restitution?"
37. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.5-1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. who by the power of God are guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. 1.6. Wherein you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while, if need be, you have been put to grief in various trials 1.7. that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ -- 1.8. whom not having known you love; in whom, though now you don't see him, yet believing, you rejoice greatly with joy unspeakable and full of glory -- 1.9. receiving the result of your faith, the salvation of your souls. 1.10. Concerning this salvation, the prophets sought and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that would come to you 1.11. searching for who or what kind of time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, pointed to, when he predicted the sufferings of Christ, and the glories that would follow them. 1.12. To them it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to you, did they minister these things, which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent out from heaven; which things angels desire to look into.
38. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 5.1, 5.4, 6.11, 7.10-7.11, 10.1-10.5, 12.8-12.10, 13.1-13.3, 13.8-13.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality amongyou, and such sexual immorality as is not even named among theGentiles, that one has his father's wife. 5.4. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,you being gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our LordJesus Christ 6.11. Such were some of you, but you were washed. But you were sanctified.But you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and in the Spiritof our God. 7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.11. (but if she departs, let her remain unmarried, or else be reconciled toher husband), and that the husband not leave his wife. 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 10.3. andall ate the same spiritual food; 10.4. and all drank the samespiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them,and the rock was Christ. 10.5. However with most of them, God was notwell pleased, for they were overthrown in the wilderness. 12.8. For to one is given through theSpirit the word of wisdom, and to another the word of knowledge,according to the same Spirit; 12.9. to another faith, by the sameSpirit; and to another gifts of healings, by the same Spirit; 12.10. and to another workings of miracles; and to another prophecy; and toanother discerning of spirits; to another different kinds of languages;and to another the interpretation of languages. 13.1. If I speak with the languages of men and of angels, but don'thave love, I have become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal. 13.2. If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and allknowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, butdon't have love, I am nothing. 13.3. If I dole out all my goods tofeed the poor, and if I give my body to be burned, but don't have love,it profits me nothing. 13.8. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies,they will be done away with. Where there are various languages, theywill cease. Where there is knowledge, it will be done away with. 13.9. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part; 13.10. but when thatwhich is complete has come, then that which is partial will be doneaway with. 13.11. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I felt as achild, I thought as a child. Now that I have become a man, I have putaway childish things. 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known.
39. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. For this cause we also thank God without ceasing, that, when you received from us the word of the message of God, you accepted it not as the word of men, but, as it is in truth, the word of God, which also works in you who believe.
40. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 11.13-11.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

41. New Testament, Acts, 1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.11, 2.27, 3.22, 3.35, 4.32-5.11, 7.35, 7.37, 9.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

42. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.3, 7.1-7.8, 21.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of the prophecy, and keep the things that are written in it, for the time is at hand. 7.1. After this, I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, so that no wind would blow on the earth, or on the sea, or on any tree. 7.2. I saw another angel ascend from the sunrise, having the seal of the living God. He cried with a loud voice to the four angels to whom it was given to harm the earth and the sea 7.3. saying, "Don't harm the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, until we have sealed the bondservants of our God on their foreheads! 7.4. I heard the number of those who were sealed, one hundred forty-four thousand, sealed out of every tribe of the children of Israel: 7.5. of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand, of the tribe of Reuben twelve thousand, of the tribe of Gad twelve thousand 7.6. of the tribe of Asher twelve thousand, of the tribe of Naphtali twelve thousand, of the tribe of Manasseh twelve thousand 7.7. of the tribe of Simeon twelve thousand, of the tribe of Levi twelve thousand, of the tribe of Issachar twelve thousand 7.8. of the tribe of Zebulun twelve thousand, of the tribe of Joseph twelve thousand, of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand. 21.22. I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God, the Almighty, and the Lamb, are its temple.
43. New Testament, James, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. But above all things, my brothers, don't swear, neither by heaven, nor by the earth, nor by any other oath; but let your "yes" be "yes," and your "no," "no;" so that you don't fall into hypocrisy.
44. New Testament, Colossians, 1.16, 1.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.23. if it is so that you continue in the faith, grounded and steadfast, and not moved away from the hope of the gospel which you heard, which is being proclaimed in all creation under heaven; of which I, Paul, was made a servant.
45. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.3-1.14, 4.20-4.21, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.11. in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his will; 1.12. to the end that we should be to the praise of his glory, we who had before hoped in Christ: 1.13. in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, -- in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise 1.14. who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. 4.20. But you did not learn Christ that way; 4.21. if indeed you heard him, and were taught in him, even as truth is in Jesus: 5.1. Be therefore imitators of God, as beloved children.
46. New Testament, Galatians, 1.6-1.9, 1.13, 3.5, 5.13, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. I marvel that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ to a different gospel; 1.7. and there isn'tanother gospel. Only there are some who trouble you, and want topervert the gospel of Christ. 1.8. But even though we, or an angelfrom heaven, should preach to you any gospel other than that which wepreached to you, let him be cursed. 1.9. As we have said before, so Inow say again: if any man preaches to you any gospel other than thatwhich you received, let him be cursed. 1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 3.5. He therefore who supplies the Spirit to you, and worksmiracles among you, does he do it by the works of the law, or byhearing of faith? 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother. 6.2. Bear one another'sburdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ.
47. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.1-1.5, 3.1-3.6, 5.5-5.6, 7.21, 8.1, 8.8-8.12, 10.16-10.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. God, having in the past spoken to the fathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways 1.2. has at the end of these days spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds. 1.3. His Son is the radiance of his glory, the very image of his substance, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself made purification for our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; 1.4. having become so much better than the angels, as he has inherited a more excellent name than they have. 1.5. For to which of the angels did he say at any time, "You are my Son, Today have I become your father?"and again, "I will be to him a Father, And he will be to me a Son? 3.1. Therefore, holy brothers, partakers of a heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our confession, Jesus; 3.2. who was faithful to him who appointed him, as also was Moses in all his house. 3.3. For he has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who built the house has more honor than the house. 3.4. For every house is built by someone; but he who built all things is God. 3.5. Moses indeed was faithful in all his house as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were afterward to be spoken 3.6. but Christ is faithful as a Son over his house; whose house we are, if we hold fast our confidence and the glorying of our hope firm to the end. 5.5. So also Christ didn't glorify himself to be made a high priest, but it was he who said to him, "You are my Son. Today I have become your father. 5.6. As he says also in another place, "You are a priest forever, After the order of Melchizedek. 7.21. (for they indeed have been made priests without an oath), but he with an oath by him that says of him, "The Lord swore and will not change his mind, 'You are a priest forever, According to the order of Melchizedek'". 8.1. Now in the things which we are saying, the main point is this. We have such a high priest, who sat down on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens 8.8. For finding fault with them, he said, "Behold, the days come," says the Lord,"That I will make a new covet with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah; 8.9. Not according to the covet that I made with their fathers, In the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; For they didn't continue in my covet, And I disregarded them," says the Lord. 8.10. For this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel . After those days," says the Lord; "I will put my laws into their mind, I will also write them on their heart. I will be to them a God, And they will be to me a people. 8.11. They will not teach every man his fellow citizen, Every man his brother, saying, 'Know the Lord,' For all will know me, From the least of them to the greatest of them. 8.12. For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness. I will remember their sins and lawless deeds no more. 10.16. This is the covet that I will make with them: 'After those days,' says the Lord, 'I will put my laws on their heart, I will also write them on their mind;'"then he says 10.17. I will remember their sins and their iniquities no more.
48. New Testament, Romans, 2.17-2.24, 4.3, 4.9, 4.22, 9.33, 10.6-10.8, 10.11, 10.14, 10.17, 12.9-12.21, 13.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.17. Indeed you bear the name of a Jew, and rest on the law, and glory in God 2.18. and know his will, and approve the things that are excellent, being instructed out of the law 2.19. and are confident that you yourself are a guide of the blind, a light to those who are in darkness 2.20. a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of babies, having in the law the form of knowledge and of the truth. 2.21. You therefore who teach another, don't you teach yourself? You who preach that a man shouldn't steal, do you steal? 2.22. You who say a man shouldn't commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 2.23. You who glory in the law, through your disobedience of the law do you dishonor God? 2.24. For "the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you," just as it is written. 4.3. For what does the Scripture say? "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness. 4.9. Is this blessing then pronounced on the circumcised, or on the uncircumcised also? For we say that faith was accounted to Abraham for righteousness. 4.22. Therefore it also was "reckoned to him for righteousness. 9.33. even as it is written, "Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and a rock of offense; And no one who believes in him will be put to shame. 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 10.11. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame. 10.14. How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? How will they believe in him whom they have not heard? How will they hear without a preacher? 10.17. So faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. 12.9. Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor that which is evil. Cling to that which is good. 12.10. In love of the brothers be tenderly affectionate one to another; in honor preferring one another; 12.11. not lagging in diligence; fervent in spirit; serving the Lord; 12.12. rejoicing in hope; enduring in troubles; continuing steadfastly in prayer; 12.13. contributing to the needs of the saints; given to hospitality. 12.14. Bless those who persecute you; bless, and don't curse. 12.15. Rejoice with those who rejoice. Weep with those who weep. 12.16. Be of the same mind one toward another. Don't set your mind on high things, but associate with the humble. Don't be wise in your own conceits. 12.17. Repay no one evil for evil. Respect what is honorable in the sight of all men. 12.18. If it is possible, as much as it is up to you, be at peace with all men. 12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 12.20. Therefore "If your enemy is hungry, feed him. If he is thirsty, give him a drink. For in doing so, you will heap coals of fire on his head. 12.21. Don't be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. 13.8. Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law.
49. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.18, 3.1-3.2, 7.50-7.51, 8.42, 13.34-13.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. 1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 3.1. Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. 3.2. The same came to him by night, and said to him, "Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him. 7.50. Nicodemus (he who came to him by night, being one of them) said to them 7.51. Does our law judge a man, unless it first hears from him personally and knows what he does? 8.42. Therefore Jesus said to them, "If God were your Father, you would love me, for I came out and have come from God. For I haven't come of myself, but he sent me. 13.34. A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, just like I have loved you; that you also love one another. 13.35. By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another.
50. New Testament, Luke, 1.75, 3.12, 4.1-4.29, 6.20-6.49, 7.11-7.17, 8.8, 9.3, 9.51-9.52, 9.59-9.62, 10.5, 10.25-10.28, 11.37-11.52, 14.26, 16.16, 16.18, 18.20, 22.54, 22.63-22.71, 24.15-24.17, 24.25-24.27, 24.44-24.51 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.75. In holiness and righteousness before him all the days of our life. 3.12. Tax collectors also came to be baptized, and they said to him, "Teacher, what must we do? 4.1. Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness 4.2. for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 4.3. The devil said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread. 4.4. Jesus answered him, saying, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.' 4.5. The devil, leading him up on a high mountain, showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 4.6. The devil said to him, "I will give you all this authority, and their glory, for it has been delivered to me; and I give it to whomever I want. 4.7. If you therefore will worship before me, it will all be yours. 4.8. Jesus answered him, "Get behind me Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.9. He led him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down from here 4.10. for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you, to guard you;' 4.11. and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, Lest perhaps you dash your foot against a stone.' 4.12. Jesus answering, said to him, "It has been said, 'You shall not tempt the Lord your God.' 4.13. When the devil had completed every temptation, he departed from him until another time. 4.14. Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee, and news about him spread through all the surrounding area. 4.15. He taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian. 4.28. They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. 4.29. They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff. 6.20. He lifted up his eyes to his disciples, and said, "Blessed are you poor, For yours is the Kingdom of God. 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake. 6.23. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. 6.24. But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 6.25. Woe to you, you who are full now! For you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now! For you will mourn and weep. 6.26. Woe, when men speak well of you! For their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets. 6.27. But I tell you who hear: love your enemies, do good to those who hate you 6.28. bless those who curse you, and pray for those who insult you. 6.29. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak, don't withhold your coat also. 6.30. Give to everyone who asks you, and don't ask him who takes away your goods to give them back again. 6.31. As you would like people to do to you, do exactly so to them. 6.32. If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 6.33. If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 6.34. If you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners, to receive back as much. 6.35. But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind toward the unthankful and evil. 6.36. Therefore be merciful, Even as your Father is also merciful. 6.37. Don't judge, And you won't be judged. Don't condemn, And you won't be condemned. Set free, And you will be set free. 6.38. Give, and it will be given to you: good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over, will be given to you. For with the same measure you measure it will be measured back to you. 6.39. He spoke a parable to them. "Can the blind guide the blind? Won't they both fall into a pit? 6.40. A disciple is not above his teacher, but everyone when he is fully trained will be like his teacher. 6.41. Why do you see the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye, but don't consider the beam that is in your own eye? 6.42. Or how can you tell your brother, 'Brother, let me remove the speck of chaff that is in your eye,' when you yourself don't see the beam that is in your own eye? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye. 6.43. For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. 6.44. For each tree is known by its own fruit. For people don't gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. 6.45. The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings out that which is good, and the evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart brings out that which is evil, for out of the abundance of the heart, his mouth speaks. 6.46. Why do you call me, 'Lord, Lord,' and don't do the things which I say? 6.47. Everyone who comes to me, and hears my words, and does them, I will show you who he is like. 6.48. He is like a man building a house, who dug and went deep, and laid a foundation on the rock. When a flood arose, the stream broke against that house, and could not shake it, because it was founded on the rock. 6.49. But he who hears, and doesn't do, is like a man who built a house on the earth without a foundation, against which the stream broke, and immediately it fell, and the ruin of that house was great. 7.11. It happened soon afterwards, that he went to a city called Nain. Many of his disciples, along with a great multitude, went with him. 7.12. Now when he drew near to the gate of the city, behold, one who was dead was carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow. Many people of the city were with her. 7.13. When the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said to her, "Don't cry. 7.14. He came near and touched the coffin, and the bearers stood still. He said, "Young man, I tell you, arise! 7.15. He who was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he gave him to his mother. 7.16. Fear took hold of all, and they glorified God, saying, "A great prophet has arisen among us!" and, "God has visited his people! 7.17. This report went out concerning him in the whole of Judea, and in all the surrounding region. 8.8. Other fell into the good ground, and grew, and brought forth fruit one hundred times." As he said these things, he called out, "He who has ears to hear, let him hear! 9.3. He said to them, "Take nothing for your journey -- neither staffs, nor wallet, nor bread, nor money; neither have two coats apiece. 9.51. It came to pass, when the days were near that he should be taken up, he intently set his face to go to Jerusalem 9.52. and sent messengers before his face. They went, and entered into a village of the Samaritans, so as to prepare for him. 9.59. He said to another, "Follow me!"But he said, "Lord, allow me first to go and bury my father. 9.60. But Jesus said to him, "Leave the dead to bury their own dead, but you go and announce the Kingdom of God. 9.61. Another also said, "I want to follow you, Lord, but first allow me to bid farewell to those who are at my house. 9.62. But Jesus said to him, "No one, having put his hand to the plow, and looking back, is fit for the Kingdom of God. 10.5. Into whatever house you enter, first say, 'Peace be to this house.' 10.25. Behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested him, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? 10.26. He said to him, "What is written in the law? How do you read it? 10.27. He answered, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself. 10.28. He said to him, "You have answered correctly. Do this, and you will live. 11.37. Now as he spoke, a certain Pharisee asked him to dine with him. He went in, and sat at the table. 11.38. When the Pharisee saw it, he marveled that he had not first washed himself before dinner. 11.39. The Lord said to him, "Now you Pharisees cleanse the outside of the cup and of the platter, but your inward part is full of extortion and wickedness. 11.40. You foolish ones, didn't he who made the outside make the inside also? 11.41. But give for gifts to the needy those things which are within, and behold, all things will be clean to you. 11.42. But woe to you Pharisees! For you tithe mint and rue and every herb, but you bypass justice and the love of God. You ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 11.43. Woe to you Pharisees! For you love the best seats in the synagogues, and the greetings in the marketplaces. 11.44. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like hidden graves, and the men who walk over them don't know it. 11.45. One of the lawyers answered him, "Teacher, in saying this you insult us also. 11.46. He said, "Woe to you lawyers also! For you load men with burdens that are difficult to carry, and you yourselves won't even lift one finger to help carry those burdens. 11.47. Woe to you! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and your fathers killed them. 11.48. So you testify and consent to the works of your fathers. For they killed them, and you build their tombs. 11.49. Therefore also the wisdom of God said, 'I will send to them prophets and apostles; and some of them they will kill and persecute 11.50. that the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation; 11.51. from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah, who perished between the altar and the sanctuary.' Yes, I tell you, it will be required of this generation. 11.52. Woe to you lawyers! For you took away the key of knowledge. You didn't enter in yourselves, and those who were entering in, you hindered. 14.26. If anyone comes to me, and doesn't hate his own father, mother, wife, children, brothers, and sisters, yes, and his own life also, he can't be my disciple. 16.16. The law and the prophets were until John. From that time the gospel of the Kingdom of God is preached, and everyone is forcing his way into it. 16.18. Everyone who divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery. He who marries one who is divorced from a husband commits adultery. 18.20. You know the commandments: 'Don't commit adultery,' 'Don't murder,' 'Don't steal,' 'Don't give false testimony,' 'Honor your father and your mother.' 22.54. They seized him, and led him away, and brought him into the high priest's house. But Peter followed from a distance. 22.63. The men who held Jesus mocked him and beat him. 22.64. Having blindfolded him, they struck him on the face and asked him, "Prophesy! Who is the one who struck you? 22.65. They spoke many other things against him, insulting him. 22.66. As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying 22.67. If you are the Christ, tell us."But he said to them, "If I tell you, you won't believe 22.68. and if I ask, you will in no way answer me or let me go. 22.69. From now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God. 22.70. They all said, "Are you then the Son of God?"He said to them, "You say it, because I AM. 22.71. They said, "Why do we need any more witness? For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth! 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled. 24.45. Then he opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures. 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem. 24.48. You are witnesses of these things. 24.49. Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high. 24.50. He led them out as far as Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. 24.51. It happened, while he blessed them, that he withdrew from them, and was carried up into heaven.
51. New Testament, Mark, 1.1-1.11, 1.21, 4.1-4.13, 4.23, 6.8, 6.20-6.49, 7.16, 7.21, 10.2-10.12, 10.19, 10.28-10.31, 11.24-11.25, 12.28-12.34, 14.53, 14.55-14.65 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you. 1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins. 1.6. John was clothed with camel's hair and a leather belt around his loins. He ate locusts and wild honey. 1.7. He preached, saying, "After me comes he who is mightier than I, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 1.9. It happened in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized by John in the Jordan. 1.10. Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 1.21. They went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught. 4.1. Again he began to teach by the seaside. A great multitude was gathered to him, so that he entered into a boat in the sea, and sat down. All the multitude were on the land by the sea. 4.2. He taught them many things in parables, and told them in his teaching 4.3. Listen! Behold, the farmer went out to sow 4.4. and it happened, as he sowed, some seed fell by the road, and the birds came and devoured it. 4.5. Others fell on the rocky ground, where it had little soil, and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of soil. 4.6. When the sun had risen, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 4.7. Others fell among the thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 4.8. Others fell into the good ground, and yielded fruit, growing up and increasing. Some brought forth thirty times, some sixty times, and some one hundred times as much. 4.9. He said, "Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear. 4.10. When he was alone, those who were around him with the twelve asked him about the parables. 4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.' 4.13. He said to them, "Don't you understand this parable? How will you understand all of the parables? 4.23. If any man has ears to hear, let him hear. 6.8. He charged them that they should take nothing for their journey, except a staff only: no bread, no wallet, no money in their purse 6.20. for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and kept him safe. When he heard him, he did many things, and he heard him gladly. 6.21. Then a convenient day came, that Herod on his birthday made a supper for his nobles, the high officers, and the chief men of Galilee. 6.22. When the daughter of Herodias herself came in and danced, she pleased Herod and those sitting with him. The king said to the young lady, "Ask me whatever you want, and I will give it to you. 6.23. He swore to her, "Whatever you shall ask of me, I will give you, up to half of my kingdom. 6.24. She went out, and said to her mother, "What shall I ask?"She said, "The head of John the Baptizer. 6.25. She came in immediately with haste to the king, and asked, "I want you to give me right now the head of John the Baptizer on a platter. 6.26. The king was exceedingly sorry, but for the sake of his oaths, and of his dinner guests, he didn't wish to refuse her. 6.27. Immediately the king sent out a soldier of his guard, and commanded to bring John's head, and he went and beheaded him in the prison 6.28. and brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the young lady; and the young lady gave it to her mother. 6.29. When his disciples heard this, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb. 6.30. The apostles gathered themselves together to Jesus, and they told him all things, whatever they had done, and whatever they had taught. 6.31. He said to them, "You come apart into a deserted place, and rest awhile." For there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat. 6.32. They went away in the boat to a desert place by themselves. 6.33. They saw them going, and many recognized him and ran there on foot from all the cities. They arrived before them and came together to him. 6.34. Jesus came out, saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things. 6.35. When it was late in the day, his disciples came to him, and said, "This place is deserted, and it is late in the day. 6.36. Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat. 6.37. But he answered them, "You give them something to eat."They asked him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread, and give them something to eat? 6.38. He said to them, "How many loaves do you have? Go see."When they knew, they said, "Five, and two fish. 6.39. He commanded them that everyone should sit down in groups on the green grass. 6.40. They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties. 6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 6.42. They all ate, and were filled. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 6.44. Those who ate the loaves were five thousand men. 6.45. Immediately he made his disciples get into the boat, and to go ahead to the other side, to Bethsaida, while he himself sent the multitude away. 6.46. After he had taken leave of them, he went up the mountain to pray. 6.47. When evening had come, the boat was in the midst of the sea, and he was alone on the land. 6.48. Seeing them distressed in rowing, for the wind was contrary to them, about the fourth watch of the night he came to them, walking on the sea, and he would have passed by them 6.49. but they, when they saw him walking on the sea, supposed that it was a ghost, and cried out; 7.16. If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear! 7.21. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts 10.2. Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? 10.3. He answered, "What did Moses command you? 10.4. They said, "Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her. 10.5. But Jesus said to them, "For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. 10.6. But from the beginning of the creation, 'God made them male and female. 10.7. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will join to his wife 10.8. and the two will become one flesh,' so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. 10.9. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate. 10.10. In the house, his disciples asked him again about the same matter. 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery. 10.19. You know the commandments: 'Do not murder,' 'Do not commit adultery,' 'Do not steal,' 'Do not give false testimony,' 'Do not defraud,' 'Honor your father and mother.' 10.28. Peter began to tell him, "Behold, we have left all, and have followed you. 10.29. Jesus said, "Most assuredly I tell you, there is no one who has left house, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or land, for my sake, and for the gospel's sake 10.30. but he will receive one hundred times more now in this time, houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, and land, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life. 10.31. But many who are first will be last; and the last first. 11.24. Therefore I tell you, all things whatever you pray and ask for, believe that you receive them, and you shall have them. 11.25. Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone; so that your Father, who is in heaven, may also forgive you your transgressions. 12.28. One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all? 12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these. 12.32. The scribe said to him, "Truly, teacher, you have said well that he is one, and there is none other but he 12.33. and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbor as himself, is more important than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. 12.34. When Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, "You are not far from the Kingdom of God."No one dared ask him any question after that. 14.53. They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him. 14.55. Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none. 14.56. For many gave false testimony against him, and their testimony didn't agree with each other. 14.57. Some stood up, and gave false testimony against him, saying 14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.' 14.59. Even so, their testimony did not agree. 14.60. The high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer? What is it which these testify against you? 14.61. But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky. 14.63. The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses? 14.64. You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?" They all condemned him to be worthy of death. 14.65. Some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to beat him with fists, and to tell him, "Prophesy!" The officers struck him with the palms of their hands.
52. New Testament, Matthew, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 3, 3.9, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.13, 4.23, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, 5.29, 5.30, 5.31, 5.32, 5.33, 5.34, 5.35, 5.36, 5.37, 5.38, 5.39, 5.40, 5.41, 5.42, 5.44, 5.45, 5.46, 5.47, 5.48, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.19-7.12, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.25, 6.26, 6.27, 6.28, 6.29, 6.30, 6.31, 6.32, 6.33, 6.34, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 8, 8.12, 8.19, 8.20, 9.13, 9.35, 10, 10.9, 10.10, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 11.15, 11.23, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 12.7, 12.9, 13, 13.9, 13.43, 13.54, 13.55, 13.56, 13.57, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 16.1, 16.6, 16.11, 16.12, 18, 19, 19.9, 19.19, 19.21, 21.41, 22.23, 22.24, 22.25, 22.26, 22.27, 22.28, 22.29, 22.30, 22.31, 22.32, 22.33, 22.34, 22.35, 22.36, 22.37, 22.38, 22.39, 22.40, 23, 23.1, 23.2, 23.3, 23.4, 23.5, 23.6, 23.7, 23.8, 23.9, 23.10, 23.11, 23.12, 23.13, 23.14, 23.15, 23.16, 23.17, 23.18, 23.19, 23.20, 23.21, 23.22, 23.23, 23.24, 23.25, 23.26, 23.27, 23.28, 23.29, 23.30, 23.31, 23.32, 23.33, 23.34, 23.35, 23.36, 23.37, 24, 24.12, 25, 25.34, 26.59, 27.1, 27.25, 27.62, 28.15, 28.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

53. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 9.5-9.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

54. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 24.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

24.7. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי מְנַחֵם בְּשֵׁם רַב אָמַר כָּל הָאֻמָנִיּוֹת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לְמָדָם, מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ (ישעיה מד, יא): וְחָרָשִׁים הֵמָּה מֵאָדָם, מֵאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. רַבָּנָן אָמְרִין אֲפִלּוּ סִרְגּוּלוֹ שֶׁל סֵפֶר, אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לְמָדוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ה, א): זֶה סֵפֶר, הוּא וְסִרְגּוּלוֹ. (בראשית ה, א): בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם, הָדָא מְסַיְּעָא לְהַהִיא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה שָׁלשׁ פְּלָאִים נַעֲשׂוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם נִבְרְאוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שִׁמְשׁוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הוֹצִיאוּ תּוֹלָדוֹת. בֶּן עֲזַאי אוֹמֵר זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם, זֶה כְּלַל גָּדוֹל בַּתּוֹרָה, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא יט, יח): וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ, זֶה כְּלַל גָּדוֹל בַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁלֹא תֹאמַר הוֹאִיל וְנִתְבַּזֵּיתִי יִתְבַּזֶה חֲבֵרִי עִמִּי, הוֹאִיל וְנִתְקַלַּלְתִּי יִתְקַלֵּל חֲבֵרִי עִמִּי. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אִם עָשִׂיתָ כֵּן דַּע לְמִי אַתָּה מְבַזֶּה בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אוֹתוֹ. 24.7. Rabbi Tanchuma said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Menachem in the name of Rav said... Ben Azzai said: “These are the generations of Adam\" is a great principle in the Torah. Rabbi Akiva said: This is a great principle of the Torah: \"You shall love your neighbor as yourself\" (Lev. 19:18). Thus, one should not say, “Since I am scorned, I should scorn my fellow as well; since I have been cursed, I will curse my fellow as well.” Rabbi Tanchumah said, if you act thus, realize who it is that you are willing to have humiliated - \"the one who was made in the likeness of God.\" Rabbi Tanchuma says, “If you do so, you should know who are you scorning — ‘in the likeness of God He created him.’”"
55. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 122 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

56. Aristides of Athens, Apology, 15.5-15.7, 15.9 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

57. Minucius Felix, Octavius, 38, 37 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

58. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 4.16.2, 4.16.10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

59. Babylonian Talmud, Betzah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. דקמתקן מנא באור נמי קא מתקן מנא תני ר' חייא חותכה באור בפי שתי נרות אמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב מוחטין את הפתילה ביום טוב מאי מוחטין אמר רב חנינא בר שלמיא (משמיה דרב) לעדויי חושכא,תני בר קפרא ו' דברים נאמרו בפתילה ג' להחמיר וג' להקל להחמיר אין גודלין אותה לכתחלה ביו"ט ואין מהבהבין אותה באור ואין חותכין אותה לשנים להקל ממעכה ביד ושורה בשמן וחותכה באור בפי שתי נרות,ואמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב עתירי בבל יורדי גיהנם הם כי הא דשבתאי בר מרינוס אקלע לבבל בעא מנייהו עסקא ולא יהבו ליה מזוני מיזן נמי לא זינוהו,אמר הני מערב רב קא אתו דכתיב (דברים יג, יח) ונתן לך רחמים ורחמך כל המרחם על הבריות בידוע שהוא מזרעו של אברהם אבינו וכל מי שאינו מרחם על הבריות בידוע שאינו מזרעו של אברהם אבינו,ואמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב כל המצפה על שלחן אחרים עולם חשך בעדו שנאמר (איוב טו, כג) נודד הוא ללחם איה ידע כי נכון בידו יום חשך רב חסדא אמר אף חייו אינן חיים,ת"ר ג' חייהן אינם חיים ואלו הן המצפה לשלחן חבירו ומי שאשתו מושלת עליו ומי שיסורין מושלין בגופו ויש אומרים אף מי שאין לו אלא חלוק אחד ות"ק אפשר דמעיין במניה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין שוברין את החרס ואין חותכין הנייר לצלות בו מליח,ואין גורפין תנור וכירים אבל מכבשין,ואין מקיפין שתי חביות לשפות עליהן את הקדרה ואין סומכין את הקדרה בבקעת וכן בדלת ואין מנהיגין את הבהמה במקל ביום טוב ורבי אלעזר בר' שמעון מתיר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט משם דקא מתקן מנא,ואין גורפין תנור וכירים תני רב חייא בר יוסף קמיה דרב נחמן ואם אי אפשר לאפות אלא אם כן גורפו מותר דביתהו דר' חייא נפל לה אריחא בתנורא ביומא טבא אמר לה ר' חייא חזי דאנא רפתא מעלייתא בעינא א"ל רבא לשמעיה טוי לי בר אווזא ואזדהר מחרוכא,א"ל רבינא לרב אשי אמר לן רב אחא מהוצל דמר שרקין ליה תנורא ביומא טבא אמר ליה אנן ארקתא דפרת סמכינן והנ"מ הוא דצייריה מאתמול אמר רבינא וקטמא שרי:,ואין מקיפין שתי חביות: אמר רב נחמן אבנים של בית הכסא מותר לצדדן ביום טוב איתיביה רבה לרב נחמן אין מקיפין שתי חביות לשפות עליהן את הקדרה אמר ליה שאני התם משום דקא עביד אהלא,א"ל רבה זוטא לרב אשי אלא מעתה בנה אצטבא ביו"ט דלא עביד אהלא הכי נמי דשרי א"ל התם בנין קבע אסרה תורה בנין עראי לא אסרה תורה וגזרו רבנן על בנין עראי משום בנין קבע והכא משום כבודו לא גזרו ביה רבנן,אמר רב יהודה האי מדורתא מלמעלה למטה שרי מלמטה למעלה אסור 32b. Is it because bhethereby bmends a vessel?If so, when one cuts it bin the fire, he is also preparing a vesselfor use. bRabbi Ḥiyya taughtin explanation: bHe cuts it by fire in the mouth of two candles.In other words, he does not simply cut a wick, but rather inserts a long wick into two lamps, which he subsequently lights in the middle. This indeed leads to the formation of two separate wicks, but only as a result of kindling two lamps. bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: One may imoḥeta wick on a Festival.The term imoḥetwas unknown, and the Gemara therefore asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the word imoḥet /i? Rav Ḥanina bar Shelemya said in the name of Rav: To remove the dark;in other words, it is permitted to remove the burnt, charcoaled section to make the lamp shine more brightly., bBar Kappara taught: Six matters were stated with regard tothe ihalakhotof ba wickon a Festival, bthreeof which bare to be stringent and threeof which bare to be lenient.The three ihalakhot bto be stringentare: bOne may not spinor twist bit iab initioon a Festival, and one may not singe it in firebefore lighting it so that it will burn well, band one may not cut it into two.The three ihalakhot bto be lenientare: bOne may crush it by hand,as although it is prohibited to twist it into a wick, one may adjust its shape in an unusual manner; band one may soak it in oilso that it will later burn well; band one may cut it by fire in the mouth of two candles. /b,§ After citing one teaching in the name of Rav Natan bar Abba, the Gemara quotes a few more statements attributed to the same scholar. Since he is not mentioned often, Rav Natan’s teachings are arranged together, so that they can be remembered more easily. bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: The wealthyJews bof Babylonia will descend to Gehennabecause they do not have compassion on others. This is illustrated by incidents bsuch as this: Shabbetai bar Marinus happened to come to Babylonia. He requestedtheir participation in ba business venture,to lend him money and receive half the profits in return, band they did not giveit to bhim.Furthermore, when he asked them bto sustain him with food, they likewise refused to sustain him. /b, bHe said: Thesewealthy people are not descendants of our forefathers, bbut they came from the mixed multitude, as it is written: “And show you compassion, and have compassion upon you,and multiply you, as He has sworn to your fathers” (Deuteronomy 13:18), from which it is derived: bAnyone who has compassionfor God’s bcreatures, it is known that he is of the descendants of Abraham, our father, and anyone who does not have compassionfor God’s bcreatures, it is known that he is not of the descendants of Abraham, our father.Since these wealthy Babylonians do not have compassion on people, clearly they are not descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.,This is another teaching that bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: Whoever looks to the table of othersfor his sustece, bthe world is dark for him.Everything looks bleak and hopeless to him, bfor it is stated: “He wanders abroad for bread: Where is it? He knows the day of darkness is ready at his hand”(Job 15:23). bRav Ḥisda said: Even his life is no life,as he receives no satisfaction from it.,In support of this last claim, the Gemara cites a ibaraitain which bthe Sages taught:There are bthreewhose blives are not lives, and they are as follows: One who looks to the table of othersfor his sustece; band one whose wife rulesover bhim; and one whose body is ruled by suffering. And some say: Even one who has only one robe.Since he cannot wash it properly, he suffers from lice and dirt. The Gemara comments: bAnd the first itanna /i,who did not include such a person, maintains: bIt is possiblefor him bto examine his clothesand remove the lice, which would alleviate his suffering., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne may not break earthenwareon a Festival. bAnd one may not cut paper in order to roast saltedfish bon it.Earthenware shards or pieces of paper that have been soaked in water were placed on the metal surface or in the oven in which the fish was roasted, so that it would not be burned by the heat., bAnd one may not sweep outanything that has fallen into ban oven or stovethat interferes with the baking, such as plaster. bBut one may press downand flatten any accumulated dust and ashes at the bottom of the oven, which might prevent it from lighting properly., bAnd one may not draw two barrels togetherin order bto place a pot on them,so that its contents will be cooked by a fire lit between the barrels. bAnd one may not prop a potthat does not stand straight bwith a piece of wood,in order to prevent it from falling. bAnd similarly, with a door. And one may not lead an animal with a stickin the public domain bon a Festival; and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, permitsit., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the issue of breaking earthenware and cutting paper, the Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonfor this prohibition? bBecause oneis thereby bpreparing a vesselfor use.,It was taught in the mishna: bAnd one may not sweep out an oven or stove. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef taught before Rav Naḥman: And if it is not possible to bake unless one sweeps it out, it is permitted.The Gemara relates an incident with regard bto the wife of Rabbi Ḥiyya: A part of a brick fell intoher boven on a Festival,preventing her from baking. bRav Ḥiyya said to her: See,you should know that bI want good-quality bread.He thereby stated that it would be impossible unless she removed the brick, making it permissible for her to do so. Similarly, bRava said to his attendant: Roast for me a duckin an oven, band be careful not to singeit. He thereby implied that the attendant may remove all impediments from the oven in order to fulfill this requirement because otherwise it would not be possible to cook without singeing.,In a related case, bRavina said to Rav Ashi: Rav Aḥa from Hutzal said to us that the master,Rav Ashi, allows his attendants bto plasterthe mouth of bthe oven for him on a Festival.This was done in order to ensure that the roasted or cooked dish would be fully prepared. Why does this not constitute the prohibited labor of kneading on a Festival? bHe said to him: We rely on the bank of the EuphratesRiver. We avoid the labor of kneading by taking sufficiently kneaded mud from the riverbank. The Gemara comments: bAnd this applies only when one wrappedor made some mark on the mud bthe day before,so that it not be imuktze /i. bRavina said: Andas for kneading with bashesfor this purpose, it is bpermitted,since the labor of kneading does not apply to ashes.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bOne may not draw two barrels togetherin order to place a pot on them. bRav Naḥman said:With regard to large bstones of a lavatory,upon which one sits to attend to his needs, bit is permitted to put them togetherin the proper manner, so that they may be used bon a Festival. Rabba raised an objection to Rav Naḥman:Wasn’t it taught that bone may not draw two barrels togetherin order bto place a pot on them?This seems to indicate that any arrangement resembling building is prohibited. bHe said to him: There,with regard to barrels, bit is different, because one makes a tent.It is not the drawing of the barrels close together that is prohibited. Rather, the placement of the pot over them forms a kind of covering, which is similar to building a tent., bRabba the Younger,so called to distinguish him from the more famous iamoraknown as Rabba, bsaid to Rav Ashi: However, ifthat is bso,then if, bon a Festival, one builta solid bbench [ iitztaba /i],without a gap below the seat, a situation in which bone does not make a tent, so too,will you say bthat it is permitted? He said to him:The two cases are not comparable: bThere,with regard to a proper construction, such as a bench, bthe Torah prohibitederecting ba permanent construction,but bthe Torah did not prohibiterecting ba temporary construction. The Sages,however, bdecreed againstcreating ba temporary constructionon a Festival bdue to a permanent construction.However, bhere,with regard to a lavatory, bdue to the dignityof the user, bthe Sages did not decree with regard to it. /b, bRav Yehuda said:With regard to bthis bonfire,in which the wood is arranged in the form of a house, if one arranges it bfrom above to below it is permitted,as this is not the regular manner of building. However, if one prepares it in the usual fashion, bfrom below to above, it is prohibited,for this is considered building.
60. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. אי הכי מאי איריא הכונס את הבתולה אפי' כונס את האלמנה נמי,הכא טריד והכא לא טריד,אי משום טרדא אפילו טבעה ספינתו בים נמי אלמה אמר רבי אבא בר זבדא אמר רב אבל חייב בכל מצות האמורות בתורה חוץ מן התפילין שהרי נאמר בהן פאר שנאמר (יחזקאל כד, יז) פארך חבוש עליך וגו',אמרי התם טרדא דרשות הכא טרדא דמצוה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big רחץ לילה הראשון שמתה אשתו אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאבל אסור לרחוץ אמר להם איני כשאר בני אדם אסטניס אני,וכשמת טבי עבדו קבל עליו תנחומין אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאין מקבלין תנחומין על העבדים אמר להם אין טבי עבדי כשאר כל העבדים כשר היה,חתן אם רוצה לקרות קרית שמע לילה הראשון קורא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא כל הרוצה ליטול את השם יטול:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט דרבן (שמעון בן) גמליאל קסבר אנינות לילה דרבנן דכתיב (עמוס ח, י) ואחריתה כיום מר ובמקום אסטניס לא גזרו ביה רבנן: ,וכשמת טבי עבדו וכו':,ת"ר עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ותנחומי אבלים,מעשה ומתה שפחתו של רבי אליעזר נכנסו תלמידיו לנחמו כיון שראה אותם עלה לעלייה ועלו אחריו נכנס לאנפילון נכנסו אחריו נכנס לטרקלין נכנסו אחריו אמר להם כמדומה אני שאתם נכוים בפושרים עכשיו אי אתם נכוים אפילו בחמי חמין לא כך שניתי לכם עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ולא תנחומי אבלים אלא מה אומרים עליהם כשם שאומרים לו לאדם על שורו ועל חמורו שמתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך כך אומרים לו על עבדו ועל שפחתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך,תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין מספידין אותן ר' יוסי אומר אם עבד כשר הוא אומרים עליו הוי איש טוב ונאמן ונהנה מיגיעו אמרו לו אם כן מה הנחת לכשרים:,ת"ר אין קורין אבות אלא לשלשה ואין קורין אמהות אלא לארבע,אבות מאי טעמא אילימא משום דלא ידעינן אי מראובן קא אתינן אי משמעון קא אתינן אי הכי אמהות נמי לא ידעינן אי מרחל קא אתינן אי מלאה קא אתינן אלא עד הכא חשיבי טפי לא חשיבי,תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין קורין אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית ושל ר"ג היו קורים אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית,מעשה לסתור משום דחשיבי:,א"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים סג, ה) כן אברכך בחיי בשמך אשא כפי כן אברכך בחיי זו ק"ש בשמך אשא כפי זו תפלה ואם עושה כן עליו הכתוב אומר (תהלים סג, ו) כמו חלב ודשן תשבע נפשי ולא עוד אלא שנוחל שני עולמים העוה"ז והעולם הבא שנאמר (תהלים סג, ו) ושפתי רננות יהלל פי:,ר' אלעזר בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתשכן בפורינו אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות ותרבה גבולנו בתלמידים ותצליח סופנו אחרית ותקוה ותשים חלקנו בגן עדן ותקננו בחבר טוב ויצר טוב בעולמך ונשכים ונמצא יחול לבבנו ליראה את שמך ותבא לפניך קורת נפשנו לטובה.,רבי יוחנן בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתציץ בבשתנו ותביט ברעתנו ותתלבש ברחמיך ותתכסה בעזך ותתעטף בחסידותך ותתאזר בחנינותך ותבא לפניך מדת טובך וענותנותך.,ר' זירא בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שלא נחטא ולא נבוש ולא נכלם מאבותינו,ר' חייא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתהא תורתך אומנותנו ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו.,רב בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתתן לנו חיים ארוכים חיים של שלום חיים של טובה חיים של ברכה חיים של פרנסה חיים של חלוץ עצמות חיים שיש בהם יראת חטא חיים שאין בהם בושה וכלימה חיים של עושר וכבוד חיים שתהא בנו אהבת תורה ויראת שמים חיים שתמלא לנו את כל משאלות לבנו לטובה.,רבי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו שתצילנו מעזי פנים ומעזות פנים מאדם רע ומפגע רע מיצר רע מחבר רע משכן רע ומשטן המשחית ומדין קשה ומבעל דין קשה בין שהוא בן ברית בין שאינו בן ברית,ואע"ג דקיימי קצוצי עליה דרבי.,רב ספרא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתשים שלום 16b. The Gemara questions this: bIf so, why discussa case of bone who is marrying a virginin particular? bEven one who is marrying a widowis performing a mitzva and should balsobe exempt.,The Gemara responds that nevertheless, there is a distinction between one marrying a virgin and one marrying a widow. bHere,in the case of one who marries a virgin, the groom is bpreoccupiedby his thoughts, bwhile here,in the case of one who marries a widow, bhe is not preoccupied. /b,The Gemara challenges: bIfa groom is exempt from the recitation of iShemasimply bdue to preoccupation,then bevenone who is preoccupied because bhis ship sank at sea shouldbe exempt. If so, bwhy then did Rabbi Abba bar Zavda saythat bRav said: A mourner is obligated in all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah except forthe mitzva to don bphylacteries, asthe term bsplendor is statedwith regard to phylacteries, bas it is statedthat the prophet Ezekiel was prohibited to mourn and was told: b“Bind your splendor upon yourself”(Ezekiel 24:17). If even a mourner, who is pained and preoccupied, is obligated to recite iShema /i, clearly preoccupation has no bearing upon one’s obligation.,The Gemara responds: Nevertheless, there is a distinction between the cases. bThere,it is a case of bpreoccupation with a voluntaryact, as there is no mitzva to be preoccupied with his mourning, but bhere,in the case of a groom, the cause of bthe preoccupation isthe bmitzvaitself., strongMISHNA: /strong The mishna relates another episode portraying unusual conduct by Rabban Gamliel. bHe bathed on the first night after his wife died. His students said to him:Have byounot btaught us, our teacher, that a mourner is prohibited to bathe?He answered them: bI am not like other people, I am delicate [ iistenis /i].For me, not bathing causes actual physical distress, and even a mourner need not suffer physical distress as part of his mourning.,Another exceptional incident is related: bAnd when his slave, Tavi, died,Rabban Gamliel baccepted condolences for hisdeath as one would for a close family member. bHis students said to him: Have younot btaught us, our teacher, that one does not accept condolences forthe death of bslaves?Rabban Gamliel said to his students: bMy slave, Tavi, is not like all the rest of the slaves, he was virtuousand it is appropriate to accord him the same respect accorded to a family member.,With regard to the recitation of iShemaon one’s wedding night, the Sages said that bif,despite his exemption, ba groom wishes to recite iShemaon the first night,he may do so. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Not everyone who wishes to assume the reputationof a God-fearing person bmay assumeit, and consequently, not everyone who wishes to recite iShemaon his wedding night may do so., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to Rabban Gamliel’s bathing on the first night after the death of his wife, the Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat bRabban Gamlieldid not practice the customs of mourning after his wife died? The Gemara answers: bHe holds thatacute mourning [ ianinut /i] is in effect only on the day of the death itself, but bacute mourning at night isonly bby rabbinic law, as it is written:“And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentations; I will bring sackcloth upon your loins and baldness upon every head; and I will make you like a mourner for an only child, band the end will be like a bitter day”(Amos 8:10). Therefore, by Torah law one’s acute mourning is only during the day, like a bitter day, while the acute mourning at night that follows is only rabbinic. bAnd in the case of a delicate person, the Sages did not issue a decreethat one should afflict himself during the period of acute mourning.,We learned in our mishna that: bWhen his servant, Tavi, died,Rabban Gamliel accepted condolences for him., bThe Sagestaught in a ibaraita /i: For bslaves and maidservantswho die, bone does not stand in a rowof comforters to console the mourners, band one recites neither the blessing of the mourners nor the consolation of the mourners. /b, bAn incidentis related that when bRabbi Eliezer’s maidservant died, his students entered to console him. When he saw themapproaching bhe went up to the second floor, and they went up after him. He entered the gatehouse [ ianpilon /i], and they entered after him. He entered the banquet hall [ iteraklin /i],and bthey entered after him.Having seen them follow him everywhere, bhe said to them: It seems to me that you would be burned by lukewarm water,meaning that you could take a hint and when I went up to the second floor, you would understand that I did not wish to receive your consolations. bNowI see that byou are not even burned by boiling hot water. Did I not teach you the following:For bslaves and maidservantswho die, bone does not stand in a rowof comforters to console the mourners, band one neither recites the blessing of the mourners nordoes he recite bthe consolation of the mourners,as the relationship between master and slave is not like a familial relationship? bRather, what does one say about themwhen they die? bJust as we say to a person about his ox or donkey which died: May the Omnipresent replenish your loss, so too do we say for one’s slave or maidservantwho died: bMay the Omnipresent replenish your loss,as the connection between a master and his slave is only ficial in nature., bIt was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne does not eulogize slaves and maidservants. Rabbi Yosei says: If he was a virtuous servant, one recites over hima eulogy of sorts: bAlas, a good and loyal man who enjoyedthe fruits bof his hard labor. They said to him: If so, whatpraise bhave you left for virtuousJews? A Jewish person would be proud to be eulogized in that manner., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may only call threepeople bpatriarchs,Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but not Jacob’s children. bAnd one may only call fourpeople bmatriarchs,Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this exclusivity with regard to the bPatriarchs? If you saythat it is bbecause we do not know whether we descend from Reuben or from Simon,so we cannot accurately say our father Reuben, for example, bif so,with regard to the Matriarchs as well, bwe do not know whether we descend from Rachel or from Leah,and we should not call Rachel and Leah matriarchs either. bInstead,the reason the sons of Jacob are not called patriarchs is not for that reason, but because buntilJacob bthey are significantenough to be referred to as patriarchs, but bbeyondJacob, bthey are not significantenough to be referred to as patriarchs.,This serves as an introduction; although older people are often referred to with the honorific: Father so-and-so, bit was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne may not refer to slaves and maidservants as father [ iabba /i] so-and-so or mother [ iimma /i] so-and-so. But they would callthe slaves and maidservants bof Rabban Gamliel “father so-and-so” and “mother so-and-so.” /b,The Gemara asks: Is a bstorycited in order bto contradictthe previously stated ihalakha /i? The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction; rather, bbecauseRabban Gamliel’s servants bwere significant,they were addressed with these honorifics.,The Gemara cites an aggadic statement concerning prayer and the recitation of iShema /i. bRabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “So I will bless You as I live, to Your name I will raise my hands”(Psalms 63:5)? bSo I will bless You as I live, refers to the recitation of iShema /i,and bto Your name I will raise my hands, refers tothe iAmida bprayer,which is characterized as lifting one’s hands to God. bAnd if one does so,recites iShemaand prays, bthe verse says about him: “As with fat and marrow, my soul will be satisfied”(Psalms 63:6). bAnd not onlydoes he receive this reward, bbut he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “With lips of joys [ ireot /i], my mouth praises You”(Psalms 63:6). The plural, joys, refers to two joys, that of this world and that of the World-to-Come.,The Gemara describes how bafter Rabbi Elazar concluded his prayer, he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bto cause to dwell in our lot love and brotherhood, peace and friendship. br bAnd may You make our borders rich in disciples br band cause us to ultimately succeed,that we will have a good bend and hope. br bAnd may You set our portion in the Garden of Eden, br band may You establish for us a good companion and a good inclination in Your world. br bAnd may we rise early and find the aspiration of our hearts to fear Your name, br band may the satisfaction of our souls come before You,i.e., may You hear our prayers that we may have spiritual contentment in this world bfor the best. /b,Similarly, the Gemara recounts that bafter Rabbi Yoḥa concluded his prayer, he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You look upon our shame and behold our plight, br bthat You clothe Yourself in Your mercy, br band cover Yourself with Your might, br bthat You wrap Yourself in Your loving-kindness, br band gird Yourself with Your grace, br band may Your attributes of goodness and humility come before You. /b,Similarly, bafter Rabbi Zeira concluded his prayers he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat we not sin or shame ourselves, br band that we not disgrace ourselves before our forefathers, brin the sense that our actions should not disgrace the actions of our forefathers., bAfter Rabbi Ḥiyya prayed he said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat Your Torah should be our vocation, br band may our heart not become faint nor our eyes dim. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rav said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You grant us long life, a life of peace, br ba life of goodness, a life of blessing, br ba life of sustece, a life of freedom of movementfrom place to place, where we are not tied to one place, br ba life of dread of sin, a life without shame and disgrace, br ba life of wealth and honor, br ba life in which we have love of Torah and reverence for Heaven, br ba life in which You fulfill all the desires of our heart for good. /b, bAfter his prayer, RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, and God of our forefathers, br bthat You save us from the arrogant and from arrogancein general, br bfrom a bad man, from a bad mishap, br bfrom an evil instinct, from a bad companion, br bfrom a bad neighbor, from the destructive Satan, br bfrom a harsh trial and from a harsh opponent, br bwhether he is a member of the covet,a Jew, br bor whether he is not a member of the covet. /b, bAndthe Gemara notes that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would recite this prayer every day bdespite the fact thatroyal bofficers stoodwatch bover RabbiYehuda HaNasi for his protection; nevertheless, he prayed to avoid conflict or hindrance resulting from arrogance., bAfter his prayer, Rav Safra said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, that You establish peace /b
61. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53b. ירשיע,ואמר ר' יוחנן מניין שמחל לו הקב"ה על אותו עון שנאמר (שמואל א כח, יט) מחר אתה ובניך עמי עמי במחיצתי,א"ר אבא אי איכא דמשאיל להו לבני יהודה דדייקי לשני מאברין תנן או מעברין תנן אכוזו תנן או עכוזו תנן ידעי,שאילינהו ואמרי ליה איכא דתני מאברין ואיכא דתני מעברין איכא דתני אכוזו ואיכא דתני עכוזו,בני יהודה דייקי לישנא מאי היא דההוא בר יהודה דאמר להו טלית יש לי למכור אמרו ליה מאי גוון טליתך אמר להו כתרדין עלי אדמה,בני גליל דלא דייקי לישנא מאי היא (דתניא) דההוא בר גלילא [דהוה קאזיל] ואמר להו אמר למאן אמר למאן אמרו ליה גלילאה שוטה חמר למירכב או חמר למישתי עמר למילבש או אימר לאיתכסאה,ההיא איתתא דבעיא למימר לחברתה תאי דאוכליך חלבא אמרה לה שלוכתי תוכליך לביא,ההיא אתתא דאתיא לקמיה דדיינא אמרה ליה מרי כירי תפלא הוית לי וגנבוך מין וכדו הוות דכד שדרו לך עילויה לא מטי כרעיך אארעא,אמהתא דבי רבי כי הוה משתעיא בלשון חכמה אמרה הכי עלת נקפת בכד ידאון נישריא לקיניהון,וכד הוה בעי דליתבון הוה אמרה להו יעדי בתר חברתה מינה ותתקפי עלת בכד כאילפא דאזלא בימא,רבי יוסי בר אסיין כי הוה משתעי בלשון חכמה אמר עשו לי שור במשפט בטור מסכן,וכד הוה שאיל באושפיזא אמר הכי גבר פום דין חי מה זו טובה יש,רבי אבהו כי הוה משתעי בלשון חכמה הוה אמר הכי אתריגו לפחמין ארקיעו לזהבין ועשו לי שני מגידי בעלטה איכא דאמרי ויעשו לי בהן שני מגידי בעלטה,אמרו ליה רבנן לרבי אבהו הצפיננו היכן רבי אלעאי צפון אמר להן עלץ בנערה אהרונית אחרונית עירנית והנעירתו,אמרי לה אשה,ואמרי לה מסכתא,אמרי ליה לרבי אלעאי הצפיננו הכין רבי אבהו [צפון] אמר להן נתייעץ במכתיר והנגיב למפיבשת,אמר רבי יהושע בן חנניה מימי לא נצחני אדם חוץ מאשה תינוק ותינוקת אשה מאי היא פעם אחת נתארחתי אצל אכסניא אחת עשתה לי פולין ביום ראשון אכלתים ולא שיירתי מהן כלום שנייה ולא שיירתי מהן כלום ביום שלישי הקדיחתן במלח כיון שטעמתי משכתי ידי מהן,אמרה לי רבי מפני מה אינך סועד אמרתי לה כבר סעדתי מבעוד יום אמרה לי היה לך למשוך ידיך מן הפת,אמרה לי רבי שמא לא הנחת פאה בראשונים ולא כך אמרו חכמים אין משיירין פאה באילפס אבל משיירין פאה בקערה,תינוקת מאי היא פעם אחת הייתי מהלך בדרך והיתה דרך עוברת בשדה והייתי מהלך בה אמרה לי תינוקת אחת רבי לא שדה היא זו אמרתי לה לא דרך כבושה היא אמרה לי ליסטים כמותך כבשוה,תינוק מאי היא פעם אחת הייתי מהלך בדרך וראיתי תינוק יושב על פרשת דרכים ואמרתי לו באיזה דרך נלך לעיר אמר לי זו קצרה וארוכה וזו ארוכה וקצרה והלכתי בקצרה וארוכה כיון שהגעתי לעיר מצאתי שמקיפין אותה גנות ופרדיסין,חזרתי לאחורי אמרתי לו בני הלא אמרת לי קצרה אמר לי ולא אמרתי לך ארוכה נשקתיו על ראשו ואמרתי לו אשריכם ישראל שכולכם חכמים גדולים אתם מגדולכם ועד קטנכם:,רבי יוסי הגלילי הוה קא אזיל באורחא אשכחה לברוריה אמר לה באיזו דרך נלך ללוד אמרה ליה גלילי שוטה לא כך אמרו חכמים אל תרבה שיחה עם האשה היה לך לומר באיזה ללוד,ברוריה אשכחתיה לההוא תלמידא דהוה קא גריס בלחישה 53b. bhe did them mischief”(i Samuel 14:47).,The Gemara concludes the mention of Saul on a positive note. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, forgave him for that sin,the massacre of Nov, the city of priests? bAs it is statedthat the spirit of Samuel said to him: “And the Lord will also deliver Israel with you into the hand of the Philistines, band tomorrow shall you and your sons be with me”(i Samuel 28:19); the phrase b“with me”means bwithin my partitiontogether with me in heaven, i.e., on the same level as the righteous prophet Samuel.,The Gemara returns to the earlier question with regard to the correct reading of the word ime’abberin /i. bRabbi Abba said: If there is anyone who can ask the people of Judea, who are precise in their language,whether the term in the mishna that bwe learnedis ime’abberin /iwith an ialef bor ime’abberin /iwith an iayin /i, he should ask them. Similarly, with regard to the blemishes of a firstborn animal, bwasthe term meaning its hindquarters that bwe learnedin the mishna iakkuzo /iwith an ialef /i, bor did we learn iakkuzo /iwith an iayin /i? bThey would know. /b,The Gemara answers: bOne askedthe people of Judea, band they said to him: Some teach ime’abberin /iwith an ialef /i, band some teach ime’abberin /iwith an iayin /i. bSome teach iakkuzo /iwith an ialef /i, band some teach iakkuzo /iwith an iayin /i. Both versions are well founded and neither one is erroneous.,Having mentioned that bthe people of Judea are precise in their speech,the Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of this? The Gemara answers with an example: bAsin the case of ba certain person from Judea who said to thosewithin earshot: bI have a cloak to sell. They said to him: What color is your cloak? He said to them: Like beets on the ground,providing an exceedingly precise description of the exact shade of the cloak, the green tint of beet greens when they first sprout.,The Gemara returns to bthe people of the Galilee, who are not precise in their speech. What isthe meaning of this? The Gemara cites examples: bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita bthatthere was ba certain person from the Galilee who would walk and sayto people: bWho has iamar /i? Who has iamar /i? They said to him: Foolish Galilean,what do you mean? Galileans did not pronounce the guttural letters properly, so it was unclear whether he sought ba donkey [ iḥamor /i] to ride, or wine [ iḥamar /i] to drink, wool [ iamar /i] to wear, or a lamb [ iimar /i] to slaughter.This is an example of the lack of precision in the Galileans’ speech.,The Gemara cites another example of the lack of linguistic precision of the Galileans: There was ba certain woman who wanted to say to her friend:My neighbor, bcome and I will feed you milk [ ita’i de’okhlikh ḥelba /i];however, due to the imprecise articulation of her words, bshe said to her: My neighbor,may a blioness eat you [ itokhlikh lavya /i]. /b,The Gemara cites another example of the ignorance and incivility of the Galileans: There was ba certain woman who came before a judgeintending to say: Master, sir [ iMari kiri /i, spelled with a ikuf /i], I had a board, and they stole it from me [ itavla havet li ugenavuha mimeni /i]. But instead bshe said to him: Master, servant [ iMari kiri /i,spelled with a ikaf /i], bI had a beam and they stole you from me[itafla havet li ugenavukh min/b]. bAnd it was solarge, bthat when they would hang you upon it, your feet would not reach the ground. /b,In contrast to the speech of the Galileans, which indicates ignorance and loutishness, the Gemara cites examples of the clever phraseology of the inhabitants of Judea and the Sages: bThe maidservant in the house of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bwhen she would speak enigmatically,employing euphemistic terminology or in riddles, bshe would say as follows: The ladleused for drawing wine from the jug bisalready bknocking againstthe bottom of bthe jug,i.e., the wine jug is almost empty. bLet the eagles fly to their nests,i.e., let the students return home, as there is nothing left for them to drink., bAnd whenRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bwanted them to sit, she would say to them: Let us removethe stopper bfrom anotherjug, band let the ladlefloat bin the jug like a ship sailing in the sea. /b,The Gemara also relates that bwhen Rabbi Yosei bar Asyan would speak enigmatically, he would say: Prepare for me an ox in judgment on a poor mountain.His method was to construct words by combining words from Aramaic translations of Hebrew words or Hebrew translations of Aramaic words. Ox is itorin Aramaic; judgment is idin /i. Combined they form iteradin /i, beets. Mountain in Hebrew is ihar /i, which they pronounced iḥar /i; poor is idal /i. Together it spells iḥardal /i, mustard. Thus, Rabbi Yosei bar Asyan was requesting beets in mustard., bAnd when he would inquire about an inn, he would say as follows: This man here is raw; what is this good that there is?The phrase “this man here is raw” is used in a similar syllable-by-syllable translation: man in Hebrew is iish /i; here is ipo /i; this is izeh /i; and raw is ina /i. All together, they sound like iushpazikhna /i, i.e., an innkeeper (Rabbeinu Ḥael). In other words, Rabbi Yosei bar Asyan was asking after the innkeeper., bWhen Rabbi Abbahu would speak enigmatically, he would say as follows: Make the coals the color of an ietrog /i; beat the golden ones,i.e., spread out the coals, which redden like gold when they glow; band make me two speakers-in-the-dark,i.e., roosters, which announce the dawn when it is still dark. bSome saya slightly different version: bAnd they shall make me in them,on the coals, i.e., roast for me on top of the coals, btwo speakers-in-the-dark. /b,In a similarly clever manner, bthe Sages said to Rabbi Abbahu: Show us [ ihatzpinenu /i] where Rabbi Elai is hiding [ itzafun /i],as we do not know his whereabouts. bHe said to them: He rejoiced with the latter [ iaḥaronit /i] Aharonic [ iAharonit /i] girl; she is lively [ ieiranit /i] and kept him awake [ ivehiniratu /i]. /b,There are two ways to understand this cryptic statement: bSome sayit refers to ba woman,i.e., he married a young girl from a priestly family [Aharonic], who is his second [latter] wife, from a village [ ieiranit /i], and he is sleeping now because she kept him awake during the night., bAnd some sayit refers to ba tractate.The term girl refers to the tractate; Aharonic indicates that it is a tractate from the order of iKodashim /i, which deals with the priestly service. The phrase the latter means that it is his latest course of study, and lively alludes to the challenging nature of the subject matter. Since he was awake all night studying, he is presently sleeping.,The Gemara continues: bThey said to Rabbi Elai: Show us where Rabbi Abbahu is hiding,as we do not know where he is. bHe said to them: He has taken counsel with the one who crowns,i.e., the iNasi /i, who appoints the Sages, band has gone south[ihingiv/b] bto Mephibosheth,i.e., he has headed to the Sages of the south, referred to here as Mephibosheth, who was King Saul’s grandson and a great Sage of his time.,Having discussed the clever speech of various Sages, the Gemara relates that bRabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya saidas follows: bInall bmy days, no person defeated mein a verbal encounter bexcept for a woman, a young boy, and a young girl. What isthe encounter in which ba womangot the better of me? bOne time I was staying at a certain innand the hostess bprepared me beans. On the first day I ate them and left nothing over,although proper etiquette dictates that one should leave over something on his plate. On the bsecondday I again ate band left nothing over.On the third day bshe over-salted themso that they were inedible. bAs soon as I tastedthem, bI withdrew my hands from them. /b, bShe said to me: My Rabbi, why aren’t you eatingbeans as on the previous days? Not wishing to offend her, bI said to her: I have already eaten during the daytime. She said to me: You should have withdrawn your hand from breadand left room for some beans., bShethen bsaid to me: My Rabbi, perhaps you did not leave a remainderof food on your plate bon the firstdays, which is why you are leaving over food today. bIsn’t this what the Sages said: One need not leave a remainder in the pot [ iilpas /i], but one must leave a remainder on the plateas an expression of etiquette ( iTosafot /i). This is the incident in which a woman got the better of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya., bWhat isthe incident with ba young girl? One time I was walking along the path, and the path passed through a field, and I was walking on it. A certain young girl said to me: My Rabbi, isn’t this a field?One should not walk through a field, so as not to damage the crops growing there. bI said to her: Isn’t it a well-trodden pathin the field, across which one is permitted to walk? bShe said to me: Robbers like you have trodden it.In other words, it previously had been prohibited to walk through this field, and it is only due to people such as you, who paid no attention to the prohibition, that a path has been cut across it. Thus, the young girl defeated Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya in a debate., bWhat isthe incident with ba young boy? One time I was walking along the path, and I saw a young boy sitting at the crossroads. And I said to him: On which path shall we walkin order to get bto the city? He said to me: Thispath bis short and long, and thatpath bis long and short. I walked on thepath that was bshort and long. When I approached the city I found that gardens and orchards surrounded it,and I did not know the trails leading through them to the city., bI went backand met the young boy again and bsaid to him: My son, didn’t you tell methat this way is bshort? He said to me: And didn’t I tell youthat it is also blong? I kissed him on his head and said to him: Happy are you, O Israel, for you are all exceedingly wise, from your old to your young. /b,Having discussed wise speech and the wisdom of Jewish women, the Gemara cites the following story: bRabbi Yosei HaGelili was walking along the way,and bmet Berurya. He said to her: On which path shall we walkin order to get bto Lod? She said to him: Foolish Galilean, didn’t the Sages say: Do not talk much with women? You should have saidyour question more succinctly: bWhichway bto Lod? /b,The Gemara relates more of Berurya’s wisdom: bBerurya came across a certain student who was whispering his studiesrather than raising his voice.
62. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

85b. it is only bthe ibaraita /ithat bteachesthat he plows and then brepeatsthe plowing. It would appear, then, that the mishna and ibaraitaexpress different opinions, and it may be that according to the mishna one does not need to plow in the second year at all.,The Gemara dismisses this suggestion: bThisis bnot difficult;it is possible that the mishna and the ibaraitado not disagree, and bhere,the mishna, which does not require plowing a second time, bis referring to a cultivatedfield, whereas bthere,the ibaraita bis referring to an uncultivatedfield, and therefore it requires that the field be plowed a second time.,The Gemara concludes: bWhathalakhic conclusion bwasreached baboutthis matter? bComeand bhearthe resolution from that bwhich is taughtin a ibaraita /i: For the first year, bone plowsthe entire field during the first bhalf ofthe year, bandthen he bsows half ofthe field, leaving the other half fallow. For the second year, one again bplowsthe entire field during the first bhalf ofthe year, bandthen he bsowsthe bhalf ofthe field that was left fallow in the previous year. It is evident from this ibaraitathat during the second year as well, the field is plowed before it is sown.,§ bRabbi Yoḥa says: One brings the iomeronly fromthe bsouthern fields of Eretz Yisrael, as upon thosefields, the bsun risesand shines, band from thosefields, the bsunalso bsets.Those fields are exposed to abundant sunlight, and so they produce a superior-quality crop., bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAbba Shaul saysthat bthe iomerwould come fromgrain grown in bthe valley of Beit Mikle.The field there bwas about three ise’a /i, and it was a southern field, andthe bsun would riseand shine bupon it, andthe bsun would set from it.During the first year, the farmer bplowedthe entire field during the first bhalf ofthe year, bandhe then bsowed half ofthe field, leaving the other half fallow. During the second year, he again bplowedthe entire field during the first bhalf ofthe year, bandhe then bsowedthe bhalf ofthe field that was left fallow in the previous year.,The Gemara demonstrates the efficacy of this method: bRav Ḥilkiya bar Tovi had a tract of land. He plowedthe field during the first bhalf ofthe year bandthen bsowed half ofit. The next year, bhe plowedthe field during the first bhalf ofthe year bandthen bsowedthe other bhalf of it. Andthis method was so effective that his field bproduced twiceas much wheat as other fields its size, bandit was of such a superior quality that bhe soldthe bwheatto be used bas fine flour [ ilismida /i]for the meal offerings in the Temple.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd ifthe flour bbecame wormy,it is bunfitfor use in a meal offering. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFine flour the majority of which became wormyis bunfit. Andsimilarly, bwheatkernels bthe majority of which became wormyare bunfit,and they may not be used to produce fine flour for meal offerings. bRabbi Yirmeya asks:What is the meaning of this latter ruling? Is it saying only that if the bmajority ofan individual bwheatkernel becomes wormy the flour produced from it is unfit, boris it saying that when the bmajority of a ise’a /iof kernels becomes wormy the entire ise’ais bunfit?The Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved., bRava asks:If bone consecratedgrains of wormy wheat for use in a meal offering, bwhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether bhe should be flogged forconsecrating bthem due tothe prohibition against consecrating ba flaweditem as an offering? One is flogged for consecrating a blemished animal as an offering (see iTemura6b); does the same apply to consecrating wormy wheat? Does one say that bsincethe wheat is bunfit,it is bcomparable to a blemishedanimal? bOr perhaps,the prohibition against consecrating ba flaweditem bapplies only to an animal.The Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved.,§ bWe learnedin a mishna belsewhere( iMiddot2:5) with regard to the wood logs that are burned on the altar: Priests inspect them before they are used and bany log in which a worm is foundis bunfit foruse bon the altar.In reference to this mishna, bShmuel says: They taughtthis ihalakha bonlywith regard to ba wetlog, as a wormy section cannot be removed. bButif a wormy section is found in ba drylog, the priest bscrapesthe wormy spot baway, andthe log is bfitfor use., bRava asks:If bone consecrateda wormy log to be used on the altar, bwhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether bhe should be flogged forconsecrating bit due tothe prohibition against consecrating ba flaweditem as an offering? Does one say that bsincethe log is bunfit,it is bcomparable to a blemishedanimal? bOr perhaps,the prohibition against consecrating ba flaweditem bapplies only to an animal.The Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved., strongMISHNA: /strong Olive trees in bTekoaare the bprimarysource bof oilto be used in meal offerings. bAbba Shaul says: Secondary toTekoa bis Regev on theeast bbank of the JordanRiver. bAll the regions were validfor oil to be brought from them, bbutit was bfrom herethat bthey would bringit., bOne may not bringa meal offering containing oil from olives taken bfrom a fertilizedolive bgrove, norfrom olives taken bfrom an irrigatedolive bgrove, norfrom olives taken bfroman olive grove where grain bwas sown betweenthe trees. bBut if one did bringa meal offering containing oil from such groves, it is bvalid. One may not bringa meal offering containing oil from bunripe olives [ ianpiktan /i], but if one did bringit, it is bvalid. One may not bringa meal offering containing oil bfrom olives that were soaked in water, nor from pickledolives, bnor from boiledolives, bandeven if bone did bringit, it is bnot valid. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara notes the effect of Tekoa’s oil on those living there: The verse states: b“And Joab sent to Tekoa, and fetched from there a wise woman”(II Samuel 14:2). bWhat is differentabout bTekoathat Joab chose to bring a woman from there? bRabbi Yoḥa says: Sincethe residents of Tekoa bare accustomed touse bolive oil, wisdom is prevalent there. /b,§ The Gemara digresses to discuss the tribal portion of Asher, in which the city of Tekoa is located: bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In his blessing to the tribe of Asher, Moses said: “He will be pleasing to his brothers, band immerse his foot in oil”(Deuteronomy 33:24). bThisis referring to bthe portion of Asher, as the oil flowsthere blike a spring.The Gemara relates: bThey saidthat bonce, the people of Laodicea were in need of oil. They appointeda gentile bmessenger [ ipolmostos /i]and bsaid to him: Go and bring us one million imanehworth bof oil. /b, bHefirst bwent to Jerusalemto procure the oil, but residents there did not have that quantity of oil. bThey said to him: Go to Tyre,which was a commercial city. bHe went to Tyre,but they also did not have enough oil. bThey said to him: Go to Gush Ḥalav,which is located in the portion of Asher. bHe went to Gush Ḥalav,and bthey said to him: Go to so-and-so, to that field.He went there band foundsomeone bhoeing [ iozek /i] under his olive trees.The messenger bsaid tothat man: bDo you havethe bone million imanehworth bof oil that I need?The man bsaid to him: Wait for me until I complete my labor,i.e., hoeing. The messenger bwaited untilthe man bcompleted his labor. /b, bAfter he completed his labor,the man bslung his toolsover his shoulders bbehind him,a manner typical of poor laborers, and started walking, band he was removing stonesfrom his orchard bas he went along the path.Upon seeing this behavior, which suggested the man was merely a laborer, the messenger questioned whether the man was truly able to provide him with the oil. bHe said tothe man: Can it be that byoureally bhavethe bone million imanehworth bof oil that I need? It seems to me that the Jewsof Gush Ḥalav bare making a laughingstock of meby sending me here. bWhen he reached his city,the man’s bmaidservant brought out to him a kettle [ ikumkemos /i] of hotwater, band he washed his hands and his feet.Afterward, bshe brought out to him a golden basin filled with oil, in which he immersed his hands and feet, in fulfillment of thatwhich bis statedwith regard to the Tribe of Asher: b“And immerse his foot in oil”(Deuteronomy 33:24)., bAfter they ate and drank,the man bmeasured outfor the messenger bone million imanehworth bof oil.The man bsaid to him:Are you sure that byou do not need any moreoil? The messenger bsaid to him: Yes,I do need more, bbut I do not havethe bmoneyfor it. The man bsaid to him: If you wish to takemore oil, btakeit band I will goback to Laodicea bwith you and collect the moneyfor the extra oil there. The messenger agreed and the man bmeasured outan additional b180,000 imanehworth bof oil.Concerning this incident, people bsaid:The messenger had such an enormous burden of oil that bhe left neither a horse, nor a mule, nor a camel, nor a donkey inall of bEretz Yisrael that he did not rentin order to help transport the oil back to Laodicea., bWhenthe messenger finally breached his city, the people of his city came out to praise him [ ilekaleso /i]for achieving this tremendous feat. The messenger bsaid to them: Do not praise me. Rather,praise bthisman bwho has come with me, asit is bhewho bmeasured for me one million imanehworth bof oil, and he extended a debt to me for 180,000 imanehworth bof oil.This incident was bin fulfillment of thatwhich bis stated: “There is one who seems to be rich, yet has nothing; there is one who seems to be poor, yet has great wealth”(Proverbs 13:7).,§ The mishna teaches: bOne may not bringa meal offering containing oil made from olives bfrom a fertilizedolive bgrove.The mishna continues to state that one may not bring a meal offering containing oil from unripe olives, and, according to one version of the mishna’s text, it adds that even if one did bring a meal offering containing such oil, it is not valid. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not bringa meal offering containing oil made from bunripe olives, /b
63. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52b. איוב מן הסערה ויאמר אליו שוטה שבעולם הרבה נימין בראתי בראשו של אדם ולכל נימא ונימא בראתי לו גומא בפני עצמה שלא יהיו שתים יונקות מגומא אחת שאלמלא שתים יונקות מגומא אחת מכחיש מאור עיניו של אדם גומא בגומא לא נתחלף לי איוב באויב נתחלף לי,לא קשיא הא בגופא הא ברישא,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל שתי שערות שאמרו אפילו אחת על הכף ואחת על הביצים,תניא נמי הכי שתי שערות שאמרו אפילו אחת בגבה ואחת בכריסה אחת ע"ג קשרי אצבעותיה של יד ואחת ע"ג קשרי אצבעותיה של רגל דברי ר' שמעון בן יהודה איש כפר עכו שאמר משום רבי שמעון ורבנן אמר רב חסדא עד שיהו ב' שערות במקום אחד,ת"ר עד מתי הבת ממאנת עד שתביא שתי שערות דברי רבי מאיר ר' יהודה אומר עד שירבה השחור רבי יוסי אומר עד שתקיף העטרה בן שלקות אומר עד שתכלכל,ואמר רבי שמעון מצאני חנינא בן חכינאי בצידן ואמר כשאתה מגיע אצל ר"ע אמור לו עד מתי הבת ממאנת אם יאמר לך עד שתביא שתי שערות אמור לו והלא בן שלקות העיד במעמד כולכם ביבנה עד שתכלכל ולא אמרתם לו דבר,כשבאתי אצל רבי עקיבא אמר לי כלכול זה איני יודע מהו בן שלקות איני מכיר עד מתי הבת ממאנת עד שתביא ב' שערות, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big שתי שערות האמורות בפרה ובנגעים והאמורות בכל מקום כדי לכוף ראשן לעיקרן דברי רבי ישמעאל ר"א אומר כדי לקרוץ בציפורן ר' עקיבא אומר כדי שיהו ניטלות בזוג, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא הלכה כדברי כולן להחמיר, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הרואה כתם הרי זו מקולקלת,וחוששת משום זוב דברי רבי מאיר וחכ"א אין בכתמים משום זוב, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאן חכמים ר' חנינא בן אנטיגנוס היא דתניא ר"ח בן אנטיגנוס אומר כתמים אין בהן משום זוב ופעמים שהכתמים מביאין לידי זיבה,כיצד לבשה ג' חלוקות הבדוקות לה ומצאה עליהם כתם או שראתה ב' ימים וחלוק אחד הן הן הכתמים המביאין לידי זיבה,השתא שלשה חלוקות דלאו מגופה קחזיא חיישינן ב' ימים וחלוק אחד מיבעיא,מהו דתימא כל כי האי גוונא מביאה קרבן ונאכל קא משמע לן,אמר רבא בהא זכנהו ר' חנינא בן אנטיגנוס לרבנן מאי שנא פחות מג' גריסין במקום אחד דלא חיישינן דאמרי' בתרי יומי חזיתיה שלשה גריסין במקום אחד נמי נימא תרתי ופלגא מגופה חזיתיה ואידך אגב זוהמא דם מאכולת הוא,ורבנן כיון דאיכא לפלוגי בגריס ועוד לכל יומא לא תלינן,ור"ח בן אנטיגנוס ג' גריסין במקום א' הוא דלא חיישינן הא בג' מקומות חיישינן הא אמרת בג' חלוקות אין בג' מקומות לא,לדבריהם דרבנן קאמר להו לדידי בג' חלוקות אין בג' מקומות לא אלא לדידכו אודו לי מיהת דהיכא דחזאי ג' גריסין במקום אחד דאמרינן תרי ופלגא מגופה חזיתיה ואידך אגב זוהמא דם מאכולת הוא,ורבנן כיון דאיכא לפלוגי בגריס ועוד לכל יומא לא תלינן,ת"ר הרואה כתם אם יש בו כדי לחלק ג' גריסין שהן כגריס ועוד חוששת ואם לאו אינה חוששת,ר' יהודה בן אגרא אומר משום רבי יוסי אחת זו ואחת זו חוששת 52b. bJob out of the tempest, and said”(Job 38:1–3) bto him:Greatest bimbecile in the world! I have created many hairs on a person’s head, and for each and every hair I createdits own bdistinct follicle, so that two hairs should not drawsustece bfrom one follicle. As, were twohairs bto drawsustece bfrom one follicle,it would bweaken a man’s vision.Now if bI did not confuse one follicle with another, would I confusea man named bIyyov with ioyev /i?This indicates that two hairs do not grow from one follicle.,The Gemara answers: It is bnot difficult; thatstatement above, that two hairs in one follicle is a valid sign of adulthood, is referring to the hairs binthe rest of a person’s bbody,whereas bthisstatement, that there cannot be two hairs in one follicle, is referring to the hairs bona person’s bhead. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The btwo hairs thatthe Sages bsaidare signs of adulthood are valid signs beven ifthey are not adjacent; but rather bonehair is bon the spoon- /bshaped area above his organ band oneis bon theyoung boy’s btesticles. /b,The Gemara notes bthatthis bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: The btwo hairs thatthe Sages bsaidare signs of adulthood are valid signs bevenif bonehair is bonthe young girl’s bback,below her pubic area, band one on her lower abdomen.The same applies if bonehair is bon the finger joints of her hand and onehair is bon the toe joints of her foot.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda, of the village of Akko, who saidit bin the name of Rabbi Shimon. Andwhat do bthe Rabbissay about this matter? bRav Ḥisda says:According to the Rabbis, they are not a valid sign of adulthood bunlessthe btwo hairs are in one place. /b,§ The mishna teaches that Rabbi Yehuda and the Rabbis disagree with regard to when a young girl can perform refusal. According to the Rabbis, it is until she grows two pubic hairs after she reaches the age of twelve years and one day. According to Rabbi Yehuda she still retains the right to perform refusal at that point, until the majority of the pubic area is filled with hair. In this regard, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bUntil when can a young girl perform refusal? Until she grows twopubic bhairs;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says:She can perform refusal buntilthe area covered by the bblackpubic hairs bis greaterthan the white skin of the genital area. bRabbi Yosei says: Until the nipple is surroundedby hair. bBen Shelakot says: Untilthe pubic area is bfilled with hair. /b, bAnd Rabbi Shimon said: Ḥanina ben Ḥakhinai found me inthe city of bTzaidan and saidto me: bWhen you reach Rabbi Akiva, say to him: Until when can a young girl perform refusal? If he says to youthat she may perform refusal buntil she grows twopubic bhairs, say to him: But didn’t ben Shelakot testify in the presence of all of you in Yavnethat she may perform refusal buntilthe pubic area bis filled with hair [ ishetekhalkel /i], and you did not say anything to him,thereby indicating that you conceded to him?,Rabbi Shimon continued: bWhen I reached Rabbi Akiva,and I said what I had been told to say to him, bhe said to me: I do not know what this filling with hair [ ikilkul /i] is, I don’t knowany bben Shelakot,and my opinion with regard to your question, buntil when can a young girl perform refusal,is that she can perform refusal buntil she grows twopubic bhairs. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong The btwowhite or black bhairs that are mentioned with regard todisqualification of a red bheifer; andthe two white hairs mentioned bwith regard to leprous marks,i.e., that if they grow within a white leprous mark, it is impure; bandthe two hairs bthat are mentioned in every place,i.e., with regard to a young boy and girl, are significant only if they are long benough to bend the topof the hairs btoreach btheir roots.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Eliezer says:They must be long benough tograsp them and bcutthem bwith a fingernail. Rabbi Akiva says:They must be long benough to be cut with a pair [ ibezug /i]of scissors., strongGEMARA: /strong bRav Ḥisda saysthat bMar Ukva sayswith regard to the various opinions in the mishna on the measure of hairs: The ihalakha /iis bin accordance with the statements of all of them to be stringent.One should consider it hair only if all of the criteria are met, or consider it to be hair if any one condition is met, depending on which standard yields the more stringent result., strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to a woman bwho seesa red bstainon her garment, bthatwoman’s reckoning bis distorted.Since she does not know when the blood that caused the stain appeared, she does not know when the seven days of menstrual flow end and when the eleven days of the flow of the izavabegin., bAndtherefore she must be bconcerned due tothe possibility that it might have been caused by the bflow of a izava /i.If she wore the same garment for three days on which she can assume the status of a izava /i, and subsequently discovered a stain with an area that is the size of at least three split beans, the concern is that on each of those three days a stain with the area of at least one split bean, the minimum area that transmits impurity, was formed. The result is that she is a greater izavaand is required to count seven clean days before immersion. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Noconfiguration bof stainsleads to concern bdue to the flow of a izava /i. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWhoare bthe Rabbisin this mishna? bIt is Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus says: Stains do notlead to concern bdue to the flow of a izava /i, but stains can sometimes lead to iziva /i. /b, bHow so,i.e., how can stains lead to izivaaccording to Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus? If a woman bwore threedifferent brobes thathad been bexamined by herfor blood stains, bandshe then bfound a stain oneach of bthem; orif she bsawblood flowing from her body on btwoconsecutive bdays andon the third day she saw a stain on boneof the brobesthat she wore that day, bthose are the stains that lead to iziva /i. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to the above statement: According to the opinion of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus, bnowthat in a case where she sees stains on bthree robes weare bconcernedfor iziva /i, despite the fact bthatshe bdoes not seethe blood flowing bfrom her body, isit bnecessaryto state that we are concerned if she experiences bleeding from her body on btwo days andsees a stain on boneof the brobes? /b,The Gemara answers: It is necessary to state that, blest you saythat in bany case like this,where she experiences bleeding from her body on two days and on the third day she sees a stain on one of the robes, bshe brings an offering and it is consumed,like one who is definitely a izava /i. Therefore, Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus bteaches usthat her status as a izavais uncertain, and consequently she brings a bird for a sin offering that is due to uncertainty, which is not eaten., bRava said: With thisclaim bRabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus bested theother bRabbis,who agree with the opinion of Rabbi Meir in the mishna: bWhat is differentabout a stain that is bless than three split beans in one place, that we are not concernedshe might be a izava /i? The reason is bthat we sayshe bsawblood bononly btwo days.But in a case where she discovered a stain on her robe with the area of at least bthree split beans in one place,one can balso say:The area of btwo and a halfsplit beans should be attributed to blood bseen from her body, but the other isthe bblood of a louse thatwas there bdue to the dirtassociated with her bleeding.,The Gemara asks: bAndhow do bthe Rabbisrespond to this claim? The Gemara answers: They maintain that bsince it is possible to dividethe stain into bat least one split bean for eachof the three bdays, we do not attributethe stain to the blood of a louse.,The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to the statement of Rava: bAndaccording to the opinion of bRabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus,one can infer that bit isspecifically in the case of a stain with the area of at least bthree split beans in one place that we are not concernedshe might be a izava /i. It can be inferred from here that if it is bin three places, we are concerned.But bdidn’t you saythat if she discovered stains bin three robes, yes,we are concerned, which indicates that if it is bin three placeson a single robe we are bnotconcerned.,The Gemara answers that it was bin accordance with the statement of the Rabbisthat Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus bstatedhis opinion bto them,as follows: bAccording to myopinion, if she discovered stains bin three robes, yeswe are concerned, whereas if it is bin three placeswe are bnotconcerned. bBut according to youropinion, bat least concede to me that whereshe bsawa stain on her robe with the area of at least bthree split beans in one place, that we saythat the area of btwo and a halfsplit beans can be attributed to blood bseen from her body, and the other isthe bblood of a lousethat was there bdue to the dirtassociated with her bleeding.,The Gemara asks: bAndhow do bthe Rabbisrespond to this claim? The Gemara answers: They maintain that bsince it is possible to dividethe stain into bat least one split bean for eachof the three bdays, we do not attributethe stain to the blood of a louse.,§ With regard to a woman who finds a stain on her robe, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of a woman bwho seesa red bstainon her garment that she wore for a number of days and she does not know when and where it is from, what is her status? bIfthe area is large benough to be dividedinto three parts, where the total area is the size of bthree split beans,each of bwhich isthe minimum measure to render her a izava /i, i.e., an area the size of bat least a split bean,she must be bconcernedthat she is a izava /i, as this stain might be the result of seeing a sufficient measure of blood on each of three occasions. bBut ifthe stain is bnotthat size, she does bnotneed to bbe concerned. /b, bRabbi Yehuda ben Agra says in the name of Rabbi Yosei: Bothin bthiscase, where she saw a stain large enough to be divided into three parts, where the total area is the size of three split beans, band thatcase, where the stain was not that large, she must be bconcernedthat she might be a izava /i. This is due to the fact that she possibly saw stains of sufficient size on only two occasions, but one was during twilight, which counts as two days, amounting to a total of three days.
64. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. שהמרו זה את זה אמרו כל מי שילך ויקניט את הלל יטול ד' מאות זוז אמר אחד מהם אני אקניטנו אותו היום ע"ש היה והלל חפף את ראשו הלך ועבר על פתח ביתו אמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו אמר לו בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה ראשיהן של בבליים סגלגלות א"ל בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שאין להם חיות פקחות,הלך והמתין שעה אחת חזר ואמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו אמר לו בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה עיניהן של תרמודיין תרוטות אמר לו בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שדרין בין החולות,הלך והמתין שעה אחת חזר ואמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו א"ל בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה רגליהם של אפרקיים רחבות א"ל בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שדרין בין בצעי המים,אמר לו שאלות הרבה יש לי לשאול ומתירא אני שמא תכעוס נתעטף וישב לפניו א"ל כל שאלות שיש לך לשאול שאל א"ל אתה הוא הלל שקורין אותך נשיא ישראל א"ל הן א"ל אם אתה הוא לא ירבו כמותך בישראל א"ל בני מפני מה א"ל מפני שאבדתי על ידך ד' מאות זוז א"ל הוי זהיר ברוחך כדי הוא הלל שתאבד על ידו ד' מאות זוז וד' מאות זוז והלל לא יקפיד:,ת"ר מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי אמר לו כמה תורות יש לכם אמר לו שתים תורה שבכתב ותורה שבעל פה א"ל שבכתב אני מאמינך ושבעל פה איני מאמינך גיירני ע"מ שתלמדני תורה שבכתב גער בו והוציאו בנזיפה בא לפני הלל גייריה יומא קמא א"ל א"ב ג"ד למחר אפיך ליה א"ל והא אתמול לא אמרת לי הכי א"ל לאו עלי דידי קא סמכת דעל פה נמי סמוך עלי:,שוב מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי א"ל גיירני ע"מ שתלמדני כל התורה כולה כשאני עומד על רגל אחת דחפו באמת הבנין שבידו בא לפני הלל גייריה אמר לו דעלך סני לחברך לא תעביד זו היא כל התורה כולה ואידך פירושה הוא זיל גמור.,שוב מעשה בנכרי אחד שהיה עובר אחורי בית המדרש ושמע קול סופר שהיה אומר (שמות כח, ד) ואלה הבגדים אשר יעשו חושן ואפוד אמר הללו למי אמרו לו לכהן גדול אמר אותו נכרי בעצמו אלך ואתגייר בשביל שישימוני כהן גדול בא לפני שמאי אמר ליה גיירני על מנת שתשימני כהן גדול דחפו באמת הבנין שבידו בא לפני הלל גייריה,א"ל כלום מעמידין מלך אלא מי שיודע טכסיסי מלכות לך למוד טכסיסי מלכות הלך וקרא כיון שהגיע (במדבר א, נא) והזר הקרב יומת אמר ליה מקרא זה על מי נאמר א"ל אפי' על דוד מלך ישראל נשא אותו גר קל וחומר בעצמו ומה ישראל שנקראו בנים למקום ומתוך אהבה שאהבם קרא להם (שמות ד, כב) בני בכורי ישראל כתיב עליהם והזר הקרב יומת גר הקל שבא במקלו ובתרמילו על אחת כמה וכמה,בא לפני שמאי א"ל כלום ראוי אני להיות כהן גדול והלא כתיב בתורה והזר הקרב יומת בא לפני הלל א"ל ענוותן הלל ינוחו לך ברכות על ראשך שהקרבתני תחת כנפי השכינה לימים נזדווגו שלשתן למקום אחד אמרו קפדנותו של שמאי בקשה לטורדנו מן העולם ענוותנותו של הלל קרבנו תחת כנפי השכינה:,אמר ר"ל מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו לג, ו) והיה אמונת עתיך חוסן ישועות חכמת ודעת וגו' אמונת זה סדר זרעים עתיך זה סדר מועד חוסן זה סדר נשים ישועות זה סדר נזיקין חכמת זה סדר קדשים ודעת זה סדר טהרות ואפ"ה (ישעיהו לג, ו) יראת ה' היא אוצרו,אמר רבא בשעה שמכניסין אדם לדין אומרים לו נשאת ונתת באמונה קבעת עתים לתורה עסקת בפו"ר צפית לישועה פלפלת בחכמה הבנת דבר מתוך דבר ואפ"ה אי יראת ה' היא אוצרו אין אי לא לא משל לאדם שאמר לשלוחו העלה לי כור חיטין לעלייה הלך והעלה לו א"ל עירבת לי בהן קב חומטון א"ל לאו א"ל מוטב אם לא העליתה,תנא דבי ר"י מערב אדם קב חומטון בכור של תבואה ואינו חושש:,אמר רבה בר רב הונא כל אדם שיש בו תורה ואין בו 31a. bwho wagered with each otherand bsaid: Anyone who will go and aggravate Hillelto the point that he reprimands him, bwill take four-hundred izuz /i. bOne of them said: I will aggravate him. That daythat he chose to bother Hillel bwas Shabbat eve, and Hillel was washingthe hair on bhis head. He went and passed the entrance toHillel’s bhouseand in a demeaning manner bsaid: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel?Hillel bwrapped himselfin a dignified garment band went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask.Hillel bsaid to him: Ask, my son, ask.The man asked him: bWhy are the heads of Babylonians oval?He was alluding to and attempting to insult Hillel, who was Babylonian. bHe said to him: My son, you have asked a significant question.The reason is bbecause they do not have clever midwives.They do not know how to shape the child’s head at birth.,That man bwent and waited one hour,a short while, breturnedto look for Hillel, band said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel?Again, Hillel bwrapped himself and went out to greet him.Hillel bsaid to him: My son, what do you seek?The man bsaid to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask.The man asked: bWhy are the eyes of the residents of Tadmor bleary [ iterutot /i]?Hillel bsaid to him: My son, you have asked a significant question.The reason is bbecause they live among the sandsand the sand gets into their eyes.,Once again the man bwent, waited one hour, returned, and said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel?Again, bhe,Hillel, bwrapped himself and went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask.The man asked: bWhy do Africans have wide feet?Hillel bsaid to him: You have asked a significant question.The reason is bbecause they live in marshlandsand their feet widened to enable them to walk through those swampy areas.,That man bsaid to him: I have manymore bquestions to ask, but I am afraid lest you get angry.Hillel bwrapped himself and sat before him,and bhe said to him: All ofthe bquestions that you have to ask, askthem. The man got angry and bsaid to him: Are you Hillel whom they callthe iNasiof Israel? He said to him: Yes. He said to him: Ifit bis you,then bmay there not be many like you in Israel.Hillel bsaid to him: My son, for whatreason do you say this? The man bsaid to him: Because I lost four hundred izuzbecause of you.Hillel bsaid to him: Be vigilant of your spiritand avoid situations of this sort. bHillel is worthy of having you lose four hundred izuzandanother bfour hundred izuzon his account, and Hillel will not get upset. /b, bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai.The gentile bsaid to Shammai: How many Torahs do you have? He said to him: Two, the Written Torah and the Oral Torah.The gentile bsaid to him:With regard to bthe WrittenTorah, bI believe you, butwith regard to bthe OralTorah, bI do not believe you. Convert me on condition that you will teach meonly the bWritten Torah.Shammai bscolded him and cast him out with reprimand.The same gentile bcame before Hillel,who bconverted himand began teaching him Torah. bOn the first day, heshowed him the letters of the alphabet and bsaid to him: iAlef /i, ibet /i, igimmel /i, idalet /i. The next day he reversedthe order of the letters and told him that an ialefis a itavand so on. The convert bsaid to him: But yesterday you did not tell me that.Hillel bsaid to him:You see that it is impossible to learn what is written without relying on an oral tradition. bDidn’t you rely on me?Therefore, you should balso rely on mewith regard to the matter bof the OralTorah, and accept the interpretations that it contains.,There was banother incident involving one gentile who came before Shammaiand bsaid toShammai: bConvert me on condition that you teach me the entire Torah while I am standing on one foot.Shammai bpushed himaway bwith the builder’s cubit in his hand.This was a common measuring stick and Shammai was a builder by trade. The same gentile bcame before Hillel. He converted himand bsaid to him:That bwhich is hateful to you do not do to another; that is the entire Torah, and the rest is its interpretation. Go study. /b,There was banother incident involving one gentile who was passing behind the study halland bheard the voice of a teacher who wasteaching Torah to his students and bsayingthe verse: b“And these are the garments which they shall make: A breastplate, and an iefod, /iand a robe, and a tunic of checkered work, a mitre, and a girdle” (Exodus 28:4). bThe gentile said: Thesegarments, bfor whom are theydesignated? The students bsaid to him: For the High Priest. The gentile said to himself: I will go and convert so that they will install me as High Priest. He came before Shammaiand bsaid to him: Convert me on condition that you install meas High Priest. Shammai bpushed him with the builder’s cubit in his hand. He came before Hillel; he converted him. /b,Hillel bsaid to him,to the convert: bIs it notthe way of the world that bonly one who knows the protocols [ itakhsisei /i]of royalty bis appointed king? Goand blearn the royal protocolsby engaging in Torah study. bHe went and readthe Bible. bWhen he reachedthe verse which says: b“And the common man that draws near shall be put to death”(Numbers 1:51), the convert bsaid toHillel: bWith regard to whom is the verse speaking?Hillel bsaid to him: Even with regard to David, king of Israel. The convert reasoned an ia fortioriinference himself: If the Jewish people are called God’s children, and due to the love that God loved them he called them: “Israel is My son, My firstborn”(Exodus 4:22), and nevertheless bit is written about them: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death; a mere convert who camewithout merit, bwithnothing more than bhis staff and traveling bag, all the more sothat this applies to him, as well.,The convert bcame before Shammaiand btold himthat he retracts his demand to appoint him High Priest, saying: bAm I at all worthy to be High Priest? Is it not written in the Torah: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death? He came before Hilleland bsaid to him: Hillel the patient, may blessings rest upon your head as you brought me under the wings of the Divine Presence.The Gemara relates: bEventually, the threeconverts bgathered togetherin bone place,and bthey said: Shammai’s impatience sought to drive us from the world; Hillel’s patience brought us beneath the wings of the Divine Presence. /b,The Gemara continues discussing the conduct of the Sages, citing that bReish Lakish said: Whatis the meaning of bthat which is written: “And the faith of your times shall be a strength of salvation, wisdom, and knowledge,the fear of the Lord is his treasure” (Isaiah 33:6)? bFaith; that is the order of iZera /i’ iim /i, Seeds,in the Mishna, because a person has faith in God and plants his seeds (Jerusalem Talmud). bYour times; that is the order of iMoed /i, Festival,which deals with the various occasions and Festivals that occur throughout the year. bStrength; that is the order of iNashim /i, Women. Salvations; that is the order of iNezikin /i, Damages,as one who is being pursued is rescued from the hands of his pursuer. bWisdom; that is the order of iKodashim /i, Consecrated Items. And knowledge; that is the order of iTeharot /i, Purity,which is particularly difficult to master. bAnd evenif a person studies and masters all of these, b“the fear of the Lord is his treasure,”it is preeminent.,With regard to the same verse, bRava said:After departing from this world, bwhen a person is brought to judgmentfor the life he lived in this world, bthey say to himin the order of that verse: Did byou conduct business faithfully?Did byou designate times for Torahstudy? Did byou engage in procreation? Did you await salvation? Did you engagein the dialectics of bwisdomor understand bone matter from another? And, nevertheless,beyond all these, bif the fear of the Lord is his treasure, yes,he is worthy, and bif not, no,none of these accomplishments have any value. There is ba parablethat illustrates this. bA person who said to his emissary: Bring a ikorof wheat up to the attic for meto store there. The messenger bwent and brought it up for him. He said to the emissary:Did byou mix a ikavof iḥomton /i,a preservative to keep away worms, binto it for me? He said to him: No. He said to him:If so, it would have been bpreferable had you not brought it up.of what use is worm-infested wheat? Likewise, Torah and mitzvot without the fear of God are of no value.,On a related note, the Gemara cites a ihalakhathat was btaughtin bthe schoolof bRabbi Yishmael: A personwho sells wheat bmay, iab initio /i, bmix a ikavof iḥomtoninto a ikorof grain and need not be concernedthat by selling it all at the price of grain he will be guilty of theft, as the ikavof iḥomtonis essential for the preservation of the wheat., bRabba bar Rav Huna said: Any person who has Torah in him but does not have /b
65. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7a. נימרינהו לתרוייהו אל ההודאות ורוב ההודאות,אמר ר' אבהו גדול יום הגשמים מתחיית המתים דאילו תחיית המתים לצדיקים ואילו גשמים בין לצדיקים בין לרשעים ופליגא דרב יוסף דאמר רב יוסף מתוך שהיא שקולה כתחיית המתים קבעוה בתחיית המתים,אמר רב יהודה גדול יום הגשמים כיום שניתנה בו תורה שנא' (דברים לב, ב) יערף כמטר לקחי ואין לקח אלא תורה שנא' (משלי ד, ב) כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו רבא אמר יותר מיום שניתנה בו תורה שנאמר יערף כמטר לקחי מי נתלה במי הוי אומר קטן נתלה בגדול,רבא רמי כתיב יערף כמטר לקחי וכתיב תזל כטל אמרתי אם תלמיד חכם הגון הוא כטל ואם לאו עורפהו כמטר,תניא היה ר' בנאה אומר כל העוסק בתורה לשמה תורתו נעשית לו סם חיים שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה ואומר (משלי ג, ח) רפאות תהי לשרך ואומר (משלי ח, לה) כי מוצאי מצא חיים וכל העוסק בתורה שלא לשמה נעשית לו סם המות שנאמר יערף כמטר לקחי ואין עריפה אלא הריגה שנאמר (דברים כא, ד) וערפו שם את העגלה בנחל,א"ל ר' ירמיה לר' זירא ליתי מר ליתני א"ל חלש לבאי ולא יכילנא לימא מר מילתא דאגדתא א"ל הכי אמר ר' יוחנן מאי דכתיב (דברים כ, יט) כי האדם עץ השדה וכי אדם עץ שדה הוא,אלא משום דכתיב (דברים כ, יט) כי ממנו תאכל ואותו לא תכרת וכתיב אותו תשחית וכרת הא כיצד אם ת"ח הגון הוא ממנו תאכל ואותו לא תכרת ואם לאו אותו תשחית וכרת,אמר רבי חמא (אמר רבי) חנינא מאי דכתיב (משלי כז, יז) ברזל בברזל יחד לומר לך מה ברזל זה אחד מחדד את חבירו אף שני תלמידי חכמים מחדדין זה את זה בהלכה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה למה נמשלו דברי תורה כאש שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' לומר לך מה אש אינו דולק יחידי אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין ביחידי,והיינו דאמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו נ, לו) חרב אל הבדים ונואלו חרב על שונאיהן של תלמידי חכמים שעוסקין בד בבד בתורה ולא עוד אלא שמטפשין שנאמר ונואלו,ולא עוד אלא שחוטאין כתיב הכא ונואלו וכתיב התם (במדבר יב, יא) אשר נואלנו ואשר חטאנו ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו יט, יג) נואלו שרי צוען [וגו'] והתעו את מצרים,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק למה נמשלו דברי תורה כעץ שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה לומר לך מה עץ קטן מדליק את הגדול אף תלמידי חכמים קטנים מחדדים את הגדולים והיינו דאמר ר' חנינא הרבה למדתי מרבותי ומחבירי יותר מרבותי ומתלמידי יותר מכולן,רבי חנינא בר פפא רמי כתיב (ישעיהו כא, יד) לקראת צמא התיו מים וכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים אם תלמיד הגון הוא לקראת צמא התיו מים ואי לא הוי כל צמא לכו למים,רבי חנינא בר חמא רמי כתיב (משלי ה, טז) יפוצו מעינותיך חוצה וכתיב (משלי ה, יז) יהיו לך לבדך אם תלמיד הגון הוא יפוצו מעינותיך חוצה ואם לאו יהיו לך לבדך,(ואמר) רבי חנינא בר אידי למה נמשלו דברי תורה למים דכתיב הוי כל צמא לכו למים לומר לך מה מים מניחין מקום גבוה והולכין למקום נמוך אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין אלא במי שדעתו שפלה,ואמר רבי אושעיא למה נמשלו דברי תורה לשלשה משקין הללו במים וביין ובחלב דכתיב הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) לכו שברו ואכלו ולכו שברו בלא כסף ובלא מחיר יין וחלב לומר לך מה שלשה משקין הללו אין מתקיימין אלא בפחות שבכלים אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין אלא במי שדעתו שפלה,כדאמרה ליה ברתיה דקיסר לר' יהושע בן חנניה אי חכמה מפוארה בכלי מכוער אמר לה אביך רמי חמרא במני דפחרא אמרה ליה אלא במאי נירמי אמר לה אתון דחשביתו רמו במאני דהבא וכספא,אזלה ואמרה ליה לאבוה רמייא לחמרא במני דהבא וכספא ותקיף אתו ואמרו ליה אמר לה לברתיה מאן אמר לך הכי אמרה ליה רבי יהושע בן חנניה קריוהו אמר ליה אמאי אמרת לה הכי אמר ליה כי היכי דאמרה לי אמרי לה והא איכא שפירי דגמירי 7a. bwe will recite them both: God of thanksgivings, and: Abundant thanksgivings. /b,§ The Gemara cites statements in praise of rainfall. bRabbi Abbahu said: The day of rain is greater than the resurrection of the dead.The reason is that bwhile the resurrection of the deadbenefits only bthe righteous, rainbenefits bboth the righteous and the wicked.The Gemara comments: bAndthis statement bdisagrees withthe opinion of bRav Yosef, as Rav Yosef said: Sincerainfall bis equivalent to the resurrection of the dead,the Sages bestablishedits recitation binthe second blessing of the iAmida /i, the blessing of bthe resurrection of the dead.According to Rav Yosef, rainfall is the equivalent to, but not superior to, the resurrection of the dead.,Similarly, bRav Yehuda said: The day of the rains is as great as the dayon which bthe Torah was given, as it is stated: “My doctrine [ ilikḥi /i] shall drop as the rain”(Deuteronomy 32:2), band ilekaḥmeans nothing otherthan bTorah, as it is stated: “For I give you good doctrine [ ilekaḥ /i]; do not forsake My Torah”(Proverbs 4:2). bRava said:Rainfall is even bgreater than the day on which the Torah was given, as it is stated: “My doctrine shall drop as the rain,”and when one makes a comparison, bwhichobject bismade bdependent upon which? You must saythat bthe lesserobject bis dependent upon the greaterone. If Torah is compared to rain, it follows that rain is greater than Torah.,The Gemara cites another interpretation of the verse from Deuteronomy. bRava raised a contradiction:At the beginning of the verse bit is written: “My doctrine shall drop [ iya’arof /i] as the rain,”in a harsh manner, bandyet later in the verse, bit is written: “My speech shall distill as the dew,”in a gentle tone. He resolves this apparent contradiction as follows: bIf he is a worthy Torah scholar,the Torah flows through him blike the dew, but ifhe is bnotworthy, bit snaps his neck [ iorfehu /i] like thepowerful brain. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Bena’a would say: Anyone who engages in Torah for its own sake, his Torahstudy bwill be an elixir of life for him, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them who lay hold upon it”(Proverbs 3:18), band it says: “It shall be health to your navel”(Proverbs 3:8), band it says: “For whoever finds Me finds life”(Proverbs 8:35). bAnd anyone who engages in Torah not for its own sake,e.g., for self-aggrandizement, his Torah bwill be an elixir of death for him, as it is stated: “My doctrine shall drop [ iya’arof] as the rain,” and iarifa /imeans bnothing otherthan bkilling, as it is stated: “And they shall break the heifer’s neck [ iarefu /i] there in the valley”(Deuteronomy 21:4)., bRabbi Yirmeyaonce bsaid to Rabbi Zeira: Let the Master come and teacha halakhic discourse. Rabbi Zeira bsaid to him: My heart is weak and I cannotstrain myself over a halakhic discourse. Rabbi Yirmeya replied to him: In that case, blet the Master tell us a matter of iaggada /i,which does not require as much effort. Rabbi Zeira bsaid to himthat bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For man is a tree of the field”(Deuteronomy 20:19)? bAnd is manactually ba tree of the field? /b, bRather,it is bbecause it is writtenearlier in the same verse: b“You may eat of them but you may not cut them down,” and it is writtenin the next verse: b“Them you may destroy and cut down”(Deuteronomy 20:20). This indicates that there are certain trees which may be cut down, while others may not be destroyed. bHow so? If a Torah scholar is worthy: “You may eat of them but you may not cut them down,” but ifhe is bnotworthy: b“He you may destroy and cut down.” /b,The Gemara cites other expositions that deal with Torah study. bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Iron sharpens iron,so a man sharpens the countece of his friend” (Proverbs 27:17)? This verse comes bto tell youthat bjust aswith bthese iron implements, one sharpens the otherwhen they are rubbed against each other, bso too,when bTorah scholarsstudy together, they bsharpen one another in ihalakha /i. /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: Why are matters of Torah compared to fire, as it is stated: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord”(Jeremiah 23:29)? bTo tell you: Just as fire does not ignitein ba lonestick of wood but in a pile of kindling, bso too, matters of Torah are not retainedand understood properly by ba lonescholar who studies by himself, but by a group of Sages., bAnd this is what Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “A sword is upon the boasters [ ihabaddim /i], and they shall become fools [ inoalu /i]”(Jeremiah 50:36)? This verse can be interpreted homiletically: There is a bsword upon the enemies of Torah scholars,a euphemism for Torah scholars themselves, bwho sit alone [ ibad bevad /i] and study Torah. And not only that, butthose who study by themselves bgrow foolishfrom their solitary Torah study, bas it is stated: “And they shall become fools.” /b, bAnd not only that, but they sin, as it is written here: “And they shall become fools,” and it is written there: “For that we have done foolishly [ inoalnu /i] and for that we have sinned”(Numbers 12:11). bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that it is derived bfrom here: “The princes of Zoan have become fools [ inoalu /i]…they have caused Egypt to go astray”(Isaiah 19:13)., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Why are Torah matters likened to a tree, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them who lay hold upon it”(Proverbs 3:18)? This verse comes bto tell youthat bjust as a smallpiece of bwood can ignite a large piece, so too, minor Torah scholars can sharpen greatTorah scholars and enable them to advance in their studies. bAnd this is what Rabbi Ḥanina said: I have learned much from my teachers and even more from my friends, but from my studentsI have learned bmore thanfrom ball of them. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa raised a contradiction.In one verse bit is written: “To him who is thirsty bring water”(Isaiah 21:14), which indicates that the one who has water must bring it to the thirsty person, band it is writtenelsewhere: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1), from which it may be inferred that the thirsty person must seek out water himself. Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa resolves this apparent contradiction by explaining that bif he is a worthy studentthe teacher must seek him out, as in b“to him who is thirsty bring water,” but ifthe student is bnotworthy, then b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,”i.e., this student must seek out a teacher himself., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama raisedanother bcontradiction.In one verse bit is written: “Let your springs be dispersed abroad”(Proverbs 5:16), whereas in the next verse bit is written: “Let them be your own”(Proverbs 5:17). Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama explains: bIf the studentsitting before you bis worthy,then b“Let your springs be dispersed abroad,”as you should teach him, but bifhe is bnotworthy, then b“Let them be your own.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Ḥanina bar Idi said: Why are matters of Torah likened to water, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1)? This verse comes bto tell you: Just as water leaves a high place and flows to a low place, so too, Torah matters are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly,i.e., a humble person., bAnd Rabbi Oshaya said: Why are matters of Torah likened to these three liquids: To water, wine and milk? As it is writtenwith regard to water: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,” and it is writtenin the same verse: b“Come, buy and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price.”This verse comes bto tell you: Just as these three liquids can be retained only in the least of vessels,e.g., clay pots, but not vessels of silver and gold, as they will spoil, bso too, matters of Torah are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly. /b,The Gemara cites a related incident: This bis as the daughter of theRoman bemperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya,who was an ugly man: bWoe to glorious wisdomsuch as yours, which is contained bin an ugly vessel.Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to her,in a seemingly unrelated response: Does byour father keep his wine insimple bclay vessels?The emperor’s daughter bsaid to him: Rather, in what,then, bshould he keep it?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to her: You, who are so important,should bput it in vessels of gold and silver. /b,The emperor’s daughter bwent and saidthis bto her father. He put the wine in vessels of gold and silver and it turned sour.When his advisors bcame and told the emperorthat the wine had turned sour, bhe said tohis daughter: bWho told youto do bthis?His daughter bresponded: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya.The emperor bsummoned himand bsaid to him: Why did you say this to her?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to him: Just as she said to me, so I said say to her,to demonstrate to her that fine material is best preserved in the least of vessels. The emperor said to him: bBut there are handsome people who are learned. /b
66. Origen, Commentary On John, 20.33, 20.106, 20.147-20.148 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

67. Augustine, Reply To Faustus, 19.2-19.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

68. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 188-207, 227-228, 187

187. Taking an opportunity afforded by a pause in the banquet the king asked the envoy who sat in the seat of honour (for they were arranged according to seniority), How he could keep his kingdom


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(biblical) law, lawlessness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
abraham, descent from Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
abraham Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 92
acts of the apostles, recurrent reference in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 495
adimantius Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 174
adoption as sons, moral endeavour Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 102
adultery Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25
alexandrian Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 92
allusions, biblical Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 92
alms Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 231, 232; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 122, 136
almsgiving, charity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
amram Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 92
anger Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 44
antitheses, marcions Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 282
antitheses Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 122, 123, 127; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 109
apologetics, christian, matthew's moses typology as" Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 495
apologists, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 549
aqiva, r. Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 109
aristides of athens Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 97
assmann, jan Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257
athenagoras Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 97
authority, human vs. divine/scriptural Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
authority, of oral law Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
authority, of scripture Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
beatitude, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123
beatitudes, reception history Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 474
beatitudes, two gospel versions Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 400
beatitudes, wesley, j. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 474
beatitudes Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 400, 474
behaviour Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 292, 294
belief, believer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
betz, hans dieter Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 137
bible (hebrew bible and/or new testament) Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 157
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107, 112
book of thomas the contender, catholic christianity Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 157
children, of abraham Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
children, of the devil Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
children Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 97; Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 226
christian, critique of traditional gods Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 97
christian judaism Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 26
christianity Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 26, 92
christians, hope Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 97
christians, resurrection Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 97
christians Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 23
christology, christological, high christology, lower christology Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
clothing Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
commandments Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 231, 232, 246
community, christian Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127, 132
community Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291, 293; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135, 136
confession Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291
conversion, process Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291, 293
conversion, social/sociological aspects Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291, 292, 293, 294, 295
covenant, covenantal Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 111
covenant Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 92
cult Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123
cynicism Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 272
damascus document Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
day of atonement Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
day of judgement, last judgement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
dead sea scrolls vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108, 111, 119
death, way of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245, 246
decalogue Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245, 246, 247; Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 226
deficiency Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291
descendants Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 92
desire Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 292, 293, 294
devil, children of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
didache Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 256
disciple Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 120, 124
disciples, of jesus Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 272
disciples Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 272
disciples of jesus, following jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121, 132, 135
disciples of jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121, 132, 135
disputes, schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25
divine Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295
divorce, law/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
divorce Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
divorce bill Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
double love commandment Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 231, 232, 245, 246
drinking Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
economics, extortion Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 120, 124
economics, requisition (angareia) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 120, 124
economics Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 120, 124; Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 272
education, aurality/orality and Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 157
education, paul and Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 157
emotion/emotional Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 293
end of days/last days, eschaton Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108, 120
end of days tribulation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
enemies, clemency toward ones, love of ones Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 133
enemies, clemency toward ones, prayer of forgiveness for ones Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 133
enemies Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 226
enemy love and the dying forgiveness prayer Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 111
epictetus Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 256
eschatological prophet, not yet eschatology Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 111
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
eschatology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123, 135; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
essenes Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25
ethical teachings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245, 246, 247
ethics, morality Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 124
ethics Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
eucharist, eucharist prayers Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 256
eucharist Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
evil, actions Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
evil Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 292, 293, 294, 295; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 119, 120
exception clause Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
exclusive/exclusivity Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 294
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture, jesus command of scriptural exegesis Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108, 111, 112
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 109, 111, 112
exhortations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 231, 232, 247
exiles, assyrian Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257
exodus, recurrent reference in matthew narrative to Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 494, 495
ezra Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257
faith, faithfulness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
faith Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
faithfulness Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 226
fast Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
fasting Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
fatigue, editorial, as christian distinctive Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 172
faustus of milevus, rejection of the old testament Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 174
fear of god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 226
festivals, non-christian, as a legal category, in rabbinic literature Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 60
festivals, non-christian, in early christian literature Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 44, 60
food Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
forgiveness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
forgiveness prayer and the sermon on the mount/plain Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 111
fredriksen, p. Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 174
fulfillment Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 124
galilee, galilean Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
gentleness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
gifts Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 231
god, omniscience of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
god, one and only god Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 97
god, will of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121
god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 226
golden rule Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 232, 245, 246; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121, 123; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
good, the Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 294
good Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 226
gospel, of matthew Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 120, 121, 122, 123, 127, 132, 135, 136
gospels Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 232, 246
greco-roman world, culture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
grief Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
grounds for divorce Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
guilt Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
halakha, and scripture Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
halivni, david weiss Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 136
happiness Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 293
hatred (of enemies, outsiders) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 111, 112
health Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
heart Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 226
heart (καρδία) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
heavenly/angelic redeemer v-vi Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture, abolishing scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture, fulfilling scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
hellenistic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 292
helping friends Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 226
heracleon Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 102
hermeneutics, hermeneutical key Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25, 99
holy spirit Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 92
honor Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121
hope Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 226
humility Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
identity, identity marker Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 256
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 256
imitatio christi Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 133
immersion Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
immutability, of divine law, and rabbinic rejection of Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 288
inheritance Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 226
injustice Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 124
innovation through exegesis in rabbinic sources, through legislation in rabbinic sources Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 288
institutes, of gaius Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 288
interpreter of the torah, as messianic function, jesus as Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107, 108, 141
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 119
israel/israelites Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 256
israel Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
israel x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 92
itinerancy Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 272
james, term brothers in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 229
jesus, and torah observance Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
jesus, as a prophetic anointed of the spirit Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
jesus, as bearer of gods logos Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
jesus, as the anointed one, the messiah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
jesus, as torah-righteous, torah-sage Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
jesus, demonic power attributed to Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107, 108, 109, 111, 112, 119, 120, 141
jesus, historical Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 122
jesus, historical jesus, authenticity of sayings, self-perception Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 111
jesus, in matthew Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 286, 288
jesus, kingly/davidic messiahship/descent Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
jesus, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121, 127, 135
jesus, priestly (aaronic) connection Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
jesus-centered tradition Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
jesus Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 272
jesus (of nazareth) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257
jesus christ Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 198
jesus movement Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 231; Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 272
jew(ish), pharisees Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
jew(ish), scribes Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
jewish community, manichaean rejection of Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 174
jewish other, religious sensitivity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
jewish other, ritual Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 119
jews (jewish people), as literalist christians Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
jews (jewish people), as resistors of divine things Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
john the baptist Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 286
jordan river Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
judah Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 92
judaism Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291, 292
judgement, final (endgericht) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132, 136
justice, righteousness, human attribute Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
justice, righteousness, principle Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 124
justice Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121, 127, 135
justification Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 294
kingdom of god/gods kingdom Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 256
kingdom of god/heaven, sons of the kingdom Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107, 111, 120
kyrios Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
law, biblical Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 282
law, in early christian theology Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 44, 60
law, ius talionis Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 120
law, mosaic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 231, 245, 246
law, roman Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 120, 124
law, torah Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 120, 124
law divine/mosaic/jewish Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291, 292, 293, 295
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25
life Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
light, true light Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
light of the world Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
logion Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
logoization, torah as logos Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
logos/gods word Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
lord, yoke of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
lords prayer, as community prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
lords prayer, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 120, 121, 122, 123, 127, 132, 135, 136
lords prayer, structure of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 120, 121, 122, 123, 136
lords prayer Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 102; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 119, 120; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 256
love, brotherly, of ones enemies Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 133
love, envy opposed to Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
love, for humankind/neighbor Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 293, 294, 295
love, for the enemy Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 294
love, human Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 120, 124
love, of enemies Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 231, 232
love, of neighbours Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
love-your-enemy Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112, 119
love Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 293, 294, 295; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123, 135; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 109, 111, 112
love (see also eros agape) Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
luke, gospel of, recurrent reference in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 495
luke, gospel of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 133
luke, using matthew Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 105, 106, 118
macarism Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
manichaeans, rejection of jews and jewish scripture Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 174
manuscripts, of the didache Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
marcionite thinking, on divine judgment Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 111
marius victorinus, recurrent reference in passion narrative of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 494
martin, g. currie Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 229
martyr and martyrdom, stephen as Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 133
matthew's moses typology as apologetics" Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 495
matthew, distinctives of Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 95, 96, 97, 101, 102, 105
matthew, five discourses Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 400
matthew, gospel of, recurrent reference in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 494, 495
matthew, gospel of Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
matthew, length of Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 101
matthew (evangelist) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
matthew (gospel writer and gospel), abrogation of halakhah in Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 286
meier, john p. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 136, 137
mercy Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic, davidic, kingly Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
messiah, gods anointed, of aaron Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
messiah, gods anointed, prophetic messiahship Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
messiah, gods anointed, second temple messianic beliefs Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
messianic concepts Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257
metanoia/metanoeō Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291
methodology, redaction criticism Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 120
midrash, midrashic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 109, 112
minucius felix Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 549
money Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
moods, verbal, indicative Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 246
moral progress/transformation Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295
moses, mosaic, as bearer/deliverer of gods word/logos Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
moses Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257; Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 92; Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 136
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 286, 288
murder Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
name Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 124
nature, natural phenomena, heaven, sky Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
need (material) Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295
neighbour Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245, 246
new testament, as source on rabbinic judaism Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
new testament, deliberate incongruity with authoritative precursor Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 501, 502
new testament, new testament, old testament in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 494, 495, 501, 502
new testament, recurrent reference Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 494, 495
new testament Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 157
oath, vow Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
old testament, manichaean rejection of Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 174
old testament Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 282; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 256
oral tora, human vs. divine source of authority Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
oral tora, revealed at sinai Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
origen, anachronism of Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85
origen Azar, Exegeting the Jews: the early reception of the Johannine "Jews" (2016) 85