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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8258
New Testament, Matthew, 5.37


ἔστω δὲ ὁ λόγος ὑμῶν ναὶ ναί, οὒ οὔ· τὸ δὲ περισσὸν τούτων ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ ἐστίν.But let your 'Yes' be 'Yes' and your 'No' be 'no.' Whatever is more than these is of the evil one.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

57 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.1-5.21, 24.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.1. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַחֻקִּים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹּבֵר בְּאָזְנֵיכֶם הַיּוֹם וּלְמַדְתֶּם אֹתָם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 5.1. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מצותו [מִצְוֺתָי׃] 5.2. וַיְהִי כְּשָׁמְעֲכֶם אֶת־הַקּוֹל מִתּוֹךְ הַחֹשֶׁךְ וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וַתִּקְרְבוּן אֵלַי כָּל־רָאשֵׁי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם וְזִקְנֵיכֶם׃ 5.2. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ כָּרַת עִמָּנוּ בְּרִית בְּחֹרֵב׃ 5.3. לֹא אֶת־אֲבֹתֵינוּ כָּרַת יְהוָה אֶת־הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת כִּי אִתָּנוּ אֲנַחְנוּ אֵלֶּה פֹה הַיּוֹם כֻּלָּנוּ חַיִּים׃ 5.3. בְּכָל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶתְכֶם תֵּלֵכוּ לְמַעַן תִּחְיוּן וְטוֹב לָכֶם וְהַאֲרַכְתֶּם יָמִים בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר תִּירָשׁוּן׃ 5.4. פָּנִים בְּפָנִים דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 5.5. אָנֹכִי עֹמֵד בֵּין־יְהוָה וּבֵינֵיכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִוא לְהַגִּיד לָכֶם אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה כִּי יְרֵאתֶם מִפְּנֵי הָאֵשׁ וְלֹא־עֲלִיתֶם בָּהָר לֵאמֹר׃ 5.6. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 5.7. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ׃ 5.8. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל כָּל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 5.9. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 5.11. לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־שֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא׃ 5.12. שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ 5.13. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ׃ 5.14. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ־וַאֲמָתֶךָ וְשׁוֹרְךָ וַחֲמֹרְךָ וְכָל־בְּהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ כָּמוֹךָ׃ 5.15. וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי־עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וַיֹּצִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִשָּׁם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה עַל־כֵּן צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת׃ 5.16. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיכֻן יָמֶיךָ וּלְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 5.17. לֹא תִּרְצָח׃ וְלֹא תִּנְאָף׃ וְלֹא תִּגְנֹב׃ וְלֹא־תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁוְא׃ 5.18. וְלֹא תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ וְלֹא תִתְאַוֶּה בֵּית רֵעֶךָ שָׂדֵהוּ וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ שׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ׃ 5.19. אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־כָּל־קְהַלְכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ הֶעָנָן וְהָעֲרָפֶל קוֹל גָּדוֹל וְלֹא יָסָף וַיִּכְתְּבֵם עַל־שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים וַיִּתְּנֵם אֵלָי׃ 5.21. וַתֹּאמְרוּ הֵן הֶרְאָנוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶת־כְּבֹדוֹ וְאֶת־גָּדְלוֹ וְאֶת־קֹלוֹ שָׁמַעְנוּ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה רָאִינוּ כִּי־יְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וָחָי׃ 24.1. כִּי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵעֲךָ מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה לֹא־תָבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲבֹט עֲבֹטוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינָיו כִּי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ׃ 5.1. And Moses called unto all Israel, and said unto them: Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the ordices which I speak in your ears this day, that ye may learn them, and observe to do them." 5.2. The LORD our God made a covet with us in Horeb." 5.3. The LORD made not this covet with our fathers, but with us, even us, who are all of us here alive this day." 5.4. The LORD spoke with you face to face in the mount out of the midst of the fire—" 5.5. I stood between the LORD and you at that time, to declare unto you the word of the LORD; for ye were afraid because of the fire, and went not up into the mount—saying: ." 5.6. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 5.7. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 5.8. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, even any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth." 5.9. Thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and upon the fourth generation of them that hate Me," 5.10. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments." 5.11. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain." 5.12. Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee." 5.13. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 5.14. but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; that thy man-servant and thy maid-servant may rest as well as thou." 5.15. And thou shalt remember that thou was a servant in the land of Egypt, and the LORD thy God brought thee out thence by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm; therefore the LORD thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath day." 5.16. Honour thy father and thy mother, as the LORD thy God commanded thee; that thy days may be long, and that it may go well with thee, upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 5.17. Thou shalt not murder. Neither shalt thou commit adultery. Neither shalt thou steal. Neither shalt thou bear false witness against thy neighbour." 5.18. Neither shalt thou covet thy neighbour’s wife; neither shalt thou desire thy neighbour’s house, his field, or his man-servant, or his maid-servant, his ox, or his ass, or any thing that is thy neighbour’s." 5.19. These words the LORD spoke unto all your assembly in the mount out of the midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick darkness, with a great voice, and it went on no more. And He wrote them upon two tables of stone, and gave them unto me." 5.20. And it came to pass, when ye heard the voice out of the midst of the darkness, while the mountain did burn with fire, that ye came near unto me, even all the heads of your tribes, and your elders;" 5.21. and ye said: ‘Behold, the LORD our God hath shown us His glory and His greatness, and we have heard His voice out of the midst of the fire; we have seen this day that God doth speak with man, and he liveth." 24.1. When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house,"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.1-20.17, 21.12, 22.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.1. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ 20.1. וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר׃ 20.2. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 20.2. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃ 20.3. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ 20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ 20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 20.6. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָי׃ 20.7. לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־שֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא׃ 20.8. זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ 20.9. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ 20.11. כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃ 20.12. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 20.13. לֹא תִּרְצָח׃ לֹא תִּנְאָף׃ לֹא תִּגְנֹב׃ לֹא־תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁקֶר׃ 20.14. לֹא תַחְמֹד בֵּית רֵעֶךָ לֹא־תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ וְשׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ׃ 20.15. וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃ 20.16. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה דַּבֵּר־אַתָּה עִמָּנוּ וְנִשְׁמָעָה וְאַל־יְדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ אֱלֹהִים פֶּן־נָמוּת׃ 20.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל־פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ׃ 21.12. מַכֵּה אִישׁ וָמֵת מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 22.7. אִם־לֹא יִמָּצֵא הַגַּנָּב וְנִקְרַב בַּעַל־הַבַּיִת אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים אִם־לֹא שָׁלַח יָדוֹ בִּמְלֶאכֶת רֵעֵהוּ׃ 20.1. And God spoke all these words, saying:" 20.2. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 20.3. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;" 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;" 20.6. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments." 20.7. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain." 20.8. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy." 20.9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 20.10. but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates;" 20.11. for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." 20.12. Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 20.13. Thou shalt not murder. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour." 20.14. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house; thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s." 20.15. And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off." 20.16. And they said unto Moses: ‘Speak thou with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die.’" 20.17. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not.’" 21.12. He that smiteth a man, so that he dieth, shall surely be put to death." 22.7. If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall come near unto God, to see whether he have not put his hand unto his neighbour’s goods."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.5, 3.14-3.15, 26.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.5. כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טוֹב וָרָע׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ כִּי עָשִׂיתָ זֹּאת אָרוּר אַתָּה מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה עַל־גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ וְעָפָר תֹּאכַל כָּל־יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.15. וְאֵיבָה אָשִׁית בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין הָאִשָּׁה וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ וּבֵין זַרְעָהּ הוּא יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב׃ 26.3. גּוּר בָּאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וְאֶהְיֶה עִמְּךָ וַאֲבָרְכֶךָּ כִּי־לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־כָּל־הָאֲרָצֹת הָאֵל וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־הַשְּׁבֻעָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם אָבִיךָ׃ 26.3. וַיַּעַשׂ לָהֶם מִשְׁתֶּה וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתּוּ׃ 3.5. for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil.’" 3.14. And the LORD God said unto the serpent: ‘Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life." 3.15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’" 26.3. Sojourn in this land, and I will be with thee, and will bless thee; for unto thee, and unto thy seed, I will give all these lands, and I will establish the oath which I swore unto Abraham thy father;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 9.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.7. בָּאוּ יְמֵי הַפְּקֻדָּה בָּאוּ יְמֵי הַשִׁלֻּם יֵדְעוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֱוִיל הַנָּבִיא מְשֻׁגָּע אִישׁ הָרוּחַ עַל רֹב עֲוֺנְךָ וְרַבָּה מַשְׂטֵמָה׃ 9.7. The days of visitation are come, The days of recompense are come, Israel shall know it. The prophet is a fool, the man of the spirit is mad! For the multitude of thine iniquity, the enmity is great."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.6-1.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.6. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתוֹכָם׃ 1.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן מֵאַיִן תָּבֹא וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר מִשּׁוּט בָּאָרֶץ וּמֵהִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ׃ 1.6. Now it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them." 1.7. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Whence comest thou?’ Then Satan answered the LORD, and said: ‘From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.2, 19.12, 19.18, 24.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדֹשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְהִוא שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדָּתָה אוֹ חֻפְשָׁה לֹא נִתַּן־לָהּ בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי־לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה׃ 19.12. וְלֹא־תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 24.17. וְאִישׁ כִּי יַכֶּה כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 19.2. Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them: Ye shall be holy; for I the LORD your God am holy." 19.12. And ye shall not swear by My name falsely, so that thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 24.17. And he that smiteth any man mortally shall surely be put to death."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 14.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.23. אִם־יִרְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לַאֲבֹתָם וְכָל־מְנַאֲצַי לֹא יִרְאוּהָ׃ 14.23. surely they shall not see the land which I swore unto their fathers, neither shall any of them that despised Me see it."
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 7.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.27. דַּרְכֵי שְׁאוֹל בֵּיתָהּ יֹרְדוֹת אֶל־חַדְרֵי־מָוֶת׃ 7.27. Her house is the way to the nether-world, Going down to the chambers of death."
9. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 1.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.5. וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁתַּחֲוִים עַל־הַגַּגּוֹת לִצְבָא הַשָּׁמָיִם וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁתַּחֲוִים הַנִּשְׁבָּעִים לַיהוָה וְהַנִּשְׁבָּעִים בְּמַלְכָּם׃ 1.5. And them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; And them that worship, that swear to the LORD And swear by Malcam;"
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 1.30 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 8.14 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

8.14. הַנִּשְׁבָּעִים בְּאַשְׁמַת שֹׁמְרוֹן וְאָמְרוּ חֵי אֱלֹהֶיךָ דָּן וְחֵי דֶּרֶךְ בְּאֵר־שָׁבַע וְנָפְלוּ וְלֹא־יָקוּמוּ עוֹד׃ 8.14. They that swear by the sin of Samaria, And say: ‘As thy God, O Dan, liveth’; And: ‘As the way of Beer-sheba liveth’; Even they shall fall, and never rise up again."
12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 5.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.7. אֵי לָזֹאת אסלוח־[אֶסְלַח־] לָךְ בָּנַיִךְ עֲזָבוּנִי וַיִּשָּׁבְעוּ בְּלֹא אֱלֹהִים וָאַשְׂבִּעַ אוֹתָם וַיִּנְאָפוּ וּבֵית זוֹנָה יִתְגֹּדָדוּ׃ 5.7. Wherefore should I pardon thee? The children have forsaken Me, And sworn by no-gods; And when I had fed them to the full, they committed adultery, And assembled themselves in troops at the harlots’houses."
13. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 21.1, 21.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

21.1. וְאִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל נִשְׁבַּע בַּמִּצְפָּה לֵאמֹר אִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ לֹא־יִתֵּן בִּתּוֹ לְבִנְיָמִן לְאִשָּׁה׃ 21.1. וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ־שָׁם הָעֵדָה שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר אֶלֶף אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי הֶחָיִל וַיְצַוּוּ אוֹתָם לֵאמֹר לְכוּ וְהִכִּיתֶם אֶת־יוֹשְׁבֵי יָבֵשׁ גִּלְעָד לְפִי־חֶרֶב וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטָּף׃ 21.7. מַה־נַּעֲשֶׂה לָהֶם לַנּוֹתָרִים לְנָשִׁים וַאֲנַחְנוּ נִשְׁבַּעְנוּ בַיהוָה לְבִלְתִּי תֵּת־לָהֶם מִבְּנוֹתֵינוּ לְנָשִׁים׃ 21.1. Now the men of Yisra᾽el had sworn in Miżpe, saying, None of us shall give his daughter to Binyamin to wife." 21.7. How shall we do for wives for them that remain, seeing we have sworn by the Lord that we will not give them of our daughters to wives?"
14. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 5.3-5.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי זֹאת הָאָלָה הַיּוֹצֵאת עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ כִּי כָל־הַגֹּנֵב מִזֶּה כָּמוֹהָ נִקָּה וְכָל־הַנִּשְׁבָּע מִזֶּה כָּמוֹהָ נִקָּה׃ 5.4. הוֹצֵאתִיהָ נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וּבָאָה אֶל־בֵּית הַגַּנָּב וְאֶל־בֵּית הַנִּשְׁבָּע בִּשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְלָנֶה בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וְכִלַּתּוּ וְאֶת־עֵצָיו וְאֶת־אֲבָנָיו׃ 5.3. Then said he unto me: ‘This is the curse that goeth forth over the face of the whole land; for every one that stealeth shall be swept away on the one side like it; and every one that sweareth shall be swept away on the other side like it." 5.4. I cause it to go forth, saith the LORD of hosts, and it shall enter into the house of the thief, and into the house of him that sweareth falsely by My name; and it shall abide in the midst of his house, and shall consume it with the timber thereof and the stones thereof.’"
15. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

22a. —for I must speak the truth to you—this, I do declare, was my experience: those who had the most reputation seemed to me to be almost the most deficient, as I investigated at the god’s behest, and others who were of less repute seemed to be superior men in the matter of being sensible. So I must relate to you my wandering as I performed my Herculean labors, so to speak, in order that the oracle might be proved to be irrefutable. For after the public men I went to the poets, those of tragedies, and those of dithyrambs
16. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

715e. when he is young, but at its keenest when he is old. Clin. Very true. Ath. What, then, is to be our next step? May we not assume that our immigrants have arrived and are in the country, and should we not proceed with our address to them? Clin. of course. Ath. Let us, then, speak to them thus:— O men, that God who, as old tradition tells, holdeth the beginning, the end, and the center of all things that exist
17. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

18. Anon., Jubilees, 1.20, 10.8, 10.11, 15.33, 17.15-17.18, 48.2-48.4, 48.9-48.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.20. And after this they will turn to Me from amongst the Gentiles with all their heart and with all their soul and with all their strength 10.8. and as for these spirits which are living, imprison them and hold them fast in the place of condemnation, and let them not bring destruction on the sons of thy servant, my God; for these are maligt, and created in order to destroy. 10.11. And the chief of the spirits, Mastêmâ, came and said: "Lord, Creator, let some of them remain before me, and let them hearken to my voice, and do all that I shall say unto them; 15.33. For Ishmael and his sons and his brothers and Esau, the Lord did not cause to approach Him, and he chose them not because they are the children of Abraham, because He knew them, but He chose Israel to be His people. 17.15. And an angel of God, one of the holy ones, said unto her, "Why weepest thou, Hagar? Arise, take the child, and hold him in thine hand; for God hath heard thy voice, and hath seen the child. 17.16. And she opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water, and she went and filled her bottle with water, and she gave her child to drink 17.17. and she arose and went towards the wilderness of Paran. brAnd the child grew and became an archer, and God was with him; 17.18. and his mother took him a wife from among the daughters of Egypt. brAnd she bare him a son, and he called his name Nebaioth; for she said, "The Lord was nigh to me when I called upon him. 48.2. And thou didst return into Egypt in the second week in the second year in the fiftieth jubilee. 48.3. And thou thyself knowest what He spake unto thee on Mount Sinai, and what prince Mastêmâ desired to do with thee when thou wast returning into Egypt on the way when thou didst meet him at the lodging-place. 48.4. Did he not with all his power seek to slay thee and deliver the Egyptians out of thy hand when he saw that thou wast sent to execute judgment and vengeance on the Egyptians? 48.9. and on all their idols the Lord took vengeance and burned them with fire. 48.10. And everything was sent through thy hand, that thou shouldst declare (these things) before they were done, and thou didst speak with the king of Egypt before all his servants and before his people.
19. Anon., Testament of Reuben, 4.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.7. For many hath fornication destroyed; because, though a man be old or noble, or rich or poor, he bringeth reproach upon himself with the sons of men and derision with Beliar.
20. Anon., Testament of Judah, 25.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 5.18, 7.14-7.19, 16.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 1.1, 13.4, 13.11-13.12, 17.5-17.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 5.18, 7.14-7.19, 16.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q174 (The Florilegium) 195, 199, 339, 1.11-1.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.3, 2.2, 3.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 23.9-23.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

27. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 2.67, 3.63, 3.73 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

2.67. Which is another's. Speak not what is false 3.63. Endamage Rome. And perish shall all men 3.73. When there shall pass among all men a stench
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 85-86, 84 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

29. Anon., Didache, 1.2-1.5, 2.4-2.5, 2.7, 3.1-3.2, 3.6-3.10, 5.1-5.2, 6.1-6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.135, 2.139, 2.175 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.135. They dispense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without [swearing by] God is already condemned. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 2.175. 4. After this he raised another disturbance, by expending that sacred treasure which is called Corban upon aqueducts, whereby he brought water from the distance of four hundred furlongs. At this the multitude had great indignation; and when Pilate was come to Jerusalem, they came about his tribunal, and made a clamor at it.
31. Mishnah, Avot, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Shimon the Righteous was one of the last of the men of the great assembly. He used to say: the world stands upon three things: the Torah, the Temple service, and the practice of acts of piety."
32. Mishnah, Gittin, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. A widow is paid back [her kethubah] from the property of orphans only by taking an oath. [When the court] refrained from imposing an oath on her, Rabban Gamaliel the Elder established that she could take any vow which the orphans wanted and collect her kethubah. Witnesses sign their names on a get because of tikkun olam. Hillel instituted the prosbul because of tikkun olam."
33. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.9. One who says: I shall sin and repent, sin and repent, they do not afford him the opportunity to repent. [If one says]: I shall sin and Yom HaKippurim will atone for me, Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement. For transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow. This was expounded by Rabbi Elazar b. Azariah: “From all your sins before the Lord you shall be clean” (Leviticus 16:30) for transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow.. Rabbi Akiva said: Happy are you, Israel! Who is it before whom you become pure? And who is it that purifies you? Your Father who is in heaven, as it is said: “And I will sprinkle clean water upon you and you shall be clean” (Ezekiel 36:25). And it further says: “O hope (mikveh) of Israel, O Lord” (Jeremiah 17:1--just as a mikveh purifies the unclean, so too does he Holy One, blessed be He, purify Israel."
34. New Testament, 1 John, 2.13-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. I write to you, fathers, because you know him who is from the beginning. I write to you, young men, because you have overcome the evil one. I write to you, little children, because you know the Father. 2.14. I have written to you, fathers, because you know him who is from the beginning. I have written to you, young men, because you are strong, and the word of God remains in you, and you have overcome the evil one.
35. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.5-1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. who by the power of God are guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. 1.6. Wherein you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while, if need be, you have been put to grief in various trials 1.7. that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ -- 1.8. whom not having known you love; in whom, though now you don't see him, yet believing, you rejoice greatly with joy unspeakable and full of glory -- 1.9. receiving the result of your faith, the salvation of your souls. 1.10. Concerning this salvation, the prophets sought and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that would come to you 1.11. searching for who or what kind of time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, pointed to, when he predicted the sufferings of Christ, and the glories that would follow them. 1.12. To them it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to you, did they minister these things, which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent out from heaven; which things angels desire to look into.
36. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.51 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed
37. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 5.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.15. See that no one returns evil for evil to anyone, but always follow after that which is good, for one another, and for all.
38. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 6.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.16. who alone has immortality, dwelling in unapproachable light; whom no man has seen, nor can see: to whom be honor and eternal power. Amen.
39. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.3. But the Lord is faithful, who will establish you, and guard you from the evil one.
40. New Testament, Acts, 9.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.28. He was with them going in and going out at Jerusalem
41. New Testament, Apocalypse, 12.9, 20.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.9. The great dragon was thrown down, the old serpent, he who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world. He was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. 20.2. He seized the dragon, the old serpent, which is the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole inhabited earth, and bound him for a thousand years
42. New Testament, James, 1.17, 1.25, 2.8-2.12, 2.14-2.16, 3.13, 3.17-3.18, 4.6, 4.11, 5.9, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom can be no variation, nor turning shadow. 1.25. But he who looks into the perfect law, the law of freedom, and continues, not being a hearer who forgets but a doer of the work, this man will be blessed in what he does. 2.8. However, if you fulfill the royal law, according to the Scripture, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself," you do well. 2.9. But if you show partiality, you commit sin, being convicted by the law as transgressors. 2.10. For whoever shall keep the whole law, and yet stumble in one point, he has become guilty of all. 2.11. For he who said, "Do not commit adultery," said also, "Do not commit murder." Now if you do not commit adultery, but murder, you have become a transgressor of the law. 2.12. So speak, and so do, as men who are to be judged by a law of freedom. 2.14. What good is it, my brothers, if a man says he has faith, but has no works? Can that faith save him? 2.15. And if a brother or sister is naked and in lack of daily food 2.16. and one of you tells them, "Go in peace, be warmed and filled;" and yet you didn't give them the things the body needs, what good is it? 3.13. Who is wise and understanding among you? Let him show by his good conduct that his deeds are done in gentleness of wisdom. 3.17. But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceful, gentle, reasonable, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy. 3.18. Now the fruit of righteousness is sown in peace by those who make peace. 4.6. But he gives more grace. Therefore it says, "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble. 4.11. Don't speak against one another, brothers. He who speaks against a brother and judges his brother, speaks against the law and judges the law. But if you judge the law, you are not a doer of the law, but a judge. 5.9. Don't grumble, brothers, against one another, so that you won't be judged. Behold, the judge stands at the door. 5.12. But above all things, my brothers, don't swear, neither by heaven, nor by the earth, nor by any other oath; but let your "yes" be "yes," and your "no," "no;" so that you don't fall into hypocrisy.
43. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.3-1.14, 6.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.11. in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his will; 1.12. to the end that we should be to the praise of his glory, we who had before hoped in Christ: 1.13. in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, -- in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise 1.14. who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. 6.16. above all, taking up the shield of faith, with which you will be able to quench all the fiery darts of the evil one.
44. New Testament, Galatians, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision.
45. New Testament, Hebrews, 13.22-13.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.22. But I exhort you, brothers, endure the word of exhortation, for I have written to you in few words. 13.23. Know that our brother Timothy has been freed, with whom, if he comes shortly, I will see you. 13.24. Greet all of your leaders and all the saints. The Italians greet you. 13.25. Grace be with you all. Amen.
46. New Testament, Romans, 2.17-2.24, 8.3, 12.17, 12.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.17. Indeed you bear the name of a Jew, and rest on the law, and glory in God 2.18. and know his will, and approve the things that are excellent, being instructed out of the law 2.19. and are confident that you yourself are a guide of the blind, a light to those who are in darkness 2.20. a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of babies, having in the law the form of knowledge and of the truth. 2.21. You therefore who teach another, don't you teach yourself? You who preach that a man shouldn't steal, do you steal? 2.22. You who say a man shouldn't commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 2.23. You who glory in the law, through your disobedience of the law do you dishonor God? 2.24. For "the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you," just as it is written. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 12.17. Repay no one evil for evil. Respect what is honorable in the sight of all men. 12.20. Therefore "If your enemy is hungry, feed him. If he is thirsty, give him a drink. For in doing so, you will heap coals of fire on his head.
47. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.18, 5.23, 16.11, 17.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. 1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 5.23. that all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. He who doesn't honor the Son doesn't honor the Father who sent him. 16.11. about judgment, because the prince of this world has been judged. 17.15. I pray not that you would take them from the world, but that you would keep them from the evil one.
48. New Testament, Luke, 1.75, 4.1-4.29, 6.20-6.49, 11.15-11.19, 11.42-11.44, 11.46-11.47, 11.52, 15.15, 16.18, 17.3, 18.20, 21.31, 22.54, 22.63-22.71, 24.15-24.17, 24.25-24.27, 24.44-24.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.75. In holiness and righteousness before him all the days of our life. 4.1. Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness 4.2. for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 4.3. The devil said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread. 4.4. Jesus answered him, saying, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.' 4.5. The devil, leading him up on a high mountain, showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 4.6. The devil said to him, "I will give you all this authority, and their glory, for it has been delivered to me; and I give it to whomever I want. 4.7. If you therefore will worship before me, it will all be yours. 4.8. Jesus answered him, "Get behind me Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.9. He led him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down from here 4.10. for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you, to guard you;' 4.11. and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, Lest perhaps you dash your foot against a stone.' 4.12. Jesus answering, said to him, "It has been said, 'You shall not tempt the Lord your God.' 4.13. When the devil had completed every temptation, he departed from him until another time. 4.14. Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee, and news about him spread through all the surrounding area. 4.15. He taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian. 4.28. They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. 4.29. They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff. 6.20. He lifted up his eyes to his disciples, and said, "Blessed are you poor, For yours is the Kingdom of God. 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake. 6.23. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. 6.24. But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 6.25. Woe to you, you who are full now! For you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now! For you will mourn and weep. 6.26. Woe, when men speak well of you! For their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets. 6.27. But I tell you who hear: love your enemies, do good to those who hate you 6.28. bless those who curse you, and pray for those who insult you. 6.29. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak, don't withhold your coat also. 6.30. Give to everyone who asks you, and don't ask him who takes away your goods to give them back again. 6.31. As you would like people to do to you, do exactly so to them. 6.32. If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 6.33. If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 6.34. If you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners, to receive back as much. 6.35. But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind toward the unthankful and evil. 6.36. Therefore be merciful, Even as your Father is also merciful. 6.37. Don't judge, And you won't be judged. Don't condemn, And you won't be condemned. Set free, And you will be set free. 6.38. Give, and it will be given to you: good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over, will be given to you. For with the same measure you measure it will be measured back to you. 6.39. He spoke a parable to them. "Can the blind guide the blind? Won't they both fall into a pit? 6.40. A disciple is not above his teacher, but everyone when he is fully trained will be like his teacher. 6.41. Why do you see the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye, but don't consider the beam that is in your own eye? 6.42. Or how can you tell your brother, 'Brother, let me remove the speck of chaff that is in your eye,' when you yourself don't see the beam that is in your own eye? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye. 6.43. For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. 6.44. For each tree is known by its own fruit. For people don't gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. 6.45. The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings out that which is good, and the evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart brings out that which is evil, for out of the abundance of the heart, his mouth speaks. 6.46. Why do you call me, 'Lord, Lord,' and don't do the things which I say? 6.47. Everyone who comes to me, and hears my words, and does them, I will show you who he is like. 6.48. He is like a man building a house, who dug and went deep, and laid a foundation on the rock. When a flood arose, the stream broke against that house, and could not shake it, because it was founded on the rock. 6.49. But he who hears, and doesn't do, is like a man who built a house on the earth without a foundation, against which the stream broke, and immediately it fell, and the ruin of that house was great. 11.15. But some of them said, "He casts out demons by Beelzebul, the prince of the demons. 11.16. Others, testing him, sought from him a sign from heaven. 11.17. But he, knowing their thoughts, said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation. A house divided against itself falls. 11.18. If Satan also is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? For you say that I cast out demons by Beelzebul. 11.19. But if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons cast them out? Therefore will they be your judges. 11.42. But woe to you Pharisees! For you tithe mint and rue and every herb, but you bypass justice and the love of God. You ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 11.43. Woe to you Pharisees! For you love the best seats in the synagogues, and the greetings in the marketplaces. 11.44. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like hidden graves, and the men who walk over them don't know it. 11.46. He said, "Woe to you lawyers also! For you load men with burdens that are difficult to carry, and you yourselves won't even lift one finger to help carry those burdens. 11.47. Woe to you! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and your fathers killed them. 11.52. Woe to you lawyers! For you took away the key of knowledge. You didn't enter in yourselves, and those who were entering in, you hindered. 15.15. He went and joined himself to one of the citizens of that country, and he sent him into his fields to feed pigs. 16.18. Everyone who divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery. He who marries one who is divorced from a husband commits adultery. 17.3. Be careful. If your brother sins against you, rebuke him. If he repents, forgive him. 18.20. You know the commandments: 'Don't commit adultery,' 'Don't murder,' 'Don't steal,' 'Don't give false testimony,' 'Honor your father and your mother.' 21.31. Even so you also, when you see these things happening, know that the Kingdom of God is near. 22.54. They seized him, and led him away, and brought him into the high priest's house. But Peter followed from a distance. 22.63. The men who held Jesus mocked him and beat him. 22.64. Having blindfolded him, they struck him on the face and asked him, "Prophesy! Who is the one who struck you? 22.65. They spoke many other things against him, insulting him. 22.66. As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying 22.67. If you are the Christ, tell us."But he said to them, "If I tell you, you won't believe 22.68. and if I ask, you will in no way answer me or let me go. 22.69. From now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God. 22.70. They all said, "Are you then the Son of God?"He said to them, "You say it, because I AM. 22.71. They said, "Why do we need any more witness? For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth! 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled. 24.45. Then he opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures. 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem.
49. New Testament, Mark, 1.1-1.11, 3.22, 4.1-4.13, 6.20-6.44, 6.46, 7.21, 10.11-10.12, 10.19, 14.53, 14.55-14.65 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you. 1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins. 1.6. John was clothed with camel's hair and a leather belt around his loins. He ate locusts and wild honey. 1.7. He preached, saying, "After me comes he who is mightier than I, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 1.9. It happened in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized by John in the Jordan. 1.10. Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 3.22. The scribes who came down from Jerusalem said, "He has Beelzebul," and, "By the prince of the demons he casts out the demons. 4.1. Again he began to teach by the seaside. A great multitude was gathered to him, so that he entered into a boat in the sea, and sat down. All the multitude were on the land by the sea. 4.2. He taught them many things in parables, and told them in his teaching 4.3. Listen! Behold, the farmer went out to sow 4.4. and it happened, as he sowed, some seed fell by the road, and the birds came and devoured it. 4.5. Others fell on the rocky ground, where it had little soil, and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of soil. 4.6. When the sun had risen, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 4.7. Others fell among the thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 4.8. Others fell into the good ground, and yielded fruit, growing up and increasing. Some brought forth thirty times, some sixty times, and some one hundred times as much. 4.9. He said, "Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear. 4.10. When he was alone, those who were around him with the twelve asked him about the parables. 4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.' 4.13. He said to them, "Don't you understand this parable? How will you understand all of the parables? 6.20. for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and kept him safe. When he heard him, he did many things, and he heard him gladly. 6.21. Then a convenient day came, that Herod on his birthday made a supper for his nobles, the high officers, and the chief men of Galilee. 6.22. When the daughter of Herodias herself came in and danced, she pleased Herod and those sitting with him. The king said to the young lady, "Ask me whatever you want, and I will give it to you. 6.23. He swore to her, "Whatever you shall ask of me, I will give you, up to half of my kingdom. 6.24. She went out, and said to her mother, "What shall I ask?"She said, "The head of John the Baptizer. 6.25. She came in immediately with haste to the king, and asked, "I want you to give me right now the head of John the Baptizer on a platter. 6.26. The king was exceedingly sorry, but for the sake of his oaths, and of his dinner guests, he didn't wish to refuse her. 6.27. Immediately the king sent out a soldier of his guard, and commanded to bring John's head, and he went and beheaded him in the prison 6.28. and brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the young lady; and the young lady gave it to her mother. 6.29. When his disciples heard this, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb. 6.30. The apostles gathered themselves together to Jesus, and they told him all things, whatever they had done, and whatever they had taught. 6.31. He said to them, "You come apart into a deserted place, and rest awhile." For there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat. 6.32. They went away in the boat to a desert place by themselves. 6.33. They saw them going, and many recognized him and ran there on foot from all the cities. They arrived before them and came together to him. 6.34. Jesus came out, saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things. 6.35. When it was late in the day, his disciples came to him, and said, "This place is deserted, and it is late in the day. 6.36. Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat. 6.37. But he answered them, "You give them something to eat."They asked him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread, and give them something to eat? 6.38. He said to them, "How many loaves do you have? Go see."When they knew, they said, "Five, and two fish. 6.39. He commanded them that everyone should sit down in groups on the green grass. 6.40. They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties. 6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 6.42. They all ate, and were filled. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 6.44. Those who ate the loaves were five thousand men. 6.46. After he had taken leave of them, he went up the mountain to pray. 7.21. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery. 10.19. You know the commandments: 'Do not murder,' 'Do not commit adultery,' 'Do not steal,' 'Do not give false testimony,' 'Do not defraud,' 'Honor your father and mother.' 14.53. They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him. 14.55. Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none. 14.56. For many gave false testimony against him, and their testimony didn't agree with each other. 14.57. Some stood up, and gave false testimony against him, saying 14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.' 14.59. Even so, their testimony did not agree. 14.60. The high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer? What is it which these testify against you? 14.61. But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky. 14.63. The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses? 14.64. You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?" They all condemned him to be worthy of death. 14.65. Some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to beat him with fists, and to tell him, "Prophesy!" The officers struck him with the palms of their hands.
50. New Testament, Matthew, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 3, 3.9, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.13, 4.23, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, 5.29, 5.30, 5.31, 5.32, 5.33, 5.34, 5.35, 5.36, 5.38, 5.39, 5.40, 5.41, 5.42, 5.43, 5.44, 5.45, 5.46, 5.47, 5.48, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.19-7.12, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.25, 6.26, 6.27, 6.28, 6.29, 6.30, 6.31, 6.32, 6.33, 6.34, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 8.12, 8.19, 8.20, 9.35, 10, 11.1, 11.23, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 12.9, 12.24, 12.25, 12.26, 12.27, 12.39, 13, 13.19, 13.38, 13.39, 13.53, 13.54, 13.55, 13.56, 13.57, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 16.1, 16.6, 16.11, 16.19, 18, 19, 19.1, 19.9, 19.19, 19.21, 21.41, 22.23, 22.24, 22.25, 22.26, 22.27, 22.28, 22.29, 22.30, 22.31, 22.32, 22.33, 22.34, 22.36, 22.37, 22.38, 22.39, 22.40, 23, 23.3, 23.4, 23.5, 23.6, 23.7, 23.8, 23.9, 23.10, 23.11, 23.12, 23.13, 23.14, 23.15, 23.16, 23.17, 23.18, 23.19, 23.20, 23.21, 23.22, 23.23, 23.24, 23.25, 23.26, 23.27, 23.28, 23.29, 23.30, 23.31, 23.32, 23.33, 23.34, 23.35, 23.36, 23.37, 24, 24.12, 24.33, 25, 25.34, 25.35, 26.59, 27.1, 27.6, 27.25, 27.62, 28.15, 28.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

51. Plutarch, Roman Questions, 44, 14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Why do sons cover their heads when they escort their parents to the grave, while daughters go with uncovered heads and hair unbound? Is it because fathers should be honoured as gods by their male offspring, but mourned as dead by their daughters, that custom has assigned to each sex its proper part and has produced a fitting result from both? Or is it that the unusual is proper in mourning, and it is more usual for women to go forth in public with their heads covered and men with their heads uncovered? So in Greece, whenever any misfortune comes, the women cut off their hair and the men let it grow, for it is usual for men to have their hair cut and for women to let it grow. Or is it that it has become customary for sons to cover their heads for the reason already given? The first reason above: The father should be honoured as a god. For they turn about at the graves, as Varro relates, thus honouring the tombs of their fathers even as they do the shrines of the gods: and when they have cremated their parents, they declare that the dead person has become a god at the moment when first they find a bone. Cf. Cicero, De Legibus, ii. 22 (57). But formerly women were not allowed to cover the head at all. At least it is recorded that Spurius Carvilius Cf. 278 e, infra ; Comparison of Lycurgus and Numa, iii. (77 c); Comparison of Theseus and Romulus, vi. (39 b); Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, ii. 25. 7; Valerius Maximus, ii. 1. 4; Aulus Gellius, iv. 3. 2; xvii. 21. 44; Tertullian, Apol. vi., De Monogamia, ix. was the first man to divorce his wife and the reason was her barrenness: the second was Sulpicius Gallus, because he saw his wife pull her cloak over her head: and the third was Publius Sempronius, because his wife had been present as a spectator at funeral games. Cf. Valerius Maximus, vi. 3. 10. 14. Why do sons cover their heads when they escort their parents to the grave, while daughters go with uncovered heads and hair unbound? Is it because fathers should be honoured as gods by their male offspring, but mourned as dead by their daughters, that custom has assigned to each sex its proper part and has produced a fitting result from both? Or is it that the unusual is proper in mourning, and it is more usual for women to go forth in public with their heads covered and men with their heads uncovered? So in Greece, whenever any misfortune comes, the women cut off their hair and the men let it grow, for it is usual for men to have their hair cut and for women to let it grow. Or is it that it has become customary for sons to cover their heads for the reason already given? For they turn about at the graves, as Varro relates, thus honouring the tombs of their fathers even as they do the shrines of the gods; and when they have cremated their parents, they declare that the dead person has become a god at the moment when first they find a bone. But formerly women were not allowed to cover the head at all. At least it is recorded that Spurius Carvilius was the first man to divorce his wife and the reason was her barrenness; the second was Sulpicius Gallus, because he saw his wife pull her cloak over her head; and the third was Publius Sempronius, because his wife had been present as a spectator at funeral games.
52. Tosefta, Sotah, 7.2, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

53. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 122 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

54. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.27.2, 3.12.12, 4.13.1, 4.33.15, 4.34 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.34. After, then, we have succinctly explained the powers of the secret arts practised among these (magicians), and have shown their easy plan for the acquisition of knowledge, neither are we disposed to be silent on the following point, which is a necessary one - how that, loosing the seals, they restore the sealed letters, with the actual seals themselves. Melting pitch, resin, and sulphur, and moreover asphalt, in equal parts, (and) forming the ointment into a figure, they keep it by them. When, however, it is time to loose a small tablet, smearing with oil their tongue, next with the latter anointing the seal, (and) heating the drug with a moderate fire, (the sorcerers) place it upon the seal; and they leave it there until it has acquired complete consistence, and they use it in this condition as a seal. But they say, likewise, that wax itself with fir-wood gum possesses a similar potency, as well as two parts of mastich with one part of dry asphalt. But sulphur also by itself effects the purpose tolerably well, and flower of gypsum strained with water, and of gum. Now this (last mixture) certainly answers most admirably also for sealing molten lead. And that which is accomplished by the Tuscan wax, and refuse of resin, and pitch, and asphalt, and mastich, and powdered spar, all being boiled together in equal parts, is superior to the rest of the drugs which I have mentioned, while that which is effected by the gum is not inferior. In this manner, then, also, they attempt to loose the seals, endeavouring to learn the letters written within. These contrivances, however, I hesitated to narrate in this book, perceiving the danger lest, perchance, any knavish person, taking occasion (from my account), should attempt (to practise these juggleries). Solicitude, however, for many young persons, who could be preserved from such practices, has persuaded me to teach and publish, for security's sake, (the foregoing statements). For although one person may make use of these for gaining instruction in evil, in this way somebody else will, by being instructed (in these practices), be preserved from them. And the magicians themselves, corrupters of life, will be ashamed in plying their art. And learning these points that have been previously elucidated by us, they will possibly be restrained from their folly. But that this seal may not be broken, let me seal it with hog's lard and hair mixed with wax.
55. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. אי הכי מאי איריא הכונס את הבתולה אפי' כונס את האלמנה נמי,הכא טריד והכא לא טריד,אי משום טרדא אפילו טבעה ספינתו בים נמי אלמה אמר רבי אבא בר זבדא אמר רב אבל חייב בכל מצות האמורות בתורה חוץ מן התפילין שהרי נאמר בהן פאר שנאמר (יחזקאל כד, יז) פארך חבוש עליך וגו',אמרי התם טרדא דרשות הכא טרדא דמצוה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big רחץ לילה הראשון שמתה אשתו אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאבל אסור לרחוץ אמר להם איני כשאר בני אדם אסטניס אני,וכשמת טבי עבדו קבל עליו תנחומין אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאין מקבלין תנחומין על העבדים אמר להם אין טבי עבדי כשאר כל העבדים כשר היה,חתן אם רוצה לקרות קרית שמע לילה הראשון קורא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא כל הרוצה ליטול את השם יטול:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט דרבן (שמעון בן) גמליאל קסבר אנינות לילה דרבנן דכתיב (עמוס ח, י) ואחריתה כיום מר ובמקום אסטניס לא גזרו ביה רבנן: ,וכשמת טבי עבדו וכו':,ת"ר עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ותנחומי אבלים,מעשה ומתה שפחתו של רבי אליעזר נכנסו תלמידיו לנחמו כיון שראה אותם עלה לעלייה ועלו אחריו נכנס לאנפילון נכנסו אחריו נכנס לטרקלין נכנסו אחריו אמר להם כמדומה אני שאתם נכוים בפושרים עכשיו אי אתם נכוים אפילו בחמי חמין לא כך שניתי לכם עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ולא תנחומי אבלים אלא מה אומרים עליהם כשם שאומרים לו לאדם על שורו ועל חמורו שמתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך כך אומרים לו על עבדו ועל שפחתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך,תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין מספידין אותן ר' יוסי אומר אם עבד כשר הוא אומרים עליו הוי איש טוב ונאמן ונהנה מיגיעו אמרו לו אם כן מה הנחת לכשרים:,ת"ר אין קורין אבות אלא לשלשה ואין קורין אמהות אלא לארבע,אבות מאי טעמא אילימא משום דלא ידעינן אי מראובן קא אתינן אי משמעון קא אתינן אי הכי אמהות נמי לא ידעינן אי מרחל קא אתינן אי מלאה קא אתינן אלא עד הכא חשיבי טפי לא חשיבי,תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין קורין אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית ושל ר"ג היו קורים אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית,מעשה לסתור משום דחשיבי:,א"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים סג, ה) כן אברכך בחיי בשמך אשא כפי כן אברכך בחיי זו ק"ש בשמך אשא כפי זו תפלה ואם עושה כן עליו הכתוב אומר (תהלים סג, ו) כמו חלב ודשן תשבע נפשי ולא עוד אלא שנוחל שני עולמים העוה"ז והעולם הבא שנאמר (תהלים סג, ו) ושפתי רננות יהלל פי:,ר' אלעזר בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתשכן בפורינו אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות ותרבה גבולנו בתלמידים ותצליח סופנו אחרית ותקוה ותשים חלקנו בגן עדן ותקננו בחבר טוב ויצר טוב בעולמך ונשכים ונמצא יחול לבבנו ליראה את שמך ותבא לפניך קורת נפשנו לטובה.,רבי יוחנן בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתציץ בבשתנו ותביט ברעתנו ותתלבש ברחמיך ותתכסה בעזך ותתעטף בחסידותך ותתאזר בחנינותך ותבא לפניך מדת טובך וענותנותך.,ר' זירא בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שלא נחטא ולא נבוש ולא נכלם מאבותינו,ר' חייא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתהא תורתך אומנותנו ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו.,רב בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתתן לנו חיים ארוכים חיים של שלום חיים של טובה חיים של ברכה חיים של פרנסה חיים של חלוץ עצמות חיים שיש בהם יראת חטא חיים שאין בהם בושה וכלימה חיים של עושר וכבוד חיים שתהא בנו אהבת תורה ויראת שמים חיים שתמלא לנו את כל משאלות לבנו לטובה.,רבי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו שתצילנו מעזי פנים ומעזות פנים מאדם רע ומפגע רע מיצר רע מחבר רע משכן רע ומשטן המשחית ומדין קשה ומבעל דין קשה בין שהוא בן ברית בין שאינו בן ברית,ואע"ג דקיימי קצוצי עליה דרבי.,רב ספרא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתשים שלום 16b. The Gemara questions this: bIf so, why discussa case of bone who is marrying a virginin particular? bEven one who is marrying a widowis performing a mitzva and should balsobe exempt.,The Gemara responds that nevertheless, there is a distinction between one marrying a virgin and one marrying a widow. bHere,in the case of one who marries a virgin, the groom is bpreoccupiedby his thoughts, bwhile here,in the case of one who marries a widow, bhe is not preoccupied. /b,The Gemara challenges: bIfa groom is exempt from the recitation of iShemasimply bdue to preoccupation,then bevenone who is preoccupied because bhis ship sank at sea shouldbe exempt. If so, bwhy then did Rabbi Abba bar Zavda saythat bRav said: A mourner is obligated in all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah except forthe mitzva to don bphylacteries, asthe term bsplendor is statedwith regard to phylacteries, bas it is statedthat the prophet Ezekiel was prohibited to mourn and was told: b“Bind your splendor upon yourself”(Ezekiel 24:17). If even a mourner, who is pained and preoccupied, is obligated to recite iShema /i, clearly preoccupation has no bearing upon one’s obligation.,The Gemara responds: Nevertheless, there is a distinction between the cases. bThere,it is a case of bpreoccupation with a voluntaryact, as there is no mitzva to be preoccupied with his mourning, but bhere,in the case of a groom, the cause of bthe preoccupation isthe bmitzvaitself., strongMISHNA: /strong The mishna relates another episode portraying unusual conduct by Rabban Gamliel. bHe bathed on the first night after his wife died. His students said to him:Have byounot btaught us, our teacher, that a mourner is prohibited to bathe?He answered them: bI am not like other people, I am delicate [ iistenis /i].For me, not bathing causes actual physical distress, and even a mourner need not suffer physical distress as part of his mourning.,Another exceptional incident is related: bAnd when his slave, Tavi, died,Rabban Gamliel baccepted condolences for hisdeath as one would for a close family member. bHis students said to him: Have younot btaught us, our teacher, that one does not accept condolences forthe death of bslaves?Rabban Gamliel said to his students: bMy slave, Tavi, is not like all the rest of the slaves, he was virtuousand it is appropriate to accord him the same respect accorded to a family member.,With regard to the recitation of iShemaon one’s wedding night, the Sages said that bif,despite his exemption, ba groom wishes to recite iShemaon the first night,he may do so. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Not everyone who wishes to assume the reputationof a God-fearing person bmay assumeit, and consequently, not everyone who wishes to recite iShemaon his wedding night may do so., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to Rabban Gamliel’s bathing on the first night after the death of his wife, the Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat bRabban Gamlieldid not practice the customs of mourning after his wife died? The Gemara answers: bHe holds thatacute mourning [ ianinut /i] is in effect only on the day of the death itself, but bacute mourning at night isonly bby rabbinic law, as it is written:“And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentations; I will bring sackcloth upon your loins and baldness upon every head; and I will make you like a mourner for an only child, band the end will be like a bitter day”(Amos 8:10). Therefore, by Torah law one’s acute mourning is only during the day, like a bitter day, while the acute mourning at night that follows is only rabbinic. bAnd in the case of a delicate person, the Sages did not issue a decreethat one should afflict himself during the period of acute mourning.,We learned in our mishna that: bWhen his servant, Tavi, died,Rabban Gamliel accepted condolences for him., bThe Sagestaught in a ibaraita /i: For bslaves and maidservantswho die, bone does not stand in a rowof comforters to console the mourners, band one recites neither the blessing of the mourners nor the consolation of the mourners. /b, bAn incidentis related that when bRabbi Eliezer’s maidservant died, his students entered to console him. When he saw themapproaching bhe went up to the second floor, and they went up after him. He entered the gatehouse [ ianpilon /i], and they entered after him. He entered the banquet hall [ iteraklin /i],and bthey entered after him.Having seen them follow him everywhere, bhe said to them: It seems to me that you would be burned by lukewarm water,meaning that you could take a hint and when I went up to the second floor, you would understand that I did not wish to receive your consolations. bNowI see that byou are not even burned by boiling hot water. Did I not teach you the following:For bslaves and maidservantswho die, bone does not stand in a rowof comforters to console the mourners, band one neither recites the blessing of the mourners nordoes he recite bthe consolation of the mourners,as the relationship between master and slave is not like a familial relationship? bRather, what does one say about themwhen they die? bJust as we say to a person about his ox or donkey which died: May the Omnipresent replenish your loss, so too do we say for one’s slave or maidservantwho died: bMay the Omnipresent replenish your loss,as the connection between a master and his slave is only ficial in nature., bIt was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne does not eulogize slaves and maidservants. Rabbi Yosei says: If he was a virtuous servant, one recites over hima eulogy of sorts: bAlas, a good and loyal man who enjoyedthe fruits bof his hard labor. They said to him: If so, whatpraise bhave you left for virtuousJews? A Jewish person would be proud to be eulogized in that manner., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may only call threepeople bpatriarchs,Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but not Jacob’s children. bAnd one may only call fourpeople bmatriarchs,Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this exclusivity with regard to the bPatriarchs? If you saythat it is bbecause we do not know whether we descend from Reuben or from Simon,so we cannot accurately say our father Reuben, for example, bif so,with regard to the Matriarchs as well, bwe do not know whether we descend from Rachel or from Leah,and we should not call Rachel and Leah matriarchs either. bInstead,the reason the sons of Jacob are not called patriarchs is not for that reason, but because buntilJacob bthey are significantenough to be referred to as patriarchs, but bbeyondJacob, bthey are not significantenough to be referred to as patriarchs.,This serves as an introduction; although older people are often referred to with the honorific: Father so-and-so, bit was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne may not refer to slaves and maidservants as father [ iabba /i] so-and-so or mother [ iimma /i] so-and-so. But they would callthe slaves and maidservants bof Rabban Gamliel “father so-and-so” and “mother so-and-so.” /b,The Gemara asks: Is a bstorycited in order bto contradictthe previously stated ihalakha /i? The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction; rather, bbecauseRabban Gamliel’s servants bwere significant,they were addressed with these honorifics.,The Gemara cites an aggadic statement concerning prayer and the recitation of iShema /i. bRabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “So I will bless You as I live, to Your name I will raise my hands”(Psalms 63:5)? bSo I will bless You as I live, refers to the recitation of iShema /i,and bto Your name I will raise my hands, refers tothe iAmida bprayer,which is characterized as lifting one’s hands to God. bAnd if one does so,recites iShemaand prays, bthe verse says about him: “As with fat and marrow, my soul will be satisfied”(Psalms 63:6). bAnd not onlydoes he receive this reward, bbut he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “With lips of joys [ ireot /i], my mouth praises You”(Psalms 63:6). The plural, joys, refers to two joys, that of this world and that of the World-to-Come.,The Gemara describes how bafter Rabbi Elazar concluded his prayer, he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bto cause to dwell in our lot love and brotherhood, peace and friendship. br bAnd may You make our borders rich in disciples br band cause us to ultimately succeed,that we will have a good bend and hope. br bAnd may You set our portion in the Garden of Eden, br band may You establish for us a good companion and a good inclination in Your world. br bAnd may we rise early and find the aspiration of our hearts to fear Your name, br band may the satisfaction of our souls come before You,i.e., may You hear our prayers that we may have spiritual contentment in this world bfor the best. /b,Similarly, the Gemara recounts that bafter Rabbi Yoḥa concluded his prayer, he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You look upon our shame and behold our plight, br bthat You clothe Yourself in Your mercy, br band cover Yourself with Your might, br bthat You wrap Yourself in Your loving-kindness, br band gird Yourself with Your grace, br band may Your attributes of goodness and humility come before You. /b,Similarly, bafter Rabbi Zeira concluded his prayers he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat we not sin or shame ourselves, br band that we not disgrace ourselves before our forefathers, brin the sense that our actions should not disgrace the actions of our forefathers., bAfter Rabbi Ḥiyya prayed he said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat Your Torah should be our vocation, br band may our heart not become faint nor our eyes dim. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rav said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You grant us long life, a life of peace, br ba life of goodness, a life of blessing, br ba life of sustece, a life of freedom of movementfrom place to place, where we are not tied to one place, br ba life of dread of sin, a life without shame and disgrace, br ba life of wealth and honor, br ba life in which we have love of Torah and reverence for Heaven, br ba life in which You fulfill all the desires of our heart for good. /b, bAfter his prayer, RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, and God of our forefathers, br bthat You save us from the arrogant and from arrogancein general, br bfrom a bad man, from a bad mishap, br bfrom an evil instinct, from a bad companion, br bfrom a bad neighbor, from the destructive Satan, br bfrom a harsh trial and from a harsh opponent, br bwhether he is a member of the covet,a Jew, br bor whether he is not a member of the covet. /b, bAndthe Gemara notes that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would recite this prayer every day bdespite the fact thatroyal bofficers stoodwatch bover RabbiYehuda HaNasi for his protection; nevertheless, he prayed to avoid conflict or hindrance resulting from arrogance., bAfter his prayer, Rav Safra said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, that You establish peace /b
56. Augustine, On The Holy Trinity, 15.20 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

57. Anon., 2 Enoch, 49.2



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(biblical) law,lawlessness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 135
abraham Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 559
acta martyrum,acts of the martyrs Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 237
adultery Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 99
akiva,r. Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25
alexandrian Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 92
alms Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 122, 136
almsgiving,charity Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
amoraim,amoraic period Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
angel/angelic passim see also archangel,god,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 487
anger Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 44
antioch,incident at Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 133
antitheses Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 122, 123, 127, 129
antithesis Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 40
apostolikon,marcions as a corruption of pauls letters Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 40
arian or trinitarian controversiesnan Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 47
asseverative statements Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
augustine Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 146
authority,human vs. divine/scriptural Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 72
authority,of oral law Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 72
authority,of scripture Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 72
barnabas Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 133
beatitude,matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 123
beatitudes,reception history Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 474
beatitudes,two gospel versions Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 400
beatitudes,wesley,j. Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 474
beatitudes Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 291; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 400, 474
behaviour Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 292, 294
belial Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 487
belief,believer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 136
betz,hans dieter Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 137
biblical Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107
blasphemy Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
carthage – alexandria Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 146
catholics,catholic church,catholicism Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 47
christian/christianity Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 487
christian judaism Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 26
christianity Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 26, 92
christology,christological,high christology,lower christology Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 141
circumcision,of gentiles Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 133
clement of alexandria Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 138
clement of rome Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 138
clothing Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 132
commandments Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 246
community,christian Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127, 132
community Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 291, 293; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 129, 135, 136
conditional,formula(e) Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
conditional,imprecation Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
confession Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 291
conversion,process Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 291, 293
conversion,social/sociological aspects Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295
court Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
cult Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 123
damascus document Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 401
daughters,adam and eve,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 559
david Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 559
day of atonement Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 401
day of judgement,last judgement Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
dead sea scrolls vii Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 108
death,way of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 245, 246
decalogue Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 245, 246, 247
deficiency Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 291
desire Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 292, 293, 294
disciples of jesus,following jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 121, 132, 135
disciples of jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 121, 132, 135
disputes,schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25
divine Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 295
divine name,surrogate Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
divine name,swearing by the Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
divorce,law/halakha Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 99
divorce bill Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 99
double love commandment Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 245, 246
drinking Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 132
egypt deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 198
emotion/emotional Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 293
emperor cult,emperor worship Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 237
end of days/last days,eschaton Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 108, 120
end of days tribulation Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
eschatology,eschatological,belonging to the end-of-days,messianic age Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
eschatology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 123, 135
essenes Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 401; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25
ethical teachings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 245, 246, 247
ethics Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 135
eucharist Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 132
evil,actions Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 245
evil Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 292, 293, 294, 295; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
exception clause Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 99
exclusive/exclusivity Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 294
exegesis,exegetical,interpretation of scripture,jesus command of scriptural exegesis Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 108
exhortations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 247
faith,faithfulness Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 108
faith Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 132
fast Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 136
fasting Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
festivals,non-christian,in early christian literature Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 44
food Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 132
forgiveness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 136
fruit Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 559
galilee,galilean Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107
genius Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 237
gentleness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127
geonic period Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
god,holy one,as Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 559
god,omniscience of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127
god,perfection of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 129
god,will of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 121
golden rule Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 245, 246; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 121, 123
good,the Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 294
gospel,of matthew Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 127, 129, 132, 135, 136
gospels Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 246
greece,greek Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 237
grief Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127
grounds for divorce Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 99
guilt Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127
halakha,and scripture Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 72
happiness Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 293
hartin,patrick Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 232
health Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 132
heart (καρδία) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 247
heaven Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 237
heavenly/angelic redeemer v-vi Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107
hebrew,qumran Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture,abolishing scripture Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 108
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture,fulfilling scripture Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 108
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 108
hellenistic Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 292
heresy,heretics,heretical Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 47
hermeneutics,hermeneutical key Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 141
hermeticism deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 198
hillel,school of Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25
hillel the elder Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25, 99
honesty Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 129
honor Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 121
humility Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127
immersion Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107
immutability,of divine law,and rabbinic rejection of Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 288
innovation through exegesis in rabbinic sources,through legislation in rabbinic sources' Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 288
institutes,of gaius Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 288
interpreter of the torah,as messianic function,jesus as Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107, 108, 141
inuiolabilis ueritas Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 146
israel Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 559
james,term brothers in Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 229
james Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 133
jesus,and torah observance Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 401
jesus,as a prophetic anointed of the spirit Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107
jesus,as bearer of gods logos Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 141
jesus,as the anointed one,the messiah Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 141
jesus,as torah-righteous,torah-sage Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 108
jesus,divine status Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107, 108, 120, 141
jesus,historical Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 122
jesus,in matthew Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 286
jesus,in relation to the temple Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 160
jesus,kingly/davidic messiahship/descent Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107
jesus,matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 121, 125, 127, 129, 135
jesus,on oaths Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 160
jesus,on sacrifices Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 160
jesus,priestly (aaronic) connection Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107
jesus,will of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 129
jesus-centered tradition Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 141
jesus Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 559; Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 133
jesus christ Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 146; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 47
jesus in manichaeism Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 185
jewish other,ritual Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
john the baptist Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 286
jordan river Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107
judaism Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 291, 292
judgement,final (endgericht) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 132, 136
justice Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 121, 127, 135
justification Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 294
kingdom of god/heaven,sons of the kingdom Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107, 120
kyrios Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 135
law,in early christian theology Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 44
law,jewish Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
law,mosaic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 245, 246
law,sectarian Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
law and prophets Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 40
law divine/mosaic/jewish Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 291, 292, 293, 295
law in paul Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25
life Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 141
light,true light Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 141
light of the world Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127
logion Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 125, 135
logoization,torah as logos Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 141
logos/gods word Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 141
lord,yoke of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 247
lord Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 237
lords prayer,as community prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 136
lords prayer,matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 127, 129, 132, 135, 136
lords prayer,structure of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 136
lords prayer Pierce et al. (2022), Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature, 102; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
love,for humankind/neighbor Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 293, 294, 295
love,for the enemy Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 294
love,of neighbours Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 245
love Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 293, 294, 295; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 123, 129, 135
love (see also eros agape) Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 401
luke,using matthew Pierce et al. (2022), Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature, 105, 106
macarism Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127
manual of discipline Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
manuscripts,of the didache Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 247
marcellinus Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 146
marriage Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 129
martin,g. currie Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 229
martyrs,martyrdom Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 237
matthew,distinctives of Pierce et al. (2022), Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature, 95, 96, 97, 101, 102, 105
matthew,five discourses Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 400
matthew,gospel of Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 401
matthew,length of Pierce et al. (2022), Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature, 101
matthew,on oaths Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 160
matthew,on sacrifices Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 160
matthew,on the pharisees Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 160
matthew (evangelist) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 129, 135
matthew (gospel writer and gospel),abrogation of halakhah in Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 286
meier,john p. Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 137, 138; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 232
mercy Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127
messiah,gods anointed,messiahship,messianic,davidic,kingly Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107
messiah,gods anointed,of aaron Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107
messiah,gods anointed,prophetic messiahship Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107
messiah,gods anointed,second temple messianic beliefs Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107
metanoia/metanoeō Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 291
mission,to the gentiles Zetterholm (2003), The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity. 133
money Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 132
moods,verbal,indicative Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 246
moral progress/transformation Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 295
mortality Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 237
moses,mosaic,as bearer/deliverer of gods word/logos Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 141
moses Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 487
mouth,serpent,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 487
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 286
need (material) Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 295
neighbour Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 245, 246
new covenant,in hebrews Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 138
new testament,as source on rabbinic judaism Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 72
new testament Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 40
novelty,viii-ix,christian embrace of,viii-ix Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 138
oath,avoidance of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
oath,eve,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 559
oath,false (shevu'at sheqer)" '267.0_140.0@oath,formula Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
oath,judicial Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
oath,violation of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
oath Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 559
oaths deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 198
oral tora,human vs. divine source of authority Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 72
oral tora,revealed at sinai Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 72
pagan,paganism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 237
pagans,paganism Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 47
panken,aaron Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 288
parable Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 125, 135
paul Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 40
paul (saul) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25, 99
paulus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 121
peace Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127
pentateuch Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 108, 141
perfect,believer Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 247
perfection Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 291, 295
perjury Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
persecution Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127
petitions of the lords prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 136
phantasia – phantasma Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 146
pharisees,in matthew Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 160
pharisees,oaths of the Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 160
pharisees,torah-sages,pharisaic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 108
pharisees Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 401
philosophy,philosophical Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 292, 294
piety,deeds of Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
piety,trilogy of pious actions →alms,fast,prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 136
piety Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127, 135, 136
pluralism (hillelite) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25
porneia (zenut,unchastity) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 99
prayer,practice of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 136
prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 136; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
principles (érxæ) (first) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 47
privacy Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127
profanization Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 132
prologue,johannine Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 141
prophets,gods messengers Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 141
prophets,ot Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 245, 246
punishment Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
purification ~ Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25
purity (see also food laws) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25
purity laws Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25
q-source Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 107
q source Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 121
qumran Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 401
rabbinic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 108
rabbis,rabbinic literature Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 140
reason Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 135
reciprocity Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 293, 294
reconciliation Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 129
relationship Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 293, 294, 295
religion,religious Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 295
renunciation Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 292
reward Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 120
righteous Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 291, 292
rule/ruler,this world,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 487
sabbath Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 401
sacrality Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 132
sacrifice Iricinschi et al. (2013), Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels, 401; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 237
sadducees Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 25
salt of the earth Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 127