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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8258
New Testament, Matthew, 5.34


Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν μν̀ ὀμόσαι ὅλως· μήτε ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, ὅτι θρόνος ἐστὶν τοῦ θεοῦ·but I tell you, don't swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

67 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, a b c d\n0 "32.4" "32.4" "32 4" \n1 17.3 17.3 17 3 \n2 18.15 18.15 18 15 \n3 19.21 19.21 19 21 \n4 24 24 24 None\n5 24.1 24.1 24 1 \n6 24.2 24.2 24 2 \n7 24.3 24.3 24 3 \n8 24.4 24.4 24 4 \n9 30.11 30.11 30 11 \n10 30.12 30.12 30 12 \n11 30.13 30.13 30 13 \n12 30.14 30.14 30 14 \n13 4.19 4.19 4 19 \n14 5.1 5.1 5 1 \n15 5.10 5.10 5 10 \n16 5.11 5.11 5 11 \n17 5.12 5.12 5 12 \n18 5.13 5.13 5 13 \n19 5.14 5.14 5 14 \n20 5.15 5.15 5 15 \n21 5.16 5.16 5 16 \n22 5.17 5.17 5 17 \n23 5.18 5.18 5 18 \n24 5.19 5.19 5 19 \n25 5.2 5.2 5 2 \n26 5.20 5.20 5 20 \n27 5.21 5.21 5 21 \n28 5.3 5.3 5 3 \n29 5.4 5.4 5 4 \n30 5.5 5.5 5 5 \n31 5.6 5.6 5 6 \n32 5.7 5.7 5 7 \n33 5.8 5.8 5 8 \n34 5.9 5.9 5 9 \n35 8.3 8.3 8 3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.24, 4.19-4.20, 20.1-20.17, 21.12, 21.24, 22.7, 25.2, 25.4, 25.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.24. וַיִּשְׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נַאֲקָתָם וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יִצְחָק וְאֶת־יַעֲקֹב׃ 20.1. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ 20.1. וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר׃ 20.2. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 20.2. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃ 20.3. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ 20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ 20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 20.6. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָי׃ 20.7. לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־שֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא׃ 20.8. זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ 20.9. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ 20.11. כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃ 20.12. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 20.13. לֹא תִּרְצָח׃ לֹא תִּנְאָף׃ לֹא תִּגְנֹב׃ לֹא־תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁקֶר׃ 20.14. לֹא תַחְמֹד בֵּית רֵעֶךָ לֹא־תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ וְשׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ׃ 20.15. וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃ 20.16. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה דַּבֵּר־אַתָּה עִמָּנוּ וְנִשְׁמָעָה וְאַל־יְדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ אֱלֹהִים פֶּן־נָמוּת׃ 20.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל־פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ׃ 21.12. מַכֵּה אִישׁ וָמֵת מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 21.24. עַיִן תַּחַת עַיִן שֵׁן תַּחַת שֵׁן יָד תַּחַת יָד רֶגֶל תַּחַת רָגֶל׃ 22.7. אִם־לֹא יִמָּצֵא הַגַּנָּב וְנִקְרַב בַּעַל־הַבַּיִת אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים אִם־לֹא שָׁלַח יָדוֹ בִּמְלֶאכֶת רֵעֵהוּ׃ 25.2. וְהָיוּ הַכְּרֻבִים פֹּרְשֵׂי כְנָפַיִם לְמַעְלָה סֹכְכִים בְּכַנְפֵיהֶם עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת וּפְנֵיהֶם אִישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו אֶל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת יִהְיוּ פְּנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים׃ 25.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִקְחוּ־לִי תְּרוּמָה מֵאֵת כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִדְּבֶנּוּ לִבּוֹ תִּקְחוּ אֶת־תְּרוּמָתִי׃ 25.4. וּרְאֵה וַעֲשֵׂה בְּתַבְנִיתָם אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה מָרְאֶה בָּהָר׃ 25.4. וּתְכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְשֵׁשׁ וְעִזִּים׃ 25.8. וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹכָם׃ 2.24. And God heard their groaning, and God remembered His covet with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob." 4.20. And Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon an ass, and he returned to the land of Egypt; and Moses took the rod of God in his hand." 20.1. And God spoke all these words, saying:" 20.2. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 20.3. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;" 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;" 20.6. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments." 20.7. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain." 20.8. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy." 20.9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 20.10. but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates;" 20.11. for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." 20.12. Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 20.13. Thou shalt not murder. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour." 20.14. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house; thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s." 20.15. And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off." 20.16. And they said unto Moses: ‘Speak thou with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die.’" 20.17. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not.’" 21.12. He that smiteth a man, so that he dieth, shall surely be put to death." 21.24. eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot," 22.7. If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall come near unto God, to see whether he have not put his hand unto his neighbour’s goods." 25.2. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, that they take for Me an offering; of every man whose heart maketh him willing ye shall take My offering." 25.4. and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats’hair;" 25.8. And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.5, 26.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.5. כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טוֹב וָרָע׃ 26.3. גּוּר בָּאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וְאֶהְיֶה עִמְּךָ וַאֲבָרְכֶךָּ כִּי־לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־כָּל־הָאֲרָצֹת הָאֵל וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־הַשְּׁבֻעָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם אָבִיךָ׃ 26.3. וַיַּעַשׂ לָהֶם מִשְׁתֶּה וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתּוּ׃ 3.5. for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil.’" 26.3. Sojourn in this land, and I will be with thee, and will bless thee; for unto thee, and unto thy seed, I will give all these lands, and I will establish the oath which I swore unto Abraham thy father;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 2.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.15. וּפָקַדְתִּי עָלֶיהָ אֶת־יְמֵי הַבְּעָלִים אֲשֶׁר תַּקְטִיר לָהֶם וַתַּעַד נִזְמָהּ וְחֶלְיָתָהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי מְאַהֲבֶיהָ וְאֹתִי שָׁכְחָה נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 2.15. And I will visit upon her the days of the Baalim, Wherein she offered unto them, And decked herself with her ear-rings and her jewels, And went after her lovers, And forgot Me, saith the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.2, 19.12, 19.18, 24.17, 24.20, 26.42 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדֹשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְהִוא שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדָּתָה אוֹ חֻפְשָׁה לֹא נִתַּן־לָהּ בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי־לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה׃ 19.12. וְלֹא־תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 24.17. וְאִישׁ כִּי יַכֶּה כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 26.42. וְזָכַרְתִּי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי יַעֲקוֹב וְאַף אֶת־בְּרִיתִי יִצְחָק וְאַף אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אַבְרָהָם אֶזְכֹּר וְהָאָרֶץ אֶזְכֹּר׃ 19.2. Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them: Ye shall be holy; for I the LORD your God am holy." 19.12. And ye shall not swear by My name falsely, so that thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 24.17. And he that smiteth any man mortally shall surely be put to death." 24.20. breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; as he hath maimed a man, so shall it be rendered unto him." 26.42. then will I remember My covet with Jacob, and also My covet with Isaac, and also My covet with Abraham will I remember; and I will remember the land."
6. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.3. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ לְגוֹיִם עֲצֻמִים עַד־רָחוֹק וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבֹתֵיהֶם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשְׂאוּ גּוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּן עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 4.3. And He shall judge between many peoples, And shall decide concerning mighty nations afar off; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 14.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.23. אִם־יִרְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לַאֲבֹתָם וְכָל־מְנַאֲצַי לֹא יִרְאוּהָ׃ 14.23. surely they shall not see the land which I swore unto their fathers, neither shall any of them that despised Me see it."
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 7.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.27. דַּרְכֵי שְׁאוֹל בֵּיתָהּ יֹרְדוֹת אֶל־חַדְרֵי־מָוֶת׃ 7.27. Her house is the way to the nether-world, Going down to the chambers of death."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 84.11, 104.8, 148.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

84.11. כִּי טוֹב־יוֹם בַּחֲצֵרֶיךָ מֵאָלֶף בָּחַרְתִּי הִסְתּוֹפֵף בְּבֵית אֱלֹהַי מִדּוּר בְּאָהֳלֵי־רֶשַׁע׃ 104.8. יַעֲלוּ הָרִים יֵרְדוּ בְקָעוֹת אֶל־מְקוֹם זֶה יָסַדְתָּ לָהֶם׃ 148.3. הַלְלוּהוּ שֶׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ הַלְלוּהוּ כָּל־כּוֹכְבֵי אוֹר׃ 84.11. For a day in Thy courts is better than a thousand; I had rather stand at the threshold of the house of my God, than to dwell in the tents of wickedness." 104.8. The mountains rose, the valleys sank down— Unto the place which Thou hadst founded for them;" 148.3. Praise ye Him, sun and moon; Praise Him, all ye stars of light."
10. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 1.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.5. וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁתַּחֲוִים עַל־הַגַּגּוֹת לִצְבָא הַשָּׁמָיִם וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁתַּחֲוִים הַנִּשְׁבָּעִים לַיהוָה וְהַנִּשְׁבָּעִים בְּמַלְכָּם׃ 1.5. And them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; And them that worship, that swear to the LORD And swear by Malcam;"
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 1.30, 2.10, 19.19-19.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.19. וַיֵּלֶךְ מִשָּׁם וַיִּמְצָא אֶת־אֱלִישָׁע בֶּן־שָׁפָט וְהוּא חֹרֵשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר צְמָדִים לְפָנָיו וְהוּא בִּשְׁנֵים הֶעָשָׂר וַיַּעֲבֹר אֵלִיָּהוּ אֵלָיו וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אַדַּרְתּוֹ אֵלָיו׃ 19.21. וַיָּשָׁב מֵאַחֲרָיו וַיִּקַּח אֶת־צֶמֶד הַבָּקָר וַיִּזְבָּחֵהוּ וּבִכְלִי הַבָּקָר בִּשְּׁלָם הַבָּשָׂר וַיִּתֵּן לָעָם וַיֹּאכֵלוּ וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ וַיְשָׁרְתֵהוּ׃ 2.10. And David slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city of David." 19.19. So he departed thence, and found Elisha the son of Shaphat, who was plowing, with twelve yoke of oxen before him, and he with the twelfth; and Elijah passed over unto him, and cast his mantle upon him." 19.20. And he left the oxen, and ran after Elijah, and said: ‘Let me, I pray thee, kiss my father and my mother, and then I will follow thee.’ And he said unto him: ‘Go back; for what have I done to thee?’" 19.21. And he returned from following him, and took the yoke of oxen, and slew them, and boiled their flesh with the instruments of the oxen, and gave unto the people, and they did eat. Then he arose, and went after Elijah, and ministered unto him."
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.10-2.11, 2.13, 4.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.11. וַיְהִי הֵמָּה הֹלְכִים הָלוֹךְ וְדַבֵּר וְהִנֵּה רֶכֶב־אֵשׁ וְסוּסֵי אֵשׁ וַיַּפְרִדוּ בֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַל אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּסְעָרָה הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 2.13. וַיָּרֶם אֶת־אַדֶּרֶת אֵלִיָּהוּ אֲשֶׁר נָפְלָה מֵעָלָיו וַיָּשָׁב וַיַּעֲמֹד עַל־שְׂפַת הַיַּרְדֵּן׃ 4.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לְגֵיחֲזִי חֲגֹר מָתְנֶיךָ וְקַח מִשְׁעַנְתִּי בְיָדְךָ וָלֵךְ כִּי־תִמְצָא אִישׁ לֹא תְבָרְכֶנּוּ וְכִי־יְבָרֶכְךָ אִישׁ לֹא תַעֲנֶנּוּ וְשַׂמְתָּ מִשְׁעַנְתִּי עַל־פְּנֵי הַנָּעַר׃ 2.10. And he said: ‘Thou hast asked a hard thing; nevertheless, if thou see me when I am taken from thee, it shall be so unto thee; but if not, it shall not be so.’" 2.11. And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both assunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." 2.13. He took up also the mantle of Elijah that fell from him, and went back, and stood by the bank of the Jordan." 4.29. Then he said to Gehazi: ‘Gird up thy loins, and take my staff in thy hand, and go thy way; if thou meet any man, salute him not; and if any salute thee, answer him not; and lay my staff upon the face of the child.’"
13. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 8.14 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

8.14. הַנִּשְׁבָּעִים בְּאַשְׁמַת שֹׁמְרוֹן וְאָמְרוּ חֵי אֱלֹהֶיךָ דָּן וְחֵי דֶּרֶךְ בְּאֵר־שָׁבַע וְנָפְלוּ וְלֹא־יָקוּמוּ עוֹד׃ 8.14. They that swear by the sin of Samaria, And say: ‘As thy God, O Dan, liveth’; And: ‘As the way of Beer-sheba liveth’; Even they shall fall, and never rise up again."
14. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.4. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 2.4. And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more."
15. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 5.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.7. אֵי לָזֹאת אסלוח־[אֶסְלַח־] לָךְ בָּנַיִךְ עֲזָבוּנִי וַיִּשָּׁבְעוּ בְּלֹא אֱלֹהִים וָאַשְׂבִּעַ אוֹתָם וַיִּנְאָפוּ וּבֵית זוֹנָה יִתְגֹּדָדוּ׃ 5.7. Wherefore should I pardon thee? The children have forsaken Me, And sworn by no-gods; And when I had fed them to the full, they committed adultery, And assembled themselves in troops at the harlots’houses."
16. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 21.1, 21.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

21.1. וְאִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל נִשְׁבַּע בַּמִּצְפָּה לֵאמֹר אִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ לֹא־יִתֵּן בִּתּוֹ לְבִנְיָמִן לְאִשָּׁה׃ 21.1. וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ־שָׁם הָעֵדָה שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר אֶלֶף אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי הֶחָיִל וַיְצַוּוּ אוֹתָם לֵאמֹר לְכוּ וְהִכִּיתֶם אֶת־יוֹשְׁבֵי יָבֵשׁ גִּלְעָד לְפִי־חֶרֶב וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטָּף׃ 21.7. מַה־נַּעֲשֶׂה לָהֶם לַנּוֹתָרִים לְנָשִׁים וַאֲנַחְנוּ נִשְׁבַּעְנוּ בַיהוָה לְבִלְתִּי תֵּת־לָהֶם מִבְּנוֹתֵינוּ לְנָשִׁים׃ 21.1. Now the men of Yisra᾽el had sworn in Miżpe, saying, None of us shall give his daughter to Binyamin to wife." 21.7. How shall we do for wives for them that remain, seeing we have sworn by the Lord that we will not give them of our daughters to wives?"
17. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 41-48, 40 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 5.3-5.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי זֹאת הָאָלָה הַיּוֹצֵאת עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ כִּי כָל־הַגֹּנֵב מִזֶּה כָּמוֹהָ נִקָּה וְכָל־הַנִּשְׁבָּע מִזֶּה כָּמוֹהָ נִקָּה׃ 5.4. הוֹצֵאתִיהָ נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וּבָאָה אֶל־בֵּית הַגַּנָּב וְאֶל־בֵּית הַנִּשְׁבָּע בִּשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְלָנֶה בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וְכִלַּתּוּ וְאֶת־עֵצָיו וְאֶת־אֲבָנָיו׃ 5.3. Then said he unto me: ‘This is the curse that goeth forth over the face of the whole land; for every one that stealeth shall be swept away on the one side like it; and every one that sweareth shall be swept away on the other side like it." 5.4. I cause it to go forth, saith the LORD of hosts, and it shall enter into the house of the thief, and into the house of him that sweareth falsely by My name; and it shall abide in the midst of his house, and shall consume it with the timber thereof and the stones thereof.’"
19. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

21c. thinking that there, if anywhere, I should prove the utterance wrong and should show the oracle This man is wiser than I, but you said I was wisest. So examining this man—for I need not call him by name, but it was one of the public men with regard to whom I had this kind of experience, men of Athens —and conversing with him, this man seemed to me to seem to be wise to many other people and especially to himself, but not to be so; and then I tried to show him that he thought
20. Plato, Crito, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

49c. Crito. Apparently not. Socrates. Well, Crito, ought one to do evil or not? Crito. Certainly not, Socrates. Socrates. Well, then, is it right to requite evil with evil, as the world says it is, or not right? Crito. Not right, certainly. Socrates. For doing evil to people is the same thing as wronging them. Crito. That is true. Socrates. Then we ought neither to requite wrong with wrong nor to do evil to anyone, no matter what he may have done to us.
21. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

715e. when he is young, but at its keenest when he is old. Clin. Very true. Ath. What, then, is to be our next step? May we not assume that our immigrants have arrived and are in the country, and should we not proceed with our address to them? Clin. of course. Ath. Let us, then, speak to them thus:— O men, that God who, as old tradition tells, holdeth the beginning, the end, and the center of all things that exist
22. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

23. Sophocles, Oedipus At Colonus, 650 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

25. Anon., Testament of Judah, 23.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.14-7.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 7.14-7.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q174 (The Florilegium) 195, 199, 339, 1.11-1.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.22, 2.50, 3.46, 4.10, 4.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.22. We will not obey the kings words by turning aside from our religion to the right hand or to the left. 2.50. Now, my children, show zeal for the law, and give your lives for the covet of our fathers. 3.46. So they assembled and went to Mizpah, opposite Jerusalem, because Israel formerly had a place of prayer in Mizpah. 4.10. And now let us cry to Heaven, to see whether he will favor us and remember his covet with our fathers and crush this army before us today. 4.30. When he saw that the army was strong, he prayed, saying, "Blessed art thou, O Savior of Israel, who didst crush the attack of the mighty warrior by the hand of thy servant David, and didst give the camp of the Philistines into the hands of Jonathan, the son of Saul, and of the man who carried his armor.
31. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 23.9-23.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

32. Septuagint, Judith, 4.2, 5.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.2. they were therefore very greatly terrified at his approach, and were alarmed both for Jerusalem and for the temple of the Lord their God. 5.18. But when they departed from the way which he had appointed for them, they were utterly defeated in many battles and were led away captive to a foreign country; the temple of their God was razed to the ground, and their cities were captured by their enemies.
33. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 4.116 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

4.116. And Babylon, great to see but small to fight
34. Anon., Didache, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 2.2, 2.4, 2.5, 2.7, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 9.1-10.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

35. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 8.119 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.119. Now when this divine appearance was seen, the people supposed it to be a demonstration of God’s abode in the temple, and were pleased with it, and fell down upon the ground and worshipped. Upon which the king began to bless God, and exhorted the multitude to do the same, as now having sufficient indications of God’s favorable disposition to them;
36. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.128, 2.135, 2.139, 2.175 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.135. They dispense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without [swearing by] God is already condemned. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 2.175. 4. After this he raised another disturbance, by expending that sacred treasure which is called Corban upon aqueducts, whereby he brought water from the distance of four hundred furlongs. At this the multitude had great indignation; and when Pilate was come to Jerusalem, they came about his tribunal, and made a clamor at it.
37. Mishnah, Avot, 1.2, 2.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Shimon the Righteous was one of the last of the men of the great assembly. He used to say: the world stands upon three things: the Torah, the Temple service, and the practice of acts of piety." 2.4. He used to say: do His will as though it were your will, so that He will do your will as though it were His. Set aside your will in the face of His will, so that he may set aside the will of others for the sake of your will. Hillel said: do not separate yourself from the community, Do not trust in yourself until the day of your death, Do not judge not your fellow man until you have reached his place. Do not say something that cannot be understood [trusting] that in the end it will be understood. Say not: ‘when I shall have leisure I shall study;’ perhaps you will not have leisure."
38. Mishnah, Gittin, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. A widow is paid back [her kethubah] from the property of orphans only by taking an oath. [When the court] refrained from imposing an oath on her, Rabban Gamaliel the Elder established that she could take any vow which the orphans wanted and collect her kethubah. Witnesses sign their names on a get because of tikkun olam. Hillel instituted the prosbul because of tikkun olam."
39. Mishnah, Yevamot, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. Beth Shammai permits the rival wives to the surviving brothers, and Beth Hillel prohibits them. If they perform the halitzah, Beth Shammai disqualifies them from marrying a priest, and Beth Hillel makes the eligible. If they performed yibbum, Beth Shammai makes them eligible [to marry a priest], and Beth Hillel disqualifies them. Though these forbid and these permit, and these disqualify and these make eligible, Beth Shammai did not refrain from marrying women from [the families of] Beth Hillel, nor did Beth Hillel [refrain from marrying women] from [the families of] Beth Shammai. [With regard to] purity and impurity, which these declare pure and the others declare impure, neither of them refrained from using the utensils of the others for the preparation of food that was ritually clean."
40. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.9. One who says: I shall sin and repent, sin and repent, they do not afford him the opportunity to repent. [If one says]: I shall sin and Yom HaKippurim will atone for me, Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement. For transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow. This was expounded by Rabbi Elazar b. Azariah: “From all your sins before the Lord you shall be clean” (Leviticus 16:30) for transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow.. Rabbi Akiva said: Happy are you, Israel! Who is it before whom you become pure? And who is it that purifies you? Your Father who is in heaven, as it is said: “And I will sprinkle clean water upon you and you shall be clean” (Ezekiel 36:25). And it further says: “O hope (mikveh) of Israel, O Lord” (Jeremiah 17:1--just as a mikveh purifies the unclean, so too does he Holy One, blessed be He, purify Israel."
41. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.7. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you declare an uninterrupted flow of a liquid to be clean. The Pharisees say: we complain against you, Sadducees, that you declare a stream of water which flows from a burial-ground to be clean? The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you say, my ox or donkey which has done injury is liable, yet my male or female slave who has done injury is not liable. Now if in the case of my ox or my donkey for which I am not responsible if they do not fulfill religious duties, yet I am responsible for their damages, in the case of my male or female slave for whom I am responsible to see that they fulfill mitzvot, how much more so that I should be responsible for their damages? They said to them: No, if you argue about my ox or my donkey which have no understanding, can you deduce from there anything concerning a male or female slave who do have understanding? So that if I were to anger either of them and they would go and burn another person's stack, should I be liable to make restitution?"
42. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.5-1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. who by the power of God are guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. 1.6. Wherein you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while, if need be, you have been put to grief in various trials 1.7. that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ -- 1.8. whom not having known you love; in whom, though now you don't see him, yet believing, you rejoice greatly with joy unspeakable and full of glory -- 1.9. receiving the result of your faith, the salvation of your souls. 1.10. Concerning this salvation, the prophets sought and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that would come to you 1.11. searching for who or what kind of time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, pointed to, when he predicted the sufferings of Christ, and the glories that would follow them. 1.12. To them it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to you, did they minister these things, which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent out from heaven; which things angels desire to look into.
43. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 5.4, 5.7, 6.11, 7.10-7.11, 10.1-10.5, 12.8-12.10, 13.1-13.3, 13.8-13.12, 15.50-15.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.4. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,you being gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our LordJesus Christ 5.7. Purge out the old yeast, that you may bea new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, ourPassover, has been sacrificed in our place. 6.11. Such were some of you, but you were washed. But you were sanctified.But you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and in the Spiritof our God. 7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.11. (but if she departs, let her remain unmarried, or else be reconciled toher husband), and that the husband not leave his wife. 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 10.3. andall ate the same spiritual food; 10.4. and all drank the samespiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them,and the rock was Christ. 10.5. However with most of them, God was notwell pleased, for they were overthrown in the wilderness. 12.8. For to one is given through theSpirit the word of wisdom, and to another the word of knowledge,according to the same Spirit; 12.9. to another faith, by the sameSpirit; and to another gifts of healings, by the same Spirit; 12.10. and to another workings of miracles; and to another prophecy; and toanother discerning of spirits; to another different kinds of languages;and to another the interpretation of languages. 13.1. If I speak with the languages of men and of angels, but don'thave love, I have become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal. 13.2. If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and allknowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, butdon't have love, I am nothing. 13.3. If I dole out all my goods tofeed the poor, and if I give my body to be burned, but don't have love,it profits me nothing. 13.8. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies,they will be done away with. Where there are various languages, theywill cease. Where there is knowledge, it will be done away with. 13.9. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part; 13.10. but when thatwhich is complete has come, then that which is partial will be doneaway with. 13.11. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I felt as achild, I thought as a child. Now that I have become a man, I have putaway childish things. 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known. 15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption. 15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed 15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality.
44. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 6.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.16. who alone has immortality, dwelling in unapproachable light; whom no man has seen, nor can see: to whom be honor and eternal power. Amen.
45. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 6.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

46. New Testament, Acts, 1.6-1.9, 1.11, 2.46-2.47, 5.34, 9.28, 23.6-23.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.6. Therefore, when they had come together, they asked him, "Lord, are you now restoring the kingdom to Israel? 1.7. He said to them, "It isn't for you to know times or seasons which the Father has set within His own authority. 1.8. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come on you. You will be witnesses to me in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the uttermost parts of the earth. 1.9. When he had said these things, as they were looking, he was taken up, and a cloud received him out of their sight. 1.11. who also said, "You men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the sky? This Jesus, who was received up from you into the sky will come back in the same way as you saw him going into the sky. 2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 2.47. praising God, and having favor with all the people. The Lord added to the assembly day by day those who were being saved. 5.34. But one stood up in the council, a Pharisee named Gamaliel, a teacher of the law, honored by all the people, and commanded to take the apostles out a little while. 9.28. He was with them going in and going out at Jerusalem 23.6. But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, "Men and brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. Concerning the hope and resurrection of the dead I am being judged! 23.7. When he had said this, an argument arose between the Pharisees and Sadducees, and the assembly was divided. 23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these. 23.9. A great clamor arose, and some of the scribes of the Pharisees part stood up, and contended, saying, "We find no evil in this man. But if a spirit or angel has spoken to him, let's not fight against God! 23.10. When a great argument arose, the commanding officer, fearing that Paul would be torn in pieces by them, commanded the soldiers to go down and take him by force from among them, and bring him into the barracks.
47. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.12, 7.1-7.8, 21.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.12. He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will go out from there no more. I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from my God, and my own new name. 7.1. After this, I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, so that no wind would blow on the earth, or on the sea, or on any tree. 7.2. I saw another angel ascend from the sunrise, having the seal of the living God. He cried with a loud voice to the four angels to whom it was given to harm the earth and the sea 7.3. saying, "Don't harm the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, until we have sealed the bondservants of our God on their foreheads! 7.4. I heard the number of those who were sealed, one hundred forty-four thousand, sealed out of every tribe of the children of Israel: 7.5. of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand, of the tribe of Reuben twelve thousand, of the tribe of Gad twelve thousand 7.6. of the tribe of Asher twelve thousand, of the tribe of Naphtali twelve thousand, of the tribe of Manasseh twelve thousand 7.7. of the tribe of Simeon twelve thousand, of the tribe of Levi twelve thousand, of the tribe of Issachar twelve thousand 7.8. of the tribe of Zebulun twelve thousand, of the tribe of Joseph twelve thousand, of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand. 21.22. I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God, the Almighty, and the Lamb, are its temple.
48. New Testament, James, 1.17, 1.22, 1.25, 2.8-2.12, 2.14-2.16, 3.13, 3.17-3.18, 4.6, 4.11, 5.9, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom can be no variation, nor turning shadow. 1.22. But be doers of the word, and not only hearers, deluding your own selves. 1.25. But he who looks into the perfect law, the law of freedom, and continues, not being a hearer who forgets but a doer of the work, this man will be blessed in what he does. 2.8. However, if you fulfill the royal law, according to the Scripture, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself," you do well. 2.9. But if you show partiality, you commit sin, being convicted by the law as transgressors. 2.10. For whoever shall keep the whole law, and yet stumble in one point, he has become guilty of all. 2.11. For he who said, "Do not commit adultery," said also, "Do not commit murder." Now if you do not commit adultery, but murder, you have become a transgressor of the law. 2.12. So speak, and so do, as men who are to be judged by a law of freedom. 2.14. What good is it, my brothers, if a man says he has faith, but has no works? Can that faith save him? 2.15. And if a brother or sister is naked and in lack of daily food 2.16. and one of you tells them, "Go in peace, be warmed and filled;" and yet you didn't give them the things the body needs, what good is it? 3.13. Who is wise and understanding among you? Let him show by his good conduct that his deeds are done in gentleness of wisdom. 3.17. But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceful, gentle, reasonable, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy. 3.18. Now the fruit of righteousness is sown in peace by those who make peace. 4.6. But he gives more grace. Therefore it says, "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble. 4.11. Don't speak against one another, brothers. He who speaks against a brother and judges his brother, speaks against the law and judges the law. But if you judge the law, you are not a doer of the law, but a judge. 5.9. Don't grumble, brothers, against one another, so that you won't be judged. Behold, the judge stands at the door. 5.12. But above all things, my brothers, don't swear, neither by heaven, nor by the earth, nor by any other oath; but let your "yes" be "yes," and your "no," "no;" so that you don't fall into hypocrisy.
49. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.3-1.14, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.11. in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his will; 1.12. to the end that we should be to the praise of his glory, we who had before hoped in Christ: 1.13. in whom you also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation, -- in whom, having also believed, you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise 1.14. who is a pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of his glory. 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace;
50. New Testament, Galatians, 1.18, 2.1, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem tovisit Peter, and stayed with him fifteen days. 2.1. Then after a period of fourteen years I went up again toJerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me. 2.9. and when they perceived the grace that was given tome, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars,gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should goto the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision.
51. New Testament, Hebrews, 13.22-13.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.22. But I exhort you, brothers, endure the word of exhortation, for I have written to you in few words. 13.23. Know that our brother Timothy has been freed, with whom, if he comes shortly, I will see you. 13.24. Greet all of your leaders and all the saints. The Italians greet you. 13.25. Grace be with you all. Amen.
52. New Testament, Romans, 1.25, 2.17-2.24, 2.28, 7.12, 8.3, 10.6-10.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.25. who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. 2.17. Indeed you bear the name of a Jew, and rest on the law, and glory in God 2.18. and know his will, and approve the things that are excellent, being instructed out of the law 2.19. and are confident that you yourself are a guide of the blind, a light to those who are in darkness 2.20. a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of babies, having in the law the form of knowledge and of the truth. 2.21. You therefore who teach another, don't you teach yourself? You who preach that a man shouldn't steal, do you steal? 2.22. You who say a man shouldn't commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 2.23. You who glory in the law, through your disobedience of the law do you dishonor God? 2.24. For "the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you," just as it is written. 2.28. For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; 7.12. Therefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach:
53. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.18, 5.23, 12.12-12.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. 1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 5.23. that all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. He who doesn't honor the Son doesn't honor the Father who sent him. 12.12. On the next day a great multitude had come to the feast. When they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem 12.13. they took the branches of the palm trees, and went out to meet him, and cried out, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord, the King of Israel! 12.14. Jesus, having found a young donkey, sat on it. As it is written 12.15. Don't be afraid, daughter of Zion. Behold, your King comes, sitting on a donkey's colt.
54. New Testament, Luke, 1.72-1.73, 1.75, 4.1-4.29, 4.43, 5.14, 5.24, 6.20-6.49, 7.11-7.17, 7.28, 8.1, 8.10, 9.2, 9.51-9.52, 9.59-9.62, 10.5, 10.9, 11.20, 11.42-11.44, 11.46-11.47, 11.52, 13.18, 13.20, 14.15, 14.26, 15.15, 16.16, 16.18, 17.3, 17.20-17.21, 18.16-18.17, 18.20, 19.11, 19.36-19.37, 21.31, 22.7-22.14, 22.16, 22.18, 22.54, 22.63-22.71, 23.34, 23.43, 24.15-24.17, 24.25-24.27, 24.44-24.51 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.72. To show mercy towards our fathers, To remember his holy covet 1.73. The oath which he spoke to Abraham, our father 1.75. In holiness and righteousness before him all the days of our life. 4.1. Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness 4.2. for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 4.3. The devil said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread. 4.4. Jesus answered him, saying, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.' 4.5. The devil, leading him up on a high mountain, showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 4.6. The devil said to him, "I will give you all this authority, and their glory, for it has been delivered to me; and I give it to whomever I want. 4.7. If you therefore will worship before me, it will all be yours. 4.8. Jesus answered him, "Get behind me Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.9. He led him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down from here 4.10. for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you, to guard you;' 4.11. and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, Lest perhaps you dash your foot against a stone.' 4.12. Jesus answering, said to him, "It has been said, 'You shall not tempt the Lord your God.' 4.13. When the devil had completed every temptation, he departed from him until another time. 4.14. Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee, and news about him spread through all the surrounding area. 4.15. He taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian. 4.28. They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. 4.29. They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff. 4.43. But he said to them, "I must preach the good news of the Kingdom of God to the other cities also. For this reason I have been sent. 5.14. He charged him to "Tell no one, but go your way, and show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing according to what Moses commanded, for a testimony to them. 5.24. But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins" (he said to the paralyzed man), "I tell you, arise, and take up your cot, and go to your house. 6.20. He lifted up his eyes to his disciples, and said, "Blessed are you poor, For yours is the Kingdom of God. 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake. 6.23. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. 6.24. But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 6.25. Woe to you, you who are full now! For you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now! For you will mourn and weep. 6.26. Woe, when men speak well of you! For their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets. 6.27. But I tell you who hear: love your enemies, do good to those who hate you 6.28. bless those who curse you, and pray for those who insult you. 6.29. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak, don't withhold your coat also. 6.30. Give to everyone who asks you, and don't ask him who takes away your goods to give them back again. 6.31. As you would like people to do to you, do exactly so to them. 6.32. If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 6.33. If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 6.34. If you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners, to receive back as much. 6.35. But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind toward the unthankful and evil. 6.36. Therefore be merciful, Even as your Father is also merciful. 6.37. Don't judge, And you won't be judged. Don't condemn, And you won't be condemned. Set free, And you will be set free. 6.38. Give, and it will be given to you: good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over, will be given to you. For with the same measure you measure it will be measured back to you. 6.39. He spoke a parable to them. "Can the blind guide the blind? Won't they both fall into a pit? 6.40. A disciple is not above his teacher, but everyone when he is fully trained will be like his teacher. 6.41. Why do you see the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye, but don't consider the beam that is in your own eye? 6.42. Or how can you tell your brother, 'Brother, let me remove the speck of chaff that is in your eye,' when you yourself don't see the beam that is in your own eye? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye. 6.43. For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. 6.44. For each tree is known by its own fruit. For people don't gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. 6.45. The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings out that which is good, and the evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart brings out that which is evil, for out of the abundance of the heart, his mouth speaks. 6.46. Why do you call me, 'Lord, Lord,' and don't do the things which I say? 6.47. Everyone who comes to me, and hears my words, and does them, I will show you who he is like. 6.48. He is like a man building a house, who dug and went deep, and laid a foundation on the rock. When a flood arose, the stream broke against that house, and could not shake it, because it was founded on the rock. 6.49. But he who hears, and doesn't do, is like a man who built a house on the earth without a foundation, against which the stream broke, and immediately it fell, and the ruin of that house was great. 7.11. It happened soon afterwards, that he went to a city called Nain. Many of his disciples, along with a great multitude, went with him. 7.12. Now when he drew near to the gate of the city, behold, one who was dead was carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow. Many people of the city were with her. 7.13. When the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said to her, "Don't cry. 7.14. He came near and touched the coffin, and the bearers stood still. He said, "Young man, I tell you, arise! 7.15. He who was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he gave him to his mother. 7.16. Fear took hold of all, and they glorified God, saying, "A great prophet has arisen among us!" and, "God has visited his people! 7.17. This report went out concerning him in the whole of Judea, and in all the surrounding region. 7.28. For I tell you, among those who are born of women there is not a greater prophet than John the Baptizer, yet he who is least in the Kingdom of God is greater than he. 8.1. It happened soon afterwards, that he went about through cities and villages, preaching and bringing the good news of the Kingdom of God. With him were the twelve 8.10. He said, "To you it is given to know the mysteries of the Kingdom of God, but to the rest in parables; that 'seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not understand.' 9.2. He sent them forth to preach the Kingdom of God, and to heal the sick. 9.51. It came to pass, when the days were near that he should be taken up, he intently set his face to go to Jerusalem 9.52. and sent messengers before his face. They went, and entered into a village of the Samaritans, so as to prepare for him. 9.59. He said to another, "Follow me!"But he said, "Lord, allow me first to go and bury my father. 9.60. But Jesus said to him, "Leave the dead to bury their own dead, but you go and announce the Kingdom of God. 9.61. Another also said, "I want to follow you, Lord, but first allow me to bid farewell to those who are at my house. 9.62. But Jesus said to him, "No one, having put his hand to the plow, and looking back, is fit for the Kingdom of God. 10.5. Into whatever house you enter, first say, 'Peace be to this house.' 10.9. Heal the sick who are therein, and tell them, 'The Kingdom of God has come near to you.' 11.20. But if I by the finger of God cast out demons, then the Kingdom of God has come to you. 11.42. But woe to you Pharisees! For you tithe mint and rue and every herb, but you bypass justice and the love of God. You ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 11.43. Woe to you Pharisees! For you love the best seats in the synagogues, and the greetings in the marketplaces. 11.44. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like hidden graves, and the men who walk over them don't know it. 11.46. He said, "Woe to you lawyers also! For you load men with burdens that are difficult to carry, and you yourselves won't even lift one finger to help carry those burdens. 11.47. Woe to you! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and your fathers killed them. 11.52. Woe to you lawyers! For you took away the key of knowledge. You didn't enter in yourselves, and those who were entering in, you hindered. 13.18. He said, "What is the Kingdom of God like? To what shall I compare it? 13.20. Again he said, "To what shall I compare the Kingdom of God? 14.15. When one of those who sat at the table with him heard these things, he said to him, "Blessed is he who will feast in the Kingdom of God! 14.26. If anyone comes to me, and doesn't hate his own father, mother, wife, children, brothers, and sisters, yes, and his own life also, he can't be my disciple. 15.15. He went and joined himself to one of the citizens of that country, and he sent him into his fields to feed pigs. 16.16. The law and the prophets were until John. From that time the gospel of the Kingdom of God is preached, and everyone is forcing his way into it. 16.18. Everyone who divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery. He who marries one who is divorced from a husband commits adultery. 17.3. Be careful. If your brother sins against you, rebuke him. If he repents, forgive him. 17.20. Being asked by the Pharisees when the Kingdom of God would come, he answered them, "The Kingdom of God doesn't come with observation; 17.21. neither will they say, 'Look, here!' or, 'Look, there!' for behold, the Kingdom of God is within you. 18.16. Jesus summoned them, saying, "Allow the little children to come to me, and don't hinder them, for the Kingdom of God belongs to such as these. 18.17. Most assuredly, I tell you, whoever doesn't receive the Kingdom of God like a little child, he will in no way enter into it. 18.20. You know the commandments: 'Don't commit adultery,' 'Don't murder,' 'Don't steal,' 'Don't give false testimony,' 'Honor your father and your mother.' 19.11. As they heard these things, he went on and told a parable, because he was near Jerusalem, and they supposed that the Kingdom of God would be revealed immediately. 19.36. As he went, they spread their cloaks in the way. 19.37. As he was now getting near, at the descent of the Mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works which they had seen 21.31. Even so you also, when you see these things happening, know that the Kingdom of God is near. 22.7. The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed. 22.8. He sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat. 22.9. They said to him, "Where do you want us to prepare? 22.10. He said to them, "Behold, when you have entered into the city, a man carrying a pitcher of water will meet you. Follow him into the house which he enters. 22.11. Tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"' 22.12. He will show you a large, furnished upper room. Make preparations there. 22.13. They went, found things as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover. 22.14. When the hour had come, he sat down with the twelve apostles. 22.16. for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God. 22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes. 22.54. They seized him, and led him away, and brought him into the high priest's house. But Peter followed from a distance. 22.63. The men who held Jesus mocked him and beat him. 22.64. Having blindfolded him, they struck him on the face and asked him, "Prophesy! Who is the one who struck you? 22.65. They spoke many other things against him, insulting him. 22.66. As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying 22.67. If you are the Christ, tell us."But he said to them, "If I tell you, you won't believe 22.68. and if I ask, you will in no way answer me or let me go. 22.69. From now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God. 22.70. They all said, "Are you then the Son of God?"He said to them, "You say it, because I AM. 22.71. They said, "Why do we need any more witness? For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth! 23.34. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they don't know what they are doing."Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots. 23.43. Jesus said to him, "Assuredly I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise. 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled. 24.45. Then he opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures. 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem. 24.48. You are witnesses of these things. 24.49. Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high. 24.50. He led them out as far as Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. 24.51. It happened, while he blessed them, that he withdrew from them, and was carried up into heaven.
55. New Testament, Mark, 1.1-1.11, 1.22, 1.44, 4.1-4.13, 6.20-6.49, 7.21, 9.1, 10.2-10.12, 10.18-10.19, 11.1-11.7, 12.28, 14.12-14.17, 14.53, 14.55-14.65, 15.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you. 1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins. 1.6. John was clothed with camel's hair and a leather belt around his loins. He ate locusts and wild honey. 1.7. He preached, saying, "After me comes he who is mightier than I, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 1.9. It happened in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized by John in the Jordan. 1.10. Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 1.22. They were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes. 1.44. and said to him, "See you say nothing to anybody, but go show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing the things which Moses commanded, for a testimony to them. 4.1. Again he began to teach by the seaside. A great multitude was gathered to him, so that he entered into a boat in the sea, and sat down. All the multitude were on the land by the sea. 4.2. He taught them many things in parables, and told them in his teaching 4.3. Listen! Behold, the farmer went out to sow 4.4. and it happened, as he sowed, some seed fell by the road, and the birds came and devoured it. 4.5. Others fell on the rocky ground, where it had little soil, and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of soil. 4.6. When the sun had risen, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 4.7. Others fell among the thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 4.8. Others fell into the good ground, and yielded fruit, growing up and increasing. Some brought forth thirty times, some sixty times, and some one hundred times as much. 4.9. He said, "Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear. 4.10. When he was alone, those who were around him with the twelve asked him about the parables. 4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.' 4.13. He said to them, "Don't you understand this parable? How will you understand all of the parables? 6.20. for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and kept him safe. When he heard him, he did many things, and he heard him gladly. 6.21. Then a convenient day came, that Herod on his birthday made a supper for his nobles, the high officers, and the chief men of Galilee. 6.22. When the daughter of Herodias herself came in and danced, she pleased Herod and those sitting with him. The king said to the young lady, "Ask me whatever you want, and I will give it to you. 6.23. He swore to her, "Whatever you shall ask of me, I will give you, up to half of my kingdom. 6.24. She went out, and said to her mother, "What shall I ask?"She said, "The head of John the Baptizer. 6.25. She came in immediately with haste to the king, and asked, "I want you to give me right now the head of John the Baptizer on a platter. 6.26. The king was exceedingly sorry, but for the sake of his oaths, and of his dinner guests, he didn't wish to refuse her. 6.27. Immediately the king sent out a soldier of his guard, and commanded to bring John's head, and he went and beheaded him in the prison 6.28. and brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the young lady; and the young lady gave it to her mother. 6.29. When his disciples heard this, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb. 6.30. The apostles gathered themselves together to Jesus, and they told him all things, whatever they had done, and whatever they had taught. 6.31. He said to them, "You come apart into a deserted place, and rest awhile." For there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat. 6.32. They went away in the boat to a desert place by themselves. 6.33. They saw them going, and many recognized him and ran there on foot from all the cities. They arrived before them and came together to him. 6.34. Jesus came out, saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things. 6.35. When it was late in the day, his disciples came to him, and said, "This place is deserted, and it is late in the day. 6.36. Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat. 6.37. But he answered them, "You give them something to eat."They asked him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread, and give them something to eat? 6.38. He said to them, "How many loaves do you have? Go see."When they knew, they said, "Five, and two fish. 6.39. He commanded them that everyone should sit down in groups on the green grass. 6.40. They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties. 6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 6.42. They all ate, and were filled. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 6.44. Those who ate the loaves were five thousand men. 6.45. Immediately he made his disciples get into the boat, and to go ahead to the other side, to Bethsaida, while he himself sent the multitude away. 6.46. After he had taken leave of them, he went up the mountain to pray. 6.47. When evening had come, the boat was in the midst of the sea, and he was alone on the land. 6.48. Seeing them distressed in rowing, for the wind was contrary to them, about the fourth watch of the night he came to them, walking on the sea, and he would have passed by them 6.49. but they, when they saw him walking on the sea, supposed that it was a ghost, and cried out; 7.21. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts 9.1. He said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, there are some standing here who will in no way taste death, until they see the Kingdom of God come with power. 10.2. Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? 10.3. He answered, "What did Moses command you? 10.4. They said, "Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her. 10.5. But Jesus said to them, "For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. 10.6. But from the beginning of the creation, 'God made them male and female. 10.7. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will join to his wife 10.8. and the two will become one flesh,' so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. 10.9. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate. 10.10. In the house, his disciples asked him again about the same matter. 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery. 10.18. Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good except one -- God. 10.19. You know the commandments: 'Do not murder,' 'Do not commit adultery,' 'Do not steal,' 'Do not give false testimony,' 'Do not defraud,' 'Honor your father and mother.' 11.1. When they drew near to Jerusalem, to Bethsphage and Bethany, at the Mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples 11.2. and said to them, "Go your way into the village that is opposite you. Immediately as you enter into it, you will find a colt tied, on which no one has sat. Untie him, and bring him. 11.3. If anyone asks you, 'Why are you doing this?' say, 'The Lord needs him;' and immediately he will send him back here. 11.4. They went away, and found a colt tied at the door outside in the open street, and they untied him. 11.5. Some of those who stood there asked them, "What are you doing, untying the colt? 11.6. They said to them just as Jesus had said, and they let them go. 11.7. They brought the colt to Jesus, and threw their garments on it, and Jesus sat on it. 12.28. One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all? 14.12. On the first day of unleavened bread, when they sacrificed the Passover, his disciples asked him, "Where do you want us to go and make ready that you may eat the Passover? 14.13. He sent two of his disciples, and said to them, "Go into the city, and there you will meet a man carrying a pitcher of water. Follow him 14.14. and wherever he enters in, tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"' 14.15. He will himself show you a large upper room furnished and ready. Make ready for us there. 14.16. His disciples went out, and came into the city, and found things as he had said to them, and they prepared the Passover. 14.17. When it was evening he came with the twelve. 14.53. They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him. 14.55. Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none. 14.56. For many gave false testimony against him, and their testimony didn't agree with each other. 14.57. Some stood up, and gave false testimony against him, saying 14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.' 14.59. Even so, their testimony did not agree. 14.60. The high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer? What is it which these testify against you? 14.61. But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky. 14.63. The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses? 14.64. You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?" They all condemned him to be worthy of death. 14.65. Some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to beat him with fists, and to tell him, "Prophesy!" The officers struck him with the palms of their hands. 15.21. They compelled one passing by, coming from the country, Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to go with them, that he might bear his cross.
56. New Testament, Matthew, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 3, 3.2, 3.9, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.13, 4.17, 4.23, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, 5.29, 5.30, 5.31, 5.32, 5.33, 5.35, 5.36, 5.37, 5.38, 5.39, 5.40, 5.41, 5.42, 5.43, 5.44, 5.45, 5.46, 5.47, 5.48, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.19-7.12, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.25, 6.26, 6.27, 6.28, 6.29, 6.30, 6.31, 6.32, 6.33, 6.34, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 8.4, 8.6, 8.12, 8.19, 8.20, 9.35, 10, 10.32, 11.1, 11.11, 11.12, 11.23, 11.25, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 12.9, 12.28, 12.39, 13, 13.11, 13.24, 13.31, 13.33, 13.45, 13.47, 13.52, 13.53, 13.54, 13.55, 13.56, 13.57, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.19, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 16.1, 16.6, 16.11, 16.12, 16.17, 16.18, 16.19, 18, 18.1, 18.3, 18.4, 18.10, 18.14, 18.18, 18.23, 19, 19.1, 19.9, 19.12, 19.14, 19.19, 19.21, 20.29, 20.30, 20.31, 20.32, 20.33, 20.34, 21.25, 21.41, 21.43, 22.23, 22.24, 22.25, 22.26, 22.27, 22.28, 22.29, 22.30, 22.31, 22.32, 22.33, 22.34, 22.36, 22.37, 22.38, 22.39, 22.40, 23, 23.3, 23.4, 23.5, 23.6, 23.7, 23.8, 23.9, 23.10, 23.11, 23.12, 23.13, 23.14, 23.15, 23.16, 23.17, 23.18, 23.19, 23.20, 23.21, 23.22, 23.23, 23.24, 23.25, 23.26, 23.27, 23.28, 23.29, 23.30, 23.31, 23.32, 23.33, 23.34, 23.35, 23.36, 23.37, 24, 24.12, 24.33, 25, 25.1, 25.34, 25.35, 26.17, 26.18, 26.19, 26.20, 26.59, 27.1, 27.6, 27.25, 27.32, 27.62, 28.15, 28.18, 28.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

57. Plutarch, Roman Questions, 44, 14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Why do sons cover their heads when they escort their parents to the grave, while daughters go with uncovered heads and hair unbound? Is it because fathers should be honoured as gods by their male offspring, but mourned as dead by their daughters, that custom has assigned to each sex its proper part and has produced a fitting result from both? Or is it that the unusual is proper in mourning, and it is more usual for women to go forth in public with their heads covered and men with their heads uncovered? So in Greece, whenever any misfortune comes, the women cut off their hair and the men let it grow, for it is usual for men to have their hair cut and for women to let it grow. Or is it that it has become customary for sons to cover their heads for the reason already given? The first reason above: The father should be honoured as a god. For they turn about at the graves, as Varro relates, thus honouring the tombs of their fathers even as they do the shrines of the gods: and when they have cremated their parents, they declare that the dead person has become a god at the moment when first they find a bone. Cf. Cicero, De Legibus, ii. 22 (57). But formerly women were not allowed to cover the head at all. At least it is recorded that Spurius Carvilius Cf. 278 e, infra ; Comparison of Lycurgus and Numa, iii. (77 c); Comparison of Theseus and Romulus, vi. (39 b); Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, ii. 25. 7; Valerius Maximus, ii. 1. 4; Aulus Gellius, iv. 3. 2; xvii. 21. 44; Tertullian, Apol. vi., De Monogamia, ix. was the first man to divorce his wife and the reason was her barrenness: the second was Sulpicius Gallus, because he saw his wife pull her cloak over her head: and the third was Publius Sempronius, because his wife had been present as a spectator at funeral games. Cf. Valerius Maximus, vi. 3. 10. 14. Why do sons cover their heads when they escort their parents to the grave, while daughters go with uncovered heads and hair unbound? Is it because fathers should be honoured as gods by their male offspring, but mourned as dead by their daughters, that custom has assigned to each sex its proper part and has produced a fitting result from both? Or is it that the unusual is proper in mourning, and it is more usual for women to go forth in public with their heads covered and men with their heads uncovered? So in Greece, whenever any misfortune comes, the women cut off their hair and the men let it grow, for it is usual for men to have their hair cut and for women to let it grow. Or is it that it has become customary for sons to cover their heads for the reason already given? For they turn about at the graves, as Varro relates, thus honouring the tombs of their fathers even as they do the shrines of the gods; and when they have cremated their parents, they declare that the dead person has become a god at the moment when first they find a bone. But formerly women were not allowed to cover the head at all. At least it is recorded that Spurius Carvilius was the first man to divorce his wife and the reason was her barrenness; the second was Sulpicius Gallus, because he saw his wife pull her cloak over her head; and the third was Publius Sempronius, because his wife had been present as a spectator at funeral games.
58. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

59. Tosefta, Sotah, 7.2, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

60. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 24.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

24.7. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי מְנַחֵם בְּשֵׁם רַב אָמַר כָּל הָאֻמָנִיּוֹת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לְמָדָם, מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ (ישעיה מד, יא): וְחָרָשִׁים הֵמָּה מֵאָדָם, מֵאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. רַבָּנָן אָמְרִין אֲפִלּוּ סִרְגּוּלוֹ שֶׁל סֵפֶר, אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לְמָדוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ה, א): זֶה סֵפֶר, הוּא וְסִרְגּוּלוֹ. (בראשית ה, א): בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם, הָדָא מְסַיְּעָא לְהַהִיא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה שָׁלשׁ פְּלָאִים נַעֲשׂוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם נִבְרְאוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שִׁמְשׁוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הוֹצִיאוּ תּוֹלָדוֹת. בֶּן עֲזַאי אוֹמֵר זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם, זֶה כְּלַל גָּדוֹל בַּתּוֹרָה, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא יט, יח): וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ, זֶה כְּלַל גָּדוֹל בַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁלֹא תֹאמַר הוֹאִיל וְנִתְבַּזֵּיתִי יִתְבַּזֶה חֲבֵרִי עִמִּי, הוֹאִיל וְנִתְקַלַּלְתִּי יִתְקַלֵּל חֲבֵרִי עִמִּי. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אִם עָשִׂיתָ כֵּן דַּע לְמִי אַתָּה מְבַזֶּה בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אוֹתוֹ. 24.7. Rabbi Tanchuma said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Menachem in the name of Rav said... Ben Azzai said: “These are the generations of Adam\" is a great principle in the Torah. Rabbi Akiva said: This is a great principle of the Torah: \"You shall love your neighbor as yourself\" (Lev. 19:18). Thus, one should not say, “Since I am scorned, I should scorn my fellow as well; since I have been cursed, I will curse my fellow as well.” Rabbi Tanchumah said, if you act thus, realize who it is that you are willing to have humiliated - \"the one who was made in the likeness of God.\" Rabbi Tanchuma says, “If you do so, you should know who are you scorning — ‘in the likeness of God He created him.’”"
61. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 122 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

62. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.27.2, 3.12.12, 4.13.1, 4.33.15, 4.34 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.34. After, then, we have succinctly explained the powers of the secret arts practised among these (magicians), and have shown their easy plan for the acquisition of knowledge, neither are we disposed to be silent on the following point, which is a necessary one - how that, loosing the seals, they restore the sealed letters, with the actual seals themselves. Melting pitch, resin, and sulphur, and moreover asphalt, in equal parts, (and) forming the ointment into a figure, they keep it by them. When, however, it is time to loose a small tablet, smearing with oil their tongue, next with the latter anointing the seal, (and) heating the drug with a moderate fire, (the sorcerers) place it upon the seal; and they leave it there until it has acquired complete consistence, and they use it in this condition as a seal. But they say, likewise, that wax itself with fir-wood gum possesses a similar potency, as well as two parts of mastich with one part of dry asphalt. But sulphur also by itself effects the purpose tolerably well, and flower of gypsum strained with water, and of gum. Now this (last mixture) certainly answers most admirably also for sealing molten lead. And that which is accomplished by the Tuscan wax, and refuse of resin, and pitch, and asphalt, and mastich, and powdered spar, all being boiled together in equal parts, is superior to the rest of the drugs which I have mentioned, while that which is effected by the gum is not inferior. In this manner, then, also, they attempt to loose the seals, endeavouring to learn the letters written within. These contrivances, however, I hesitated to narrate in this book, perceiving the danger lest, perchance, any knavish person, taking occasion (from my account), should attempt (to practise these juggleries). Solicitude, however, for many young persons, who could be preserved from such practices, has persuaded me to teach and publish, for security's sake, (the foregoing statements). For although one person may make use of these for gaining instruction in evil, in this way somebody else will, by being instructed (in these practices), be preserved from them. And the magicians themselves, corrupters of life, will be ashamed in plying their art. And learning these points that have been previously elucidated by us, they will possibly be restrained from their folly. But that this seal may not be broken, let me seal it with hog's lard and hair mixed with wax.
63. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. אי הכי מאי איריא הכונס את הבתולה אפי' כונס את האלמנה נמי,הכא טריד והכא לא טריד,אי משום טרדא אפילו טבעה ספינתו בים נמי אלמה אמר רבי אבא בר זבדא אמר רב אבל חייב בכל מצות האמורות בתורה חוץ מן התפילין שהרי נאמר בהן פאר שנאמר (יחזקאל כד, יז) פארך חבוש עליך וגו',אמרי התם טרדא דרשות הכא טרדא דמצוה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big רחץ לילה הראשון שמתה אשתו אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאבל אסור לרחוץ אמר להם איני כשאר בני אדם אסטניס אני,וכשמת טבי עבדו קבל עליו תנחומין אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאין מקבלין תנחומין על העבדים אמר להם אין טבי עבדי כשאר כל העבדים כשר היה,חתן אם רוצה לקרות קרית שמע לילה הראשון קורא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא כל הרוצה ליטול את השם יטול:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט דרבן (שמעון בן) גמליאל קסבר אנינות לילה דרבנן דכתיב (עמוס ח, י) ואחריתה כיום מר ובמקום אסטניס לא גזרו ביה רבנן: ,וכשמת טבי עבדו וכו':,ת"ר עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ותנחומי אבלים,מעשה ומתה שפחתו של רבי אליעזר נכנסו תלמידיו לנחמו כיון שראה אותם עלה לעלייה ועלו אחריו נכנס לאנפילון נכנסו אחריו נכנס לטרקלין נכנסו אחריו אמר להם כמדומה אני שאתם נכוים בפושרים עכשיו אי אתם נכוים אפילו בחמי חמין לא כך שניתי לכם עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ולא תנחומי אבלים אלא מה אומרים עליהם כשם שאומרים לו לאדם על שורו ועל חמורו שמתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך כך אומרים לו על עבדו ועל שפחתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך,תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין מספידין אותן ר' יוסי אומר אם עבד כשר הוא אומרים עליו הוי איש טוב ונאמן ונהנה מיגיעו אמרו לו אם כן מה הנחת לכשרים:,ת"ר אין קורין אבות אלא לשלשה ואין קורין אמהות אלא לארבע,אבות מאי טעמא אילימא משום דלא ידעינן אי מראובן קא אתינן אי משמעון קא אתינן אי הכי אמהות נמי לא ידעינן אי מרחל קא אתינן אי מלאה קא אתינן אלא עד הכא חשיבי טפי לא חשיבי,תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין קורין אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית ושל ר"ג היו קורים אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית,מעשה לסתור משום דחשיבי:,א"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים סג, ה) כן אברכך בחיי בשמך אשא כפי כן אברכך בחיי זו ק"ש בשמך אשא כפי זו תפלה ואם עושה כן עליו הכתוב אומר (תהלים סג, ו) כמו חלב ודשן תשבע נפשי ולא עוד אלא שנוחל שני עולמים העוה"ז והעולם הבא שנאמר (תהלים סג, ו) ושפתי רננות יהלל פי:,ר' אלעזר בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתשכן בפורינו אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות ותרבה גבולנו בתלמידים ותצליח סופנו אחרית ותקוה ותשים חלקנו בגן עדן ותקננו בחבר טוב ויצר טוב בעולמך ונשכים ונמצא יחול לבבנו ליראה את שמך ותבא לפניך קורת נפשנו לטובה.,רבי יוחנן בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתציץ בבשתנו ותביט ברעתנו ותתלבש ברחמיך ותתכסה בעזך ותתעטף בחסידותך ותתאזר בחנינותך ותבא לפניך מדת טובך וענותנותך.,ר' זירא בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שלא נחטא ולא נבוש ולא נכלם מאבותינו,ר' חייא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתהא תורתך אומנותנו ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו.,רב בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתתן לנו חיים ארוכים חיים של שלום חיים של טובה חיים של ברכה חיים של פרנסה חיים של חלוץ עצמות חיים שיש בהם יראת חטא חיים שאין בהם בושה וכלימה חיים של עושר וכבוד חיים שתהא בנו אהבת תורה ויראת שמים חיים שתמלא לנו את כל משאלות לבנו לטובה.,רבי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו שתצילנו מעזי פנים ומעזות פנים מאדם רע ומפגע רע מיצר רע מחבר רע משכן רע ומשטן המשחית ומדין קשה ומבעל דין קשה בין שהוא בן ברית בין שאינו בן ברית,ואע"ג דקיימי קצוצי עליה דרבי.,רב ספרא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתשים שלום 16b. The Gemara questions this: bIf so, why discussa case of bone who is marrying a virginin particular? bEven one who is marrying a widowis performing a mitzva and should balsobe exempt.,The Gemara responds that nevertheless, there is a distinction between one marrying a virgin and one marrying a widow. bHere,in the case of one who marries a virgin, the groom is bpreoccupiedby his thoughts, bwhile here,in the case of one who marries a widow, bhe is not preoccupied. /b,The Gemara challenges: bIfa groom is exempt from the recitation of iShemasimply bdue to preoccupation,then bevenone who is preoccupied because bhis ship sank at sea shouldbe exempt. If so, bwhy then did Rabbi Abba bar Zavda saythat bRav said: A mourner is obligated in all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah except forthe mitzva to don bphylacteries, asthe term bsplendor is statedwith regard to phylacteries, bas it is statedthat the prophet Ezekiel was prohibited to mourn and was told: b“Bind your splendor upon yourself”(Ezekiel 24:17). If even a mourner, who is pained and preoccupied, is obligated to recite iShema /i, clearly preoccupation has no bearing upon one’s obligation.,The Gemara responds: Nevertheless, there is a distinction between the cases. bThere,it is a case of bpreoccupation with a voluntaryact, as there is no mitzva to be preoccupied with his mourning, but bhere,in the case of a groom, the cause of bthe preoccupation isthe bmitzvaitself., strongMISHNA: /strong The mishna relates another episode portraying unusual conduct by Rabban Gamliel. bHe bathed on the first night after his wife died. His students said to him:Have byounot btaught us, our teacher, that a mourner is prohibited to bathe?He answered them: bI am not like other people, I am delicate [ iistenis /i].For me, not bathing causes actual physical distress, and even a mourner need not suffer physical distress as part of his mourning.,Another exceptional incident is related: bAnd when his slave, Tavi, died,Rabban Gamliel baccepted condolences for hisdeath as one would for a close family member. bHis students said to him: Have younot btaught us, our teacher, that one does not accept condolences forthe death of bslaves?Rabban Gamliel said to his students: bMy slave, Tavi, is not like all the rest of the slaves, he was virtuousand it is appropriate to accord him the same respect accorded to a family member.,With regard to the recitation of iShemaon one’s wedding night, the Sages said that bif,despite his exemption, ba groom wishes to recite iShemaon the first night,he may do so. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Not everyone who wishes to assume the reputationof a God-fearing person bmay assumeit, and consequently, not everyone who wishes to recite iShemaon his wedding night may do so., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to Rabban Gamliel’s bathing on the first night after the death of his wife, the Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat bRabban Gamlieldid not practice the customs of mourning after his wife died? The Gemara answers: bHe holds thatacute mourning [ ianinut /i] is in effect only on the day of the death itself, but bacute mourning at night isonly bby rabbinic law, as it is written:“And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentations; I will bring sackcloth upon your loins and baldness upon every head; and I will make you like a mourner for an only child, band the end will be like a bitter day”(Amos 8:10). Therefore, by Torah law one’s acute mourning is only during the day, like a bitter day, while the acute mourning at night that follows is only rabbinic. bAnd in the case of a delicate person, the Sages did not issue a decreethat one should afflict himself during the period of acute mourning.,We learned in our mishna that: bWhen his servant, Tavi, died,Rabban Gamliel accepted condolences for him., bThe Sagestaught in a ibaraita /i: For bslaves and maidservantswho die, bone does not stand in a rowof comforters to console the mourners, band one recites neither the blessing of the mourners nor the consolation of the mourners. /b, bAn incidentis related that when bRabbi Eliezer’s maidservant died, his students entered to console him. When he saw themapproaching bhe went up to the second floor, and they went up after him. He entered the gatehouse [ ianpilon /i], and they entered after him. He entered the banquet hall [ iteraklin /i],and bthey entered after him.Having seen them follow him everywhere, bhe said to them: It seems to me that you would be burned by lukewarm water,meaning that you could take a hint and when I went up to the second floor, you would understand that I did not wish to receive your consolations. bNowI see that byou are not even burned by boiling hot water. Did I not teach you the following:For bslaves and maidservantswho die, bone does not stand in a rowof comforters to console the mourners, band one neither recites the blessing of the mourners nordoes he recite bthe consolation of the mourners,as the relationship between master and slave is not like a familial relationship? bRather, what does one say about themwhen they die? bJust as we say to a person about his ox or donkey which died: May the Omnipresent replenish your loss, so too do we say for one’s slave or maidservantwho died: bMay the Omnipresent replenish your loss,as the connection between a master and his slave is only ficial in nature., bIt was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne does not eulogize slaves and maidservants. Rabbi Yosei says: If he was a virtuous servant, one recites over hima eulogy of sorts: bAlas, a good and loyal man who enjoyedthe fruits bof his hard labor. They said to him: If so, whatpraise bhave you left for virtuousJews? A Jewish person would be proud to be eulogized in that manner., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may only call threepeople bpatriarchs,Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but not Jacob’s children. bAnd one may only call fourpeople bmatriarchs,Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this exclusivity with regard to the bPatriarchs? If you saythat it is bbecause we do not know whether we descend from Reuben or from Simon,so we cannot accurately say our father Reuben, for example, bif so,with regard to the Matriarchs as well, bwe do not know whether we descend from Rachel or from Leah,and we should not call Rachel and Leah matriarchs either. bInstead,the reason the sons of Jacob are not called patriarchs is not for that reason, but because buntilJacob bthey are significantenough to be referred to as patriarchs, but bbeyondJacob, bthey are not significantenough to be referred to as patriarchs.,This serves as an introduction; although older people are often referred to with the honorific: Father so-and-so, bit was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne may not refer to slaves and maidservants as father [ iabba /i] so-and-so or mother [ iimma /i] so-and-so. But they would callthe slaves and maidservants bof Rabban Gamliel “father so-and-so” and “mother so-and-so.” /b,The Gemara asks: Is a bstorycited in order bto contradictthe previously stated ihalakha /i? The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction; rather, bbecauseRabban Gamliel’s servants bwere significant,they were addressed with these honorifics.,The Gemara cites an aggadic statement concerning prayer and the recitation of iShema /i. bRabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “So I will bless You as I live, to Your name I will raise my hands”(Psalms 63:5)? bSo I will bless You as I live, refers to the recitation of iShema /i,and bto Your name I will raise my hands, refers tothe iAmida bprayer,which is characterized as lifting one’s hands to God. bAnd if one does so,recites iShemaand prays, bthe verse says about him: “As with fat and marrow, my soul will be satisfied”(Psalms 63:6). bAnd not onlydoes he receive this reward, bbut he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “With lips of joys [ ireot /i], my mouth praises You”(Psalms 63:6). The plural, joys, refers to two joys, that of this world and that of the World-to-Come.,The Gemara describes how bafter Rabbi Elazar concluded his prayer, he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bto cause to dwell in our lot love and brotherhood, peace and friendship. br bAnd may You make our borders rich in disciples br band cause us to ultimately succeed,that we will have a good bend and hope. br bAnd may You set our portion in the Garden of Eden, br band may You establish for us a good companion and a good inclination in Your world. br bAnd may we rise early and find the aspiration of our hearts to fear Your name, br band may the satisfaction of our souls come before You,i.e., may You hear our prayers that we may have spiritual contentment in this world bfor the best. /b,Similarly, the Gemara recounts that bafter Rabbi Yoḥa concluded his prayer, he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You look upon our shame and behold our plight, br bthat You clothe Yourself in Your mercy, br band cover Yourself with Your might, br bthat You wrap Yourself in Your loving-kindness, br band gird Yourself with Your grace, br band may Your attributes of goodness and humility come before You. /b,Similarly, bafter Rabbi Zeira concluded his prayers he said the followingadditional prayer: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat we not sin or shame ourselves, br band that we not disgrace ourselves before our forefathers, brin the sense that our actions should not disgrace the actions of our forefathers., bAfter Rabbi Ḥiyya prayed he said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat Your Torah should be our vocation, br band may our heart not become faint nor our eyes dim. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rav said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You grant us long life, a life of peace, br ba life of goodness, a life of blessing, br ba life of sustece, a life of freedom of movementfrom place to place, where we are not tied to one place, br ba life of dread of sin, a life without shame and disgrace, br ba life of wealth and honor, br ba life in which we have love of Torah and reverence for Heaven, br ba life in which You fulfill all the desires of our heart for good. /b, bAfter his prayer, RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, and God of our forefathers, br bthat You save us from the arrogant and from arrogancein general, br bfrom a bad man, from a bad mishap, br bfrom an evil instinct, from a bad companion, br bfrom a bad neighbor, from the destructive Satan, br bfrom a harsh trial and from a harsh opponent, br bwhether he is a member of the covet,a Jew, br bor whether he is not a member of the covet. /b, bAndthe Gemara notes that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would recite this prayer every day bdespite the fact thatroyal bofficers stoodwatch bover RabbiYehuda HaNasi for his protection; nevertheless, he prayed to avoid conflict or hindrance resulting from arrogance., bAfter his prayer, Rav Safra said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, that You establish peace /b
64. Origen, Exhortation To Martyrdom, 46 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

65. Augustine, Contra Adimantum Manichaei Discipulum, 8, 10 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

66. Anon., 2 Enoch, 49.2

67. Anon., 4 Baruch, 3.8, 3.14

3.8. And Jeremiah said: Behold, Lord, now we know that you are delivering the city into the hands of its enemies, and they will take the people away to Babylon. What do you want me to do with the holy vessels of the temple service? 3.14. And the Lord said to Jeremiah: Send him to the vineyard of Agrippa, and I will hide him in the shadow of the mountain until I cause the people to return to the city.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(biblical) law, lawlessness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
abraham Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 559
acts of the apostles, recurrent reference in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 495
adultery Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
ages of the world Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 190
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25
alexandrian Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 92
alms Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 122, 136; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 121
almsgiving, charity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 140
anger Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 44
animal, ass, donkey, mule Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 118
antioch, incident at Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 133
antitheses Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 122, 123, 127
antithesis Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 40
apologetics, christian, matthew's moses typology as" Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 495
apostolikon, marcions as a corruption of pauls letters Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 40
aramaic Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 101
arian or trinitarian controversiesnan Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 47
around Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 248
asseverative statements Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 140
assmann, jan Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257
attridge, h. w. Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 72
authority, human vs. divine/scriptural Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
authority, of oral law Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
authority, of scripture Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
baking Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 17
barnabas Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 133
beatitude, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123
beatitudes, reception history Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 474
beatitudes, two gospel versions Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 400
beatitudes, wesley, j. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 474
beatitudes Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 400, 474
behaviour Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 292, 294
belief, believer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
betz, hans dieter Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 137
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
blasphemy Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 140
body, blood Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 118
body of sin, flesh (of man) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 184
boundedness Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 248
byrskog, s. Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 110
catholics, catholic church, catholicism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 47
centurion at cross, conversion Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 71, 72
christian judaism Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 26
christianity Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 26, 92
christology, christological, high christology, lower christology Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
circumcision, of gentiles Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 133
clement of alexandria Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 138
clement of rome Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 138
clothing Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
commandments Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 246
commandments (of god) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 64
community, christian Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127, 132
community Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291, 293; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135, 136
conceptual, conceptualization Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 248
conceptual Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 248, 249
conditional, formula(e) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 140
conditional, imprecation Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 140
confession Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291
container Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 248
control, control is up metaphor Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 248, 249
control Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 248, 249
conversion, process Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291, 293
conversion, social/sociological aspects Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291, 292, 293, 294, 295
conversion Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 71, 72
cosmology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 146
court Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 140
criteria in textual criticism Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 21
crown, martyrs Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 72
crucifixion, cross Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 118
cult Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123
daly, robert j. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218
damascus document Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
daughters, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 559
david Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 559
davies, w. d. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218
day of atonement Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
day of judgement, last judgement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
dead sea scrolls vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
death, way of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245, 246
decalogue Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245, 246, 247
deficiency Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291
desire Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 292, 293, 294
disciple, twelve Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 118
disciple Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 120, 121
disciples of jesus, following jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121, 132, 135
disciples of jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121, 132, 135
disputes, schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25
divine Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 295
divine name, surrogate Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 140
divine name, swearing by the Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 140
divine presence Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218
divorce, law/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
divorce Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
divorce bill Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
double love commandment Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245, 246
drinking Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
earth Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 146
economics, debt Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 121
economics, extortion Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 118, 120, 121
economics, labor Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 118
economics, requisition (angareia) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 118, 120, 121
economics Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 118, 120, 121
emotion/emotional Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 293
en ἐν Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 248, 249
end of days/last days, eschaton Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108, 120
end of days tribulation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
eschatology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123, 135, 146; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
essenes Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401; Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 140
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25
ethical teachings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245, 246, 247
ethics Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
ethics\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 123
eucharist Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
evil, actions Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
evil Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 292, 293, 294, 295; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
exception clause Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
exclusive/exclusivity Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 294
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture, jesus command of scriptural exegesis Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
exegesis Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 200
exhortations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
exiles, assyrian Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257
exodus, recurrent reference in matthew narrative to Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 494, 495
ezra Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257
faith, faithfulness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
faith Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
fast Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
fasting Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
father, in the heavens Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 64
father Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 64
fauconnier, gilles Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 248
festivals, non-christian, in early christian literature Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 44
food Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
forgiveness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
fredriksen, paula Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 559
fulfillment Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 121
galilee, galilean Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
ga¨rtner, bertil Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218
gender, conflict Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 17
genre\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 123
gentleness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
geonic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 140
gerhardsson, b. Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 110
gnostics and gnosticism, hermeneutics of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 597
gnostics and gnosticism, secret or oral tradition, belief in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 597
gnostics and gnosticism Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 597
goal Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249
god, holy one, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 559
god, omniscience of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
god, will of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121
god (term) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 64
golden rule Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245, 246; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121, 123
good, the Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 294
gospel, of matthew Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 127, 132, 135, 136
gospels Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 246; Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 184
greek vocables and phrases, οὐρανός Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 21
grief Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
grounds for divorce Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 99
guilt Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
halakha, and scripture Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 72
happiness Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 293
hartin, patrick Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 232
health Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132
heart (καρδία) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
heaven, as substitution for the name of god Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 64
heaven, kingdom of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 146
heaven Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 64, 146
heavenly/angelic redeemer v-vi Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 140
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture, abolishing scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture, fulfilling scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
hellenistic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 292
heresiology, heresiological, heresiologists, heresiographers Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 184
heresy, heretics, heretical Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 47, 184
hermeneutic, allegorical Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 200
hermeneutic, of literalism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 200
hermeneutics, hermeneutical key Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25, 99
honor Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121
humility Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
husband Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 17
immersion Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
immutability, of divine law, and rabbinic rejection of Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 288
injustice Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 121
innovation through exegesis in rabbinic sources, through legislation in rabbinic sources' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 288
institutes, of gaius Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 288
interpreter of the torah, as messianic function, jesus as Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107, 108, 141
irenaeus of lyons, on gnostic hermeneutics Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 597
israel Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 559
james, letter of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 110
james, term brothers in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 229
james Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 133
jesus, and torah observance Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
jesus, as a prophetic anointed of the spirit Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
jesus, as bearer of gods logos Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
jesus, as the anointed one, the messiah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
jesus, as torah-righteous, torah-sage Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 108
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107, 108, 120, 141
jesus, historical Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 122
jesus, in matthew Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 286
jesus, in relation to the temple Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 160
jesus, kingly/davidic messiahship/descent Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
jesus, last supper of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 218
jesus, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121, 125, 127, 135
jesus, on oaths Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 160
jesus, on sacrifices Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 160
jesus, priestly (aaronic) connection Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
jesus-centered tradition Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
jesus Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 559; Zetterholm, The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christianity (2003) 133
jesus (of nazareth) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257
jesus christ Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 47, 184
jesus in manichaeism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 185
jew(ish), pharisees Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
jew(ish), scribes Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
jewish other, ritual Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
john the baptist Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 286
johnson, mark Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 248
jordan river Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
judaism Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291, 292
judgement, final (endgericht) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 132, 136
justice, righteousness, human attribute Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111
justice, righteousness, principle Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 121
justice Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 121, 127, 135
justification Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 294
kingdom of god/heaven, sons of the kingdom Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107, 120
kyrios Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
lakoff, george Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 248
landmark, path landmark Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249
landmark Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249
law, in early christian theology Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 44
law, ius talionis Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 120, 121
law, jewish Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 140
law, lawsuit, trial Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 121
law, mosaic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245, 246
law, roman Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 118, 120, 121
law, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 140
law, torah Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 111, 120, 121
law (mosaic) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 184
law and prophets Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 40
law divine/mosaic/jewish Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291, 292, 293, 295
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 25
life Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
light, true light Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
light of the world Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
location, metaphorical location Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 248, 249
location Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 248, 249
logion Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 125, 135
logoization, torah as logos Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
logos/gods word Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 141
lord, yoke of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
lords prayer, as community prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 136
lords prayer, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 127, 132, 135, 136
lords prayer, structure of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 136
lords prayer Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 102; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 120
love, for humankind/neighbor Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 293, 294, 295
love, for the enemy Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 294
love, human Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 120
love, of neighbours Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
love Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 293, 294, 295; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 123, 135
love (see also eros agape) Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
luke, gospel of, recurrent reference in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 495
luke, using matthew Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 105, 106
macarism Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 140
manuscripts, of the didache Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
marcion Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 146
marius victorinus, recurrent reference in passion narrative of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 494
martin, g. currie Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 229
martyr and martyrdom, christian, x Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 200
martyr and martyrdom, origen on Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 200
martyr and martyrdom, tertullian on Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 200
martyr and martyrdom Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 200
martyr crown of Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 72
martyrdom of potamiaena and basilides military convert Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 71
matthew's moses typology as apologetics" Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 495
matthew, community of Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 110
matthew, distinctives of Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 95, 96, 97, 101, 102, 105
matthew, five discourses Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 400
matthew, gospel of, recurrent reference in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 494, 495
matthew, gospel of Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
matthew, length of Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 101
matthew, on oaths Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 160
matthew, on sacrifices Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 160
matthew, on the pharisees Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 160
matthew (evangelist) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 135
matthew (gospel writer and gospel), abrogation of halakhah in Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 286
means Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 248
meier, john p. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 137, 138; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 232
mercy Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 127
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic, davidic, kingly Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
messiah, gods anointed, of aaron Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
messiah, gods anointed, prophetic messiahship Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
messiah, gods anointed, second temple messianic beliefs Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 107
messianic concepts Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 257
metanoia/metanoeō Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 291