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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

New Testament, Matthew, 22.15-22.22

nanThen the Pharisees went and took counsel how they might entrap him in his talk.

nanThey sent their disciples to him, along with the Herodians, saying, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and teach the way of God in truth, no matter who you teach, for you aren't partial to anyone.

nanTell us therefore, what do you think? Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?

nanBut Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, "Why do you test me, you hypocrites?

nanShow me the tax money."They brought to him a denarius.

nanThey said to him, "Caesar's."Then he said to them, "Give therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's.

nanWhen they heard it, they marveled, and left him, and went away.

nanHe asked them, "Whose is this image and inscription?

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

8 results
1. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.171-13.172, 20.97-20.99 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.171. 9. At this time there were three sects among the Jews, who had different opinions concerning human actions; the one was called the sect of the Pharisees, another the sect of the Sadducees, and the other the sect of the Essenes. 13.172. Now for the Pharisees, they say that some actions, but not all, are the work of fate, and some of them are in our own power, and that they are liable to fate, but are not caused by fate. But the sect of the Essenes affirm, that fate governs all things, and that nothing befalls men but what is according to its determination. 20.97. 1. Now it came to pass, while Fadus was procurator of Judea, that a certain magician, whose name was Theudas, persuaded a great part of the people to take their effects with them, and follow him to the river Jordan; for he told them he was a prophet, and that he would, by his own command, divide the river, and afford them an easy passage over it; 20.98. and many were deluded by his words. However, Fadus did not permit them to make any advantage of his wild attempt, but sent a troop of horsemen out against them; who, falling upon them unexpectedly, slew many of them, and took many of them alive. They also took Theudas alive, and cut off his head, and carried it to Jerusalem. 20.99. This was what befell the Jews in the time of Cuspius Fadus’s government.
2. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 7.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.218. He also laid a tribute upon the Jews wheresoever they were, and enjoined every one of them to bring two drachmae every year into the Capitol, as they used to pay the same to the temple at Jerusalem. And this was the state of the Jewish affairs at this time.
3. New Testament, Acts, 25.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25.16. To whom I answered that it is not the custom of the Romans to give up any man to destruction, before the accused have met the accusers face to face, and have had opportunity to make his defense concerning the matter laid against him.
4. New Testament, Luke, 6.11, 12.1, 13.20-13.21, 20.20-20.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.11. But they were filled with rage, and talked with one another about what they might do to Jesus. 12.1. Meanwhile, when a multitude of many thousands had gathered together, so much so that they trampled on each other, he began to tell his disciples first of all, "Beware of the yeast of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. 13.20. Again he said, "To what shall I compare the Kingdom of God? 13.21. It is like yeast, which a woman took and hid in three sata of flour, until it was all leavened. 20.20. They watched him, and sent out spies, who pretended to be righteous, that they might trap him in something he said, so as to deliver him up to the power and authority of the governor. 20.21. They asked him, "Teacher, we know that you say and teach what is right, and aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. 20.22. Is it lawful for us to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 20.23. But he perceived their craftiness, and said to them, "Why do you test me? 20.24. Show me a denarius. Whose image and inscription are on it?"They answered, "Caesar's. 20.25. He said to them, "Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 20.26. They weren't able to trap him in his words before the people. They marveled at his answer, and were silent.
5. New Testament, Mark, 3.6, 8.15, 12.13-12.17, 15.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 8.15. He charged them, saying, "Take heed: beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod. 12.13. They sent some of the Pharisees and of the Herodians to him, that they might trap him with words. 12.14. When they had come, they asked him, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and don't defer to anyone; for you aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 12.15. Shall we give, or shall we not give?"But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said to them, "Why do you test me? Bring me a denarius, that I may see it. 12.16. They brought it. He said to them, "Whose is this image and inscription?"They said to him, "Caesar's. 12.17. Jesus answered them, "Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's."They marveled greatly at him. 15.1. Immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate.
6. New Testament, Matthew, 12.14, 13.33, 16.6, 16.12, 17.24-17.27, 22.2, 22.16-22.19, 22.21-22.22, 22.34, 27.1, 27.7, 27.62, 28.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.14. But the Pharisees went out, and conspired against him, how they might destroy him. 13.33. He spoke another parable to them. "The Kingdom of Heaven is like yeast, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, until it was all leavened. 16.6. Jesus said to them, "Take heed and beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 16.12. Then they understood that he didn't tell them to beware of the yeast of bread, but of the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 17.24. When they had come to Capernaum, those who collected the didrachmas came to Peter, and said, "Doesn't your teacher pay the didrachma? 17.25. He said, "Yes."When he came into the house, Jesus anticipated him, saying, "What do you think, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth receive toll or tribute? From their sons, or from strangers? 17.26. Peter said to him, "From strangers."Jesus said to him, "Therefore the sons are exempt. 17.27. But, lest we cause them to stumble, go to the sea, and cast a hook, and take up the first fish that comes up. When you have opened its mouth, you will find a stater. Take that, and give it to them for me and you. 22.2. The Kingdom of Heaven is like a certain king, who made a marriage feast for his son 22.16. They sent their disciples to him, along with the Herodians, saying, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and teach the way of God in truth, no matter who you teach, for you aren't partial to anyone. 22.17. Tell us therefore, what do you think? Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 22.18. But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, "Why do you test me, you hypocrites? 22.19. Show me the tax money."They brought to him a denarius. 22.21. They said to him, "Caesar's."Then he said to them, "Give therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 22.22. When they heard it, they marveled, and left him, and went away. 22.34. But the Pharisees, when they heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, gathered themselves together. 27.1. Now when morning had come, all the chief priests and the elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: 27.7. They took counsel, and bought the potter's field with them, to bury strangers in. 27.62. Now on the next day, which was the day after the Preparation Day, the chief priests and the Pharisees were gathered together to Pilate 28.12. When they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave a large amount of silver to the soldiers
7. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 65.7.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17a. בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה ובין התלמידים העוסקים בתורתך בין עוסקין לשמה בין עוסקין שלא לשמה וכל העוסקין שלא לשמה יהי רצון שיהו עוסקין לשמה.,ר' אלכסנדרי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתעמידנו בקרן אורה ואל תעמידנו בקרן חשכה ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו איכא דאמרי הא רב המנונא מצלי לה ור' אלכסנדרי בתר דמצלי אמר הכי רבון העולמים גלוי וידוע לפניך שרצוננו לעשות רצונך ומי מעכב שאור שבעיסה ושעבוד מלכיות יהי רצון מלפניך שתצילנו מידם ונשוב לעשות חוקי רצונך בלבב שלם.,רבא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי אלהי עד שלא נוצרתי איני כדאי ועכשיו שנוצרתי כאלו לא נוצרתי עפר אני בחיי ק"ו במיתתי הרי אני לפניך ככלי מלא בושה וכלימה יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהי שלא אחטא עוד ומה שחטאתי לפניך מרק ברחמיך הרבים אבל לא ע"י יסורין וחלאים רעים והיינו וידוי דרב המנונא זוטי ביומא דכפורי.,מר בריה דרבינא כי הוה מסיים צלותיה אמר הכי אלהי נצור לשוני מרע ושפתותי מדבר מרמה ולמקללי נפשי תדום ונפשי כעפר לכל תהיה פתח לבי בתורתך ובמצותיך תרדוף נפשי ותצילני מפגע רע מיצר הרע ומאשה רעה ומכל רעות המתרגשות לבא בעולם וכל החושבים עלי רעה מהרה הפר עצתם וקלקל מחשבותם יהיו לרצון אמרי פי והגיון לבי לפניך ה' צורי וגואלי.,רב ששת כי הוה יתיב בתעניתא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי רבון העולמים גלוי לפניך בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אדם חוטא ומקריב קרבן ואין מקריבין ממנו אלא חלבו ודמו ומתכפר לו ועכשיו ישבתי בתענית ונתמעט חלבי ודמי יהי רצון מלפניך שיהא חלבי ודמי שנתמעט כאילו הקרבתיו לפניך על גבי המזבח ותרצני.,ר' יוחנן כי הוה מסיים ספרא דאיוב אמר הכי סוף אדם למות וסוף בהמה לשחיטה והכל למיתה הם עומדים אשרי מי שגדל בתורה ועמלו בתורה ועושה נחת רוח ליוצרו וגדל בשם טוב ונפטר בשם טוב מן העולם ועליו אמר שלמה (קהלת ז, א) טוב שם משמן טוב ויום המות מיום הולדו.,מרגלא בפומיה דר"מ גמור בכל לבבך ובכל נפשך לדעת את דרכי ולשקוד על דלתי תורתי נצור תורתי בלבך ונגד עיניך תהיה יראתי שמור פיך מכל חטא וטהר וקדש עצמך מכל אשמה ועון ואני אהיה עמך בכל מקום.,מרגלא בפומייהו דרבנן דיבנה אני בריה וחברי בריה אני מלאכתי בעיר והוא מלאכתו בשדה אני משכים למלאכתי והוא משכים למלאכתו כשם שהוא אינו מתגדר במלאכתי כך אני איני מתגדר במלאכתו ושמא תאמר אני מרבה והוא ממעיט שנינו אחד המרבה ואחד הממעיט ובלבד שיכוין לבו לשמים.,מרגלא בפומיה דאביי לעולם יהא אדם ערום ביראה (משלי טו, א) מענה רך משיב חמה ומרבה שלום עם אחיו ועם קרוביו ועם כל אדם ואפילו עם נכרי בשוק כדי שיהא אהוב למעלה ונחמד למטה ויהא מקובל על הבריות,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שלא הקדימו אדם שלום מעולם ואפילו נכרי בשוק.,מרגלא בפומיה דרבא תכלית חכמה תשובה ומעשים טובים שלא יהא אדם קורא ושונה ובועט באביו ובאמו וברבו ובמי שהוא גדול ממנו בחכמה ובמנין שנאמר (תהלים קיא, י) ראשית חכמה יראת ה' שכל טוב לכל עושיהם לעושים לא נאמר אלא לעושיהם לעושים לשמה ולא לעושים שלא לשמה וכל העושה שלא לשמה נוח לו שלא נברא.,מרגלא בפומיה דרב [לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא] העולם הבא אין בו לא אכילה ולא שתיה ולא פריה ורביה ולא משא ומתן ולא קנאה ולא שנאה ולא תחרות אלא צדיקים יושבין ועטרותיהם בראשיהם ונהנים מזיו השכינה שנאמר (שמות כד, יא) ויחזו את האלהים ויאכלו וישתו:,גדולה הבטחה שהבטיחן הקב"ה לנשים יותר מן האנשים שנא' (ישעיהו לב, ט) נשים שאננות קומנה שמענה קולי בנות בוטחות האזנה אמרתי,א"ל רב לר' חייא נשים במאי זכיין באקרויי בנייהו לבי כנישתא ובאתנויי גברייהו בי רבנן ונטרין לגברייהו עד דאתו מבי רבנן.,כי הוו מפטרי רבנן מבי ר' אמי ואמרי לה מבי ר' חנינא אמרי ליה הכי עולמך תראה בחייך ואחריתך לחיי העולם הבא ותקותך לדור דורים לבך יהגה תבונה פיך ידבר חכמות ולשונך ירחיש רננות עפעפיך יישירו נגדך עיניך יאירו במאור תורה ופניך יזהירו כזוהר הרקיע שפתותיך יביעו דעת וכליותיך תעלוזנה מישרים ופעמיך ירוצו לשמוע דברי עתיק יומין.,כי הוו מפטרי רבנן מבי רב חסדא ואמרי לה מבי ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמרו ליה הכי (תהלים קמד, יד) אלופינו מסובלים וגו',אלופינו מסובלים רב ושמואל ואמרי לה רבי יוחנן ור' אלעזר חד אמר אלופינו בתורה ומסובלים במצות וחד אמר אלופינו בתורה ובמצות ומסובלים ביסורים 17a. bin the heavenly entourage [ ipamalia /i]of angels each of whom ministers to a specific nation (see Daniel 10), and whose infighting causes war on earth; br band in the earthly entourage,the Sages, br band among the disciples engaged inthe study of bYour Torah, br bwhether they engage in itsstudy bfor its own sake or not for its own sake. br bAnd all those engagedin Torah study bnot for its own sake, br bmay it beYour bwillthat bthey will come to engagein its study bfor its own sake. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rabbi Alexandri said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You station us in a lighted corner and not in a darkened corner, br band do not let our hearts become faint nor our eyes dim. br bSome say that this was the prayer that Rav Hamnuna would recite, and that after Rabbi Alexandri prayed, he would say the following: br bMaster of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You br bthat our will is to perform Your will, and what prevents us? brOn the one hand, bthe yeast in the dough,the evil inclination that is within every person; br band the subjugation to the kingdomson the other. br bMay it be Your will br bthat You will deliver us from their hands,of both the evil inclination and the foreign kingdoms, brso that bwe may return to perform the edicts of Your will with a perfect heart. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rava said the following: br bMy God, before I was created I was worthless, br band now that I have been created it is as if I had not been created,I am no more significant. br bI am dust in life, all the more so in my death. br bI am before You as a vessel filled with shame and humiliation. brTherefore, bmay it be Your will, Lord my God, that I will sin no more, br band that thosetransgressions bthat I have committed, br bcleanse in Your abundant mercy; br bbutmay this cleansing bnotbe bby means of suffering and serious illness,but rather in a manner I will be able to easily endure. br bAnd this is the confession of Rav Hamnuna Zuti on Yom Kippur. /b, bWhen Mar, son of Ravina, would conclude his prayer, he said the following: br bMy God, guard my tongue from evil and my lips from speaking deceit. br bTo those who curse me let my soul be silent br band may my soul be like dust to all. br bOpen my heart to Your Torah, br band may my soul pursue your mitzvot. br bAnd save me from a bad mishap, from the evil inclination, br bfrom a bad woman, and from all evils that suddenly come upon the world. br bAnd all who plan evil against me, br bswiftly thwart their counsel, and frustrate their plans. br bMay the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart find favor before You, br bLord, my Rock and my Redeemer. /b,The Gemara recounts that bwhen Rav Sheshet would sit inobservance of ba fast, after he prayed he said as follows: br bMaster of the Universe, it is revealed before You brthat bwhen the Temple is standing, one sins and offers a sacrifice. br bAndalthough bonly its fat and blood were offered fromthat sacrifice on the altar, his transgression bis atoned for him. br bAnd now, I sat inobservance of ba fast and my fat and blood diminished. br bMay it be Your will that my fat and blood that diminished beconsidered as if bI offereda sacrifice bbefore You on the altar, br band may I find favor in Your eyes.brHaving cited statements that various Sages would recite after their prayers, the Gemara cites additional passages recited by the Sages on different occasions., bWhen Rabbi Yoḥa would concludestudy of bthe book of Job, he said the following: br bA person will ultimately die and an animal will ultimately be slaughtered, and all are destined for death.Therefore, death itself is not a cause for great anguish. brRather, bhappy is he who grew up in Torah, whose labor is in Torah, br bwho gives pleasure to his Creator, br bwho grew up with a good name and who took leave of the world with a good name. brSuch a person lived his life fully, band about him, Solomon said: br b“A good name is better than fine oil, and the day of death than the day of one’s birth”(Ecclesiastes 7:1); one who was faultless in life reaches the day of his death on a higher level than he was at the outset., bRabbi Meir was wont to saythe following idiom: br bStudy with all your heart and with all your soul to know My ways br band to be diligent at the doors of My Torah. br bKeep My Torah in your heart, br band fear of Me should be before your eyes. br bGuard your mouth from all transgression, br band purify and sanctify yourself from all fault and iniquity. br bAndif you do so, bI,God, bwill be with you everywhere. /b, bThe Sages in Yavne were wont to say: br bIwho learn Torah bamGod’s bcreature and my counterpartwho engages in other labor bisGod’s bcreature. br bMy work is in the city and his work is in the field. br bI rise early for my work and he rises early for his work. br bAnd just as he does not presume toperform bmy work, so I do not presume toperform bhis work. br bLest you say: Iengage in Torah study ba lot, while heonly engages in Torah study ba little,so I am better than he, br bit hasalready bbeen taught: br bOne who brings a substantialsacrifice band one who brings a meagersacrifice have equal merit, br bas long as he directs his heart towards Heaven(Rav Hai Gaon, iArukh /i)., bAbaye was wont to say: br bOne must always be shrewdand utilize every strategy binorder to achieve bfearof Heaven and performance of mitzvot. brOne must fulfill the verse: b“A soft answer turns away wrath”(Proverbs 15:1) brand take steps to bincrease peace with one’s brethren and with one’s relatives, br band with all people, even with a non-Jew in the marketplace,despite the fact that he is of no importance to him and does not know him at all ( iMe’iri /i), br bso that he will be loved abovein God’s eyes, br bpleasant belowin the eyes of the people, br band acceptable to allof God’s bcreatures. /b,Tangentially, the Gemara mentions that bthey said about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai that no one ever preceded him inissuing a bgreeting, not even a non-Jew in the marketplace,as Rabban Yoḥa would always greet him first., bRava was wont to say: br bThe objective ofTorah bwisdomis to achieve brepentance and good deeds; br bthat one should not readthe Torah band studymishna and become arrogant br band spurn his father and his mother and his teacher br band one who is greater than he in wisdom or inthe bnumberof students who study before him, br bas it is stated: “The beginning of wisdom is fear of the Lord, a good understanding have all who fulfill them”(Psalms 111:10). br bIt is not statedsimply: bAll who fulfill, but rather: All who fulfill them,those who perform these actions as they ought to be performed, meaning bthose who dosuch deeds bfor their own sake,for the sake of the deeds themselves, bnot those who do them not for their own sake. brRava continued: bOne who does them not for their own sake,it would have been bpreferable for him had he not been created. /b, bRav was wont to say: br bThe World-to-Come is not like this world. br bIn the World-to-Come there is no eating, no drinking, br bno procreation, nobusiness bnegotiations, br bno jealousy, no hatred, and no competition. br bRather, the righteous sit with their crowns upon their heads, enjoying the splendor of the Divine Presence, as it is stated: br b“And they beheld God, and they ate and drank”(Exodus 24:11), meaning that beholding God’s countece is tantamount to eating and drinking.,The Gemara states: bGreater is the promisefor the future bmade by the Holy One, Blessed be He, to women than to men, as it is stated: “Rise up, women at ease; hear My voice, confident daughters, listen to what I say”(Isaiah 32:9). This promise of ease and confidence is not given to men., bRav said to Rabbi Ḥiyya:By bwhatvirtue bdo women meritto receive this reward? Rabbi Ḥiyya answered: They merit this reward bfor bringing their children to readthe Torah bin the synagogue, and for sending their husbands to studymishna bin the study hall, and for waiting for their husbands until they return from the study hall. /b, bWhen the Sageswho had been studying there btook leave of the study hall of Rabbi Ami, and some sayit was bthe study hall of Rabbi Ḥanina, they would say to him the followingblessing: br bMay you see your world,may you benefit from all of the good in the world, bin your lifetime, br band may your end be to life in the World-to-Come, br band may your hopebe sustained bfor many generations. brMay byour heart meditate understanding, br byour mouth speak wisdom, and your tongue whisper with praise. brMay byour eyelids look directly before you, br byour eyes shine in the light of Torah, br band your face radiate like the brightness of the firmament. brMay byour lips express knowledge, br byour kidneys rejoice in the upright, br band your feet run to hear the words of the Ancient of Days,God (see Daniel 7)., bWhen the Sages took leave of the study hall of Rav Ḥisda, and some sayit was bthe study hall of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, they would say to him the following,in accordance with the verse: b“Our leaders are laden,there is no breach and no going forth and no outcry in our open places” (Psalms 144:14)., bOur leaders are laden. Rav and Shmuel, and some say Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar,disputed the proper understanding of this verse. bOne said: Our leaders in Torah are laden with mitzvot. And one said: Our leaders in Torah and mitzvot are laden with suffering. /b

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
appian,on tributum capitis Udoh (2006) 223
audience Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 187
babatha archive, census return in Udoh (2006) 223
caesar Sigal (2007) 77
census,and taxes Udoh (2006) 223, 225
census,of population Udoh (2006) 223
censuses Keddie (2019) 131
coins,and taxes Udoh (2006) 225, 228
coins,denarius Udoh (2006) 228
coins,didrachma Udoh (2006) 225, 228
de jonge,h. j. Taylor (2012) 111
denarius,in gospels Udoh (2006) 228
egypt Keddie (2019) 131
elites Keddie (2019) 131
estates,private Keddie (2019) 131
estates,public Keddie (2019) 131
fiscus iudaicus Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 162
gospels,as historical sources Udoh (2006) 284
gospels,evidence for tributum capitis in Udoh (2006) 223
half-shekel tax Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 162
hasmoneans Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 162
herodians,use of term,identification with the essenes Taylor (2012) 123
jesus,in relation to the temple Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 162
jesus,on the temple tax Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 162
jesus christ Udoh (2006) 284
jesus movement Udoh (2006) 284
jesus of nazareth,judas betrayal Taylor (2012) 111
jesus of nazareth,raising of lazarus Taylor (2012) 111
jesus of nazareth Taylor (2012) 111, 123
john,gospel of Taylor (2012) 111
josephus,and judaisms three schools of law Taylor (2012) 123
josephus,and the fourth philosophy Taylor (2012) 123
josephus,on judea,tributum soli in Udoh (2006) 223
josephus essenes,and the judaean revolt (c. Taylor (2012) 111
judaea,region of,and synagogues Taylor (2012) 111
judas iscariot Taylor (2012) 111
judea (jewish palestine),and provincial taxes Udoh (2006) 223, 225, 228
judea (jewish palestine),taxation of,under governors Udoh (2006) 223, 225, 228
judea (jewish palestine),tributum capitis (poll tax) in Udoh (2006) 223, 225, 228
judea (jewish palestine),tributum soli in Udoh (2006) 223
juvencus,evangeliorum libri quattuor Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 187
land tenancy,hired workers Keddie (2019) 131
landowners,tenants Keddie (2019) 131
lazarus Taylor (2012) 111
luke,gospel of,and the herodians Taylor (2012) 123
madness Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 187
mareotis,lake,characterization of the herodians Taylor (2012) 123
mareotis,lake,essene identity and Taylor (2012) 123
mareotis,lake,herod antipas,presentation of Taylor (2012) 123
mareotis,lake,mark,gospel of Taylor (2012) 111, 123
mareotis,lake,pharisees in Taylor (2012) 123
mareotis,lake,three legal authorities in Taylor (2012) 123
mark,jesus before pilate Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 748
mark,trial of jesus Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 748
mark Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 748
matthew,gospel of,herodians,use of term in Taylor (2012) 123
matthew,gospel of,portrayal of pharisees in Taylor (2012) 123
matthew,gospel of,sadducees and Taylor (2012) 123
matthew,on the pharisees Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 162
matthew,on the temple tax Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 162
new testament,pharisees and legal authority in Taylor (2012) 111
nicodemus Taylor (2012) 111
paul Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 748
pharisees,and josephus Taylor (2012) 111, 123
pharisees,and the temple tax Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 162
pharisees,depiction as chief priests Taylor (2012) 111
pharisees,in matthew Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 162
pharisees,in the new testament gospels Taylor (2012) 111, 123
pharisees,judaism of Taylor (2012) 111
pharisees Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 656; Keddie (2019) 131; Taylor (2012) 111; Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 187
pilate Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 748
ps.-tertullian Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 656
rent Keddie (2019) 131
roman empire,judicial procedure Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 748
roman empire,local security services Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 748
roman empire,power of governor Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 748
sadducees (tsedukim/tseduqim),in the new testament gospels Taylor (2012) 123
sadducees (tsedukim/tseduqim),josephus portrayal of Taylor (2012) 123
taxation,capitation tax Keddie (2019) 131
taxation,land tribute Keddie (2019) 131
taxation,rates Keddie (2019) 131
taxation Keddie (2019) 131
taxes,direct,mode of payment of Udoh (2006) 228
taxes,payment of,in coins Udoh (2006) 228
taxes,poll tax (tributum capitis),in gospels Udoh (2006) 223, 225, 228
taxes,poll tax (tributum capitis) Udoh (2006) 223, 225, 228
taxes,provincial,and judea Udoh (2006) 223, 225, 228
temple and essene practices,rejection,view of Taylor (2012) 123
theodotus Taylor (2012) 111
thompson,p. j. Taylor (2012) 111
tiberius (emperor) Udoh (2006) 223
tithes' Keddie (2019) 131
tribute,in kind Udoh (2006) 228
tributum capitis,as poll tax,and census of population Udoh (2006) 223
ulpian,and census Udoh (2006) 223
von wahlde,u. c. Taylor (2012) 111