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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8258
New Testament, Matthew, 15.8


Ὁ λαὸς οὗτος τοῖς χείλεσίν με τιμᾷ, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἀπέχει ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ·'These people draw near to me with their mouth, And honor me with their lips; But their heart is far from me.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

50 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 9.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.5. לֹא בְצִדְקָתְךָ וּבְיֹשֶׁר לְבָבְךָ אַתָּה בָא לָרֶשֶׁת אֶת־אַרְצָם כִּי בְּרִשְׁעַת הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מוֹרִישָׁם מִפָּנֶיךָ וּלְמַעַן הָקִים אֶת־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב׃ 9.5. Not for thy righteousness, or for the uprightness of thy heart, dost thou go in to possess their land; but for the wickedness of these nations the LORD thy God doth drive them out from before thee, and that He may establish the word which the LORD swore unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.13. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת־אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי־שְׁאֵר אִמְּךָ הִוא׃ 18.13. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister; for she is thy mother’s near kinswoman."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.18. בְּאֵר חֲפָרוּהָ שָׂרִים כָּרוּהָ נְדִיבֵי הָעָם בִּמְחֹקֵק בְּמִשְׁעֲנֹתָם וּמִמִּדְבָּר מַתָּנָה׃ 21.18. The well, which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre, and with their staves. And from the wilderness to Mattanah;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 21.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 29.12-29.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

29.12. וְנִתַּן הַסֵּפֶר עַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדַע סֵפֶר לֵאמֹר קְרָא נָא־זֶה וְאָמַר לֹא יָדַעְתִּי סֵפֶר׃ 29.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲדֹנָי יַעַן כִּי נִגַּשׁ הָעָם הַזֶּה בְּפִיו וּבִשְׂפָתָיו כִּבְּדוּנִי וְלִבּוֹ רִחַק מִמֶּנִּי וַתְּהִי יִרְאָתָם אֹתִי מִצְוַת אֲנָשִׁים מְלֻמָּדָה׃ 29.12. and the writing is delivered to him that is not learned, saying: ‘Read this, I pray thee’; and he saith: ‘I am not learned.’" 29.13. And the Lord said: Forasmuch as this people draw near, and with their mouth and with their lips do honour Me, But have removed their heart far from Me, And their fear of Me is a commandment of men learned by rote;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 31.31-31.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 31.32. לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.34. וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃ 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;" 31.32. not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD." 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;" 31.34. and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more."
7. Hebrew Bible, Haggai, a b c d\n0 "2.14" "2.14" "2 14" (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 5.8, 6.3, 8.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 5.8, 6.3, 8.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.27. וְהִגְבִּיר בְּרִית לָרַבִּים שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד וַחֲצִי הַשָּׁבוּעַ יַשְׁבִּית זֶבַח וּמִנְחָה וְעַל כְּנַף שִׁקּוּצִים מְשֹׁמֵם וְעַד־כָּלָה וְנֶחֱרָצָה תִּתַּךְ עַל־שֹׁמֵם׃ 9.27. And he shall make a firm covet with many for one week; and for half of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the offering to cease; and upon the wing of detestable things shall be that which causeth appalment; and that until the extermination wholly determined be poured out upon that which causeth appalment.’"
11. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.297, 17.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.297. but of these matters we shall speak hereafter. What I would now explain is this, that the Pharisees have delivered to the people a great many observances by succession from their fathers, which are not written in the laws of Moses; and for that reason it is that the Sadducees reject them, and say that we are to esteem those observances to be obligatory which are in the written word, but are not to observe what are derived from the tradition of our forefathers. 17.41. For there was a certain sect of men that were Jews, who valued themselves highly upon the exact skill they had in the law of their fathers, and made men believe they were highly favored by God, by whom this set of women were inveigled. These are those that are called the sect of the Pharisees, who were in a capacity of greatly opposing kings. A cunning sect they were, and soon elevated to a pitch of open fighting and doing mischief.
12. Mishnah, Avot, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. Moses received the torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be patient in [the administration of] justice, raise many disciples and make a fence round the Torah."
13. Mishnah, Eduyot, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. Hillel says: “A hin full of drawn water renders the mikweh unfit.” (However, man must speak in the language of his teacher.) And Shammai says: “Nine kavs.” But the Sages say: “Neither according to the opinion of this one nor according to the opinion of this one;” But when two weavers from the dung-gate which is in Jerusalem came and testified in the name of Shemaiah and Avtalion, “Three logs of drawn water render the mikweh unfit,” the Sages confirmed their statement."
14. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. They wash hands for [eating] unconsecrated [food], and [second] tithe, and for terumah [heave-offering]. But for sacred food they must immerse [their hands in a mikveh]. With regard to the [water of] purification, if one’s hands became impure, one’s [whole] body is impure."
15. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 2.10, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.10. A mikveh which contains forty seahs of water and mud [combined]: Rabbi Eliezer says: one may immerse objects in the water but one may not immerse them in the mud. But Rabbi Joshua says: in the water and also in the mud. In what kind of mud may objects be immersed? Mud over which water floats. If the water was on one side only, Rabbi Joshua agrees that objects may be immersed in the water but may not be immersed in the mud. of what kind of mud have they spoken? Mud into which a reed will sink of itself, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: [mud] in which a measuring-rod will not stand upright. Abba Elazar ben Dulai says: [mud] into which a plummet will sink. Rabbi Eliezer says: such as will go down into the mouth of a jar. Rabbi Shimon says: such as will enter into the tube of a water- skin. Rabbi Elazar bar Zadok says: such as can be measured in a log measure." 4.1. If one put vessels under a water-spout, whether they be large vessels or small vessels or even vessels of dung, vessels of stone or earthen vessels, they make the mikveh invalid. It is all alike whether they were put there [purposely] or were [merely] forgotten, the words of Bet Shammai. But Bet Hillel declare it clean in the case of one who forgets. Rabbi Meir said: they voted and Bet Shammai had a majority over Bet Hillel. Yet they agree in the case of one who forgets [and leaves vessels] in a courtyard that the mikveh remains clean. Rabbi Yose said: the controversy still remains as it was."
16. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving."
17. Mishnah, Toharot, 2.2, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. Rabbi Eliezer says: he who eats food with first degree uncleanness contracts first decree uncleanness; [He who eats food with] second [degree uncleanness contracts] second [degree uncleanness]; With third [degree uncleanness contracts] third [degree uncleanness]. Rabbi Joshua says: he who eats food with first [degree] or with second [degree uncleanness contracts] second [degree uncleanness]; With third [degree uncleanness, he contracts] second [degree uncleanness] in regard to holy things but not in regard to terumah. All this applies to common food that was prepared in condition of cleanness that is appropriate for terumah." 4.11. \"If there is doubt concerning the hands as to whether they have contracted uncleanness, have conveyed uncleanness or have attained cleanness, they are deemed clean.\" \"Any doubt that arose in a public domain is deemed clean. \"A condition of doubt concerning an ordice of the scribes\": [For instance, he is uncertain whether] he ate unclean food or drank unclean liquids, whether he immersed his head and the greater part of his body in drawn water, or whether there fell on his head and the greater part of his body three log of drawn water, such a condition of doubt is deemed clean. But if a condition of doubt arose concerning a father of uncleanness even though it was only rabbinical, it is deemed unclean."
18. Mishnah, Yadayim, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. If a person puts his hands inside a house with scale disease, his hands have first degree uncleanness, the words of Rabbi Akiba. But the sages say: his hands have second degree uncleanness. Whoever defiles garments: at the time when he touches [the uncleanness], he defiles hands so that they have first degree uncleanness, the words of Rabbi Akiba. But the sages say: such that they have second degree of uncleanness. They said to Rabbi Akiba: where do we find anywhere that hands have first degree uncleanness? He said to them: but how is it possible for them to become unclean with first degree uncleanness without his whole body becoming unclean? Only in these cases [can they have first degree uncleanness]. Foods and vessels which have been defiled by liquids convey second degree of uncleanness to the hands, the words of Rabbi Joshua. But the sages say: that which has been defiled by a father of uncleanness conveys uncleanness to the hands, but that which has been defiled by an offspring of uncleanness does not defiled the hands. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel said: it happened that a certain woman came before my father and said to him, \"My hands went into the air-space inside an earthenware vessel.\" He said to her: \"My daughter, what was the cause of its uncleanness?\" But I did not hear what she said to him. The sages said: the matter is clear that which has been defiled by a father of uncleanness conveys uncleanness to the hands, but that which has been rendered unclean by an offspring of uncleanness does not defiled the hands."
19. Mishnah, Zavim, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.12. The following disqualify terumah:One who eats foods with first degree uncleanness; Or one who eats food with second degree uncleanness; And who drinks unclean liquids. And the one who has immersed his head and the greater part of him in drawn water; And a clean person upon whose head and greater part of him there fell three logs of drawn water; And a scroll [of Holy Scriptures], And [unwashed] hands; And one that has had immersion that same day; And foods and vessels which have become defiled by liquids."
20. New Testament, 1 John, 2.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.18. Little children, these are the end times, and as you heard that the Antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have arisen. By this we know that it is the end times.
21. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ --
22. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 4.10, 5.7, 12.23, 12.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.10. We are fools for Christ's sake, but you are wisein Christ. We are weak, but you are strong. You have honor, but we havedishonor. 5.7. Purge out the old yeast, that you may bea new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, ourPassover, has been sacrificed in our place. 12.23. Those parts of the body which we think to be lesshonorable, on those we bestow more abundant honor; and ourunpresentable parts have more abundant propriety; 12.26. When one member suffers,all the members suffer with it. Or when one member is honored, all themembers rejoice with it.
23. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.17, 5.17, 6.1, 6.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, to God who alone is wise, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen. 5.17. Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and in teaching. 6.1. Let as many as are bondservants under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honor, that the name of God and the doctrine not be blasphemed. 6.20. Timothy, guard that which is committed to you, turning away from the empty chatter and oppositions of the knowledge which is falsely so called;
24. New Testament, 2 John, 7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. New Testament, 2 Peter, 1.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. For he received from God the Father honor and glory, when the voice came to him from the Majestic Glory, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.
26. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 6.8, 11.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.20. Now in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and of silver, but also of wood and of clay. Some are for honor, and some for dishonor.
28. New Testament, Acts, 11.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11.16. I remembered the word of the Lord, how he said, 'John indeed baptized in water, but you will be baptized in the Holy Spirit.'
29. New Testament, Apocalypse, 4.9, 4.11, 5.12, 19.1, 19.7, 21.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.9. When the living creatures give glory, honor, and thanks to him who sits on the throne, to him who lives forever and ever 4.11. Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created! 5.12. saying with a loud voice, "Worthy is the Lamb who has been killed to receive the power, riches, wisdom, might, honor, glory, and blessing! 19.1. After these things I heard something like a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, "Hallelujah! Salvation, power, and glory belong to our God: 19.7. Let us rejoice and be exceedingly glad, and let us give the glory to him. For the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready. 21.26. and they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it so that they may enter.
30. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace;
31. New Testament, Galatians, 2.12, 5.13-5.14, 5.22-5.26, 6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother. 5.14. For the whole law is fulfilled in one word, in this:"You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 5.22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience,kindness, goodness, faithfulness 5.23. gentleness, and self-control.Against such things there is no law. 5.24. Those who belong to Christhave crucified the flesh with its passions and lusts. 5.25. If we liveby the Spirit, let's also walk by the Spirit. 5.26. Let's not becomeconceited, provoking one another, and envying one another. 6.15. For in Christ Jesus neitheris circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation.
32. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.7, 3.3, 13.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.7. You made him a little lower than the angels; You crowned him with glory and honor. 3.3. For he has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who built the house has more honor than the house. 13.4. Let marriage be held in honor among all, and let the bed be undefiled: but God will judge the sexually immoral and adulterers.
33. New Testament, Philippians, 3.5-3.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless.
34. New Testament, Romans, 2.7, 2.10, 2.28, 7.12, 9.21, 12.2, 12.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.7. to those who by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honor and incorruptibility, eternal life; 2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 2.28. For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; 7.12. Therefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good. 9.21. Or hasn't the potter a right over the clay, from the same lump to make one part a vessel for honor, and another for dishonor? 12.2. Don't be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what is the good and acceptable and perfect will of God. 12.10. In love of the brothers be tenderly affectionate one to another; in honor preferring one another;
35. New Testament, Titus, 1.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. They profess that they know God, but by their works they deny him, being abominable, disobedient, and unfit for any good work.
36. New Testament, John, 1.17, 1.45, 3.12, 3.18, 3.25, 4.44, 4.48, 5.38-5.39, 5.41, 5.46-5.47, 6.64, 7.19, 7.22-7.23, 8.45-8.46, 8.54, 9.29, 10.25-10.26, 12.39, 14.6, 14.10, 16.9, 16.19, 20.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.45. Philip found Nathanael, and said to him, "We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, wrote: Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. 3.12. If I told you earthly things and you don't believe, how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things? 3.18. He who believes in him is not judged. He who doesn't believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the only born Son of God. 3.25. There arose therefore a questioning on the part of John's disciples with some Jews about purification. 4.44. For Jesus himself testified that a prophet has no honor in his own country. 4.48. Jesus therefore said to him, "Unless you see signs and wonders, you will in no way believe. 5.38. You don't have his word living in you; because you don't believe him whom he sent. 5.39. You search the Scriptures, because you think that in them you have eternal life; and these are they which testify about me. 5.41. I don't receive glory from men. 5.46. For if you believed Moses, you would believe me; for he wrote about me. 5.47. But if you don't believe his writings, how will you believe my words? 6.64. But there are some of you who don't believe." For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were who didn't believe, and who it was who would betray him. 7.19. Didn't Moses give you the law, and yet none of you keeps the law? Why do you seek to kill me? 7.22. Moses has given you circumcision (not that it is of Moses, but of the fathers), and on the Sabbath you circumcise a boy. 7.23. If a boy receives circumcision on the Sabbath, that the law of Moses may not be broken, are you angry with me, because I made a man every bit whole on the Sabbath? 8.45. But because I tell the truth, you don't believe me. 8.46. Which of you convicts me of sin? If I tell the truth, why do you not believe me? 8.54. Jesus answered, "If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing. It is my Father who glorifies me, of whom you say that he is our God. 9.29. We know that God has spoken to Moses. But as for this man, we don't know where he comes from. 10.25. Jesus answered them, "I told you, and you don't believe. The works that I do in my Father's name, these testify about me. 10.26. But you don't believe, because you are not of my sheep, as I told you. 12.39. For this cause they couldn't believe, for Isaiah said again 14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 14.10. Don't you believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I tell you, I speak not from myself; but the Father who lives in me does his works. 16.9. about sin, because they don't believe in me; 16.19. Therefore Jesus perceived that they wanted to ask him, and he said to them, "Do you inquire among yourselves concerning this, that I said, 'A little while, and you won't see me, and again a little while, and you will see me?' 20.25. The other disciples therefore said to him, "We have seen the Lord!"But he said to them, "Unless I see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe.
37. New Testament, Luke, 1.39-1.52, 3.1-3.6, 6.43-6.44, 9.59-9.60, 10.12-10.15, 11.15, 11.17-11.23, 11.37-11.44, 12.10, 14.8, 16.29-16.30, 18.9-18.14, 20.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.39. Mary arose in those days and went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Judah 1.40. and entered into the house of Zacharias and greeted Elizabeth. 1.41. It happened, when Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, that the baby leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit. 1.42. She called out with a loud voice, and said, "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb! 1.43. Why am I so favored, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? 1.44. For behold, when the voice of your greeting came into my ears, the baby leaped in my womb for joy! 1.45. Blessed is she who believed, for there will be a fulfillment of the things which have been spoken to her from the Lord! 1.46. Mary said, "My soul magnifies the Lord. 1.47. My spirit has rejoiced in God my Savior 1.48. For he has looked at the humble state of his handmaid. For behold, from now on, all generations will call me blessed. 1.49. For he who is mighty has done great things for me. Holy is his name. 1.50. His mercy is for generations of generations on those who fear him. 1.51. He has shown strength with his arm. He has scattered the proud in the imagination of their heart. 1.52. He has put down princes from their thrones. And has exalted the lowly. 3.1. Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene 3.2. in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. 3.3. He came into all the region around the Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for remission of sins. 3.4. As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord. Make his paths straight. 3.5. Every valley will be filled. Every mountain and hill will be brought low. The crooked will become straight, And the rough ways smooth. 3.6. All flesh will see God's salvation.' 6.43. For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. 6.44. For each tree is known by its own fruit. For people don't gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. 9.59. He said to another, "Follow me!"But he said, "Lord, allow me first to go and bury my father. 9.60. But Jesus said to him, "Leave the dead to bury their own dead, but you go and announce the Kingdom of God. 10.12. I tell you, it will be more tolerable in that day for Sodom than for that city. 10.13. Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon which were done in you, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 10.14. But it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the judgment than for you. 10.15. You, Capernaum, who are exalted to heaven, will be brought down to Hades. 11.15. But some of them said, "He casts out demons by Beelzebul, the prince of the demons. 11.17. But he, knowing their thoughts, said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation. A house divided against itself falls. 11.18. If Satan also is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? For you say that I cast out demons by Beelzebul. 11.19. But if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons cast them out? Therefore will they be your judges. 11.20. But if I by the finger of God cast out demons, then the Kingdom of God has come to you. 11.21. When the strong man, fully armed, guards his own dwelling, his goods are safe. 11.22. But when someone stronger attacks him and overcomes him, he takes from him his whole armor in which he trusted, and divides his spoils. 11.23. He that is not with me is against me. He who doesn't gather with me scatters. 11.37. Now as he spoke, a certain Pharisee asked him to dine with him. He went in, and sat at the table. 11.38. When the Pharisee saw it, he marveled that he had not first washed himself before dinner. 11.39. The Lord said to him, "Now you Pharisees cleanse the outside of the cup and of the platter, but your inward part is full of extortion and wickedness. 11.40. You foolish ones, didn't he who made the outside make the inside also? 11.41. But give for gifts to the needy those things which are within, and behold, all things will be clean to you. 11.42. But woe to you Pharisees! For you tithe mint and rue and every herb, but you bypass justice and the love of God. You ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 11.43. Woe to you Pharisees! For you love the best seats in the synagogues, and the greetings in the marketplaces. 11.44. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like hidden graves, and the men who walk over them don't know it. 12.10. Everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but those who blaspheme against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven. 14.8. When you are invited by anyone to a marriage feast, don't sit in the best seat, since perhaps someone more honorable than you might be invited by him 16.29. But Abraham said to him, 'They have Moses and the prophets. Let them listen to them.' 16.30. He said, 'No, father Abraham, but if one goes to them from the dead, they will repent.' 18.9. He spoke also this parable to certain people who were convinced of their own righteousness, and who despised all others. 18.10. Two men went up into the temple to pray; one was a Pharisee, and the other was a tax collector. 18.11. The Pharisee stood and prayed to himself like this: 'God, I thank you, that I am not like the rest of men, extortioners, unrighteous, adulterers, or even like this tax collector. 18.12. I fast twice a week. I give tithes of all that I get.' 18.13. But the tax collector, standing far away, wouldn't even lift up his eyes to heaven, but beat his breast, saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!' 18.14. I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other; for everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but he who humbles himself will be exalted. 20.37. But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord 'The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.'
38. New Testament, Mark, 1.2-1.6, 2.17, 2.23-2.28, 3.1-3.6, 3.22-3.30, 7.1-7.23, 9.5, 10.25, 12.26, 12.28-12.32, 15.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you. 1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins. 1.6. John was clothed with camel's hair and a leather belt around his loins. He ate locusts and wild honey. 2.17. When Jesus heard it, he said to them, "Those who are healthy have no need for a physician, but those who are sick. I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. 2.23. It happened that he was going on the Sabbath day through the grain fields, and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of grain. 2.24. The Pharisees said to him, "Behold, why do they do that which is not lawful on the Sabbath day? 2.25. He said to them, "Did you never read what David did, when he had need, and was hungry -- he, and they who were with him? 2.26. How he entered into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the show bread, which it is not lawful to eat except for the priests, and gave also to those who were with him? 2.27. He said to them, "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. 2.28. Therefore the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath. 3.1. He entered again into the synagogue, and there was a man there who had his hand withered. 3.2. They watched him, whether he would heal him on the Sabbath day, that they might accuse him. 3.3. He said to the man who had his hand withered, "Stand up. 3.4. He said to them, "Is it lawful on the Sabbath day to do good, or to do harm? To save a life, or to kill?" But they were silent. 3.5. When he had looked around at them with anger, being grieved at the hardening of their hearts, he said to the man, "Stretch out your hand." He stretched it out, and his hand was restored as healthy as the other. 3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 3.22. The scribes who came down from Jerusalem said, "He has Beelzebul," and, "By the prince of the demons he casts out the demons. 3.23. He summoned them, and said to them in parables, "How can Satan cast out Satan? 3.24. If a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand. 3.25. If a house is divided against itself, that house cannot stand. 3.26. If Satan has risen up against himself, and is divided, he can't stand, but has an end. 3.27. But no one can enter into the house of the strong man to plunder, unless he first binds the strong man; and then he will plunder his house. 3.28. Most assuredly I tell you, all of the sons of men's sins will be forgiven them, including their blasphemies with which they may blaspheme; 3.29. but whoever may blaspheme against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin 3.30. -- because they said, "He has an unclean spirit. 7.1. Then the Pharisees, and some of the scribes gathered together to him, having come from Jerusalem. 7.2. Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is, unwashed, hands, they found fault. 7.3. (For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, don't eat unless they wash their hands and forearms, holding to the tradition of the elders. 7.4. They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.) 7.5. The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don't your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands? 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 7.7. But in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' 7.8. For you set aside the commandment of God, and hold tightly to the tradition of men -- the washing of pitchers and cups, and you do many other such things. 7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this. 7.14. He called all the multitude to himself, and said to them, "Hear me, all of you, and understand. 7.15. There is nothing from outside of the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. 7.16. If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear! 7.17. When he had entered into a house away from the multitude, his disciples asked him about the parable. 7.18. He said to them, "Are you thus without understanding also? Don't you perceive that whatever goes into the man from outside can't defile him 7.19. because it doesn't go into his heart, but into his stomach, then into the latrine, thus making all foods clean? 7.20. He said, "That which proceeds out of the man, that defiles the man. 7.21. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts 7.22. covetings, wickedness, deceit, lustful desires, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, and foolishness. 7.23. All these evil things come from within, and defile the man. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 10.25. It is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 12.26. But about the dead, that they are raised; haven't you read in the book of Moses, about the Bush, how God spoke to him, saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' 12.28. One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all? 12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these. 12.32. The scribe said to him, "Truly, teacher, you have said well that he is one, and there is none other but he 15.1. Immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate.
39. New Testament, Matthew, 1.20, 2.2, 2.13, 2.19, 3.1-3.6, 5.17-5.48, 6.1-6.18, 6.21, 6.25-6.26, 7.15-7.19, 7.21-7.23, 8.2-8.4, 8.6, 9.4, 9.22, 10.1-10.36, 11.11, 11.18-11.19, 11.25-11.26, 11.29, 12.1-12.14, 12.18, 12.24-12.32, 12.34, 12.44-12.45, 13.15, 13.35, 13.57, 15.1-15.7, 15.9-15.20, 18.6-18.9, 19.3-19.9, 19.21, 19.24, 21.15-21.16, 21.23-21.27, 21.45, 22.15-22.22, 22.31, 22.34, 22.37, 23.1-23.37, 24.4-24.5, 24.28-24.29, 27.1, 27.7, 27.62, 28.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.20. But when he thought about these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, "Joseph, son of David, don't be afraid to take to yourself Mary, your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. 2.2. Where is he who is born King of the Jews? For we saw his star in the east, and have come to worship him. 2.13. Now when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying, "Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and stay there until I tell you, for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. 2.19. But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, saying 3.1. In those days, John the Baptizer came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying 3.2. Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand! 3.3. For this is he who was spoken of by Isaiah the prophet, saying, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make ready the way of the Lord, Make his paths straight. 3.4. Now John himself wore clothing made of camel's hair, with a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey. 3.5. Then people from Jerusalem, all of Judea, and all the region around the Jordan went out to him. 3.6. They were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins. 5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 5.18. For most assuredly, I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not even one smallest letter or one tiny pen stroke shall in any way pass away from the law, until all things are accomplished. 5.19. Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments, and teach others to do so, shall be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven; but whoever shall do and teach them shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.20. For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.21. You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' 5.22. But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. 5.23. If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you 5.24. leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. 5.25. Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are with him in the way; lest perhaps the prosecutor deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and you be cast into prison. 5.26. Most assuredly I tell you, you shall by no means get out of there, until you have paid the last penny. 5.27. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery;' 5.28. but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. 5.29. If your right eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out and throw it away from you. For it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, than for your whole body to be cast into Gehenna. 5.30. If your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off, and throw it away from you: for it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, and not your whole body be thrown into Gehenna. 5.31. It was also said, 'Whoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce,' 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 5.33. Again you have heard that it was said to them of old time, 'You shall not make false vows, but shall perform to the Lord your vows,' 5.34. but I tell you, don't swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; 5.35. nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. 5.36. Neither shall you swear by your head, for you can't make one hair white or black. 5.37. But let your 'Yes' be 'Yes' and your 'No' be 'no.' Whatever is more than these is of the evil one. 5.38. You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' 5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.40. If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. 5.41. Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 5.42. Give to him who asks you, and don't turn away him who desires to borrow from you. 5.43. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 6.1. Be careful that you don't do your charitable giving before men, to be seen by them, or else you have no reward from your Father who is in heaven. 6.2. Therefore when you do merciful deeds, don't sound a trumpet before yourself, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may get glory from men. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.3. But when you do merciful deeds, don't let your left hand know what your right hand does 6.4. so that your merciful deeds may be in secret, then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.6. But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.7. In praying, don't use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.15. But if you don't forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. 6.16. Moreover when you fast, don't be like the hypocrites, with sad faces. For they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen by men to be fasting. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.17. But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face; 6.18. so that you are not seen by men to be fasting, but by your Father who is in secret, and your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 6.21. for where your treasure is, there your heart will be also. 6.25. Therefore, I tell you, don't be anxious for your life: what you will eat, or what you will drink; nor yet for your body, what you will wear. Isn't life more than food, and the body more than clothing? 6.26. See the birds of the sky, that they don't sow, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns. Your heavenly Father feeds them. Aren't you of much more value than they? 7.15. Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly are ravening wolves. 7.16. By their fruits you will know them. Do you gather grapes from thorns, or figs from thistles? 7.17. Even so, every good tree produces good fruit; but the corrupt tree produces evil fruit. 7.18. A good tree can't produce evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree produce good fruit. 7.19. Every tree that doesn't grow good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire. 7.21. Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven; but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. 7.22. Many will tell me in that day, 'Lord, Lord, didn't we prophesy in your name, in your name cast out demons, and in your name do many mighty works?' 7.23. Then I will tell them, 'I never knew you. Depart from me, you who work iniquity.' 8.2. Behold, a leper came to him and worshiped him, saying, "Lord, if you want to, you can make me clean. 8.3. Jesus stretched out his hand, and touched him, saying, "I want to. Be made clean." Immediately his leprosy was cleansed. 8.4. Jesus said to him, "See that you tell nobody, but go, show yourself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, as a testimony to them. 8.6. and saying, "Lord, my servant lies in the house paralyzed, grievously tormented. 9.4. Jesus, knowing their thoughts, said, "Why do you think evil in your hearts? 9.22. But Jesus, turning around and seeing her, said, "Daughter, cheer up! Your faith has made you well." And the woman was made well from that hour. 10.1. He called to himself his twelve disciples, and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every sickness. 10.2. Now the names of the twelve apostles are these. The first, Simon, who is called Peter; Andrew, his brother; James the son of Zebedee; John, his brother; 10.3. Philip; Bartholomew; Thomas; Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus; and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; 10.4. Simon the Canaanite; and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. 10.5. Jesus sent these twelve out, and charged them, saying, "Don't go among the Gentiles, and don't enter into any city of the Samaritans. 10.6. Rather, go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 10.7. As you go, preach, saying, 'The Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!' 10.8. Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, and cast out demons. Freely you received, so freely give. 10.9. Don't take any gold, nor silver, nor brass in your money belts. 10.10. Take no bag for your journey, neither two coats, nor shoes, nor staff: for the laborer is worthy of his food. 10.11. Into whatever city or village you enter, find out who in it is worthy; and stay there until you go on. 10.12. As you enter into the household, greet it. 10.13. If the household is worthy, let your peace come on it, but if it isn't worthy, let your peace return to you. 10.14. Whoever doesn't receive you, nor hear your words, as you go out out of that house or that city, shake off the dust from your feet. 10.15. Most assuredly I tell you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for that city. 10.16. Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves. Therefore be wise as serpents, and harmless as doves. 10.17. But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to councils, and in their synagogues they will scourge you. 10.18. Yes, and you will be brought before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them and to the Gentiles. 10.19. But when they deliver you up, don't be anxious how or what you will say, for it will be given you in that hour what you will say. 10.20. For it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father who speaks in you. 10.21. Brother will deliver up brother to death, and the father his child. Children will rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death. 10.22. You will be hated by all men for my name's sake, but he who endures to the end will be saved. 10.23. But when they persecute you in this city, flee into the next, for most assuredly I tell you, you will not have gone through the cities of Israel, until the Son of Man has come. 10.24. A disciple is not above his teacher, nor a servant above his lord. 10.25. It is enough for the disciple that he be like his teacher, and the servant like his lord. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebul, how much more those of his household! 10.26. Therefore don't be afraid of them, for there is nothing covered that will not be revealed; and hidden that will not be known. 10.27. What I tell you in the darkness, speak in the light; and what you hear whispered in the ear, proclaim on the housetops. 10.28. Don't be afraid of those who kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul. Rather, fear him who is able to destroy both soul and body in Gehenna. 10.29. Aren't two sparrows sold for an assarion? Not one of them falls on the ground apart from your Father's will 10.30. but the very hairs of your head are all numbered. 10.31. Therefore don't be afraid. You are of more value than many sparrows. 10.32. Everyone therefore who confesses me before men, him I will also confess before my Father who is in heaven. 10.33. But whoever denies me before men, him I will also deny before my Father who is in heaven. 10.34. Don't think that I came to send peace on the earth. I didn't come to send peace, but a sword. 10.35. For I came to set a man at odds against his father, and a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. 10.36. A man's foes will be those of his own household. 11.11. Most assuredly I tell you, among those who are born of women there has not arisen anyone greater than John the Baptizer; yet he who is least in the Kingdom of Heaven is greater than he. 11.18. For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, 'He has a demon.' 11.19. The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, 'Behold, a gluttonous man and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!' But wisdom is justified by her children. 11.25. At that time, Jesus answered, "I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you hid these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to infants. 11.26. Yes, Father, for so it was well-pleasing in your sight. 11.29. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am humble and lowly in heart; and you will find rest for your souls. 12.1. At that time, Jesus went on the Sabbath day through the grain fields. His disciples were hungry and began to pluck heads of grain and to eat. 12.2. But the Pharisees, when they saw it, said to him, "Behold, your disciples do what is not lawful to do on the Sabbath. 12.3. But he said to them, "Haven't you read what David did, when he was hungry, and those who were with him; 12.4. how he entered into the house of God, and ate the show bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for those who were with him, but only for the priests? 12.5. Or have you not read in the law, that on the Sabbath day, the priests in the temple profane the Sabbath, and are guiltless? 12.6. But I tell you that one greater than the temple is here. 12.7. But if you had known what this means, 'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' you would not have condemned the guiltless. 12.8. For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath. 12.9. He departed there, and went into their synagogue. 12.10. And behold there was a man with a withered hand. They asked him, "Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath day?" that they might accuse him. 12.11. He said to them, "What man is there among you, who has one sheep, and if this one falls into a pit on the Sabbath day, won't he grab on to it, and lift it out? 12.12. of how much more value then is a man than a sheep! Therefore it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath day. 12.13. Then he told the man, "Stretch out your hand." He stretched it out; and it was restored whole, just like the other. 12.14. But the Pharisees went out, and conspired against him, how they might destroy him. 12.18. Behold, my servant whom I have chosen; My beloved in whom my soul is well pleased: I will put my Spirit on him. He will proclaim justice to the Gentiles. 12.24. But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, "This man does not cast out demons, except by Beelzebul, the prince of the demons. 12.25. Knowing their thoughts, Jesus said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation, and every city or house divided against itself will not stand. 12.26. If Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself. How then will his kingdom stand? 12.27. If I by Beelzebul cast out demons, by whom do your sons cast them out? Therefore they will be your judges. 12.28. But if I by the Spirit of God cast out demons, then the Kingdom of God has come upon you. 12.29. Or how can one enter into the house of the strong man, and plunder his goods, unless he first bind the strong man? Then he will plunder his house. 12.30. He who is not with me is against me, and he who doesn't gather with me, scatters. 12.31. Therefore I tell you, every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven men, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven men. 12.32. Whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man, it will be forgiven him; but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit, it will not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in that which is to come. 12.34. You offspring of vipers, how can you, being evil, speak good things? For out of the abundance of the heart, the mouth speaks. 12.44. Then he says, 'I will return into my house from which I came out,' and when he has come back, he finds it empty, swept, and put in order. 12.45. Then he goes, and takes with himself seven other spirits more evil than he is, and they enter in and dwell there. The last state of that man becomes worse than the first. Even so will it be also to this evil generation. 13.15. For this people's heart has grown callous, Their ears are dull of hearing, They have closed their eyes; Or else perhaps they might perceive with their eyes, Hear with their ears, Understand with their heart, And should turn again; And I would heal them.' 13.35. that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophet, saying, "I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things hidden from the foundation of the world. 13.57. They were offended by him. But Jesus said to them, "A prophet is not without honor, except in his own country, and in his own house. 15.1. Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem, saying 15.2. Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don't wash their hands when they eat bread. 15.3. He answered them, "Why do you also disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 15.4. For God commanded, 'Honor your father and your mother,' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 15.5. But you say, 'Whoever may tell his father or his mother, "Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God 15.6. he shall not honor his father or mother.' You have made the commandment of God void because of your tradition. 15.7. You hypocrites! Well did Isaiah prophesy of you, saying 15.9. And in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrine rules made by men.' 15.10. He summoned the multitude, and said to them, "Hear, and understand. 15.11. That which enters into the mouth doesn't defile the man; but that which proceeds out of the mouth, this defiles the man. 15.12. Then the disciples came, and said to him, "Do you know that the Pharisees were offended, when they heard this saying? 15.13. But he answered, "Every plant which my heavenly Father didn't plant will be uprooted. 15.14. Leave them alone. They are blind guides of the blind. If the blind guide the blind, both will fall into a pit. 15.15. Peter answered him, "Explain the parable to us. 15.16. So Jesus said, "Do you also still not understand? 15.17. Don't you understand that whatever goes into the mouth passes into the belly, and then out of the body? 15.18. But the things which proceed out of the mouth come out of the heart, and they defile the man. 15.19. For out of the heart come forth evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, sexual sins, thefts, false testimony, and blasphemies. 15.20. These are the things which defile the man; but to eat with unwashed hands doesn't defile the man. 18.6. but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to stumble, it would be better for him that a huge millstone should be hung around his neck, and that he should be sunk in the depths of the sea. 18.7. Woe to the world because of occasions of stumbling! For it must be that the occasions come, but woe to that person through whom the occasion comes! 18.8. If your hand or your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off, and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life maimed or crippled, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into the eternal fire. 18.9. If your eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out, and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehenna of fire. 19.3. Pharisees came to him, testing him, and saying, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason? 19.4. He answered, "Haven't you read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female 19.5. and said, 'For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall join to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh?' 19.6. So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don't let man tear apart. 19.7. They asked him, "Why then did Moses command us to give her a bill of divorce, and divorce her? 19.8. He said to them, "Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it has not been so. 19.9. I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her when she is divorced commits adultery. 19.21. Jesus said to him, "If you want to be perfect, go, sell what you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me. 19.24. Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 21.15. But when the chief priests and the scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children who were crying in the temple and saying, "Hosanna to the son of David!" they were indigt 21.16. and said to him, "Do you hear what these are saying?"Jesus said to them, "Yes. Did you never read, 'Out of the mouth of babes and nursing babies you have perfected praise?' 21.23. When he had come into the temple, the chief priests and the elders of the people came to him as he was teaching, and said, "By what authority do you do these things? Who gave you this authority? 21.24. Jesus answered them, "I also will ask you one question, which if you tell me, I likewise will tell you by what authority I do these things. 21.25. The baptism of John, where was it from? From heaven or from men?"They reasoned with themselves, saying, "If we say, 'From heaven,' he will ask us, 'Why then did you not believe him?' 21.26. But if we say, 'From men,' we fear the multitude, for all hold John as a prophet. 21.27. They answered Jesus, and said, "We don't know."He also said to them, "Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things. 21.45. When the chief priests and the Pharisees heard his parables, they perceived that he spoke about them. 22.15. Then the Pharisees went and took counsel how they might entrap him in his talk. 22.16. They sent their disciples to him, along with the Herodians, saying, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and teach the way of God in truth, no matter who you teach, for you aren't partial to anyone. 22.17. Tell us therefore, what do you think? Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 22.18. But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, "Why do you test me, you hypocrites? 22.19. Show me the tax money."They brought to him a denarius. 22.20. He asked them, "Whose is this image and inscription? 22.21. They said to him, "Caesar's."Then he said to them, "Give therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 22.22. When they heard it, they marveled, and left him, and went away. 22.31. But concerning the resurrection of the dead, haven't you read that which was spoken to you by God, saying 22.34. But the Pharisees, when they heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, gathered themselves together. 22.37. Jesus said to him, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.' 23.1. Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to his disciples 23.2. saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees sat on Moses' seat. 23.3. All things therefore whatever they tell you to observe, observe and do, but don't do their works; for they say, and don't do. 23.4. For they bind heavy burdens that are grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not lift a finger to help them. 23.5. But all their works they do to be seen by men. They make their phylacteries broad, enlarge the fringes of their garments 23.6. and love the place of honor at feasts, the best seats in the synagogues 23.7. the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called 'Rabbi, Rabbi' by men. 23.8. But don't you be called 'Rabbi,' for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers. 23.9. Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven. 23.10. Neither be called masters, for one is your master, the Christ. 23.11. But he who is greatest among you will be your servant. 23.12. Whoever will exalt himself will be humbled, and whoever will humble himself will be exalted. 23.13. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows' houses, and as a pretense you make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation. 23.14. But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because you shut up the Kingdom of Heaven against men; for you don't enter in yourselves, neither do you allow those who are entering in to enter. 23.15. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehenna as yourselves. 23.16. Woe to you, you blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.' 23.17. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifies the gold? 23.18. 'Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is a obligated.' 23.19. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifies the gift? 23.20. He therefore who swears by the altar, swears by it, and by everything on it. 23.21. He who swears by the temple, swears by it, and by him who is living in it. 23.22. He who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God, and by him who sits on it. 23.23. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint, dill, and cumin, and have left undone the weightier matters of the law: justice, mercy, and faith. But you ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 23.24. You blind guides, who strain out a gnat, and swallow a camel! 23.25. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and unrighteousness. 23.26. You blind Pharisee, first clean the inside of the cup and of the platter, that the outside of it may become clean also. 23.27. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitened tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly are full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. 23.28. Even so you also outwardly appear righteous to men, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 23.29. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and decorate the tombs of the righteous 23.30. and say, 'If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we wouldn't have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.' 23.31. Therefore you testify to yourselves that you are sons of those who killed the prophets. 23.32. Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers. 23.33. You serpents, you offspring of vipers, how will you escape the judgment of Gehenna? 23.34. Therefore, behold, I send to you prophets, wise men, and scribes. Some of them you will kill and crucify; and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city; 23.35. that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zachariah son of Barachiah, whom you killed between the sanctuary and the altar. 23.36. Most assuredly I tell you, all these things will come upon this generation. 23.37. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, who kills the prophets, and stones those who are sent to her! How often would I have gathered your children together, even as a hen gathers her chickens under her wings, and you would not! 24.4. Jesus answered them, "Be careful that no one leads you astray. 24.5. For many will come in my name, saying, 'I am the Christ,' and will lead many astray. 24.28. For wherever the carcass is, there will the vultures be gathered together. 24.29. But immediately after the oppression of those days, the sun will be darkened, the moon will not give its light, the stars will fall from the sky, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken; 27.1. Now when morning had come, all the chief priests and the elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: 27.7. They took counsel, and bought the potter's field with them, to bury strangers in. 27.62. Now on the next day, which was the day after the Preparation Day, the chief priests and the Pharisees were gathered together to Pilate 28.12. When they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave a large amount of silver to the soldiers
40. Tosefta, Demai, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

41. Justin, First Apology, 16.8-16.14 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

42. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 35.3-35.6, 44.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

43. Mishna, Tevulyom, 3.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.4. Dough that had been mixed [with dough of terumah] or that had been leavened with yeast of terumah, is not disqualified by tevul yom. Rabbi Yose and Rabbi Shimon declare it unfit. Dough that had become susceptible [to uncleanness] by a liquid, and it was kneaded with produce juice, and later touched by a tevul yom: Rabbi Elazar ben Judah of Barthotha says in the name of Rabbi Joshua: he disqualifies all of it. Rabbi Akiva says in his name: he disqualifies only the part that he touched."
44. Ptolemy, Epistle To Flora, 5.3-5.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

45. Babylonian Talmud, Bekhorot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. חשוד על המעשר ומאן חכמים ר' יהודה וחד אמר החשוד על המעשר חשוד על השביעית ומאן חכמים ר' מאיר,דתניא עם הארץ שקיבל עליו דברי חבירות ונחשד לדבר אחד נחשד לכל התורה כולה דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים אינו נחשד אלא לאותו דבר בלבד,הגר שקיבל עליו דברי תורה אפי' נחשד לדבר אחד הוי חשוד לכל התורה כולה והרי הוא כישראל משומד נפקא מינה דאי קדיש קידושיו קידושין,ת"ר הבא לקבל דברי חבירות חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו עובד כוכבים שבא לקבל דברי תורה חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר אפי' דקדוק אחד מדברי סופרים,וכן בן לוי שבא לקבל דברי לויה וכהן שבא לקבל דברי כהונה חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו שנאמר (ויקרא ז, לג) המקריב את דם השלמים וגו' העבודה המסורה לבני אהרן כל כהן שאינו מודה בה אין לו חלק בכהונה,ת"ר הבא לקבל דברי חבירות אם ראינוהו שנוהג בצינעה בתוך ביתו מקבלין אותו ואחר כך מלמדין אותו ואם לאו מלמדין אותו ואחר כך מקבלין אותו ר"ש בן יוחי אומר בין כך ובין כך מקבלין אותו והוא למד כדרכו והולך:,ת"ר מקבלין לכנפים ואח"כ מקבלין לטהרות ואם אמר איני מקבל אלא לכנפים מקבלין אותו קיבל לטהרות ולא קיבל לכנפים אף לטהרות לא קיבל:,ת"ר עד כמה מקבלין אותו בית שמאי אומרים למשקין שלשים יום לכסות שנים עשר חודש ובית הלל אומרים אחד זה ואחד זה לשנים עשר חודש,אם כן הוה ליה מקולי בית שמאי ומחומרי בית הלל אלא בית הלל אומרים אחד זה ואחד זה לשלשים:,(סימן חב"ר תלמי"ד תכל"ת מכ"ם חז"ר גבא"י בעצמ"ו),תנו רבנן הבא לקבל דברי חבירות צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים ובניו ובני ביתו אינן צריכין לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אף בניו ובני ביתו צריכין לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים לפי שאינו דומה חבר שקיבל לבן חבר שקיבל:,תנו רבנן הבא לקבל דברי חבירות צריך לקבל בפני ג' חבירים ואפילו תלמיד חכם צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים זקן ויושב בישיבה אינו צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים שכבר קיבל עליו משעה שישב אבא שאול אומר אף תלמיד חכם אינו צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים ולא עוד אלא שאחרים מקבלין לפניו,אמר רבי יוחנן בימי בנו של רבי חנינא בן אנטיגנוס נשנית משנה זו רבי יהודה ור' יוסי איסתפק להו מילתא בטהרות שדרו רבנן לגבי בנו של ר' חנינא בן אנטיגנוס אזילו אמרו ליה לעיין בה אשכחוה דקא טעין טהרות אותיב רבנן מדידיה לגבייהו וקאי איהו לעיוני בה,אתו אמרי ליה לר' יהודה ור' יוסי אמר להו ר' יהודה אביו של זה ביזה תלמידי חכמים אף הוא מבזה תלמידי חכמים,אמר לו ר' יוסי כבוד זקן יהא מונח במקומו אלא מיום שחרב בית המקדש נהגו כהנים סילסול בעצמן שאין מוסרין את הטהרות לכל אדם:,תנו רבנן חבר שמת אשתו ובניו ובני ביתו הרי הן בחזקתן עד שיחשדו וכן חצר שמוכרין בה תכלת הרי היא בחזקתה עד שתיפסל:,תנו רבנן אשת עם הארץ שנשאת לחבר וכן בתו של עם הארץ שנשאת לחבר וכן עבדו של עם הארץ שנמכר לחבר כולן צריכין לקבל דברי חבירות בתחלה אבל אשת חבר שנשאת לעם הארץ וכן בתו של חבר שנשאת לעם הארץ וכן עבדו של חבר שנמכר לעם הארץ אין צריכין לקבל דברי חבירות בתחלה,ר"מ אומר אף הן צריכין לקבל עליהן דברי חבירות לכתחלה ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר משום ר"מ מעשה באשה אחת שנשאת לחבר והיתה קומעת לו תפילין על ידו נשאת לעם הארץ והיתה קושרת לו קשרי מוכס על ידו: 30b. is bsuspect with regard to tithe. And whoare the Sages referred to here as bthe Rabbis?It is bRabbi Yehuda,as in his locale they treated the prohibition of produce of the Sabbatical Year stringently. bAndthe other bone says: One who is suspect with regard to tithe is suspect with regard toproduce of the bSabbaticalYear. bAnd whoare the Sages referred to here as bthe Rabbis?It is bRabbi Meir. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iDemai2:4): With regard to ban iam ha’aretz /i,i.e., one who is unreliable with regard to ritual impurity and tithes, bwho accepts upon himselfthe commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus,i.e., that he will be stringent in all matters observed by iḥaverim /i, including iteruma /i, tithes, and iḥalla /i, and also undertake to eat only food that is ritually pure, and the Sages accepted him as trustworthy bbutsubsequently he bwas suspected with regard to one matterin which others saw him act improperly, bhe is suspected with regard to the entire Torah.This is the bstatement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: He is suspected only with regard to that particular matter. /b,It is also taught in a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iDemai2:4): With regard to ba convert who accepted upon himselfupon his conversion bmatters of Torah,i.e., all of the mitzvot, beven if he is suspect with regard to one matteralone, bhe is suspect with regard to the entire Torah, and he isconsidered blike a Jewish transgressor [ imeshummad /i],who habitually transgresses the mitzvot. The Gemara explains that the practical bdifferenceresulting from the fact that he is considered like a Jewish transgressor is bthat if he betrothsa woman, bhis betrothal isa valid bbetrothal,and they are married. Although he is suspect with regard to the entire Torah, he does not return to his prior gentile status., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who comes to accept upon himselfthe commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus except for one matter,which he does not wish to observe, bhe is not accepted,and he is not trustworthy even with regard to those matters that he does wish to accept upon himself. Likewise, in the case of ba gentile who comes toconvert and takes upon himself to baccept the words of Torah except for one matter, he is not acceptedas a convert. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Evenif he refuses to accept bone detail of rabbinic law,he is not accepted.,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd similarly,in the case of ba Levite who comes to accept the matters of a Levite, or a priest who comes to accept the matters of priesthood, except for one matter, he is not accepted. As it is stated:“He among the sons of Aaron, bthat sacrifices the blood of the peace offerings,and the fat, shall have the right thigh for a portion” (Leviticus 7:33). This means that with regard to btheTemple bservice, which is handedover bto the sons of Aaron, any priest who does not admit to itin its entirety bhas no share in the priesthood. /b,The Gemara continues on a similar topic. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who comes to accept upon himselfa commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus, if we have seen that he practicessuch matters bin private, within his home, he is accepted, and afterward he is taughtthe precise details of being a iḥaver /i. bBut ifwe have bnotseen him act as a iḥaverin his home, bhe is taughtfirst band afterward accepted. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Whetherin bthiscase bor thatcase, bhe isfirst baccepted, and hethen bcontinues to learn inthe busual manner,i.e., as a iḥaverhe learns from others how to behave., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: An iam ha’aretzwho wishes to become a iḥaver bis acceptedfirst bwith regard to hands,i.e., he is presumed to be stringent concerning the ritual purity of his hands by making sure to wash his hands before handling pure items, band afterward he is acceptedas trustworthy bfor purityin general. bAnd if he says: Iwish to bacceptpurity bonly with regard to hands, he is acceptedfor this. If he wishes to bacceptupon himself the stringencies of a iḥaver bwith regard to ritual purity but he does not acceptupon himself the stringencies bwith regard to hands,i.e., to wash his hands, which is a simple act, bhe is not accepted even for purityin general., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bUntil when is he accepted,i.e., how much time must elapse before he is considered trustworthy as a iḥaver /i? bBeit Shammai say: With regard to liquids, thirty days. With regard toimpurity of bclothing,about which iḥaverimwould be careful as well, btwelve months. And Beit Hillel say: Bothwith regard to bthis,liquids, band that,clothing, he must maintain the practice bfor twelve monthsbefore he is fully accepted as a iḥaver /i.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bIf so, this isone bofthe rare cases of bthe leniencies of Beit Shammai and of the stringencies of Beit Hillel,and yet it is not included in tractate iEduyyot /i, which lists all of the cases where Beit Shammai are more lenient than Beit Hillel. bRather,the text of the ibaraitamust be emended so that it reads: bBeit Hillel say: Bothwith regard to bthis,liquids band that,clothing, he must maintain the practice bfor thirtydays before he is fully accepted as a iḥaver /i.,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicto remember the topics from here until the end of the chapter: iḤaver /i; student; sky-blue dye [ itekhelet /i]; tax; return;tax bcollector; by himself. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who comes to accept upon himselfa commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus must acceptit bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i. But his children andthe bmembers of his household are not required to acceptthe status of iḥaverseparately bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even his children andthe bmembers of his household must acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, because a iḥaver /i, who accepted ithimself in the presence of three others, bis not comparable to the son of a iḥaver /i,who bacceptedthat status only due to his father but did not accept it himself explicitly, and their accepting the status not in the presence of three people is insufficient., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who comes to accept upon himselfa commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus must acceptit bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, and even a Torah scholarwho wishes to become a iḥaver bmust acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i.But ban elder who sitsand studies Torah bin a yeshiva is not required to acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, as he already accepted it upon himself from the moment he satand dedicated himself to study Torah in yeshiva. bAbba Shaul says: Even a Torah scholar is not required to acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i; and not onlydoes he have the status of iḥaverwithout an explicit declaration in the presence of three iḥaverim /i, bbut otherscan bacceptthat they wish to become a iḥaver bin his presence. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says: This mishna,i.e., the ruling that a Torah scholar must declare his intent to become a iḥaverin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, bwas taught in the days of the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus.At that time, bRabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei were uncertain abouta certain bmatter of ritual purity. The Sages senta delegation of their students bto the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonusand told them to bgoand btell him to examinethis matter. The students bfound him while he was carryingitems that were ritually bpure.The son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus bseated Sages from his ownyeshiva bnext tothe students who came to ask the question, because he did not trust these students to keep his items pure. bAnd he stood and examinedthe matter.,The students returned and bcame and told Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yoseithat the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus had treated them as though they had the status of iamei ha’aretz /i. bRabbi Yehuda said to themin anger: bThis one’s father,i.e., Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus, bdegraded Torah scholarsby not trusting them with matters of ritual purity. And bhe too,the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus, bdegrades Torah scholars. /b, bRabbi Yosei said to him: Let the honor of the elder,i.e., both the father and son, bbe left in its place.He did not act in this manner to degrade Torah scholars. bRather, from the day the Temple was destroyed, the priests were accustomed to act with a higher standard for themselves,and they decided bthat they will not pass ritually pureitems bto anyother bperson.Therefore, the son of Rabbi Ḥanina, as a priest, acted appropriately., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of ba iḥaverthat died, his wife and children and members of his household retain their presumptivestatus buntil they are suspectedof engaging in inappropriate deeds. bAnd similarly,in the case of ba courtyard in which one sells sky-blue dye, it retains its presumptivestatus as a place in which fit sky-blue dye is sold buntil it is disqualifieddue to the merchant’s unscrupulous behavior., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bTheformer bwife an iam ha’aretzwholater bmarries a iḥaver /i, and likewise the daughter of an iam ha’aretzwho marries a iḥaver /i, and likewise the slave of an iam ha’aretzwho is sold to a iḥaver /i, must all acceptupon themselves a commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus. Butwith regard to btheformer bwife of a iḥaverwholater bmarries an iam ha’aretz /i, and likewise the daughter of a iḥaverwho marries an iam ha’aretz /i, and likewise the slave of a iḥaverwho was sold to an iam ha’aretz /i,these people bneed not acceptupon themselves a commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus iab initio /i,as each of them is already accustomed to behave as a iḥaver /i.,The ibaraitacontinues: bRabbi Meir says: They too must acceptupon themselves a commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus iab initio /i. And similarly, Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar wouldillustrate this point and bsay in the name of Rabbi Meir:There was ban incident involving a certain woman who married a iḥaverand would tie [ ikoma’at /i] for him phylacteries on his hand,and she later bmarried a tax collector and would tie for him tax seals on his hand,which shows that her new husband had a great influence on her level of piety.
46. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11b. (ישעיהו מה, ז) יוצר אור ובורא חשך,לימא יוצר אור ובורא נוגה,כדכתיב קאמרינן,אלא מעתה (ישעיהו מה, ז) עושה שלום ובורא רע מי קא אמרינן כדכתיב אלא כתיב רע וקרינן הכל לישנא מעליא הכא נמי לימא נוגה לישנא מעליא,אלא אמר רבא כדי להזכיר מדת יום בלילה ומדת לילה ביום,בשלמא מדת לילה ביום כדאמרינן יוצר אור ובורא חשך אלא מדת יום בלילה היכי משכחת לה,אמר אביי גולל אור מפני חשך וחשך מפני אור,ואידך מאי היא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל אהבה רבה וכן אורי ליה רבי אלעזר לר' פדת בריה אהבה רבה,תניא נמי הכי אין אומרים אהבת עולם אלא אהבה רבה ורבנן אמרי אהבת עולם וכן הוא אומר (ירמיהו לא, ג) ואהבת עולם אהבתיך על כן משכתיך חסד,א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל השכים לשנות עד שלא קרא ק"ש צריך לברך משקרא ק"ש א"צ לברך שכבר נפטר באהבה רבה,אמר רב הונא למקרא צריך לברך ולמדרש א"צ לברך,ור' אלעזר אמר למקרא ולמדרש צריך לברך למשנה א"צ לברך,ור' יוחנן אמר אף למשנה נמי צריך לברך [אבל לתלמוד א"צ לברך],ורבא אמר אף לתלמוד צריך (לחזור ו) לברך,דאמר רב חייא בר אשי זימנין סגיאין הוה קאימנא קמיה דרב לתנויי פרקין בספרא דבי רב הוה מקדים וקא משי ידיה ובריך ומתני לן פרקין.,מאי מברך א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו לעסוק בדברי תורה,ור' יוחנן מסיים בה הכי הערב נא ה' אלהינו את דברי תורתך בפינו ובפיפיות עמך בית ישראל ונהיה אנחנו וצאצאינו וצאצאי עמך בית ישראל כלנו יודעי שמך ועוסקי תורתך ברוך אתה ה' המלמד תורה לעמו ישראל,ורב המנונא אמר אשר בחר בנו מכל העמים ונתן לנו את תורתו ברוך אתה ה' נותן התורה אמר רב המנונא זו היא מעולה שבברכות,הלכך לימרינהו לכולהו:,תנן התם אמר להם הממונה ברכו ברכה אחת והם ברכו וקראו עשרת הדברות שמע והיה אם שמוע ויאמר וברכו את העם ג' ברכות אמת ויציב ועבודה וברכת כהנים ובשבת מוסיפין ברכה אחת למשמר היוצא,מאי ברכה אחת כי הא דרבי אבא ור' יוסי בר אבא אקלעו לההוא אתרא בעו מנייהו מאי ברכה אחת לא הוה בידייהו ואתו שיילוהו לרב מתנה לא הוה בידיה אתו שיילוהו לרב יהודה אמר להו הכי אמר שמואל אהבה רבה,ואמר רבי זריקא אמר רבי אמי א"ר שמעון בן לקיש יוצר אור כי אתא רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר הא דרבי זריקא לאו בפירוש אתמר אלא מכללא אתמר דאמר ר' זריקא א"ר אמי אמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש זאת אומרת ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו,אי אמרת בשלמא יוצר אור הוו אמרי היינו דברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו דלא קא אמרי אהבה רבה 11b. b“Who forms light and creates darkness,Who makes peace and creates evil, I am the Lord Who does all these things” (Isaiah 45:7).,With regard to this formula of the blessing, the Gemara asks: bLet him saythe following formula instead: bWho forms light and creates brightness,so as not to mention darkness, which has negative connotations.,The Gemara answers: bWe saythe blessing basthe verse bis writtenin the Bible and do not alter the formula that appears in the verse.,The Gemara strongly objects: bBut if so,what about the continuation of the verse: b“Who makes peace and creates evil”? Do we saythis blessing bas it is writtenin the Bible? bRather, it is written evil and we euphemistically recitethe blessing ball thingsto avoid mention of evil. bHere, too, let us euphemistically say brightnessinstead of darkness., bRather, Rava said:The reason we recite: “Who creates darkness” is bin order to mention the attribute of day at night and the attribute of night during the day,and thereby unify day and night as different parts of a single entity.,The Gemara continues and asks: bGranted, the attribute of nightis mentioned bduring the day, as we say: Who forms light and creates darkness, but where do you find the attribute of daymentioned bat night?In the blessing over the radiant lights recited at night there is no mention of “Who forms light.”, bAbaye said:Nevertheless, the attribute of day is mentioned at night in the words: bRolling away light before the darkness and darkness before the light. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what isthe formula of bthe otherblessing recited before iShema /i? bRav Yehuda said in the name of Shmuel: An abounding love [ iahava rabba /i]. And Rabbi Elazar instructed his son, Rabbi Pedat,to balsosay: bAn abounding love. /b, bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne does not recite: An eternal love [ iahavat olam /i]; rather,one recites: bAn abounding love. And the Rabbis saythat one recites: bAn eternal love, and so it says: “And an eternal love I have loved you, therefore I have drawn you with kindness”(Jeremiah 31:2).,The blessing: An abounding love, is about God’s love for us and includes praise for His giving us the Torah. Therefore, bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: One who arose to study, until he recites iShemahe must recite aspecial bblessingover the Torah. bIf healready brecited iShemahe need not recitethat bblessing, as he has exemptedhimself bbyreciting the blessing of: bAn abounding love,which includes the components of the blessing over the Torah.,Having mentioned the blessing recited over Torah, the Gemara focuses on a dispute over what constitutes Torah in terms of requiring a blessing. bRav Huna said: Forthe study of bBible, one must recite a blessing,as it is the word of God, band forhalakhic bmidrash,the derivation of ihalakhotfrom verses, bone need not recite a blessing. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: For Bible and midrash,which includes ihalakhotderived from verses themselves, bone must recite a blessing; for Mishna,which is only comprised of halakhic rulings issued by the Sages, bone need not recite a blessing. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: Even for Mishna,which includes final, binding halakhic rulings, bone must recite a blessing as well, but for Talmud,which comprises a study of the Mishna and the rationales for its rulings, bone need not recite a blessing. /b, bAnd Rava said: Even for Talmud,which is the means to analyze the significance of the ihalakhot /i, and is the only form of Torah study that leads one to its true meaning, bone must recite a blessing. /b,This statement is supported by the practical ihalakhaderived from observation of Rav’s practice. His student, bRav Ḥiyya bar Ashi, said: Many times I stood before Rav to study our chapter in the iSifra /i,also known as iTorat Kohanim /i, the halakhic midrash on Leviticus, bof the school of Rav,and I saw that Rav bwould first wash his hands,then brecite a blessing,and only then bhe would teach us our chapter.This demonstrates that even before their study of iTorat Kohanim /i, which, due to Rav’s explanation of the reasons behind the ihalakhot /i, was the equivalent of studying Talmud, one must recite a blessing.,The Gemara clarifies: bWhatformula of bblessings does he recite?There is a dispute over the formula of the blessings as well. bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:The formula of this blessing is like the standard formula for blessings recited over other mitzvot: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, bWho sanctified us with his mitzvot and commanded us to engage in matters of Torah. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa concludesthe blessing by adding bthe following: Lord our God, make the words of Your Torah sweet in our mouths and in the mouths of Your people, the house of Israel, so that we and our descendants and the descendants of Your people, the house of Israel, may be those who know Your name and engage in Your Torah. Blessed are You, Lord, Who teaches Torah to His people Israel. /b, bAnd Rav Hamnuna saidan additional formula: bWho has chosen us from all the peoples and given us His Torah. Blessed are You, Lord, Giver of the Torah.With regard to this formula, bRav Hamnuna said: Thisconcise blessing bis the most outstanding of all the blessingsover the Torah, as it combines thanks to God for giving us the Torah as well as acclaim for the Torah and for Israel.,Since several formulas for the blessing over Torah were suggested, each with its own distinct advantage, the Gemara concludes: bTherefore, let us recite them allas blessings over the Torah.,The Gemara returns to dealing with the blessings that accompany iShema /i, and describes the practice in the Temple. bWe learned there,in a mishna in tractate iTamid /i: In the morning bthedeputy High Priest bappointedto oversee activity in the Temple, bsaid tothe priests who were members of the priestly watch [ imishmar /i] on duty that week: bRecite a single blessing.The members of the priestly watch brecited a blessing, and read the Ten Commandments, iShema /i, iVeHaya im Shamoaand iVaYomer /i,the standard recitation of iShema /i. Additionally, bthey blessed the peoplewith bthree blessings.These blessings were: bTrue and Firm,the blessing of redemption recited after iShema /i; iAvoda /i,service, the special blessing recited over God’s acceptance of the sacrifices with favor, similar to the blessing of Temple Service recited in the iAmidaprayer; band the priestly benediction,recited in the form of a prayer without the outstretched hands that usually accompany that blessing ( iTosafot /i). bAnd on Shabbat one blessing is added tobless bthe outgoing priestly watch,as the watch serving in the Temple was replaced on Shabbat.,Certain details in this mishna are not sufficiently clear. First, bwhat is the single blessingthat the deputy High Priest instructed the guards to recite? The Gemara relates: It is blikethe incident bwhere Rabbi Abba and Rabbi Yosei bar Abba happened tovisit ba certainunnamed bplace,and the people there basked them: What is the single blessingmentioned in the mishna? They bdid not havean answer breadily available.So bthey came and asked Rav Mattana, and hetoo bdid not havean answer breadily available. They came and asked Rav Yehuda,and bhe told them: Shmuel said as follows: An abounding loveis the single blessing recited by the priestly watch., bRabbi Zerika saidthat bRabbi Ami saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish saida different answer: This single blessing is: bWho creates light.That was how Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement was received in Babylonia, yet bwhen Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe saidthat this ihalakhawas not a direct quote of a statement by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. bThat which Rabbi Zerika said was not stated explicitlyby Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, but brather it was inferred fromanother statement. bAs Rabbi Zerika saidthat bRabbi Ami saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:From the expression: Recite a single blessing, in the mishna in tractate iTamid /i, bit followsthat failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother.This means that if only one of the blessings was recited, the obligation to recite that blessing was fulfilled, as the two blessings are not mutually dependent.,The conclusion was drawn from Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement that he held that the single blessing recited was: Who creates light. The considerations that led the Sages to that conclusion were: bGranted, if you say that they would recite: Who creates light,then the conclusion of Reish Lakish, that failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not prevent onefrom reciting the bother,is understandable, as they recited: Who creates light, band did not recite: An abounding love,and they nonetheless fulfilled their obligation.
47. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. כיון דהך גזור ברישא הא תו למה לי אלא הך גזור ברישא והדר גזור בכולהו ידים,וטבול יום טבול יום דאורייתא הוא דכתיב (ויקרא כב, ז) ובא השמש וטהר סמי מכאן טבול יום,והאוכלין שנטמאו במשקין במשקין דמאי אילימא במשקין הבאין מחמת שרץ דאוריי' נינהו דכתיב (ויקרא יא, לד) וכל משקה אשר ישתה אלא במשקין הבאין מחמת ידים וגזירה משום משקין הבאין מחמת שרץ,והכלים שנטמאו במשקין כלים דאיטמאו במשקין דמאי אילימא במשקין דזב דאוריי' נינהו דכתיב (ויקרא טו, ח) וכי ירוק הזב בטהור מה שביד טהור טמאתי לך אלא במשקין הבאין מחמת שרץ וגזירה משום משקין דזב,וידים תלמידי שמאי והלל גזור שמאי והלל גזור דתניא יוסי בן יועזר איש צרידה ויוסי בן יוחנן איש ירושלים גזרו טומאה על ארץ העמים ועל כלי זכוכית שמעון בן שטח תיקן כתובה לאשה וגזר טומאה על כלי מתכות שמאי והלל גזרו טומאה על הידים,וכ"ת שמאי וסיעתו והלל וסיעתו והאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל י"ח דבר גזרו ובי"ח נחלקו ואילו הלל ושמאי לא נחלקו אלא בג' מקומות דא"ר הונא בג' מקומות נחלקו ותו לא וכ"ת אתו אינהו גזור לתלות ואתו תלמידייהו וגזרו לשרוף והאמר אילפא ידים תחלת גזירתן לשריפה אלא אתו אינהו גזור ולא קבלו מינייהו ואתו תלמידייהו גזרו וקבלו מינייהו,ואכתי שלמה גזר דא"ר יהודה אמר שמואל בשעה שתיקן שלמה עירובין ונטילת ידים יצתה בת קול ואמרה (משלי כג, טו) בני אם חכם לבך ישמח לבי גם אני (משלי כז, יא) חכם בני ושמח לבי ואשיבה חורפי דבר אתא 14b. bonce they decreed that first, why do I need thatdecree of impurity on hands that touch a sacred scroll bas well?Once the Sages decreed impurity on hands in general, there is no longer a necessity to decree impurity on hands that touched a Torah scroll, as hands are impure in any case. bRather,certainly the Sages bdecreedimpurity on bthis,hands that touched a Torah scroll, bfirst. And then they decreedimpurity bon all hands. /b,Among the decrees listed in the mishna, there is the decree that contact with one who bimmersed himself during the daydisqualifies iteruma /i. The Gemara asks: bOne who immersed himself during the daytransmits impurity by bTorahlaw, as it is written: “One who touches it remains impure until evening. He should not eat of the consecrated items and he must wash his flesh with water. bAnd the sun sets and it is purified.Afterward, he may eat from the teruma, for it is his bread” (Leviticus 22:6–7). Consequently, until sunset he is prohibited by Torah law from touching consecrated items, and the same is true for iteruma /i. The Gemara answers: bDelete from here,from the list of decrees in the mishna, bone who immersed himself during the day. /b, bAndamong the decrees that were listed, there is also the decree concerning the impurity of bthe foods that became impurethrough contact bwith liquids.The Gemara asks: bWith liquids thatbecame impure due to contact with bwhatsource of impurity? bIf you saythat the mishna is referring to bliquids that cometo be impure bdue tocontact with ba creeping animal, they areimpure bby Torah law, as it is writtenwith regard to the impurity of creeping animals: b“And every liquid that is drunkin any vessel, will be impure” (Leviticus 11:34). bRather,the mishna is referring to bliquids that cometo be impure bdue tocontact with impure bhands.The Sages issued this bdecree due to liquids that cometo be impure bthroughcontact with ba creeping animal. /b, bAndamong the decrees that were listed, there is also the decree concerning bthe vessels that became impurethrough contact bwith liquids.The Gemara asks: bVessels that became impuredue to contact bwith liquids thatbecame impure due to contact with bwhatsource of impurity? bIf you saythat they become impure due to contact bwith liquidssecreted by ba izav /i,e.g., spittle, urine, etc., bthey areimpure bby Torah law, as it is written: “And if a izavspits on a pure personand he should wash his clothes and wash in water and he is impure until the evening” (Leviticus 15:8). The Sages interpreted homiletically: bWhatever is in the hand of the pure person I made impure for you.Not only did the person who came into contact with the liquids of the izavbecome impure, but the objects in his hand did as well. bRather,here it is referring bto liquids that cometo be impure bdue tocontact with ba creeping animal,which by Torah law do not transmit impurity to vessels. bAndthe Sages issued ba decreewith regard to those liquids bdue totheir similarity to the bliquids of a izav /i. /b,Among the list of items in the mishna with regard to which the disciples of Shammai and Hillel instituted decrees, were the hands of any person who did not purify himself for the sake of purity of iteruma /i. If he came into contact with iteruma /i, the Sages decreed it impure. The Gemara asks: bAndwith regard to bhands,was it bthe disciples of Shammai and Hillelwho bissued the decreeof impurity? bShammai and Hillelthemselves bissued the decree. As it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bYosei ben Yo’ezer of Tzereida and Yosei ben Yoḥa of Jerusalem decreed impurity on the land of the nations,that the land outside Eretz Yisrael transmits impurity; bandthey decreed impurity bon glass vessels,even though glass is not listed in the Torah among the vessels that can become impure. bShimon ben Shataḥ institutedthe formula of ba woman’s marriage contract andalso bdecreedspecial bimpurity on metal vessels. Shammai and Hillel decreed impurity on the hands. /b, bAnd if you saythat the ibaraitais referring to bShammai and his faction and Hillel and his faction, didn’t Rav Yehuda saythat bShmuel said: With regard to eighteen matters they issued decreesthat day, band with regard tothose beighteenmatters bthey disagreedprior to that? The eighteen disputes were only between the disciples of Shammai and Hillel, bwhereas Hillel and Shammaithemselves bargued only in three places.Clearly, they were neither party to the disputes nor the decrees. bAs Rav Huna said:Shammai and Hillel bdisagreed inonly bthree places and no more. And if you saythat Hillel and Shammai bcameand bdecreedthat iterumathat came into contact with hands bwould be in abeyance, and their students came and decreed to burn iterumathat came into contact with hands, then the following difficulty arises. bDidn’t Ilfa,one of the Sages, bsay:With regard to bhands,from bthe beginning their decreewas that iterumathat comes into contact with them is bto be burned?According to Ilfa, there is no uncertainty. iTerumathat came into contact with definite impurity is burned. iTerumathat is in abeyance may not be destroyed. One must wait until it becomes definitely impure or decomposes on its own. bRather,the explanation is that bthey came and issued a decree andthe people bdid not acceptthe decree bfrom them, and their disciples came and issued a decree and they acceptedit bfrom them. /b,The Gemara asks further: bStill,the matter is not clear, as the decree of hands was bissuedby King bSolomon. As Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: At the time that Solomon institutedthe ordices of ieiruvandof bwashing handsto purify them from their impurity, ba Divine Voice emerged and saidin his praise: b“My son, if your heart is wise my heart will be glad, even mine”(Proverbs 23:15), and so too: b“My son, be wise and make my heart glad, that I may respond to those who taunt me”(Proverbs 27: 11). The Gemara responds: bCame /b
48. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 14 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

49. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 15 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

50. Anon., Gospel of Thomas, 14



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adultery Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 64
affix Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 253
agrapha (sayings of jesus not in new testament) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 459
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
alexandrian Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 92
allison, gary Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241
alms(giving) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 520
antichrist, heresiological theme Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 531
apistein Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
apistia, apistos Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
apo ἀπό, distance Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 250, 251, 252, 253
apo ἀπό Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 250, 251, 252, 253
apostates/apostasy Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
aramaic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 117
aristion and the elder john, papias as direct witness to Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
authority, christian sources, early, role of non-intellectual authority in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority, jewish/rabbinic sources, role of oral-traditional authority in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority, of elders Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority, of hearers Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority, oral-traditional Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority of ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 520
bauckham, r. Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
bergen, benjamin k. Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 242, 247
black, max Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 245
cause Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 254
children Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
christianity Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 92
church fathers Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 115, 116, 117
circumcision Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 82
codex alexandrinus (a) Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 116
codex ephraemi rescriptus Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 117
codex vaticanus (b) Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 116, 117
cognitive linguistics Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241, 242, 244, 247
commandment/commandments Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
concept/conception Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 242, 253, 254
conceptual Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241, 242, 244, 245, 247, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253
construal, spatial construal Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 251
construal Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 253
construction, boundary construction Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 251
contact Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 252, 253
container, container schema Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 251
container Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247, 251, 253, 254
control, control is up metaphor Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249
control Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249, 251
copying errors Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 115, 116
coulson, seana Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247
critical edition Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 115
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 162
davidson, donald Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 244
dawes, gregory w. Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 245
decalogue, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
decalogue Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 82
descamp, mary therese Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241
dietary laws in the gospels Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 64
direction Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 251, 252, 253
discourse distance Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 250, 251, 253
editing (process) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 520
eis εἰς Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 251, 252, 253, 254
ek ἐκ, source Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 251, 253, 254
ek ἐκ Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 251, 253, 254
elders, authority of Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
embodied, embodied simulation Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247
emotion Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241, 247, 250, 251, 253
en ἐν Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247, 249
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 520
ethics Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 82
exegesis, figurative Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 531
exegesis, literal Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 531
external vs. internal Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 64
fasting Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 520
fewster, gergory p. Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241
food, impurity of in the gospels Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 64
food (dietary) laws, kashrut Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 519
frame Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 244
galen' Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 205
geeraerts, dirk Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241, 245
gentile/gentiles Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374
gibbs, raymond w. Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 242, 247
gnosticism, attitudes towards the old testament Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 210
gnostics and gnosticism, hermeneutics of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 597
gnostics and gnosticism, secret or oral tradition, belief in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 597
gnostics and gnosticism Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 597
goal Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249
goldberg, adele e. Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 242
gospel of thomas Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 459
gospels, new testament Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
gospels Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 115, 117
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
gray, allison Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241
gupta, nijay Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241
hagigah, tractate in mishna, tosefta and talmud Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
hagner, donald a. Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 254
halakha, discourse Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 90
hands, purity of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
hartvigsen, kirsten marie Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241
hays, richard b. Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 250
hearers, authority of Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
heim, erin Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241, 242, 244
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
herodian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 519
high (chief) priest Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 519
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17, 519
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17, 520
honour (and shame) Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 211
howe, bonnie Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
instrument Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241
intention Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 64
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374
irenaeus of lyons, on gnostic hermeneutics Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 597
israel x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 117
james, law in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 177
jerome Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
jesus, agrapha (sayings of jesus not in new testament) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 459
jesus, and torah observance Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 388
jesus, lukes story of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 211
jesus, matthews story of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 211
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17, 519
jesus of nazareth Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 47
jesus tradition Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 115, 116, 117
jesus—see also christianity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374, 495
jewish people Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 210
jews and judaism, on oral-traditional authority Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
john the baptist Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 281
johnson, mark Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 242, 247
josephus Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 388
judah the patriarch, judaic traditions, law in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 177
kamp, albert h. Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241
kosher laws Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 388
kövecses, zoltán Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247, 250
lakoff, george Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 242, 247
landmark, agent landmark Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 250, 251
landmark, goal landmark Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 252
landmark, path landmark Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249
landmark Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374
law, biblical Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 82
law, the, gnostic views of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 210
lexicography Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247
location, metaphorical location Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249
location Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249, 250, 252
luraghi, silvia Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241, 247, 251, 252
luz, ulrich Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 254
magi, on law and the old testament Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 210
marriage, levirate marriage Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 531
martyr, justin, on the law Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 210
masoretic text (mt) Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 115, 116
matthew, gospel of Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 388
meir, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
metaphor, conceptual, bodies are containers Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 253
metaphor, conceptual, causation is control over an entity relative to a location Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249
metaphor, conceptual, control is up Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249
metaphor, conceptual, emotional closeness is physical closeness Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 250, 253
metaphor, conceptual, happy is up Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247
metaphor, conceptual, ideas are objects Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249
metaphor, conceptual, important is central Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247, 250, 252, 253
metaphor, conceptual, metaphor theory Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241, 242, 244, 247, 249
metaphor, conceptual, metaphoric extension Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249
metaphor, conceptual, metaphorical Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 244
metaphor, conceptual, sad is down Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247
metaphor, conceptual, textual metaphor Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 244, 245, 249, 250
metaphor, conceptual, the body is a conduit Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 253
metaphor, conceptual Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241, 242, 244, 245, 247, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374, 495
moses Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 520
motion Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 251
munck, johannes Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
murder Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 64
new testament—see also, christianity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
old greek Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 116, 117
old testament, defense as christian scripture Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 210
oral-traditional authority, use in early christian sources Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
orality Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374
orientation Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247
origen, themes on heresy in the commentary on matthew Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 531
origin , with ἐκ and ἀπό Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 250, 251
papias of hieropolis, aristion and the elder john, as direct witness to Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
papias of hieropolis, oral-traditional authority in work of Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
papias of hieropolis, tannaim and rabbinic parallels Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
parallels (between books) Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 116
particle Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 252
path Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249
patriarchs, texts Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 520
peter's vision, halakhic perspectives" Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 90
peter-cornelius narrative and visions, intertextual approaches, nt Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 29
pharisaic tradition/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
pharisees, in christian literature Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 47
pharisees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374, 495
pharisees Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169; Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 64; Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 388; Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 47; Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 281
philosophy Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241, 242, 244, 245, 247
porneia (zenut, unchastity) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 520
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374, 495
prefix, prefix εἰσ- Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 253
prefix, prefix πρός Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 252
prefix, prefix ἀπό Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249, 250, 252
prefix, prefix ἐκ- Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 253
prefix Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249, 250, 252, 253
profile, profiling Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 253
profile Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 251, 252
proto-text/prototype Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 115
prototype, prototypical Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247, 249, 250, 251, 253, 254
prototype theory Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241, 242, 244, 247, 249, 251
proximity Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 253
ptolemaeus Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 82
ptolemy (gnostic) Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 210
purity, cultural frame Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 254
purity, impurity, defilement, cleansing Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 90
purity Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 115
purity (see also food laws) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17, 519
purity laws Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
pythagoras and pythagoreans, gospel of thomas and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 459
q source Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 47
quotations in markan tradition Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 115, 116, 117
rabbi (title) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 520
rabbinic, halakhic discourse Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 90
radial network, radial category Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 245, 247
reason Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 242
redaction/writing of mishna Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
reliance, on unreliable people Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
revelation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374
rhetorical strategies, of ptolemaeus Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 82
richards, i. a. Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 242, 244
sabbath, law Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 90
sabbath Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 82; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 519, 520
sadducees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374, 495
schema, image schema, container schema Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 251
schema, image schema Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 249, 251
scripture, as weapon/criterion against heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 210
scriptures, interpretation of, as basis for pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
self-trust, negative Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
semantic role Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241
septuagint Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 115, 116, 117
service to god or christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17, 519
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17, 520
simulation, mental Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247
sinai, mount Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374, 495
soskice, janet martin Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 242, 244, 245
source, with ἐκ and ἀπό Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 253, 254
source Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 253, 254
space Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 250, 251
spatial, nonspatial Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247
spatial, spatial relation Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 250, 251
spatial Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247, 250, 251, 253
spirit, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
subject Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 245, 247, 249
synoptic, gospels Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 519
synoptic, tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 519
tannaic halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
tannaim, oral-traditional authority in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
tannaim, papias, parallels to Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
theology Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 115, 116, 117
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374, 495
torah (law) Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 388
tradition, of the fathers/ancestors Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 47
tradition, pharisaic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 47
traditions or schools of exegesis, valentinus and valentinian school Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 597
trajector Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253
translation Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 250
transmission Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 115, 116, 117
turner, mark Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 242
valentinus and valentinian school Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 597
vision Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
vorlage Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 116, 117
wallace, daniel Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 247
washing of hand Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
washing of food Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 64
washing of hands Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 64
wetter, anne-mareike Ross and Runge, Postclassical Greek Prepositions and Conceptual Metaphor: Cognitive Semantic Analysis and Biblical Interpretation (2022) 241
wisdom Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
witness to Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
yoshua, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
ἑτεροδιδασκαλία Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 531