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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8258
New Testament, Matthew, 11.7-11.8


Τούτων δὲ πορευομένων ἤρξατο ὁ Ἰησοῦς λέγειν τοῖς ὄχλοις περὶ Ἰωάνου Τί ἐξήλθατε εἰς τὴν ἔρημον θεάσασθαι; κάλαμον ὑπὸ ἀνέμου σαλευόμενον;As these went their way, Jesus began to say to the multitudes concerning John, "What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken by the wind?


ἀλλὰ τί ἐξήλθατε ἰδεῖν; ἄνθρωπον ἐν μαλακοῖς ἠμφιεσμένον; ἰδοὺ οἱ τὰ μαλακὰ φοροῦντες ἐν τοῖς οἴκοις τῶν βασιλέων.But what did you go out to see? A man in soft clothing? Behold, those who wear soft clothing are in king's houses.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 21.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.20. and they shall say unto the elders of his city: ‘This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he doth not hearken to our voice; he is a glutton, and a drunkard.’"
2. Aesop, Fables, 188, 314, 70-71, 11 (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3. Aristophanes, Wasps, 1258-1261, 1401-1405, 1257 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1257. ἢ γὰρ παρῃτήσαντο τὸν πεπονθότα
4. Horace, Sermones, 1.6.19-1.6.21 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Strabo, Geography, 16.2.16 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16.2.16. There are two mountains, which form Coele-Syria, as it is called, lying nearly parallel to each other; the commencement of the ascent of both these mountains, Libanus and Antilibanus, is a little way from the sea; Libanus rises above the sea near Tripolis and Theoprosopon, and Antilibanus, above the sea near Sidon. They terminate somewhere near the Arabian mountains, which are above the district of Damascus and the Trachones as they are there called, where they form fruitful hills. A hollow plain lies between them, the breadth of which towards the sea is 200 stadia, and the length from the sea to the interior is about twice that number of stadia. Rivers flow through it, the largest of which is the Jordan, which water a country fertile and productive of all things. It contains also a lake, which produces the aromatic rush and reed. In it are also marshes. The name of the lake is Gennesaritis. It produces also balsamum.Among the rivers is the Chrysorrhoas, which commences from the city and territory of Damascus, and is almost entirely drained by water-courses; for it supplies with water a large tract of country, with a very deep soil.The Lycus and the Jordan are navigated upwards chiefly by the Aradii, with vessels of burden.
6. New Testament, Acts, 4.27, 12.21, 12.22, 12.23, 18.24-19.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12.21. On an appointed day, Herod dressed himself in royal clothing, sat on the throne, and gave a speech to them.
7. New Testament, John, 1.8, 1.20-1.21, 3.22-3.24, 5.33-5.36, 7.20, 8.48, 10.20, 10.40-10.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.20. He confessed, and didn't deny, but he confessed, "I am not the Christ. 1.21. They asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?"He said, "I am not.""Are you the Prophet?"He answered, "No. 3.22. After these things, Jesus came with his disciples into the land of Judea. He stayed there with them, and baptized. 3.23. John also was baptizing in Enon near Salim, because there was much water there. They came, and were baptized. 3.24. For John was not yet thrown into prison. 5.33. You have sent to John, and he has testified to the truth. 5.34. But the testimony which I receive is not from man. However, I say these things that you may be saved. 5.35. He was the burning and shining lamp, and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light. 5.36. But the testimony which I have is greater than that of John, for the works which the Father gave me to accomplish, the very works that I do, testify about me, that the Father has sent me. 7.20. The multitude answered, "You have a demon! Who seeks to kill you? 8.48. Then the Jews answered him, "Don't we say well that you are a Samaritan, and have a demon? 10.20. Many of them said, "He has a demon, and is insane! Why do you listen to him? 10.40. He went away again beyond the Jordan into the place where John was baptizing at first, and there he stayed. 10.41. Many came to him. They said, "John indeed did no sign, but everything that John said about this man is true.
8. New Testament, Luke, 1.13, 1.18, 1.57, 2.34, 2.48-2.49, 3.1, 3.12-3.13, 3.18-3.20, 4.21, 4.23, 4.42, 5.16, 6.12, 7.18-7.28, 7.32, 7.35, 8.3, 8.10, 9.7-9.9, 9.18, 9.28, 11.5, 11.9, 12.15-12.16, 12.42, 13.31-13.33, 14.23, 15.22, 16.13, 16.16, 16.19, 19.13, 23.6-23.12, 23.15, 24.5, 24.10, 24.17-24.18, 24.25, 24.32, 24.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. But the angel said to him, "Don't be afraid, Zacharias, because your request has been heard, and your wife, Elizabeth, will bear you a son, and you shall call his name John. 1.18. Zacharias said to the angel, "How can I be sure of this? For I am an old man, and my wife is well advanced in years. 1.57. Now the time that Elizabeth should give birth was fulfilled, and she brought forth a son. 2.34. and Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother, "Behold, this child is set for the falling and the rising of many in Israel, and for a sign which is spoken against. 2.48. When they saw him, they were astonished, and his mother said to him, "Son, why have you treated us this way? Behold, your father and I were anxiously looking for you. 2.49. He said to them, "Why were you looking for me? Didn't you know that I must be in my Father's house? 3.1. Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene 3.12. Tax collectors also came to be baptized, and they said to him, "Teacher, what must we do? 3.13. He said to them, "Collect no more than that which is appointed to you. 3.18. Then with many other exhortations he preached good news to the people 3.19. but Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias, his brother's wife, and for all the evil things which Herod had done 3.20. added this also to them all, that he shut up John in prison. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.42. When it was day, he departed and went into an uninhabited place, and the multitudes looked for him, and came to him, and held on to him, so that he wouldn't go away from them. 5.16. But he withdrew himself into the desert, and prayed. 6.12. It happened in these days, that he went out to the mountain to pray, and he continued all night in prayer to God. 7.18. The disciples of John told him about all these things. 7.19. John, calling to himself two of his disciples, sent them to Jesus, saying, "Are you the one who is coming, or should we look for another? 7.20. When the men had come to him, they said, "John the Baptizer has sent us to you, saying, 'Are you he who comes, or should we look for another?' 7.21. In that hour he cured many of diseases and plagues and evil spirits; and to many who were blind he gave sight. 7.22. Jesus answered them, "Go and tell John the things which you have seen and heard: that the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them. 7.23. Blessed is he who is not offended by me. 7.24. When John's messengers had departed, he began to tell the multitudes about John, "What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken by the wind? 7.25. But what did you go out to see? A man clothed in soft clothing? Behold, those who are gorgeously dressed, and live delicately, are in kings' courts. 7.26. But what did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes, I tell you, and much more than a prophet. 7.27. This is he of whom it is written, 'Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you.' 7.28. For I tell you, among those who are born of women there is not a greater prophet than John the Baptizer, yet he who is least in the Kingdom of God is greater than he. 7.32. They are like children who sit in the marketplace, and call one to another, saying, 'We piped to you, and you didn't dance. We mourned, and you didn't weep.' 7.35. Wisdom is justified by all her children. 8.3. and Joanna, the wife of Chuzas, Herod's steward; Susanna; and many others; who ministered to them from their possessions. 8.10. He said, "To you it is given to know the mysteries of the Kingdom of God, but to the rest in parables; that 'seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not understand.' 9.7. Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done by him; and he was very perplexed, because it was said by some that John had risen from the dead 9.8. and by some that Elijah had appeared, and by others that one of the old prophets had risen again. 9.9. Herod said, "John I beheaded, but who is this, about whom I hear such things?" He sought to see him. 9.18. It happened, as he was praying alone, that the disciples were with him, and he asked them, "Who do the multitudes say that I am? 9.28. It happened about eight days after these sayings, that he took with him Peter, John, and James, and went up onto the mountain to pray. 11.5. He said to them, "Which of you, if you go to a friend at midnight, and tell him, 'Friend, lend me three loaves of bread 11.9. I tell you, keep asking, and it will be given you. Keep seeking, and you will find. Keep knocking, and it will be opened to you. 12.15. He said to them, "Beware! Keep yourselves from covetousness, for a man's life doesn't consist of the abundance of the things which he possesses. 12.16. He spoke a parable to them, saying, "The ground of a certain rich man brought forth abundantly. 12.42. The Lord said, "Who then is the faithful and wise steward, whom his lord will set over his household, to give them their portion of food at the right times? 13.31. On that same day, some Pharisees came, saying to him, "Get out of here, and go away, for Herod wants to kill you. 13.32. He said to them, "Go and tell that fox, 'Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I complete my mission. 13.33. Nevertheless I must go on my way today and tomorrow and the next day, for it can't be that a prophet perish outside of Jerusalem.' 14.23. The lord said to the servant, 'Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled. 15.22. But the father said to his servants, 'Bring out the best robe, and put it on him. Put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet. 16.13. No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to one, and despise the other. You aren't able to serve God and mammon. 16.16. The law and the prophets were until John. From that time the gospel of the Kingdom of God is preached, and everyone is forcing his way into it. 16.19. Now there was a certain rich man, and he was clothed in purple and fine linen, living in luxury every day. 19.13. He called ten servants of his, and gave them ten minas, and told them, 'Conduct business until I come.' 23.6. But when Pilate heard Galilee mentioned, he asked if the man was a Galilean. 23.7. When he found out that he was in Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem during those days. 23.8. Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceedingly glad, for he had wanted to see him for a long time, because he had heard many things about him. He hoped to see some miracle done by him. 23.9. He questioned him with many words, but he gave no answers. 23.10. The chief priests and the scribes stood, vehemently accusing him. 23.11. Herod with his soldiers humiliated him and mocked him. Dressing him in luxurious clothing, they sent him back to Pilate. 23.12. Herod and Pilate became friends with each other that very day, for before that they were enemies with each other. 23.15. Neither has Herod, for I sent you to him, and see, nothing worthy of death has been done by him. 24.5. Becoming terrified, they bowed their faces down to the earth. They said to them, "Why do you seek the living among the dead? 24.10. Now they were Mary Magdalene, Joanna, and Mary the mother of James. The other women with them told these things to the apostles. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.32. They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us? 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled.
9. New Testament, Mark, 1.6, 1.12, 1.35, 1.45, 3.6-3.7, 3.19-3.22, 6.14-6.44, 8.15, 12.13-12.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. John was clothed with camel's hair and a leather belt around his loins. He ate locusts and wild honey. 1.12. Immediately the Spirit drove him out into the wilderness. 1.35. Early in the night, he rose up and went out, and departed into a deserted place, and prayed there. 1.45. But he went out, and began to proclaim it much, and to spread about the matter, so that Jesus could no more openly enter into a city, but was outside in desert places: and they came to him from everywhere. 3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 3.7. Jesus withdrew to the sea with his disciples, and a great multitude followed him from Galilee, from Judea 3.19. and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. He came into a house. 3.20. The multitude came together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread. 3.21. When his friends heard it, they went out to seize him: for they said, "He is insane. 3.22. The scribes who came down from Jerusalem said, "He has Beelzebul," and, "By the prince of the demons he casts out the demons. 6.14. King Herod heard this, for his name had become known, and he said, "John the Baptizer has risen from the dead, and therefore these powers are at work in him. 6.15. But others said, "It is Elijah." Others said, "It is the Prophet, or like one of the prophets. 6.16. But Herod, when he heard this, said, "This is John, whom I beheaded. He has risen from the dead. 6.17. For Herod himself had sent out and arrested John, and bound him in prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife, for he had married her. 6.18. For John said to Herod, "It is not lawful for you to have your brother's wife. 6.19. Herodias set herself against him, and desired to kill him, but she couldn't 6.20. for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and kept him safe. When he heard him, he did many things, and he heard him gladly. 6.21. Then a convenient day came, that Herod on his birthday made a supper for his nobles, the high officers, and the chief men of Galilee. 6.22. When the daughter of Herodias herself came in and danced, she pleased Herod and those sitting with him. The king said to the young lady, "Ask me whatever you want, and I will give it to you. 6.23. He swore to her, "Whatever you shall ask of me, I will give you, up to half of my kingdom. 6.24. She went out, and said to her mother, "What shall I ask?"She said, "The head of John the Baptizer. 6.25. She came in immediately with haste to the king, and asked, "I want you to give me right now the head of John the Baptizer on a platter. 6.26. The king was exceedingly sorry, but for the sake of his oaths, and of his dinner guests, he didn't wish to refuse her. 6.27. Immediately the king sent out a soldier of his guard, and commanded to bring John's head, and he went and beheaded him in the prison 6.28. and brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the young lady; and the young lady gave it to her mother. 6.29. When his disciples heard this, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb. 6.30. The apostles gathered themselves together to Jesus, and they told him all things, whatever they had done, and whatever they had taught. 6.31. He said to them, "You come apart into a deserted place, and rest awhile." For there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat. 6.32. They went away in the boat to a desert place by themselves. 6.33. They saw them going, and many recognized him and ran there on foot from all the cities. They arrived before them and came together to him. 6.34. Jesus came out, saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things. 6.35. When it was late in the day, his disciples came to him, and said, "This place is deserted, and it is late in the day. 6.36. Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat. 6.37. But he answered them, "You give them something to eat."They asked him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread, and give them something to eat? 6.38. He said to them, "How many loaves do you have? Go see."When they knew, they said, "Five, and two fish. 6.39. He commanded them that everyone should sit down in groups on the green grass. 6.40. They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties. 6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 6.42. They all ate, and were filled. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 6.44. Those who ate the loaves were five thousand men. 8.15. He charged them, saying, "Take heed: beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod. 12.13. They sent some of the Pharisees and of the Herodians to him, that they might trap him with words. 12.14. When they had come, they asked him, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and don't defer to anyone; for you aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 12.15. Shall we give, or shall we not give?"But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said to them, "Why do you test me? Bring me a denarius, that I may see it. 12.16. They brought it. He said to them, "Whose is this image and inscription?"They said to him, "Caesar's. 12.17. Jesus answered them, "Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's."They marveled greatly at him.
10. New Testament, Matthew, 7.15, 9.32-9.33, 11.1-11.6, 11.8-11.19, 12.24, 14.1-14.21, 16.6, 16.12, 16.14, 17.9-17.13, 22.15-22.22, 24.45 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.15. Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly are ravening wolves. 9.32. As they went out, behold, a mute man who was demon possessed was brought to him. 9.33. When the demon was cast out, the mute man spoke. The multitudes marveled, saying, "Nothing like this has ever been seen in Israel! 11.1. It happened that when Jesus had finished directing his twelve disciples, he departed from there to teach and preach in their cities. 11.2. Now when John heard in the prison the works of Christ, he sent two of his disciples 11.3. and said to him, "Are you he who comes, or should we look for another? 11.4. Jesus answered them, "Go and tell John the things which you hear and see: 11.5. the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them. 11.6. Blessed is he who finds no occasion for stumbling in me. 11.8. But what did you go out to see? A man in soft clothing? Behold, those who wear soft clothing are in king's houses. 11.9. But why did you go out? To see a prophet? Yes, I tell you, and much more than a prophet. 11.10. For this is he, of whom it is written, 'Behold, I send my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way before you.' 11.11. Most assuredly I tell you, among those who are born of women there has not arisen anyone greater than John the Baptizer; yet he who is least in the Kingdom of Heaven is greater than he. 11.12. From the days of John the Baptizer until now, the Kingdom of Heaven suffers violence, and the violent take it by force. 11.13. For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John. 11.14. If you are willing to receive it, this is Elijah, who is to come. 11.15. He who has ears to hear, let him hear. 11.16. But to what shall I compare this generation? It is like children sitting in the marketplaces, who call to their companions 11.17. and say, 'We played the flute for you, and you didn't dance. We mourned for you, and you didn't lament.' 11.18. For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, 'He has a demon.' 11.19. The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, 'Behold, a gluttonous man and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!' But wisdom is justified by her children. 12.24. But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, "This man does not cast out demons, except by Beelzebul, the prince of the demons. 14.1. At that time, Herod the tetrarch heard the report concerning Jesus 14.2. and said to his servants, "This is John the Baptizer. He is risen from the dead. That is why these powers work in him. 14.3. For Herod had laid hold of John, and bound him, and put him in prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife. 14.4. For John said to him, "It is not lawful for you to have her. 14.5. When he would have put him to death, he feared the multitude, because they counted him as a prophet. 14.6. But when Herod's birthday came, the daughter of Herodias danced among them and pleased Herod. 14.7. Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatever she should ask. 14.8. She, being prompted by her mother, said, "Give me here on a platter the head of John the Baptizer. 14.9. The king was grieved, but for the sake of his oaths, and of those who sat at the table with him, he commanded it to be given 14.10. and he sent and beheaded John in the prison. 14.11. His head was brought on a platter, and given to the young lady: and she brought it to her mother. 14.12. His disciples came, and took the body, and buried it; and they went and told Jesus. 14.13. Now when Jesus heard this, he withdrew from there in a boat, to a deserted place apart. When the multitudes heard it, they followed him on foot from the cities. 14.14. Jesus went out, and he saw a great multitude. He had compassion on them, and healed their sick. 14.15. When evening had come, his disciples came to him, saying, "This place is deserted, and the hour is already late. Send the multitudes away, that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves food. 14.16. But Jesus said to them, "They don't need to go away. You give them something to eat. 14.17. They told him, "We only have here five loaves and two fish. 14.18. He said, "Bring them here to me. 14.19. He commanded the multitudes to sit down on the grass; and he took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, broke and gave the loaves to the disciples, and the disciples gave to the multitudes. 14.20. They all ate, and were filled. They took up twelve baskets full of that which remained left over from the broken pieces. 14.21. Those who ate were about five thousand men, besides women and children. 16.6. Jesus said to them, "Take heed and beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 16.12. Then they understood that he didn't tell them to beware of the yeast of bread, but of the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 16.14. They said, "Some say John the Baptizer, some, Elijah, and others, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets. 17.9. As they were coming down from the mountain, Jesus commanded them, saying, "Don't tell anyone what you saw, until the Son of Man has risen from the dead. 17.10. His disciples asked him, saying, "Then why do the scribes say that Elijah must come first? 17.11. Jesus answered them, "Elijah indeed comes first, and will restore all things 17.12. but I tell you that Elijah has come already, and they didn't recognize him, but did to him whatever they wanted to. Even so the Son of Man will also suffer by them. 17.13. Then the disciples understood that he spoke to them of John the Baptizer. 22.15. Then the Pharisees went and took counsel how they might entrap him in his talk. 22.16. They sent their disciples to him, along with the Herodians, saying, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and teach the way of God in truth, no matter who you teach, for you aren't partial to anyone. 22.17. Tell us therefore, what do you think? Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 22.18. But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, "Why do you test me, you hypocrites? 22.19. Show me the tax money."They brought to him a denarius. 22.20. He asked them, "Whose is this image and inscription? 22.21. They said to him, "Caesar's."Then he said to them, "Give therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 22.22. When they heard it, they marveled, and left him, and went away. 24.45. Who then is the faithful and wise servant, whom his lord has set over his household, to give them their food in due season?
11. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

60b. לעולם יכנס אדם בכי טוב ויצא בכי טוב שנאמר (שמות יב, כב) ואתם לא תצאו איש מפתח ביתו עד בקר,ת"ר דבר בעיר כנס רגליך שנאמר ואתם לא תצאו איש מפתח ביתו עד בקר ואומר (ישעיהו כו, כ) לך עמי בא בחדריך וסגור דלתיך בעדך ואומר (דברים לב, כה) מחוץ תשכל חרב ומחדרים אימה,מאי ואומר וכי תימא ה"מ בליליא אבל ביממא לא תא שמע לך עמי בא בחדריך וסגור דלתיך,וכי תימא ה"מ [היכא] דליכא אימה מגואי אבל היכא דאיכא אימה מגואי כי נפיק יתיב ביני אינשי בצוותא בעלמא טפי מעלי ת"ש מחוץ תשכל חרב ומחדרים אימה אע"ג דמחדרים אימה מחוץ תשכל חרב,רבא בעידן רתחא הוי סכר כוי דכתי' (ירמיהו ט, כ) כי עלה מות בחלונינו,ת"ר רעב בעיר פזר רגליך שנא' (בראשית יב, י) ויהי רעב בארץ וירד אברם מצרימה [לגור] (ויגר) שם ואומר (מלכים ב ז, ד) אם אמרנו נבא העיר והרעב בעיר ומתנו שם,מאי ואומר וכי תימא ה"מ היכא דליכא ספק נפשות אבל היכא דאיכא ספק נפשות לא ת"ש (מלכים ב ז, ד) לכו ונפלה אל מחנה ארם אם יחיונו נחיה,ת"ר דבר בעיר אל יהלך אדם באמצע הדרך מפני שמלאך המות מהלך באמצע הדרכים דכיון דיהיבא ליה רשותא מסגי להדיא שלום בעיר אל יהלך בצדי דרכים דכיון דלית ליה רשותא מחבי חבויי ומסגי,ת"ר דבר בעיר אל יכנס אדם יחיד לבית הכנסת שמלאך המות מפקיד שם כליו וה"מ היכא דלא קרו ביה דרדקי ולא מצלו ביה עשרה,ת"ר כלבים בוכים מלאך המות בא לעיר כלבים משחקים אליהו הנביא בא לעיר וה"מ דלית בהו נקבה:,יתיב רב אמי ורב אסי קמיה דר' יצחק נפחא מר א"ל לימא מר שמעתתא ומר א"ל לימא מר אגדתא פתח למימר אגדתא ולא שביק מר פתח למימר שמעתתא ולא שביק מר,אמר להם אמשול לכם משל למה הדבר דומה לאדם שיש לו שתי נשים אחת ילדה ואחת זקינה ילדה מלקטת לו לבנות זקינה מלקטת לו שחורות נמצא קרח מכאן ומכאן,אמר להן אי הכי אימא לכו מלתא דשויא לתרוייכו (שמות כב, ה) כי תצא אש ומצאה קוצים תצא מעצמה שלם ישלם המבעיר את הבערה אמר הקב"ה עלי לשלם את הבערה שהבערתי,אני הציתי אש בציון שנאמר (איכה ד, יא) ויצת אש בציון ותאכל יסודותיה ואני עתיד לבנותה באש שנאמר (זכריה ב, ט) ואני אהיה לה חומת אש סביב ולכבוד אהיה בתוכה,שמעתתא פתח הכתוב בנזקי ממונו וסיים בנזקי גופו לומר לך אשו משום חציו:,(שמואל ב כג, טו) ויתאוה דוד ויאמר מי ישקני מים מבור בית לחם אשר בשער ויבקעו שלשת הגבורים במחנה פלשתים וישאבו מים מבור בית לחם אשר בשער [וגו'],מאי קא מיבעיא ליה אמר רבא אמר ר"נ טמון באש קמיבעיא ליה אי כר' יהודה אי כרבנן ופשטו ליה מאי דפשטו ליה,רב הונא אמר גדישים דשעורים דישראל הוו דהוו מטמרי פלשתים בהו וקא מיבעיא ליה מהו להציל עצמו בממון חבירו,שלחו ליה אסור להציל עצמו בממון חבירו אבל אתה מלך אתה [ומלך] פורץ לעשות לו דרך ואין מוחין בידו,ורבנן ואיתימא רבה בר מרי אמרו גדישים דשעורין דישראל הוו וגדישין דעדשים דפלשתים וקא מיבעיא להו מהו ליטול גדישין של שעורין דישראל ליתן לפני בהמתו על מנת לשלם גדישין של עדשים דפלשתים,שלחו ליה (יחזקאל לג, טו) חבול ישיב רשע גזילה ישלם אע"פ שגזילה משלם רשע הוא אבל אתה מלך אתה ומלך פורץ לעשות לו דרך ואין מוחין בידו,בשלמא למאן דאמר לאחלופי היינו דכתיב חד קרא (שמואל ב כג, יא) ותהי שם חלקת השדה מלאה עדשים וכתיב חד קרא (דברי הימים א יא, יג) ותהי חלקת השדה מלאה שעורים,אלא למאן דאמר למקלי מאי איבעיא להו להני תרי קראי אמר לך דהוו נמי גדישים דעדשים דישראל דהוו מיטמרו בהו פלשתים,בשלמא למאן דאמר למקלי היינו דכתיב (שמואל ב כג, יב) ויתיצב בתוך החלקה ויצילה אלא למ"ד לאחלופי מאי ויצילה,דלא שבק להו לאחלופי,בשלמא הני תרתי היינו דכתיב תרי קראי 60b. bA personshould balways enteran unfamiliar city bata time of bgood,i.e., while it is light, as the Torah uses the expression “It is good” with regard to the creation of light (see Genesis 1:4). This goodness is manifest in the sense of security one feels when it is light. bAndlikewise, when one leaves a city bheshould bleave ata time of bgood,meaning after sunrise the next morning, bas it is statedin the verse: b“And none of you shall go out of the opening of his house until the morning”(Exodus 12:22).,§ bThe Sages taught:If there is bplague in the city, gather your feet,i.e., limit the time you spend out of the house, bas it is statedin the verse: b“And none of you shall go out of the opening of his house until the morning.” And it saysin another verse: b“Come, my people, enter into your chambers, and shut your doors behind you;hide yourself for a little moment, until the anger has passed by” (Isaiah 26:20). bAnd it says: “Outside the sword will bereave, and in the chambers terror”(Deuteronomy 32:25).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the reason for citing the additional verses introduced with the term: bAnd it says?The first verse seems sufficient to teach the principle that one should not emerge from one’s house when there is a plague. The Gemara answers: bAnd if you would saythat bthis matter,the first verse that states that none of you shall go out until morning, applies only bat night, but in the dayone may think that the principle does bnotapply, for this reason the Gemara teaches: bComeand bhear: “Come, my people, enter into your chambers, and shut your doors behind you.” /b, bAnd if you would saythat bthis matterapplies only bwhere there is no fear inside,which explains why it is preferable to remain indoors, bbut where there is fear inside,one might think that bwhen he goes outand bsits among people in general companyit is bbetter,therefore, the Gemara introduces the third verse and says: bComeand bhear: “Outside the sword will bereave, and in the chambers terror.”This means that balthough there is terror in the chambers, outside the sword will bereave,so it is safer to remain indoors., bAt a timewhen there was a bplague, Rava would close the windowsof his house, bas it is written: “For death is come up into our windows”(Jeremiah 9:20)., bThe Sages taught:If there is bfamine in the city, spread your feet,i.e., leave the city, bas it is statedin the verse: b“And there was a famine in the land; and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there”(Genesis 12:10). bAnd it says: “If we say: We will enter into the city, then the famine is in the city, and we shall die there;and if we sit here, we die also, now come, and let us fall unto the host of the Arameans; if they save us alive, we shall live; and if they kill us, we shall but die” (II Kings 7:4)., bWhatis the reason for citing the second verse, introduced with the term: bAnd it says? And if you would saythat bthis matter,the principle of leaving the city, applies only bwhere there is no uncertaintyconcerning ba life-threateningsituation, bbut where there is uncertaintyconcerning ba life-threateningsituation this principle does bnotapply, bcomeand bhear: “Come, and let us fall unto the host of the Arameans; if they save us alive, we shall live;and if they kill us, we shall but die.”, bThe Sages taught:If there is ba plague in the city, a person should not walk in the middle of the road, due tothe fact bthat the Angel of Death walks in the middle of the road, as, sincein Heaven bthey have given him permissionto kill within the city, bhe goes openlyin the middle of the road. By contrast, if there is bpeaceand quiet bin the city, do not walk on the sides of the road, as, sincethe Angel of Death bdoes not have permissionto kill within the city, bhe hideshimself band walkson the side of the road., bThe Sages taught:If there is ba plague in the city, a person should not enter the synagogue alone, as the Angel of Death leaves his utensils there,and for this reason it is a dangerous place. bAnd this matter,the danger in the synagogue, applies only bwhen there are no children learning inthe synagogue, bandthere are bnot tenmen bpraying in it.But if there are children learning or ten men praying there, it is not a dangerous place., bThe Sages taught:If the bdogsin a certain place bare cryingfor no reason, it is a sign that they feel the bAngel of Death has come to the city.If the bdogs are playing,it is a sign that they feel that bElijah the prophet has come to the city. These mattersapply only bif there is no femaledog among them. If there is a female dog nearby, their crying or playing is likely due to her presence.,§ bRav Ami and Rav Asi sat before Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa.One bSage said toRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa: bLet the Master saywords of ihalakha /i, andthe other bSage said toRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa: bLet the Master saywords of iaggada /i.Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa bbegan to saywords of iaggadabutone bSage did not let him,so he bbegan to saywords of ihalakhabutthe other bSage did not let him. /b,Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa bsaid to them: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared?It can be compared bto a man who has two wives, one young and one old. The youngwife bpulls out his whitehairs, so that her husband will appear younger. bThe oldwife bpulls out his blackhairs so that he will appear older. And it bturns outthat he is bbald from here and from there,i.e., completely bald, due to the actions of both of his wives.,Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa continued and bsaid to them: If so, I will say to you a matter that is appropriate to both of you,which contains both ihalakhaand iaggada /i. In the verse that states: b“If a fire breaks out, and catches in thorns”(Exodus 22:5), the term b“breaks out”indicates that it breaks out bby itself.Yet, the continuation of the verse states: b“The one who kindled the fire shall pay compensation,”which indicates that he must pay only if the fire spread due to his negligence. The verse can be explained allegorically: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, saidthat although the fire broke out in the Temple due to the sins of the Jewish people, bit is incumbent upon Me to payrestitution bfor the fire that I kindled. /b, bI,God, bkindled a fire in Zion, as it is stated:“The Lord has accomplished His fury, He has poured out His fierce anger; band He has kindled a fire in Zion, which has devoured its foundations”(Lamentations 4:11). bAnd I will build it with firein the bfuture, as it is stated: “For I,says the Lord, bwill be for her a wall of fire round about; and I will be the glory in her midst”(Zechariah 2:9).,There is ba ihalakha /ithat can be learned from the verse in Exodus, as bthe verse begins with damagecaused through one’s bproperty:“If a fire breaks out,” band concludes with damagecaused by bone’s body:“The one who kindled the fire.” This indicates that when damage is caused by fire, it is considered as though the person who kindled the fire caused the damage directly with his body. That serves bto say to youthat the liability for bhis firedamage is bdue toits similarity to bhis arrows.Just as one who shoots an arrow and causes damage is liable because the damage was caused directly through his action, so too, one who kindles a fire that causes damage is liable because it is considered as though the damage were caused directly by his actions.,§ The Gemara continues with another statement of iaggadaon a related topic: The verse states: b“And David longed, and said: Oh, that one would give me water to drink of the well of Bethlehem, which is by the gate! And the three mighty men broke through the host of the Philistines, and drew water out of the well of Bethlehem, that was by the gate,and took it, and brought it to David; but he would not drink it, but poured it out to the Lord” (II Samuel 23:15–16). The Sages understood that David was not simply asking for water, but was using the term as a metaphor referring to Torah, and he was raising a halakhic dilemma., bWhat is the dilemmathat David bis raising? Rava saysthat bRav Naḥman says: He was askingabout the ihalakhawith regard to ba concealedarticle damaged by ba fire.He wanted to know whether the ihalakhais bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,who holds that one is liable to pay for such damage, or bwhetherthe ihalakhais bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe Rabbis,who hold that one is exempt from liability for damage by fire to concealed articles. bAndthe Sages in Bethlehem banswered him what they answered him. /b, bRav Huna stateda different explanation of the verse: bThere were stacks of barley belonging to Jews in which the Philistines were hiding, andDavid wanted to burn down the stacks to kill the Philistines and save his own life. bHe raised the dilemma: What isthe ihalakha /i? Is it permitted bto save oneselfby destroying bthe property of another? /b, bThey sentthe following answer bto him: It is prohibited to save oneselfby destroying bthe property of another. But you are king, and a king may breach the fenceof an individual bin order to form a path for himself, and none may protest hisaction, i.e., the normal ihalakhotof damage do not apply to you since you are king., bThe Rabbis, and some saythat it was bRabba bar Mari,give an alternative explanation of the dilemma and bsaid: The stacks of barley belonged to Jews, andthere were bstacks of lentils belonging to the Philistines.David needed barley to feed his animals. bAndDavid braised thefollowing bdilemma: What isthe ihalakha /i? I know that I may take the lentils belonging to a gentile to feed my animals, but is it permitted bto take a stack of barleybelonging to ba Jew, to place before one’s animalfor it to consume, bwith the intent to paythe owner of the barley with the bstacks of lentils belonging to the Philistines? /b,The Sages of Bethlehem bsentthe following reply bto him: “If the wicked restore the pledge, give back that which he had taken by robbery,walk in the statutes of life, committing no iniquity; he shall surely live, he shall not die” (Ezekiel 33:15). This verse teaches that beven thoughthe robber brepaysthe value of the bstolen item, heis nevertheless considered to be bwicked,and is described as such in the verse, and a commoner would not be allowed to act as you asked. bBut you are king, and a king may breach the fenceof an individual bin order to form a path for himself, and none may protest hisaction.,The Gemara discusses the different explanations: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat David was asking whether he could take the stacks of barley and bexchangethem, i.e., repay the owners of the barley, with stacks of lentils, bthis is as it is writtenin bone verse:“And the Philistines were gathered together into a troop, bwhere was a plot of ground full of lentils;and the people fled from the Philistines” (II Samuel 23:11), band it is writtenin boneother bverse:“He was with David at Pas Dammim, and there the Philistines were gathered together to battle, bwhere was a plot of ground full of barley;and the people fled from before the Philistines” (I Chronicles 11:13). This apparent contradiction can be reconciled by saying that there were two fields, one of barley and one of lentils., bBut according toRav Huna, bthe one who saysthat David’s question was asked because he wanted bto burnthe stacks of barley, for bwhatpurpose bdoes he require these two verses?How does he explain this contradiction? Rav Huna could have bsaid to you that there were also stacks of lentils belonging to Jews, inside which the Philistines were hiding. /b, bGranted, according to the one who saysthat David asked his question because he wanted bto burnthe stacks, bthis is as it is writ-tenin the following verse with regard to David: b“But he stood in the midst of the plot, and saved it,and slew the Philistines; and the Lord performed a great victory” (II Samuel 23:12). bBut according to the one who saysthat David’s question was asked bwith regard to exchangingthe lentils for the barley, bwhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“And saved it”? /b,The Rabbis answer that David saved it in bthat he did not permit them to exchangethe value of the barley with the lentils., bGranted,according to both of bthese twoopinions, bthis is as it is writtenin btwodistinct bverses,one describing the field of lentils and one describing the field of barley.
12. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

106a. מחליף ושרשיו מרובין ואפילו כל רוחות שבעולם באות ונושבות בו אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו אלא הוא הולך ובא עמהן כיון שדוממו הרוחות עמד קנה במקומו,אבל בלעם הרשע ברכן בארז מה ארז זה אינו עומד במקום מים ושרשיו מועטין ואין גזעו מחליף אפילו כל הרוחות שבעולם באות ונושבות בו אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו כיון שנשבה בו רוח דרומית מיד עוקרתו והופכתו על פניו ולא עוד אלא שזכה קנה ליטול ממנו קולמוס לכתוב ממנו ס"ת נביאים וכתובים,(במדבר כד, כא) וירא את הקיני וישא משלו אמר לו בלעם ליתרו קיני לא היית עמנו באותה עצה מי הושיבך אצל איתני עולם,והיינו דא"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר סימאי שלשה היו באותה עצה אלו הן בלעם איוב ויתרו בלעם שיעץ נהרג איוב ששתק נידון ביסורין ויתרו שברח זכו בני בניו לישב בלשכת הגזית שנאמר (דברי הימים א ב, נה) ומשפחות סופרים יושבי יעבץ תרעתים שמעתים סוכתים המה הקינים הבאים מחמת אבי בית רכב וכתיב (שופטים א, טז) ובני קיני חותן משה עלו מעיר התמרים,(במדבר כד, כג) וישא משלו ויאמר אוי מי יחיה משמו אל (אמר רשב"ל אוי מי שמחיה עצמו בשם אל) א"ר יוחנן אוי לה לאומה שתמצא בשעה שהקב"ה עושה פדיון לבניו מי מטיל כסותו בין לביא ללביאה בשעה שנזקקין זה עם זה,(במדבר כד, כד) וצים מיד כתים אמר רב ליבון אספיר (במדבר כד, כד) וענו אשור וענו עבר עד אשור קטלי מיקטל מכאן ואילך משעבדי שיעבודי,(במדבר כד, יד) הנני הולך לעמי לכה איעצך אשר יעשה העם הזה לעמך עמך לעם הזה מיבעי ליה א"ר אבא בר כהנא כאדם שמקלל את עצמו ותולה קללתו באחרים,אמר להם אלהיהם של אלו שונא זימה הוא והם מתאוים לכלי פשתן בוא ואשיאך עצה עשה להן קלעים והושיב בהן זונות זקינה מבחוץ וילדה מבפנים וימכרו להן כלי פשתן,עשה להן קלעים מהר שלג עד בית הישימות והושיב בהן זונות זקינה מבחוץ וילדה מבפנים ובשעה שישראל אוכלין ושותין ושמחין ויוצאין לטייל בשוק אומרת לו הזקינה אי אתה מבקש כלי פשתן זקינה אומרת לו בשוה וילדה אומרת לו בפחות שתים ושלש פעמים,ואח"כ אומרת לו הרי את כבן בית שב ברור לעצמך וצרצורי של יין עמוני מונח אצלה ועדיין לא נאסר (יין של עמוני ולא) יין של נכרים אמרה לו רצונך שתשתה כוס של יין כיון ששתה בער בו,אמר לה השמיעי לי הוציאה יראתה מתוך חיקה אמרה לו עבוד לזה אמר לה הלא יהודי אני אמרה לו ומה איכפת לך כלום מבקשים ממך אלא פיעור [והוא אינו יודע שעבודתה בכך] ולא עוד אלא שאיני מנחתך עד שתכפור בתורת משה רבך שנא' (הושע ט, י) המה באו בעל פעור וינזרו לבשת ויהיו שקוצים באהבם,(במדבר כה, א) וישב ישראל בשטים ר"א אומר שטים שמה רבי יהושע אומר שנתעסקו בדברי שטות,ותקראן לעם לזבחי אלהיהן רבי אלעזר אומר ערומות פגעו בהן רבי יהושע אומר שנעשו כולן בעלי קריין,מאי לשון רפידים רבי אליעזר אומר רפידים שמה רבי יהושע אומר שריפו עצמן מדברי תורה שנאמר (ירמיהו מז, ג) לא הפנו אבות אל בנים מרפיון ידים,אמר רבי יוחנן כל מקום שנאמר וישב אינו אלא לשון צער שנא' (במדבר כה, א) וישב ישראל בשטים ויחל העם לזנות אל בנות מואב (בראשית לז, א) וישב יעקב בארץ מגורי אביו בארץ כנען ויבא יוסף את דבתם רעה אל אביהם ונאמר (בראשית מז, כז) וישב ישראל בארץ גשן ויקרבו ימי ישראל למות (מלכים א ה, ה) וישב יהודה וישראל לבטח איש תחת גפנו ותחת תאנתו (מלכים א יא, יד) ויקם ה' שטן לשלמה את הדד האדומי מזרע המלך הוא באדום,(במדבר לא, ח) ואת מלכי מדין הרגו על חלליהם וגו' את בלעם בן בעור הרגו בחרב בלעם מאי בעי התם א"ר יוחנן שהלך ליטול שכר עשרים וארבעה אלף [שהפיל מישראל] אמר מר זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב היינו דאמרי אינשי גמלא אזלא למיבעי קרני אודני דהוו ליה גזיזן מיניה,(יהושע יג, כב) ואת בלעם בן בעור הקוסם קוסם נביא הוא א"ר יוחנן בתחלה נביא ולבסוף קוסם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי מסגני ושילטי הואי אייזן לגברי נגרי 106a. breplenishesitself, as if it is cut another grows, band its roots are numerous. And even if all the winds that are in the world come and gust against it, they do not move it from its placeand uproot it. bRather, it goes and comes withthe winds. And bonce the winds subside the reed remains in its place. /b, bBut Balaam the wicked blessed them with a cedar.There is an aspect of curse in that blessing, as he was saying they will be bjust like a cedarthat bdoes not stand in a placenear bwater, and its roots are fewrelative to its height, band its trunk does not replenishitself, as if it is cut it does not grow back. And bevenif ball the winds that are in the world come and gust against it, they do not move it from its placeand uproot it; but bonce a southern wind gusts it immediately uprootsthe cedar band overturns it on its face. Moreover,it is bthe reed that was privileged tohave ba quill [ ikulmos /i] taken from it to write scrolls of Torah, Prophets, and Writings.Therefore, the curse of Ahijah is better than the blessing of Balaam.,§ It is stated with regard to Balaam: b“And he looked at the Kenite and he took up his parableand said: Though firm is your dwelling place, and though your nest be set in rock” (Numbers 24:21). bBalaam said to Yitro: Kenite,were byou not in Egypt with us in that counselto drown the newborn males of Israel? bWho placed you alongside the mighty of the world? /b,The Gemara comments: bAnd that is what Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Simai says: Three wereassociates bin that counsel, and they are: Balaam, Job, and Yitro. Balaam, who advisedto drown the newborn males, bwas killed. Job, who was silentand was reluctant to express his opinion, bwas sentenced tosuffer bafflictions. And Yitro, who fledafter he disagreed with that counsel and Pharaoh sought to kill him, bhis descendants were privileged to sitas scribes in session with the Sanhedrin bin the Chamber of Hewn Stone, as it is stated: “And the families of the scribes who dwelt in Jabez; the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, the Sucathites. These were the Kenites who came of Hammath the father of the house of Rechab”(I Chronicles 2:55). bAnd it is written therewith regard to the identity of the Kenites: b“And the children of the Kenite, Moses’ father-in-law, went up from the city of the palm trees”(Judges 1:16).,With regard to the verse: b“And he took up his parable, and said: Alas, he who lives from what God has appointed him”(Numbers 24:23), bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Woe unto one who sustains himselfin an indulgent manner bin the name of God,i.e., Balaam, whose livelihood was from speaking in the name of God. bRabbi Yoḥa says: Woe unto the nation that will be foundhindering the Jewish people bat the time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, redeems His children. Who places his garment between a male lion and a female lion when they are mating?One who does so will certainly die.,With regard to the verse: b“And ships come from the coast of Kittim”(Numbers 24:24), bRav says:This is bthe Roman legion [ ilibbun aspir /i]that will attack Assyria. b“And they shall afflict Assyria, and they shall afflict Eber”(Numbers 24:24). bBeforethey reach bAssyria they will killthe Jewish people; bfrom thatpoint bforward they will enslave themand not kill them.,§ Balaam said to Balak: b“Behold, I go to my people; come therefore, and I shall advise you what this people shall do to your people”(Numbers 24:14). Ostensibly, bhe should havesaid: What byour peopleshall do bto this people. Rabbi Abba bar Kahana says:Balaam spoke blike a person who curses himselfbut does not wish to utter so awful a matter bandinstead bascribes his curse totake effect on bothers. /b,Balaam bsaid to them: The God of theseJewish people bdespises lewdness, and they desire linen garments,as they have no new garments; bcome, and I will give you advice. Make for themenclosures using wall bhangings and seat prostitutes in them,with ban old woman outsidethe enclosure band a young woman inside, andhave the women bsell them linen garments. /b,Balak bmade for themenclosures using wall bhangings from the snow mountain,the Ḥermon, buntil Beit HaYeshimot, and he sat prostitutes in them,with ban old woman outside and a young woman on the inside. And at the time when Jewish people were eating and drinking and were glad and going out to stroll in the marketplace, the old woman would say toa Jew: bAren’t you seeking linen garments?He would enter the enclosure and ask the price, bthe old woman would quote hima price bequalto its value, band the young woman would quote hima price blessthan its value. That scenario would repeat itself btwo or three times. /b, bAnd thereafter she would say to him: You are like a member of our household, sitand bchoose for yourselfthe merchandise that you want. bAnd a jug of Ammonite wine was placed near her, andneither bAmmonite wine nor gentile wine had been prohibited yetfor Jews. bShe said to him: Is it your wish to drink a cup of wine? Once he drankthe wine, his evil inclination bburned within him. /b, bHethen bsaid to her: Submit to meand engage in intercourse with me. bShethen bremovedthe bidolthat bshe worshipped from her lap and said to him: Worship this. He said to her: Am I not Jewish?I am therefore forbidden from engaging in idol worship. bShe said to him: And what is your concern? We are asking you to do nothing more than defecatein its presence. bBut he does not know that its worshipis conducted bin thatmanner. Once he did so, she said to him: bMoreover, I will not leave you until you deny the Torah of Moses your teacher, as it is stated: “But when they came to Ba’al-Peor they separated themselves to the shameful item; and they became detestable like that which they loved”(Hosea 9:10). They devoted themselves to the disgrace of defecation, and detested the name of God.,With regard to the verse: b“And Israel dwelt in Shittim”(Numbers 25:1), bRabbi Eliezer says: Shittimis bthe name ofthe place. bRabbi Yehoshua says:It is an allusion to the fact bthat they were engaged in matters of nonsense [ ishetut /i],i.e., prostitution and idol worship.,With regard to the verse: b“And they called [ ivatikrena /i] the people to the offerings of their gods”(Numbers 25:2), bRabbi Eliezer says: Naked women encountered them. Rabbi Yehoshua says: They all became those who experienced a seminal emission [ ikerayin /i]resulting from the lust that they experienced.,Apropos the homiletic interpretation of the names of places, the Gemara asks: bWhatis the connotation of the bterm Rephidim(see Exodus 19:2)? bRabbi Eliezer says: Rephidimis bthe name ofthe place. bRabbi Yehoshua says:It is an allusion to the fact bthat they enfeebled [ irippu /i] themselves with regard toengaging in bmatters of Torah, as it is stated: “The fathers do not look back to their children from feebleness [ irifyon /i] of hands”(Jeremiah 47:3). There too, the connotation of the name is dereliction in the study of Torah., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Everywhere that it is stated: And he dwelt, it is nothing other than an expression of pain,of an impending calamity, bas it is stated: “And Israel dwelt in Shittim, and the people began to commit harlotry with the daughters of Moab”(Numbers 25:1). It is stated: b“And Jacob dwelt in the land where his father had sojourned in the land of Canaan”(Genesis 37:1), and it is stated thereafter: b“And Joseph brought evil report of them to his father”(Genesis 37:2), which led to the sale of Joseph. bAnd it is stated: “And Israel dweltin the land of Egypt bin the land of Goshen”(Genesis 47:27), and it is stated thereafter: b“And the time drew near that Israel was to die”(Genesis 47:29). It is stated: b“And Judah and Israel dwelt safely, every man under his vine and under his fig tree”(I Kings 5:5), and it is stated thereafter: b“And the Lord raised up an adversary to Solomon, Hadad the Edomite; he was of the king’s seed in Edom”(I Kings 11:14).,§ With regard to Balaam, it is stated: b“And they slew the kings of Midian, with the rest of their slain…And Balaam, son of Beor, they slew with the sword”(Numbers 31:8). The Gemara asks: bBalaam, what did he seek there;what was his role in that war? He lived in Aram. bRabbi Yoḥa says: He went to collect payment for twenty-four thousandmembers bof the Jewish people, whom he felledwith his advice. bMar Zutra bar Toviya saysthat bRav saysthat bthisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: A camel goes to seek hornsand bthe ears that it had are severed from it.Not only was Balaam unsuccessful in collecting his fee, he also lost his life.,It is stated: b“And Balaam, son of Beor, the diviner,did the children of Israel slay with the sword among the rest of their slain” (Joshua 13:22). The Gemara asks: Was he ba diviner? He is a prophet. Rabbi Yoḥa says: Initiallyhe was ba prophet, but ultimately,he lost his capacity for prophecy and remained merely ba diviner. Rav Pappa saysthat bthisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say:This woman bwasdescended bfrom princes and rulers,and bwas licentious with carpenters. /b
13. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20a. ועכשיו ירדו גשמים נכנס לבית המרחץ בשמחה עד שהאדון נכנס בשמחתו לבית המרחץ נקדימון נכנס לבית המקדש כשהוא עצב נתעטף ועמד בתפלה,אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם גלוי וידוע לפניך שלא לכבודי עשיתי ולא לכבוד בית אבא עשיתי אלא לכבודך עשיתי שיהו מים מצויין לעולי רגלים מיד נתקשרו שמים בעבים וירדו גשמים עד שנתמלאו שתים עשרה מעינות מים והותירו,עד שיצא אדון מבית המרחץ נקדימון בן גוריון יצא מבית המקדש כשפגעו זה בזה אמר לו תן לי דמי מים יותר שיש לי בידך אמר לו יודע אני שלא הרעיש הקב"ה את עולמו אלא בשבילך אלא עדיין יש לי פתחון פה עליך שאוציא ממך את מעותיי שכבר שקעה חמה וגשמים ברשותי ירדו,חזר ונכנס לבית המקדש נתעטף ועמד בתפלה ואמר לפניו רבונו של עולם הודע שיש לך אהובים בעולמך מיד נתפזרו העבים וזרחה החמה באותה שעה אמר לו האדון אילו לא נקדרה החמה היה לי פתחון פה עליך שאוציא ממך מעותיי תנא לא נקדימון שמו אלא בוני שמו ולמה נקרא שמו נקדימון שנקדרה חמה בעבורו,תנו רבנן שלשה נקדמה להם חמה בעבורן משה ויהושע ונקדימון בן גוריון בשלמא נקדימון בן גוריון גמרא יהושע נמי קרא דכתיב (יהושע י, יג) וידם השמש וירח עמד וגו' אלא משה מנלן,אמר רבי אלעזר אתיא אחל אחל כתיב הכא (דברים ב, כה) אחל תת פחדך וכתיב התם (יהושע ג, ז) אחל גדלך,רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר אתיא תת תת כתיב הכא אחל תת פחדך וכתיב התם (יהושע י, יב) ביום תת ה' את האמרי,רבי יוחנן אמר אתיא מגופיה דקרא (דברים ב, כה) אשר ישמעון שמעך ורגזו וחלו מפניך אימתי רגזו וחלו מפניך בשעה שנקדמה לו חמה למשה:,וכן עיר שלא ירדו עליה גשמים כו': אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ושתיהן לקללה,(איכה א, יז) היתה ירושלם לנדה ביניהם אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לברכה כנדה מה נדה יש לה היתר אף ירושלים יש לה תקנה,(איכה א, א) היתה כאלמנה אמר רב יהודה לברכה כאלמנה ולא אלמנה ממש אלא כאשה שהלך בעלה למדינת הים ודעתו לחזור עליה,(מלאכי ב, ט) וגם אני נתתי אתכם נבזים ושפלים אמר רב יהודה לברכה דלא מוקמי מינן לא רישי נהרי ולא גזיריפטי,(מלכים א יד, טו) והכה ה' את ישראל כאשר ינוד הקנה במים אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לברכה דאמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מאי דכתיב (משלי כז, ו) נאמנים פצעי אוהב ונעתרות נשיקות שונא טובה קללה שקילל אחיה השילוני את ישראל יותר מברכה שבירכן בלעם הרשע,אחיה השילוני קללן בקנה אמר להם לישראל והכה ה' את ישראל כאשר ינוד הקנה מה קנה זה עומד במקום מים וגזעו מחליף ושרשיו מרובין ואפילו כל הרוחות שבעולם באות ונושבות בו אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו אלא הולך ובא עמהן דממו הרוחות עמד הקנה במקומו,אבל בלעם הרשע בירכן בארז שנאמר (במדבר כד, ו) כארזים (עלי מים) מה ארז זה אינו עומד במקום מים ואין גזעו מחליף ואין שרשיו מרובין אפילו כל הרוחות שבעולם נושבות בו אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו כיון שנשבה בו רוח דרומית עוקרתו והופכתו על פניו ולא עוד אלא שזכה קנה ליטול הימנו קולמוס לכתוב בו ספר תורה נביאים וכתובים,תנו רבנן לעולם יהא אדם רך כקנה ואל יהא קשה כארז מעשה שבא רבי אלעזר (בן ר') שמעון ממגדל גדור מבית רבו והיה רכוב על החמור ומטייל על שפת נהר ושמח שמחה גדולה והיתה דעתו גסה עליו מפני שלמד תורה הרבה 20a. band now it will rain? He entered the bathhouse ina state of bjoy,anticipating the large sum of money he was about to receive. bAs the master entered the bathhouse in his joy, Nakdimon entered the Temple ina state of bsadness. He wrapped himselfin his prayer shawl band stood in prayer. /b, bHe said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You that I did not act for my own honor, nor did I act for the honor of my father’s house. Rather, I acted for Your honor, so that there should be water for the Festival pilgrims. Immediately the sky became overcast and rain fell until the twelve cisterns were filled with water, andthere was even more water, so that bthey overflowed. /b, bAs the master left the bathhouse, Nakdimon ben Guryon left the Temple. When they met one another,Nakdimon bsaid to him: Give methe bmoney you owe mefor bthe extra wateryou received. The official bsaid to him: I know that the Holy One, Blessed be He, has shaken His world and caused rain to fall only for you. However, I still maintain a claim against you,by bwhich I canlegally btake my coins from you, asyou did not pay me on the agreed date, bfor the sun had already set, andtherefore bthe rain fell onto my property. /b,Nakdimon bwent back and entered the Temple, wrapped himselfin his prayer shawl, band stood in prayer. He said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, let it be known that You have beloved ones in Your world. Immediately, the clouds scattered and the sun shined. At that time, the master said to him: If the sun had not broken throughthe clouds, bI would havehad a claim bagainst you,by bwhich I couldhave btaken my coins from you.A Sage btaught: Nakdimon was not hisreal bname; rather his name was Buni. And why washe bcalled Nakdimon? Because the sun broke through [ inikdera /i] for him. /b, bThe Sages taught:With regard to bthreepeople, bthe sun broke throughand shone at an irregular time bfor their sake: Moses, Joshua, and Nakdimon ben Guryon.The Gemara asks: bGranted,the case of bNakdimon ben Guryonis known by the aforementioned btradition. The case of Joshua toois derived from ba verse, as it is written: “And the sun stood still, and the moon stayeduntil the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies” (Joshua 10:13). bHowever, from where do wederive that the sun shined in a supernatural way for bMoses? /b, bRabbi Elazar said:It is bderivedby verbal analogy between b“I will begin”and b“I will begin.” Here,with regard to Moses, bit is written:“This day bI will begin to put the dread of youand the fear of you upon the peoples that are under all the whole heaven” (Deuteronomy 2:25). bAnd there,with regard to Joshua, bit is written:“On this day bI will begin to magnify youin the sight of all Israel, that they may know that just as I was with Moses, so I will be with you” (Joshua 3:7). The repeated use of the phrase “I will begin” indicates that all the miracles performed for Joshua were also performed for Moses., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said:The fact that the sun stood still for Moses is bderivedby a different verbal analogy, between the terms b“put”and b“put.” Here,with regard to Moses, bit is written: “I will begin to put the dread of you”(Deuteronomy 2:25). bAnd there,with regard to Joshua, bis it written:“Then Joshua spoke to the Lord, bon the day when the Lord put the Amoritesbefore the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel: Sun, stand still upon Gibeon, and you, moon, in the valley of Aijalon” (Joshua 10:12)., bRabbi Yoḥa said:This idea is bderived from the verse itself,as it says with regard to Moses: “This day I will begin to put the dread of you and the fear of you upon the peoples that are under all the whole heaven, bwho, when they hear the report of you, shall tremble, and be in anguish due to you”(Deuteronomy 2:25). bWhendid the nations of the world btremble andwhen were they bin anguish due to you? When the sun broke through for Moses. /b,§ The mishna taught: bAnd likewise,if there is a particular bcity upon which it did not rain,while the surrounding area did receive rain, this is considered a divine curse, as it is written: “And I will cause it to rain on one city, but on one city I will not cause it to rain, one portion will be rained upon, and the portion upon which it did not rain shall wither” (Amos 4:7). bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: And both ofthe cities are faced bwith a curse,as one city suffers from drought while the other is afflicted with destructive storms.,This statement reverses the plain meaning of a verse. The Gemara provides other interpretations that Rav Yehuda attributed to Rav, which also run contrary to the simple meaning of a verse. b“Jerusalem among them was a like a menstruating woman”(Lamentations 1:17). bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:Although the simple meaning of this verse is a curse, it can also be understood bas a blessing.Jerusalem was blike a menstruating woman: Just as a menstruating womanwill become bpermittedto her husband after the conclusion of her days of ritual impurity, bso too, Jerusalemwill be brepairedfrom its destruction.,Similarly, with regard to the verse: b“How she has become like a widow”(Lamentations 1:1), bRav Yehuda said:This too is bfor a blessing.The verse states that Jerusalem is blike a widow, but is not an actual widow. Rather,Jerusalem is blike a woman whose husband has gone to a country overseas.Without her husband by her side she is likened to a widow, bandyet bhe intends to return to her. /b,The same manner of explanation is provided for the verse: b“Therefore I have also made you contemptible and base”(Malachi 2:9). bRav Yehuda said:This too can be interpreted bas a blessing, asmeaning that the nations view us as lowly, but nevertheless, they do not assign us unpleasant jobs. bThey do notappoint bfrom us either river officials or government officials [ igeziripatei /i]. /b,The prophet Ahijah the Shilonite cursed Israel in the following terms: b“For the Lord will smite Israel as a reed is shaken in the water”(I Kings 14:15). bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:This too is bfor a blessing, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Faithful are the wounds of a friend, but the kisses of an enemy are deceitful”(Proverbs 27:6)? bThe curse with which Ahijah the Shilonite cursed the Jewish people is moreeffective bthan the blessing with which Balaam the wicked blessed them. /b,Rabbi Yoḥa elaborates: bAhijah the Shilonite cursedthe Jewish people bbycomparing them to ba reed: “For the Lord will smite Israel as a reed is shaken in the water.”Although it seems to be a curse, this verse is actually a blessing. bJust as this reed stands in a place of water, and its shoots replenishthemselves when cut, band its roots are numerousfor a plant of its size, band even if all the winds in the world come and blow against it, they cannot move it from its place, rather, it sways with themuntil bthe winds subside, and the reedstill bstands in its place,the same applies to the Jewish people. After all the difficulties that they endure, they will ultimately survive and return home., bHowever, Balaam the wicked blessedthe Jews bbycomparing them to ba cedar, as it is stated: “As cedars beside the waters”(Numbers 24:6). bJust as this cedar does not stand in a place of water, and its shoots do not replenishthemselves, band its roots are not numerous,Balaam wished that the same should apply to the Jewish people. Furthermore, while it is true that bevenif ball the winds in the world blowagainst bit they will not move it from its place, once the southern wind blowsagainst bit, it uprootsthe cedar band turns it on its face. And not only that, butthe breed meritedthat ba quill [ ikulmos /i] is taken from it to write with it a Torah scroll, the Prophets, and the Writings.Evidently, the curse comparing Israel to a reed is better than the blessing likening them to a cedar., bThe Sagesfurther btaughtin praise of the reed: bA person should always be soft like a reed, and he should not be stiff like a cedar. An incidentoccurred in bwhich Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, came from Migdal Gedor, from his rabbi’s house, and he was riding on a donkey and strolling on the bank of the river. And he was very happy, and his head was swollen with pride because he had studied much Torah. /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron of philae, st (monk) van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 227
absence of in parables, fables as humorous Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 169
age, adulthood, adult Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
age, infancy, infant Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
alternative source-critical explanations, stylistic evidence Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 116
animals, talking animals in Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 168, 169
aramaic Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 71
archelaos Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 206
asyndeton, lukan speaking formula Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
bethsaida Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 231
blake, william Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 116
capernaum Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 231
cartoons, comics Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 168
children Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 116
chorazin Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 231
clothing Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
coins, aniconic Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 206
coins, herod antipas Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 206
death Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
desire Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
economics, wealth Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
education in antiquity, fables in Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 168, 169
election (of israel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 231
elijah Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 71
eschatology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 116
ethics, morality, paraenesis Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
ethics, morality Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
ethnic varieties of fable Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 168, 169
fables in, simile and fable Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 524, 525
fables in, wolf in sheeps clothing Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 524, 525
fables in Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 524, 525
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 211
fisherman fables Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 252
galilee Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 206
global genre, fable as Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 168, 169
god fables Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 193
gospels, new testament Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 116
hellenistic genre, fable as Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 193
herod antipas, coins of Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 109
herod antipas Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 109, 111, 206, 231
herodians Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 109, 111, 231
herodias Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 231
images, ban against Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 109
isaiah (bishop of philae) van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 227
jerusalem Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 109
jesus van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 227
jewish genre, fable as Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 193
john, gospel of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 116
john (the baptist) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 231
john the baptist Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 109; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 116; van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 227
josephus Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 231
judea Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 206
kairosκαιρός Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 526
king, emperor, herod agrippa Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
king, emperor, marcus aurelius Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
kingdom of god Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 231
kingdom of heaven Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 231
l material, aesopic connections in Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 252
life of aesop Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 524
lukan fable collection, absence in Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
lukan fable collection, style and vocabulary of Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
lukan fable collection Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
lukan speaking formula Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
luke, gospel of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 116
macedonius (bishop of philae) van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 227
mark (bishop of philae) van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 227
messianic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 231
messianism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 116
nature, natural phenomena, wind Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
origen Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 116
palm and palm brances Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 206
parabolē παραβολή, absence of parables outside of the synoptic gospels Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 526
perea Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 206
pharisees Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 109, 111, 231
philae, creation of see van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 227
philip the tetrarch Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 206
philosophy, cynic Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
philosophy, stoic Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
philosophy Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
phronimos φρονίµος Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 526
pilate Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 109, 231
politics Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
poor, the Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 231
power, power of god, powers Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 116
progymnasmata Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 168, 169
prophet, fable and Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 168, 169
psoulousia (bishop of philae) van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 227
q, fable vocabulary in Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 526
q, fables in Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 252, 525, 526
q, used for epimythia Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 526
q, absence of παραβολή in Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 525
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 231
rabbinic mashal, examples adapted from hellenistic fables Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 193
rabbis, popularity of fables with Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 193
rational fables, parables as Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 168, 169
rational fables Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 168
realism Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 168, 169
religion passim, apotheosis Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
rhetoric, dialogue Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
rhetoric, diatribe Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
rhetoric, fable Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
rhetoric, irony Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
rhetoric, metaphor Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
rhetoric, narrative Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
rhetoric, satire Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
roman administration Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 206
samaria Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 206
schweitzer, a. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 530
schweitzer, quest, delay of parousia Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 530
schweitzer, quest, jesus, changed views Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 530
schweitzer, quest, jesus, galilean ministry Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 530
schweitzer, quest, john the baptist Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 530
schweitzer, quest, messianic secret Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 530
sending, divine emissary Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 116
sepphoris Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 231
shepherd fables Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 525
shout of joy' Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 211
source criticism Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
spirit, holy spirit Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 116
style Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
subdivisions of fables by characters or possibility Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 168, 169
sybaritic fable Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 168, 169
synoptic, gospels Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 231
taxes Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 109
theon Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 168, 169
tiberias Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 206, 231
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 231
valley (wadi north-east of philae) van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 227
vice, immorality Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 276
wisdom Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 116
women fables Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 193
zoomorphism Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 252