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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8258
New Testament, Matthew, 11.29


ἄρατε τὸν ζυγόν μου ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς καὶ μάθετε ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ, ὅτι πραΰς εἰμι καὶ ταπεινὸς τῇ καρδίᾳ, καὶ εὑρήσετε ἀνάπαυσιν ταῖς ψυχαῖς ὑμῶν·Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am humble and lowly in heart; and you will find rest for your souls.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

67 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.9-12.10, 25.19, 28.47 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.9. כִּי לֹא־בָּאתֶם עַד־עָתָּה אֶל־הַמְּנוּחָה וְאֶל־הַנַּחֲלָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 25.19. וְהָיָה בְּהָנִיחַ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִסָּבִיב בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ תִּמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם לֹא תִּשְׁכָּח׃ 28.47. תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־עָבַדְתָּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְטוּב לֵבָב מֵרֹב כֹּל׃ 12.9. for ye are not as yet come to the rest and to the inheritance, which the LORD your God giveth thee." 12.10. But when ye go over the Jordan, and dwell in the land which the LORD your God causeth you to inherit, and He giveth you rest from all your enemies round about, so that ye dwell in safety;" 25.19. Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget." 28.47. because thou didst not serve the LORD thy God with joyfulness, and with gladness of heart, by reason of the abundance of all things;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.3, 24.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.3. וּמֹשֶׁה עָלָה אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה מִן־הָהָר לֵאמֹר כֹּה תֹאמַר לְבֵית יַעֲקֹב וְתַגֵּיד לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.18. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה בְּתוֹךְ הֶעָנָן וַיַּעַל אֶל־הָהָר וַיְהִי מֹשֶׁה בָּהָר אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה׃ 19.3. And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of the mountain, saying: ‘Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel:" 24.18. And Moses entered into the midst of the cloud, and went up into the mount; and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26, 3.9-3.12, 18.2, 19.1-19.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.9. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה׃ 3.11. וַיֹּאמֶר מִי הִגִּיד לְךָ כִּי עֵירֹם אָתָּה הֲמִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לְבִלְתִּי אֲכָל־מִמֶּנּוּ אָכָלְתָּ׃ 3.12. וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה עִמָּדִי הִוא נָתְנָה־לִּי מִן־הָעֵץ וָאֹכֵל׃ 18.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה זַעֲקַת סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה כִּי־רָבָּה וְחַטָּאתָם כִּי כָבְדָה מְאֹד׃ 18.2. וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה שְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים נִצָּבִים עָלָיו וַיַּרְא וַיָּרָץ לִקְרָאתָם מִפֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה׃ 19.1. וַיָּבֹאוּ שְׁנֵי הַמַּלְאָכִים סְדֹמָה בָּעֶרֶב וְלוֹט יֹשֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר־סְדֹם וַיַּרְא־לוֹט וַיָּקָם לִקְרָאתָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 19.1. וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים אֶת־יָדָם וַיָּבִיאוּ אֶת־לוֹט אֲלֵיהֶם הַבָּיְתָה וְאֶת־הַדֶּלֶת סָגָרוּ׃ 19.2. וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֶּה נָּא־אֲדֹנַי סוּרוּ נָא אֶל־בֵּית עַבְדְּכֶם וְלִינוּ וְרַחֲצוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם וְהִשְׁכַּמְתֶּם וַהֲלַכְתֶּם לְדַרְכְּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹּא כִּי בָרְחוֹב נָלִין׃ 19.2. הִנֵּה־נָא הָעִיר הַזֹּאת קְרֹבָה לָנוּס שָׁמָּה וְהִיא מִצְעָר אִמָּלְטָה נָּא שָׁמָּה הֲלֹא מִצְעָר הִוא וּתְחִי נַפְשִׁי׃ 19.3. וַיִּפְצַר־בָּם מְאֹד וַיָּסֻרוּ אֵלָיו וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיַּעַשׂ לָהֶם מִשְׁתֶּה וּמַצּוֹת אָפָה וַיֹּאכֵלוּ׃ 19.3. וַיַּעַל לוֹט מִצּוֹעַר וַיֵּשֶׁב בָּהָר וּשְׁתֵּי בְנֹתָיו עִמּוֹ כִּי יָרֵא לָשֶׁבֶת בְּצוֹעַר וַיֵּשֶׁב בַּמְּעָרָה הוּא וּשְׁתֵּי בְנֹתָיו׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 3.9. And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’" 3.10. And he said: ‘I heard Thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.’" 3.11. And He said: ‘Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?’" 3.12. And the man said: ‘The woman whom Thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.’" 18.2. and he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood over against him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed down to the earth," 19.1. And the two angels came to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom; and Lot saw them, and rose up to meet them; and he fell down on his face to the earth;" 19.2. and he said: ‘Behold now, my lords, turn aside, I pray you, into your servant’s house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on your way.’ And they said: ‘Nay; but we will abide in the broad place all night.’" 19.3. And he urged them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house; and he made them a feast, and did bake unleavened bread, and they did eat."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 12.1, 12.3, 18.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.1. וְהֶעָנָן סָר מֵעַל הָאֹהֶל וְהִנֵּה מִרְיָם מְצֹרַעַת כַּשָּׁלֶג וַיִּפֶן אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מִרְיָם וְהִנֵּה מְצֹרָעַת׃ 12.1. וַתְּדַבֵּר מִרְיָם וְאַהֲרֹן בְּמֹשֶׁה עַל־אֹדוֹת הָאִשָּׁה הַכֻּשִׁית אֲשֶׁר לָקָח כִּי־אִשָּׁה כֻשִׁית לָקָח׃ 12.3. וְהָאִישׁ מֹשֶׁה ענו [עָנָיו] מְאֹד מִכֹּל הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 18.31. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּכָל־מָקוֹם אַתֶּם וּבֵיתְכֶם כִּי־שָׂכָר הוּא לָכֶם חֵלֶף עֲבֹדַתְכֶם בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 12.1. And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married; for he had married a Cushite woman." 12.3. Now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men that were upon the face of the earth.—" 18.31. And ye may eat it in every place, ye and your households; for it is your reward in return for your service in the tent of meeting."
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 95.11, 132.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

95.11. אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי בְאַפִּי אִם־יְבֹאוּן אֶל־מְנוּחָתִי׃ 132.14. זֹאת־מְנוּחָתִי עֲדֵי־עַד פֹּה־אֵשֵׁב כִּי אִוִּתִיהָ׃ 95.11. Wherefore I swore in My wrath, That they should not enter into My arest.'" 132.14. 'This is My resting-place for ever; Here will I dwell; for I have desired it."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.56 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.56. בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַן מְנוּחָה לְעַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר לֹא־נָפַל דָּבָר אֶחָד מִכֹּל דְּבָרוֹ הַטּוֹב אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּיַד מֹשֶׁה עַבְדּוֹ׃ 8.56. ’Blessed be the LORD, that hath given rest unto His people Israel, according to all that He promised; there hath not failed one word of all His good promise, which He promised by the hand of Moses His servant."
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 6.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.16. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה עִמְדוּ עַל־דְּרָכִים וּרְאוּ וְשַׁאֲלוּ לִנְתִבוֹת עוֹלָם אֵי־זֶה דֶרֶךְ הַטּוֹב וּלְכוּ־בָהּ וּמִצְאוּ מַרְגּוֹעַ לְנַפְשְׁכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא נֵלֵךְ׃ 6.16. Thus saith the LORD: Stand ye in the ways and see, And ask for the old paths, Where is the good way, and walk therein, And ye shall find rest for your souls. But they said: ‘We will not walk therein.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.13. זָכוֹר אֶת־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֶתְכֶם מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מֵנִיחַ לָכֶם וְנָתַן לָכֶם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת׃ 1.13. ’Remember the word which Moses the servant of the LORD commanded, you, saying: The LORD your God giveth you rest, and will give you this land."
11. Aristophanes, Frogs, 450-459, 449 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

449. χωρῶμεν ἐς πολυρρόδους
12. Aristotle, Rhetoric, 2.1.4 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13. Anon., 1 Enoch, 38.2, 39.4-39.5, 45.3, 102.4 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

38.2. And when the Righteous One shall appear before the eyes of the righteous, Whose elect works hang upon the Lord of Spirits, And light shall appear to the righteous and the elect who dwell on the earth,Where then will be the dwelling of the sinners,And where the resting-place of those who have denied the Lord of Spirits It had been good for them if they had not been born. 39.4. And there I saw another vision, the dwelling-places of the holy, And the resting-places of the righteous. 39.5. Here mine eyes saw their dwellings with His righteous angels, And their resting-places with the holy.And they petitioned and interceded and prayed for the children of men, And righteousness flowed before them as water,And mercy like dew upon the earth: Thus it is amongst them for ever and ever. 45.3. On that day Mine Elect One shall sit on the throne of glory And shall try their works, And their places of rest shall be innumerable.And their souls shall grow strong within them when they see Mine Elect Ones, And those who have called upon My glorious name: 102.4. Fear ye not, ye souls of the righteous, And be hopeful ye that have died in righteousness.
14. Anon., Testament of Isaac, 2.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Anon., Testament of Levi, 18.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

18.9. And in his priesthood the Gentiles shall be multiplied in knowledge upon the earth, And enlightened through the grace of the Lord: In his priesthood shall sin come to an end, And the lawless shall cease to do evil. [And the just shall rest in him.]
16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Apocryphe De Daniel Ar, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.25. Israel mourned deeply in every community
18. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.8. He replied in the language of his fathers, and said to them, 'No.'Therefore he in turn underwent tortures as the first brother had done.'
19. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 4.8, 45.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.8. Incline your ear to the poor,and answer him peaceably and gently. 45.4. He sanctified him through faithfulness and meekness;he chose him out of all mankind.
20. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.1, 4.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.1. But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them. 4.7. But the righteous man, though he die early, will be at rest.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 171, 170 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.64-1.67 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.64. I, indeed, am not a place, but I am in a place, and every existing being is so in a similar manner. So that which is surrounded differs from that which surrounds it; but the Deity, being surrounded by nothing, is necessarily itself its own place. And there is an evidence in support of my view of the matter in the following sacred oracle delivered with respect to Abraham: "He came unto the place of which the Lord God had told him: and having looked up with his eyes, he saw the place afar off. 1.65. Tell me, now, did he who had come to the place see it afar off? Or perhaps it is but an identical expression for two different things, one of which is the divine world, and the other, God, who existed before the world. 1.66. But he who was conducted by wisdom comes to the former place, having found that the main part and end of propitiation is the divine word, in which he who is fixed does not as yet attain to such a height as to penetrate to the essence of God, but sees him afar off; or, rather, I should say, he is not able even to behold him afar off, but he only discerns this fact, that God is at a distance from every creature, and that any comprehension of him is removed to a great distance from all human intellect. 1.67. Perhaps, however, the historian, by this allegorical form of expression, does not here mean by his expression, "place," the Cause of all things; but the idea which he intends to convey may be something of this sort; --he came to the place, and looking up with his eyes he saw the very place to which he had come, which was a very long way from the God who may not be named nor spoken of, and who is in every way incomprehensible. XII.
23. Anon., 2 Baruch, 73.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Anon., Didache, 1.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 9.1-10.7, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 41.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

41.2. οὐ πανταχοῦ, ἀδελφοί, προσφέρονται θυσίαι ἐνδελεχισμοῦ ἢ εὐχῶν C reads proseuxw=n. ἢ περὶ ἁμαρτίας καὶ πλημμελείας, ἀλλ̓ ἢ ἐν Ἱερουσαλὴμ μόνῃ: κἀκεῖ δὲ οὐκ ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ προσφέρεται, ἀλλ̓ ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ ναοῦ πρὸς τὸ θυσιαστήριον, μωμοσκοπηθὲν τὸ προσφερόμενον διὰ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως καὶ τῶν προειρημένων λειτουργῶν.
26. Clement of Rome, 2 Clement, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.5. καὶ γινώσκετε, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι ἡ ἐπιδημία ἡ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ τούτῳ τῆς σαρκὸς ταύτης μικρά ἐστιν καὶ ὀλιγοχρόνιος, ἡ δὲ ἐπαγγελία τοῦ Χριστοῦ μεγάλη καὶ θαυμαστή ἐστιν, καὶ ἀνάπαυσις τῆς μελλούσης βασιλείας καὶ ζωῆς αἰωνίου.
27. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.135, 2.139 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.135. They dispense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without [swearing by] God is already condemned. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous;
28. Mishnah, Tamid, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.4. The following are the psalms that were chanted in the Temple.On the first day they used to say, “The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein” (Psalms. On the second day they used to say: “Great is the Lord and highly to be praised, in the city of our God. His holy mountain” (Psalms. On the third day they used to say: “God stands in the congregation of God, in the midst of the judges he judges” (Psalms. On the fourth day they used to say: “O Lord, God to whom vengeance belongs. God to whom vengeance belongs, shine forth” (Psalms. On the fifth day they used to say: “Sing aloud unto God our strength, shout unto the God of Jacob” (Psalms. On the sixth day they used to say: “The lord reigns, he is clothed in majesty, the Lord is clothed, He has girded himself with strength” (Psalms. On Shabbat they used to say: “A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day” (Psalms. A psalm, a song for the time to come, for the day that will be all Shabbat and rest for everlasting life. Congratulations! We have finished Tractate Tamid! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. Tamid may have been one of the more unusual tractates that we have ever learned. Instead of disputes between sages, heaps of logic and laws, we get an intricate description of the Temple service. Indeed, although the language is clearly rabbinic Hebrew, its descriptive style is more characteristic of the Bible than of rabbinic literature. It is likely that these descriptions, or at least parts thereof, come from Temple times. They were preserved because the rabbis fervently hoped that the Temple would be rebuilt during their own lifetimes. While we may or may not share in this wish, I think we can all appreciate the respect in which they held this ceremony. Despite the fact that it was performed each and every day, twice every day, they don’t seem to have lost their sense of wonder at the intimate connection that they received with God through the sacrificial process. I hope you have enjoyed Tamid. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Middot (the last tractate in Seder Kodashim!)."
29. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.9. One who says: I shall sin and repent, sin and repent, they do not afford him the opportunity to repent. [If one says]: I shall sin and Yom HaKippurim will atone for me, Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement. For transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow. This was expounded by Rabbi Elazar b. Azariah: “From all your sins before the Lord you shall be clean” (Leviticus 16:30) for transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow.. Rabbi Akiva said: Happy are you, Israel! Who is it before whom you become pure? And who is it that purifies you? Your Father who is in heaven, as it is said: “And I will sprinkle clean water upon you and you shall be clean” (Ezekiel 36:25). And it further says: “O hope (mikveh) of Israel, O Lord” (Jeremiah 17:1--just as a mikveh purifies the unclean, so too does he Holy One, blessed be He, purify Israel."
30. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.2, 4.8, 4.14, 5.1, 6.14, 7.23, 12.13, 15.12, 15.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. to the assembly of God whichis at Corinth; those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to besaints, with all who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in everyplace, both theirs and ours: 4.8. You are already filled. Youhave already become rich. You have come to reign without us. Yes, and Iwish that you did reign, that we also might reign with you. 4.14. I don'twrite these things to shame you, but to admonish you as my belovedchildren. 5.1. It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality amongyou, and such sexual immorality as is not even named among theGentiles, that one has his father's wife. 6.14. Now God raised up the Lord, and will alsoraise us up by his power. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 15.12. Now if Christ is preached, that he has been raised from thedead, how do some among you say that there is no resurrection of thedead? 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all.
31. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. For from you has sounded forth the word of the Lord, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith toward God has gone forth; so that we need not to say anything.
32. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. I desire therefore that the men in every place pray, lifting up holy hands without wrath and doubting.
33. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

34. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.11, 2.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. This saying is faithful: For if we died with him, We will also live with him. 2.18. men who have erred concerning the truth, saying that the resurrection is already past, and overthrowing the faith of some.
35. New Testament, Acts, 4.2, 9.4, 15.29, 17.32, 24.15, 24.21, 26.3-26.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.2. being upset because they taught the people and proclaimed in Jesus the resurrection from the dead. 9.4. He fell on the earth, and heard a voice saying to him, "Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 17.32. Now when they heard of the resurrection of the dead, some mocked; but others said, "We want to hear you yet again concerning this. 24.15. having hope toward God, which these also themselves look for, that there will be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust. 24.21. unless it is for this one thing that I cried standing among them, 'Concerning the resurrection of the dead I am being judged before you today!' 26.3. especially because you are expert in all customs and questions which are among the Jews. Therefore I beg you to hear me patiently. 26.4. Indeed, all the Jews know my way of life from my youth up, which was from the beginning among my own nation and at Jerusalem; 26.5. having known me from the first, if they are willing to testify, that after the strictest sect of our religion I lived a Pharisee. 26.6. Now I stand here to be judged for the hope of the promise made by God to our fathers 26.7. which our twelve tribes, earnestly serving night and day, hope to attain. Concerning this hope I am accused by the Jews, King Agrippa! 26.8. Why is it judged incredible with you, if God does raise the dead?
36. New Testament, Apocalypse, 14.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.13. I heard the voice from heaven saying, "Write, 'Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord from now on.'""Yes," says the Spirit, "that they may rest from their labors; for their works follow with them.
37. New Testament, Colossians, 3.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.12. Put on therefore, as God's elect, holy and beloved, a heart of compassion, kindness, lowliness, humility, and perseverance;
38. New Testament, Ephesians, 3.1, 4.1-4.2, 4.5-4.6, 4.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. For this cause I, Paul, am the prisoner of Christ Jesus on behalf of you Gentiles 4.1. I therefore, the prisoner in the Lord, beg you to walk worthily of the calling with which you were called 4.2. with all lowliness and humility, with longsuffering, bearing with one another in love; 4.5. one Lord, one faith, one baptism 4.6. one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in us all. 4.26. Be angry, and don't sin." Don't let the sun go down on your wrath
39. New Testament, Galatians, 3.27, 4.26, 5.2, 5.23, 6.1-6.2, 6.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.27. For as many of you as werebaptized into Christ have put on Christ. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 5.2. Behold, I, Paul, tell you that if you receive circumcision, Christ willprofit you nothing. 5.23. gentleness, and self-control.Against such things there is no law. 6.1. Brothers, even if a man is caught in some fault, you who arespiritual must restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness; looking toyourself so that you also aren't tempted. 6.2. Bear one another'sburdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ. 6.14. But far be it from me to boast, except inthe cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has beencrucified to me, and I to the world.
40. New Testament, Hebrews, 3.11, 4.10, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.11. As I swore in my wrath, 'They will not enter into my rest.' 4.10. For he who has entered into his rest has himself also rested from his works, as God did from his. 6.2. of the teaching of baptisms, of laying on of hands, of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
41. New Testament, Philippians, 2.3-2.11, 3.12, 3.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.3. doing nothing through rivalry or through conceit, but in humility, each counting others better than himself; 2.4. each of you not just looking to his own things, but each of you also to the things of others. 2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus. 3.15. Let us therefore, as many as are perfect, think this way. If in anything you think otherwise, God will also reveal that to you.
42. New Testament, Romans, 1.21-1.25, 8.11, 13.1-13.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.21. Because, knowing God, they didn't glorify him as God, neither gave thanks, but became vain in their reasoning, and their senseless heart was darkened. 1.22. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools 1.23. and traded the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves 1.25. who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 13.1. Let every soul be in subjection to the higher authorities, for there is no authority except from God, and those who exist are ordained by God. 13.2. Therefore he who resists the authority, withstands the ordice of God; and those who withstand will receive to themselves judgment. 13.3. For rulers are not a terror to the good work, but to the evil. Do you desire to have no fear of the authority? Do that which is good, and you will have praise from the same 13.4. for he is a servant of God to you for good. But if you do that which is evil, be afraid, for he doesn't bear the sword in vain; for he is a minister of God, an avenger for wrath to him who does evil. 13.5. Therefore you need to be in subjection, not only because of the wrath, but also for conscience' sake. 13.6. For this reason you also pay taxes, for they are ministers of God's service, attending continually on this very thing. 13.7. Give therefore to everyone what you owe: taxes to whom taxes are due; customs to whom customs; respect to whom respect; honor to whom honor. 13.8. Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law.
43. New Testament, Titus, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. to speak evil of no one, not to be contentious, to be gentle, showing all humility toward all men.
44. New Testament, John, 1.18, 5.8, 5.25-5.29, 6.39-6.59, 11.24-11.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 5.8. Jesus said to him, "Arise, take up your mat, and walk. 5.25. Most assuredly, I tell you, the hour comes, and now is, when the dead will hear the Son of God's voice; and those who hear will live. 5.26. For as the Father has life in himself, even so he gave to the Son also to have life in himself. 5.27. He also gave him authority to execute judgment, because he is a son of man. 5.28. Don't marvel at this, for the hour comes, in which all that are in the tombs will hear his voice 5.29. and will come out; those who have done good, to the resurrection of life; and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of judgment. 6.39. This is the will of my Father who sent me, that of all he has given to me I should lose nothing, but should raise him up at the last day. 6.40. This is the will of the one who sent me, that everyone who sees the Son, and believes in him, should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day. 6.41. The Jews therefore murmured concerning him, because he said, "I am the bread which came down out of heaven. 6.42. They said, "Isn't this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How then does he say, 'I have come down out of heaven?' 6.43. Therefore Jesus answered them, "Don't murmur among yourselves. 6.44. No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up in the last day. 6.45. It is written in the prophets, 'They will all be taught by God.' Therefore everyone who hears from the Father, and has learned, comes to me. 6.46. Not that anyone has seen the Father, except he who is from God. He has seen the Father. 6.47. Most assuredly, I tell you, he who believes in me has eternal life. 6.48. I am the bread of life. 6.49. Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 6.50. This is the bread which comes down out of heaven, that anyone may eat of it and not die. 6.51. I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh. 6.52. The Jews therefore contended with one another, saying, "How can this man give us his flesh to eat? 6.53. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you don't have life in yourselves. 6.54. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. 6.55. For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. 6.56. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood lives in me, and I in him. 6.57. As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father; so he who feeds on me, he will also live because of me. 6.58. This is the bread which came down out of heaven -- not as our fathers ate the manna, and died. He who eats this bread will live forever. 6.59. These things he said in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum. 11.24. Martha said to him, "I know that he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day. 11.25. Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me, though he die, yet will he live.
45. New Testament, Luke, 2.7, 5.24, 6.32, 6.36, 7.31-7.35, 9.51-9.55, 10.9, 10.17-10.23, 11.2, 12.32, 13.1, 14.14, 14.23, 15.29, 17.9, 18.14, 20.20-20.40, 22.42, 23.2, 24.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.7. She brought forth her firstborn son, and she wrapped him in bands of cloth, and laid him in a feeding trough, because there was no room for them in the inn. 5.24. But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins" (he said to the paralyzed man), "I tell you, arise, and take up your cot, and go to your house. 6.32. If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 6.36. Therefore be merciful, Even as your Father is also merciful. 7.31. The Lord said, "To what then will I liken the people of this generation? What are they like? 7.32. They are like children who sit in the marketplace, and call one to another, saying, 'We piped to you, and you didn't dance. We mourned, and you didn't weep.' 7.33. For John the Baptizer came neither eating bread nor drinking wine, and you say, 'He has a demon.' 7.34. The Son of Man has come eating and drinking, and you say, 'Behold, a gluttonous man, and a drunkard; a friend of tax collectors and sinners!' 7.35. Wisdom is justified by all her children. 9.51. It came to pass, when the days were near that he should be taken up, he intently set his face to go to Jerusalem 9.52. and sent messengers before his face. They went, and entered into a village of the Samaritans, so as to prepare for him. 9.53. They didn't receive him, because he was traveling with his face set towards Jerusalem. 9.54. When his disciples, James and John, saw this, they said, "Lord, do you want us to command fire to come down from the sky, and destroy them, just as Elijah did? 9.55. But he turned and rebuked them, "You don't know of what kind of spirit you are. 10.9. Heal the sick who are therein, and tell them, 'The Kingdom of God has come near to you.' 10.17. The seventy returned with joy, saying, "Lord, even the demons are subject to us in your name! 10.18. He said to them, "I saw Satan having fallen like lightning from heaven. 10.19. Behold, I give you authority to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy. Nothing will in any way hurt you. 10.20. Nevertheless, don't rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven. 10.21. In that same hour Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit, and said, "I thank you, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you have hidden these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for so it was well-pleasing in your sight. 10.22. Turning to the disciples, he said, "All things have been delivered to me by my Father. No one knows who the Son is, except the Father, and who the Father is, except the Son, and he to whomever the Son desires to reveal him. 10.23. Turning to the disciples, he said privately, "Blessed are the eyes which see the things that you see 11.2. He said to them, "When you pray, say, 'Our Father in heaven, May your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come. May your will be done on Earth, as it is in heaven. 12.32. Don't be afraid, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the Kingdom. 13.1. Now there were some present at the same time who told him about the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. 14.14. and you will be blessed, because they don't have the resources to repay you. For you will be repaid in the resurrection of the righteous. 14.23. The lord said to the servant, 'Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled. 15.29. But he answered his father, 'Behold, these many years I have served you, and I never disobeyed a commandment of yours, but you never gave me a goat, that I might celebrate with my friends. 17.9. Does he thank that servant because he did the things that were commanded? I think not. 18.14. I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other; for everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but he who humbles himself will be exalted. 20.20. They watched him, and sent out spies, who pretended to be righteous, that they might trap him in something he said, so as to deliver him up to the power and authority of the governor. 20.21. They asked him, "Teacher, we know that you say and teach what is right, and aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. 20.22. Is it lawful for us to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 20.23. But he perceived their craftiness, and said to them, "Why do you test me? 20.24. Show me a denarius. Whose image and inscription are on it?"They answered, "Caesar's. 20.25. He said to them, "Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 20.26. They weren't able to trap him in his words before the people. They marveled at his answer, and were silent. 20.27. Some of the Sadducees came to him, those who deny that there is a resurrection. 20.28. They asked him, "Teacher, Moses wrote to us that if a man's brother dies having a wife, and he is childless, his brother should take the wife, and raise up children for his brother. 20.29. There were therefore seven brothers. The first took a wife, and died childless. 20.30. The second took her as wife, and he died childless. 20.31. The third took her, and likewise the seven all left no children, and died. 20.32. Afterward the woman also died. 20.33. Therefore in the resurrection whose wife of them will she be? For the seven had her as a wife. 20.34. Jesus said to them, "The sons of this age marry, and are given in marriage. 20.35. But those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage. 20.36. For they can't die any more, for they are like the angels, and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection. 20.37. But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord 'The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' 20.38. Now he is not the God of the dead, but of the living, for all are alive to him. 20.39. Some of the scribes answered, "Teacher, you speak well. 20.40. They didn't dare to ask him any more questions. 22.42. saying, "Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done. 23.2. They began to accuse him, saying, "We found this man perverting the nation, forbidding paying taxes to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ, a king. 24.3. They entered in, and didn't find the Lord Jesus' body.
46. New Testament, Mark, 2.9, 2.11, 10.39, 10.42-10.45, 12.13-12.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. Which is easier, to tell the paralytic, 'Your sins are forgiven;' or to say, 'Arise, and take up your bed, and walk?' 2.11. I tell you, arise, take up your mat, and go to your house. 10.39. They said to him, "We are able."Jesus said to them, "You shall indeed drink the cup that I drink, and you shall be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with; 10.42. Jesus summoned them, and said to them, "You know that they who are recognized as rulers over the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them. 10.43. But it shall not be so among you, but whoever wants to become great among you shall be your servant. 10.44. Whoever of you wants to become first among you, shall be servant of all. 10.45. For the Son of Man also came not to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. 12.13. They sent some of the Pharisees and of the Herodians to him, that they might trap him with words. 12.14. When they had come, they asked him, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and don't defer to anyone; for you aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 12.15. Shall we give, or shall we not give?"But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said to them, "Why do you test me? Bring me a denarius, that I may see it. 12.16. They brought it. He said to them, "Whose is this image and inscription?"They said to him, "Caesar's. 12.17. Jesus answered them, "Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's."They marveled greatly at him. 12.18. There came to him Sadducees, who say that there is no resurrection. They asked him, saying 12.19. Teacher, Moses wrote to us, 'If a man's brother dies, and leaves a wife behind him, and leaves no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up offspring for his brother.' 12.20. There were seven brothers. The first took a wife, and dying left no offspring. 12.21. The second took her, and died, leaving no children behind him. The third likewise; 12.22. and the seven took her and left no children. Last of all the woman also died. 12.23. In the resurrection, when they rise, whose wife will she be of them? For the seven had her as a wife. 12.24. Jesus answered them, "Isn't this because you are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God? 12.25. For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 12.26. But about the dead, that they are raised; haven't you read in the book of Moses, about the Bush, how God spoke to him, saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' 12.27. He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You are therefore badly mistaken.
47. New Testament, Matthew, a b c d\n0 "5.48" "5.48" "5 48" \n1 1 1 1 None\n2 1.20 1.20 1 20 \n3 1.25 1.25 1 25 \n4 10 10 10 None\n.. .. .. .. ...\n127 7 7 7 None\n128 7.12 7.12 7 12 \n129 7.28 7.28 7 28 \n130 9.4 9.4 9 4 \n131 9.6 9.6 9 6 \n\n[132 rows x 4 columns] (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

48. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 6.2.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.2.20.  The pathos of the Greeks, which we correctly translate by emotion, is of a different character, and I cannot better indicate the nature of the difference than by saying that ethos rather resembles comedy and pathos tragedy. For pathos is almost entirely concerned with anger, dislike, fear, hatred and pity. It will be obvious to all what topics are appropriate to such appeals and I have already spoken on the subject in discussing the exordium and the peroration.
49. Tacitus, Histories, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.5.  Vespasian was energetic in war. He used to march at the head of his troops, select a place for camp, oppose the enemy night and day with wise strategy and, if occasion demanded, with his own hands. His food was whatever chance offered; in his dress and bearing he hardly differed from the common soldier. He would have been quite equal to the generals of old if he had not been avaricious. Mucianus, on the other hand, was eminent for his magnificence and wealth and by the complete superiority of his scale of life to that of a private citizen. He was the readier speaker, experienced in civil administration and in statesmanship. It would have been a rare combination for an emperor if the faults of the two could have been done away with and their virtues only combined in one man. But Mucianus was governor of Syria, Vespasian of Judea. They had quarrelled through jealousy because they governed neighbouring provinces. Finally at Nero's death they had laid aside their hostilities and consulted together, at first through friends as go-betweens; and then Titus, the chief bond of their concord, had ended their dangerous feud by pointing out their common interests; both by his nature and skill he was well calculated to win over even a person of the character of Mucianus. Tribunes, centurions, and the common soldiers were secured for the cause by industry or by licence, by virtues or by pleasures, according to the individual's character.
50. Anon., The Acts of John, 113 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

113. O thou who hast kept me until this hour for thyself and untouched by union with a woman: who when in my youth I desired to marry didst appear unto me and say to me: John I have need of thee: who didst prepare for me also a sickness of the body: who when for the third time I would marry didst forthwith prevent me, and then at the third hour of the day saidst unto me on the sea: John, if thou hadst not been mine, I would have suffered thee to marry: who for two years didst blind me (or afflict mine eyes), and grant me to mourn and entreat thee: who in the third year didst open the eyes of my mind and also grant me my visible eyes: who when I saw clearly didst ordain that it should be grievous to me to look upon a woman: who didst save me from the temporal fantasy and lead me unto that which endureth always: who didst rid me of the foul madness that is in the flesh: who didst take me from the bitter death and establish me on thee alone: who didst muzzle the secret disease of my soul and cut off the open deed: who didst afflict and banish him that raised tumult in me: who didst make my love of thee spotless: who didst make my joining unto thee perfect and unbroken: who didst give me undoubting faith in thee, who didst order and make clear my inclination toward thee: thou who givest unto every man the due reward of his works, who didst put into my soul that I should have no possession save thee only: for what is more precious than thee? Now therefore Lord, whereas I have accomplished the dispensation wherewith I was entrusted, account thou me worthy of thy rest, and grant me that end in thee which is salvation unspeakable and unutterable.
51. Anon., Acts of John, 113 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

113. O thou who hast kept me until this hour for thyself and untouched by union with a woman: who when in my youth I desired to marry didst appear unto me and say to me: John I have need of thee: who didst prepare for me also a sickness of the body: who when for the third time I would marry didst forthwith prevent me, and then at the third hour of the day saidst unto me on the sea: John, if thou hadst not been mine, I would have suffered thee to marry: who for two years didst blind me (or afflict mine eyes), and grant me to mourn and entreat thee: who in the third year didst open the eyes of my mind and also grant me my visible eyes: who when I saw clearly didst ordain that it should be grievous to me to look upon a woman: who didst save me from the temporal fantasy and lead me unto that which endureth always: who didst rid me of the foul madness that is in the flesh: who didst take me from the bitter death and establish me on thee alone: who didst muzzle the secret disease of my soul and cut off the open deed: who didst afflict and banish him that raised tumult in me: who didst make my love of thee spotless: who didst make my joining unto thee perfect and unbroken: who didst give me undoubting faith in thee, who didst order and make clear my inclination toward thee: thou who givest unto every man the due reward of his works, who didst put into my soul that I should have no possession save thee only: for what is more precious than thee? Now therefore Lord, whereas I have accomplished the dispensation wherewith I was entrusted, account thou me worthy of thy rest, and grant me that end in thee which is salvation unspeakable and unutterable.
52. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 11.6, 11.15 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11.6. “The great priest shall carry this day, following in procession by my exhortation, a garland of roses next the rattle in his right hand. Follow my procession amongst the people and, when you come to the priest, make as though you would kiss his hand. But snatch at the roses, whereby I will put away the skin and shape of an ass. This kind of beast I have long abhorred and despised. But above all things beware that you do not doubt or fear any of those things as being hard and difficult to bring to pass. For in the same hour as I have come to you, I have commanded the priest, by a vision, of what he shall do. And all the people by my command shall be compelled to give you place and say nothing! Moreover, do not think that, amongst so fair and joyful ceremonies and in so good a company, any person shall abhor your ill-favored and deformed figure, or that any man shall be so hardy as to blame and reprove your sudden restoration to human shape. They will not conceive any sinister opinion about this deed. And know this for certain: for the rest of your life, until the hour of death, you shall be bound and subject to me! And think it not an injury to be always subject to me, since by my means and benefit you shall become a man. You shall live blessed in this world, you shall live gloriously by my guidance and protection. And when you descend to hell, you shall see me shine in that subterranean place, shining (as you see me now) in the darkness of Acheron, and reigning in the deep profundity of Styx. There you shall worship me as one who has been favorable to you. And if I perceive that you are obedient to my command, an adherent to my religion, and worthy my divine grace, know you that I will prolong your days above the time that the fates have appointed, and the celestial planets have ordained.” 11.15. “O my friend Lucius, after the enduring so many labors and escaping so many tempests of fortune, you have at length come to the port and haven of rest and mercy. Your noble linage, your dignity, your education, or any thing else did not avail you. But you have endured so many servile pleasures due to the folly of youth. Thusly you have had an unpleasant reward for your excessive curiosity. But however the blindness of Fortune has tormented you in various dangers, so it is now that, unbeknownst to her, you have come to this present felicity. Let Fortune go and fume with fury in another place. Let her find some other matter on which to execute her cruelty. Fortune has no power against those who serve and honor our goddess. What good did it do her that you endured thieves, savage beasts, great servitude, dangerous waits, long journeys, and fear of death every day? Know that now you are safe and under the protection of her who, by her clear light, brightens the other gods. Wherefore rejoice and take a countece appropriate to your white garment. Follow the parade of this devout and honorable procession so that those who do not worship the goddess may see and acknowledge their error. Behold Lucius, you are delivered from so great miseries by the providence of the goddess Isis. Rejoice therefore and triumph in the victory over fortune. And so that you may live more safe and sure, make yourself one of this holy order. Dedicate your mind to our religion and take upon yourself the voluntary yoke of ministry. And when you begin to serve and honor the goddess, then you shall feel the fruit of your liberty.”
53. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

54. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.16.1, 5.30.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

55. Lucian, The Lover of Lies, 12-13, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

56. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57b. אמר רבי יוחנן השכים ונפל פסוק לתוך פיו הרי זה נבואה קטנה תנו רבנן שלשה מלכים הם הרואה דוד בחלום יצפה לחסידות שלמה יצפה לחכמה אחאב ידאג מן הפורענות,ג' נביאים הם הרואה ספר מלכים יצפה לגדולה יחזקאל יצפה לחכמה ישעיה יצפה לנחמה ירמיה ידאג מן הפורענות,שלשה כתובים גדולים הם הרואה ספר תהלים יצפה לחסידות משלי יצפה לחכמה איוב ידאג מן הפורענות,שלשה כתובים קטנים הם הרואה שיר השירים בחלום יצפה לחסידות קהלת יצפה לחכמה קינות ידאג מן הפורענות הרואה מגלת אסתר נס נעשה לו,שלשה חכמים הם הרואה רבי בחלום יצפה לחכמה ראב"ע יצפה לעשירות רבי ישמעאל בן אלישע ידאג מן הפורענות,שלשה תלמידי חכמים הם הרואה בן עזאי בחלום יצפה לחסידות בן זומא יצפה לחכמה אחר ידאג מן הפורענות,כל מיני חיות יפות לחלום חוץ מן הפיל והקוף והקפוד והאמר מר הרואה פיל בחלום פלא נעשה לו לא קשיא הא דמסרג הא דלא מסרג,כל מיני מתכת יפין לחלום חוץ ממר פסל וקרדום והני מילי דחזנהו בקתייהו כל מיני פירות יפין לחלום חוץ מפגי תמרה כל מיני ירקות יפין לחלום חוץ מראשי לפתות והאמר רב לא איעתרי עד דחזאי ראשי לפתות כי חזא בכנייהו חזא כל מיני צבעונין יפין לחלום חוץ מן התכלת כל מיני עופות יפין לחלום חוץ מן קריא וקפופא וקורפראי:,[הגו"ף הגו"ף מעי"ן משיבי"ן ומרחיבי"ן סימן]:,ג' נכנסין לגוף ואין הגוף נהנה מהן גודגדניות וכפניות ופגי תמרה שלשה אין נכנסין לגוף והגוף נהנה מהן אלו הן רחיצה וסיכה ותשמיש שלשה מעין העולם הבא אלו הן שבת שמש ותשמיש,תשמיש דמאי אילימא תשמיש המטה הא מכחש כחיש אלא תשמיש נקבים,שלשה משיבין דעתו של אדם אלו הן קול ומראה וריח שלשה מרחיבין דעתו של אדם אלו הן דירה נאה ואשה נאה וכלים נאים:,[חמש"ה ושש"ה ועשר"ה סימן]: חמשה אחד מששים אלו הן אש דבש ושבת ושינה וחלום אש אחד מששים לגיהנם דבש אחד מששים למן שבת אחד מששים לעולם הבא שינה אחד מששים למיתה חלום אחד מששים לנבואה,ששה דברים סימן יפה לחולה אלו הן עטוש זיעה שלשול קרי ושינה וחלום עטוש דכתיב (איוב מא, י) עטישותיו תהל אור זיעה דכתיב (בראשית ג, יט) בזעת אפיך תאכל לחם שלשול דכתיב (ישעיהו נא, יד) מהר צועה להפתח ולא ימות לשחת קרי דכתיב (ישעיהו נג, י) יראה זרע יאריך ימים שינה דכתיב (איוב ג, יג) ישנתי אז ינוח לי חלום דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, טז) ותחלימני והחייני,ששה דברים מרפאין את החולה מחליו ורפואתו רפואה אלו הן כרוב ותרדין וסיסין יבשין וקיבה והרת ויותרת הכבד וי"א אף דגים קטנים ולא עוד אלא שדגים קטנים מפרין ומברין כל גופו של אדם,עשרה דברים מחזירין את החולה לחליו וחליו קשה אלו הן האוכל בשר שור בשר שמן בשר צלי בשר צפרים וביצה צלויה ותגלחת ושחלים והחלב והגבינה והמרחץ וי"א אף אגוזים וי"א אף קשואים,תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל למה נקרא שמן קשואים מפני שהן קשים לגוף כחרבות איני והכתיב (בראשית כה, כג) ויאמר ה' לה שני גוים בבטנך אל תקרי גוים אלא גיים וא"ר יהודה אמר רב אלו אנטונינוס ורבי שלא פסק משלחנם לא צנון ולא חזרת ולא קשואין לא בימות החמה ולא בימות הגשמים,לא קשיא הא ברברבי הא בזוטרי,ת"ר מת בבית שלום בבית אכל ושתה בבית סימן יפה לבית נטל כלים מן הבית סימן רע לבית תרגמא רב פפא במסאנא וסנדלא כל דשקיל שכבא מעלי בר ממסאנא וסנדלא כל דיהיב שכבא מעלי בר מעפרא וחרדלא:,מקום שנעקרה ממנו עבודת גלולים: תנו רבנן הרואה מרקוליס אומר ברוך שנתן ארך אפים לעוברי רצונו מקום שנעקרה ממנו עבודת כוכבים אומר ברוך שעקר עכו"ם מארצנו וכשם שנעקרה ממקום זה כן תעקר מכל מקומות ישראל והשב לב עובדיהם לעבדך ובח"ל אין צריך לומר והשב לב עובדיהם לעבדך מפני שרובה עובדי כוכבים רשב"א אומר אף בחוץ לארץ צריך לומר כן מפני שעתידים להתגייר שנאמר (צפניה ג, ט) אז אהפוך אל עמים שפה ברורה,דרש רב המנונא הרואה בבל הרשעה צריך לברך חמש ברכות ראה בבל אומר ברוך שהחריב בבל הרשעה ראה ביתו של נבוכדנצר אומר ברוך שהחריב ביתו של נבוכדנצר הרשע ראה גוב של אריות או כבשן האש אומר ברוך שעשה נסים לאבותינו במקום הזה ראה מרקוליס אומר ברוך שנתן ארך אפים לעוברי רצונו ראה מקום שנוטלין ממנו עפר אומר ברוך אומר ועושה גוזר ומקיים,רבא כי הוה חזי חמרי דשקלי עפרא טריף להו ידא על גבייהו ואמר רהוטו צדיקי למעבד רעותא דמרייכו מר בריה דרבינא כי הוה מטי לבבל הוה שקיל עפרא בסודריה ושדי לברא לקיים מה שנא' (ישעיהו יד, כג) וטאטאתיה במטאטא השמד אמר רב אשי אנא הא דרב המנונא לא שמיע לי אלא מדעתאי בריכתינהו לכולהו 57b. bRabbi Yoḥa said: One who awakenedin the morning and ba verseimmediately bfalls into his mouth,it is ba minor prophecy. The Sages taught: There are three kingswhose appearance in a dream is significant. bOne who sees David in a dream should expect piety;one who sees bSolomon should expect wisdom;and one who sees bAhab should be concerned about calamity. /b,There are also bthree books of Prophetswhose appearance in a dream is meaningful: bOne who sees the book of Kings should anticipate greatness,royalty; one who sees the book of bEzekiel should anticipate wisdom,as the configuration of the Divine Chariot is described therein; one who sees the book of bIsaiah should anticipate consolation;and one who sees the book of bJeremiah should be concerned about calamity,because Jeremiah prophesied extensively of impending calamity.,Similarly, there are bthree greatbooks of bWritingswhose appearance in a dream has particular significance: bOne who sees the book of Psalms should anticipate piety;one who sees the book of bProverbs should anticipate wisdom;one who sees the book of bJob should be concerned about calamity. /b, bThere arealso bthree minorbooks of bWritingswhose appearance in a dream is significant: bOne who sees Song of Songs in a dream should anticipate piety,as it describes God’s love for Israel; one who sees bEcclesiastes should anticipate wisdom;one who sees bLamentations should be concerned about calamity;and bone who sees the scroll of Esther,it is a sign that ba miracle will be performed on his behalf. /b, bThere are three Sageswhose appearance in a dream is significant: bOne who sees RabbiYehuda HaNasi bin a dream should anticipate wisdom;one who sees bRabbi Elazar ben Azarya should anticipate wealth,as he was particularly wealthy; and one who sees bRabbi Yishmael ben Elisha should be concerned about calamity,as he was one of the ten martyrs executed by the Romans.,There are bthree Torah scholarswho, despite their greatness in Torah, were never given the title Rabbi, and whose appearance in a dream is significant: bOne who sees Ben Azzai in a dream should anticipate piety;one who sees bBen Zoma should anticipate wisdom;and one who sees iAḥer /i,Elisha ben Avuya, bshould be concerned about calamity,as he strayed from the path of righteousness.,The Gemara says: bAll types of animals are auspicioussigns bfor a dream except for an elephant, a monkey and a long-tailed ape.The Gemara asks: bDidn’t the Master say: A miracle will be performed for one who sees an elephant in a dream?The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement that a vision of an elephant is a good omen refers to a case bwhere it is saddled,while bthisstatement that it is not a good omen refers to a case bwhere it is not saddled. /b,Similarly, the Gemara says: bAll types of metalutensils bare auspicioussigns bfor a dream, except for a hoe, a chisel, and an axe,as these are instruments of destruction. The Gemara notes that bthis appliesspecifically bwhen they are seen on their handles.On a similar note, the Gemara says: bAll kinds of fruit are auspicioussigns bfor a dream except for unripe dates. All kinds of vegetables are auspicioussigns bfor a dream except for turnip heads.The Gemara challenges: bDidn’t Rav say: I did not become wealthy until I saw turnip headsin my dream? Apparently turnip heads are a good omen. The Gemara responds: bWhen Rav sawthem, bhe saw them on their stems;if one sees turnip heads already picked, it is a bad omen. Similarly, ball kinds of colors are auspicioussigns bfor a dream, except for sky-blue [ itekhelet /i]. All kinds of birds are auspicioussigns in a dream bexcept for an eagle-owl, and an owl, and a ikurferai, /iall of which are nocturnal and have strange and frightening appearances.,The words: bThe body, the body, microcosm, ease,and bcomfortare bmnemonicsfor matters that the Gemara will discuss, each of which represents a list with shared qualities, similar to the lists cited above.,The Gemara says: bThreefood items benter the bodyyet bthe body does not benefit from them: Cherries, bad dates, and unripe dates.In contrast: bThreematters bdo not enter the bodyyet bthe body benefits from them, and they are: Washing, anointing, and usage [ itashmish /i],commonly used as a euphemism for conjugal relations. bThreematters bare microcosms of the World-to-Come, and they are: Sabbath, the sun and usage. /b,The Gemara asks: bUsage of whatbenefits the body and is a microcosm of the World-to-Come? bIf you saythat it refers to bconjugal relations, doesn’t that weakenthe body? bRather,it refers to busage of his orifices,relieving oneself., bThreematters bease one’s mind, and they are: Voice, sight, and smell,when they are pleasant and aesthetic. bThreematters bgive a person comfort, and they are: A beautiful abode, a beautiful wife, and beautiful vessels. /b,The numbers bfive, six, and ten are mnemonicsfor the categories to follow. The Gemara says: There are bfivematters in our world which are bone-sixtiethof their most extreme manifestations. bThey are: Fire, honey, Shabbat, sleep, and a dream.The Gemara elaborates: Our bfireis bone-sixtieth ofthe fire of bGehenna; honey is one-sixtieth of manna; Shabbat is one-sixtieth of the World-to-Come; sleep is one-sixtieth of death;and ba dream is one-sixtieth of prophecy. /b,Similarly: bSix matters are good omens for the sick: Sneezing, sweating, diarrhea, a seminal emission, sleep, and a dream.These are all alluded to in Scripture: bSneezing, as it is written: “His sneezes flash forth light”(Job 41:10), indicating that by means of a sneeze one comes to see the light of the world. bSweat, as it is written: “In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread”(Genesis 3:19). bDiarrhea, as it is written: “He that is bent down shall speedily be loosed; and he shall not go down dying into the pit”(Isaiah 51:14). bA seminal emission, as it is written: “That he might see his seed, prolong his days”(Isaiah 53:10). bSleep, as it is written: “I should have slept; then had I been at rest”(Job 3:13). bA dream, as it is written: “Wherefore You recover me [ ivataḥalimeni /i], and make me to live”(Isaiah 38:16); ivataḥalimeniis interpreted as etymologically similar to iḥalom /i, dream.,Similarly: bSix matters cure a sick person from his illness, and their cure isan effective bcure. They are: Cabbage, beets, dried foley,a medicinal plant, bthe stomach, the placenta, and the diaphragmof an animal. bSome saythat bsmall fishalso possess these qualities. bFurthermore, small fish cause one’s entire body to flourish and become healthy. /b,In contrast, bthere are ten matters thatcause a sick person who has recovered to suffer a brelapse of his illness, and his illness iseven more bsevere, and they are:Eating box meat,eating bfatty meatin general, eating broasted meat,eating bpoultry,eating ba roasted egg, shaving,eating bcress,drinking bmilk,eating bcheese, andbathing in a bbathhouse. And some sayeating bnuts, and some say eveneating bcucumbers. /b,It was btaughtin the bschool of Rabbi Yishmael: Why are they called cucumbers [ ikishu’im /i]? Because they are as harmful [ ikashim /i] to the body as swords.The Gemara asks: bIs that really so? Is it not written: “And the Lord said unto her: Two nations [ igoyim /i] are in your womb”(Genesis 25:23) and the Gemara says: bDo not readit as igoyim /i, ratherread it as igayim /i, proud ones. And Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:This verse was fulfilled in bthesetwo great individuals who descended from Rebecca: bAntoninus and RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bwhose tables,because of their wealth, bnever lacked for radish, lettuce or cucumbers, neither in summer nor in the rainy season.Apparently, cucumbers are good and are even a delicacy of kings.,The Gemara resolves: This is bnot difficult. Thisthat says they are harmful to the body refers bto large ones,while bthisthat says they were always served on the table of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and Antoninus refers bto small ones. /b,With regard to dreams, bthe Sages taught:One who dreams that he sees ba corpse in his house,it is a sign of bpeace in his house.If the corpse bate and drank in the house, it is good omen for the house.If the corpse bremoved vessels from the house,it bis a bad omen for the house,as it suggests that the corpse is taking someone from the house with him. bRav Pappa explainedthis only if the dream was bwith regard to a shoe and a sandal,as that indicates that someone from the house is going to embark on a long journey. As the Sages said: bEverythingthat ba corpse takesin a dream is a bgoodomen bexcept a shoe and a sandal; everything that a corpse givesin a dream is a bgoodomen bexcept dust and mustard,which looks like dust, as they portend burial.,We learned in the mishna that one who sees ba place from which idolatry was eradicatedshould recite the blessing: Blessed…Who eradicated idolatry from our land. On this topic bthe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bOne who seesthe idol called bMercury [ iMarkulis /i] recites: Blessed…who has shown patience to those who violate His will,as each day new rocks would be thrown upon the pile constructed in Mercury’ honor ( iTosafot /i). One who sees ba place from which idolatry was eradicated should recite: Blessed…Who eradicated idolatry from our land. And just as it was eradicated from this place, so too may it be eradicated from all places of Israel, and restore the hearts of their worshippers to worship You. Outside of EretzYisrael, bone need not recite: And restore the hearts of their worshippers to worship You, since it is predomitly populated by gentiles. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Even outside of EretzYisrael bone is required to recite thatformula bbecausein the end of days all nations bwill convert, as it is stated: “For then will I turn to the peoples a pure language,that they may all call upon the Name of the Lord, to serve Him with one consent” (Zephaniah 3:9).,The Gemara goes on to discuss special blessings instituted by the Sages to be recited upon seeing extraordinary sights. bRav Hamnuna taught: One who sees the wicked Babylonia must recite five blessings.The Gemara elaborates: br bOne who sawthe ruins of bBabylonia, recites: Blessed…Who destroyed the wicked Babylonia.br bOne who sawthe ruins of bNebuchadnezzar’s house, recites: Blessed…Who destroyed the house of wicked Nebuchadnezzar.br bOne who saw the lion’s deninto which Daniel was thrown (see Daniel ch. 6) bor the furnaceinto which Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah bwere thrown(see Daniel ch. 3), brecites: Blessed…Who performed miracles for our ancestors in this place.br bOne who saw Mercury, recites: Blessed…Who has shown patience to those who violate His will.br bOne who saw a place from which earth is taken,as over the generations earth was taken from certain places and used as fertilizer or for construction in the surrounding areas, brecites: Blessed…Who speaks and acts, decrees and fulfills. /b,The Gemara relates that bwhen Rava would see donkeys carrying earthfrom Babylonia, bhe would slap their backs with his hand and sayto them: bRun, righteous ones, and fulfill the will of your Master. When Mar, son of Ravina, would arrive in Babylonia he would take earth in his kerchief and throw it outside, to fulfill that which is said: “And I will sweep it with the broom of destruction”(Isaiah 14:23). bRav Ashi said: I never heard thestatement of bRav Hamnuna,that one who sees Babylonia the wicked must recite five blessings. bHowever, based on my independent reasoning, I recited all of the blessings. /b
57. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5b. אינו מהם אמרו ליה רבנן לרבא מר לא בהסתר פנים איתיה ולא בוהיה לאכול איתיה אמר להו מי ידעיתו כמה משדרנא בצנעא בי שבור מלכא אפי' הכי יהבו ביה רבנן עינייהו אדהכי שדור דבי שבור מלכא וגרבוהו אמר היינו דתניא אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כל מקום שנתנו חכמים עיניהם או מיתה או עוני,(דברים לא, יח) ואנכי הסתר אסתיר פני ביום ההוא אמר רבא אמר הקב"ה אף על פי שהסתרתי פני מהם בחלום אדבר בו רב יוסף אמר ידו נטויה עלינו שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ובצל ידי כסיתיך,ר' יהושע בן חנניה הוה קאי בי קיסר אחוי ליה ההוא אפיקורוסא עמא דאהדרינהו מריה לאפיה מיניה אחוי ליה ידו נטויה עלינו אמר ליה קיסר לר' יהושע מאי אחוי לך עמא דאהדרינהו מריה לאפיה מיניה ואנא מחוינא ליה ידו נטויה עלינו,אמרו ליה לההוא מינא מאי אחויית ליה עמא דאהדרינהו מריה מיניה ומאי אחוי לך לא ידענא אמרו גברא דלא ידע מאי מחוו ליה במחוג יחוי קמי מלכא אפקוהו וקטלוהו,כי קא ניחא נפשיה דרבי יהושע בן חנניה אמרו ליה רבנן מאי תיהוי עלן מאפיקורוסין אמר להם (ירמיהו מט, ז) אבדה עצה מבנים נסרחה חכמתם כיון שאבדה עצה מבנים נסרחה חכמתן של אומות העולם,ואי בעית אימא מהכא (בראשית לג, יב) ויאמר נסעה ונלכה ואלכה לנגדך,רבי אילא הוה סליק בדרגא דבי רבה בר שילא שמעיה לינוקא דהוה קא קרי (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח ומגיד לאדם מה שיחו אמר עבד שרבו מגיד לו מה שיחו תקנה יש לו מאי מה שיחו אמר רב אפילו שיחה יתירה שבין איש לאשתו מגידים לו לאדם בשעת מיתה,איני והא רב כהנא הוה גני תותי פורייה דרב ושמעיה דסח וצחק ועשה צרכיו אמר דמי פומיה דרב כמאן דלא טעים ליה תבשילא אמר ליה כהנא פוק לאו אורח ארעא,לא קשיא כאן דצריך לרצויה הא דלא צריך לרצויה,(ירמיהו יג, יז) ואם לא תשמעוה במסתרים תבכה נפשי מפני גוה אמר רב שמואל בר איניא משמיה דרב מקום יש לו להקב"ה ומסתרים שמו מאי מפני גוה אמר רב שמואל בר יצחק מפני גאוותן של ישראל שניטלה מהם ונתנה לעובדי כוכבים ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר מפני גאוותה של מלכות שמים,ומי איכא בכיה קמיה הקב"ה והאמר רב פפא אין עציבות לפני הקב"ה שנאמר (דברי הימים א טז, כז) הוד והדר לפניו עוז וחדוה במקומו לא קשיא הא בבתי גואי הא בבתי בראי,ובבתי בראי לא והא כתיב (ישעיהו כב, יב) ויקרא אדני ה' צבאות ביום ההוא לבכי ולמספד ולקרחה ולחגור שק שאני חרבן בית המקדש דאפילו מלאכי שלום בכו שנאמר (ישעיהו לג, ז) הן אראלם צעקו חוצה מלאכי שלום מר יבכיון:,(ירמיהו יג, יז) ודמע תדמע ותרד עיני דמעה כי נשבה עדר ה' אמר ר' אלעזר שלש דמעות הללו למה אחת על מקדש ראשון ואחת על מקדש שני ואחת על ישראל שגלו ממקומן ואיכא דאמרי אחת על ביטול תורה,בשלמא למאן דאמר על ישראל שגלו היינו דכתיב כי נשבה עדר ה' אלא למאן דאמר על ביטול תורה מאי כי נשבה עדר ה' כיון שגלו ישראל ממקומן אין לך ביטול תורה גדול מזה,תנו רבנן שלשה הקב"ה בוכה עליהן בכל יום על שאפשר לעסוק בתורה ואינו עוסק ועל שאי אפשר לעסוק בתורה ועוסק ועל פרנס המתגאה על הצבור,רבי הוה נקיט ספר קינות וקא קרי בגויה כי מטא להאי פסוקא (איכה ב, א) השליך משמים ארץ נפל מן ידיה אמר מאיגרא רם לבירא עמיקתא,רבי ורבי חייא הוו שקלי ואזלי באורחא כי מטו לההוא מתא אמרי איכא צורבא מרבנן הכא נזיל וניקביל אפיה אמרי איכא צורבא מרבנן הכא ומאור עינים הוא אמר ליה ר' חייא לרבי תיב את לא תזלזל בנשיאותך איזיל אנא ואקביל אפיה,תקפיה ואזל בהדיה כי הוו מיפטרי מיניה אמר להו אתם הקבלתם פנים הנראים ואינן רואין תזכו להקביל פנים הרואים ואינן נראין אמר ליה איכו השתא מנעתן מהאי בירכתא,אמרו ליה ממאן שמיעא לך מפרקיה דרבי יעקב שמיע לי דרבי יעקב איש כפר חיטייא הוה מקביל אפיה דרביה כל יומא כי קש א"ל לא נצטער מר דלא יכיל מר,אמר ליה מי זוטר מאי דכתיב בהו ברבנן (תהלים מט, י) ויחי עוד לנצח לא יראה השחת כי יראה חכמים ימותו ומה הרואה חכמים במיתתן יחיה בחייהן על אחת כמה וכמה,רב אידי אבוה דרבי יעקב בר אידי הוה רגיל דהוה אזיל תלתא ירחי באורחא וחד יומא בבי רב והוו קרו ליה רבנן בר בי רב דחד יומא חלש דעתיה קרי אנפשיה (איוב יב, ד) שחוק לרעהו אהיה וגו' א"ל ר' יוחנן במטותא מינך לא תעניש להו רבנן,נפק ר' יוחנן לבי מדרשא ודרש (ישעיהו נח, ב) ואותי יום יום ידרשון ודעת דרכי יחפצון וכי ביום דורשין אותו ובלילה אין דורשין אותו אלא לומר לך כל העוסק בתורה אפי' יום אחד בשנה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עסק כל השנה כולה,וכן במדת פורענות דכתיב (במדבר יד, לד) במספר הימים אשר תרתם את הארץ וכי ארבעים שנה חטאו והלא ארבעים יום חטאו אלא לומר לך כל העובר עבירה אפי' יום אחד בשנה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עבר כל השנה כולה:,אי זהו קטן כל שאינו יכול לרכוב על כתפו של אביו: מתקיף לה רבי זירא 5b. bis not fromamong bthem. The Sages said to Rava: Master, you are not subject toHis bhidingof the bface,as your prayers are heard, band you are not subject to: “And they shall be devoured,”as the authorities take nothing from you. bHe said to them: Do you know how manygifts bI send in private to the house of King Shapur?Although it might seem that the monarchy does not take anything from me, in actuality I am forced to give many bribes. bEven so, the Sages looked uponRava with suspicion. bIn the meantime,messengers bfrom the house of King Shapur sentfor him band imprisoned himto extort more money from him. Rava bsaid: This is as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: Wherever the Sages looked uponsomeone, it resulted in beither death or poverty. /b,With regard to the verse: b“And I will hide my face in that day”(Deuteronomy 31:18), bRava saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Even though I hid my face from themand My Divine Presence is not revealed, nevertheless: b“I speak with him in a dream”(Numbers 12:6). bRav Yosef said: His hand is outstretched,guarding bover us, as it is stated: “And I have covered you in the shadow of my hand”(Isaiah 51:16).,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya was standing inthe bhouse of the Caesar. A certain heretic,who was also present, bgestured to him,indicating that his was bthe nation whose Master,God, bturned His faceaway bfrom it.Rabbi Yehoshua bgestured to himthat bHis hand is outstretched over usin protection. bThe Caesar said to Rabbi Yehoshua: What did he gesture to you,and how did you respond? He replied: He indicated that mine is bthe nation whose Master turned His face from it, and I gestured to himthat bHis hand is outstretched over us. /b,The members of the Caesar’s household bsaid to that heretic: What did you gesture to him?He said to them: I gestured that his is bthe nation whose Master has turnedHis face bfrom it.They asked: bAnd what did he gesture to you?He said to them: bI don’t know;I did not understand. bThey said:How can ba man who does not know whatothers bgesture to himdare to bgesture in the presence of the king? They took him out and killed him. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya was dying, the Sages said to him: What will become of us, fromthe threat of bthe heretics,when there is no scholar like you who can refute them? bHe said to themthat the verse states: “Is wisdom no more in Teiman? bHas counsel perished from the prudent? Has their wisdom vanished?”(Jeremiah 49:7). He explained: bSince counsel has perished from the prudent,from the Jewish people, the bwisdom of the nations of the world has vanishedas well, and there will be no superior scholars among them., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that the same idea can be derived bfrom here: “And he said: Let us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go corresponding to you”(Genesis 33:12). Just as the Jewish people rise and fall, so too, the nations of the world simultaneously rise and fall, and they will never have an advantage.,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Ila was ascending the stairs in the house of Rabba bar Sheila,a children’s teacher. bHe heard a child who was readinga verse out loud: b“For, lo, He Who forms the mountains, and creates the wind, and declares to man what is his speech”(Amos 4:13). Rabbi Ila bsaid:With regard to ba servant whose master declares to him what is hisproper bspeech, is there a remedy for him?The Gemara asks. bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“What is his speech”? Rav said: Even frivolous speech that is between a man and his wifebefore engaging in relations bis declared to a person at the time of death,and he will have to account for it.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Is it prohibited for a man to speak in this manner with his wife? bWasn’t Rav Kahana lying beneath Rav’s bed, and he heardRav bchatting and laughingwith his wife, band performing his needs,i.e., having relations with her. Rav Kahana bsaidout loud: bThe mouth of Rav is likeone who bhas never eaten a cooked dish,i.e., his behavior is lustful. Rav bsaid to him: Kahana, leave, asthis is bnot proper conduct.This shows that Rav himself engaged in frivolous talk before relations.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Here,where this type of speech is permitted, it is referring to a situation bwhere he must appeasehis wife before relations, and therefore this speech is appropriate. However, bthisstatement, that it is prohibited, is referring to a situation bwhere he doesn’t need to appease her.In these circumstances, it is prohibited to engage in excessively lighthearted chatter with one’s wife.,The verse states: b“But if you will not hear it, my soul shall weep in secret [ ibemistarim /i] for your pride”(Jeremiah 13:17). bRav Shmuel bar Inya said in the name of Rav: The Holy One, Blessed be He, has a placewhere He cries, band its name is Mistarim. Whatis the meaning of b“for your pride”? Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak said:God cries bdue to the pride of the Jewish people, which was taken from them and given tothe gentile bnations. Rav Shmuel bar Naḥmani said:He cries bdue to the pride of the kingdom of Heaven,which was removed from the world.,The Gemara asks: bBut is there crying before the Holy One, Blessed be He? Didn’t Rav Pappa say: There is no sadness before the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Honor and majesty are before Him; strength and gladness are in His place”(I Chronicles 16:27)? The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement, that God cries, is referring to bthe innermost chambers,where He can cry in secret, whereas bthisstatement, that He does not cry, is referring to bthe outer chambers. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd doesn’tGod cry bin the outer chambers? Isn’t it written: “And on that day the Lord, the God of hosts, called to weeping, and to mourning, and to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth”(Isaiah 22:12)? The Gemara responds: bThe destruction of the Temple is different, as even the angels of peace cried, as it is stated: “Behold, their valiant ones cry without; the angels of peace weep bitterly”(Isaiah 33:7).,The verse continues: b“And my eye shall weep sore, and run down with tears, because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive”(Jeremiah 13:17). bRabbi Elazar said: Why these threereferences to btearsin the verse? bOneis bfor the First Temple; oneis bfor the Second Temple; and oneis bfor the Jewish people who were exiled from their place. And there arethose bwho say:The last boneis bforthe unavoidable bderelictionof the study of bTorahin the wake of the exile.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat the last tear is bfor the Jewish people who were exiled, this is as it is written: “Because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive.” However, according to the one who saidthat this tear is bfor the derelictionof the study of bTorah, whatis the meaning of: b“Because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive”?The Gemara answers: bSince the Jewish people were exiled from their place, there is no greaterinvoluntary bderelictionof the study of bTorah thanthat which was caused by bthis. /b, bThe Sages taughtthat there are bthreetypes of people bfor whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, cries every day: Forone bwho is able to engage in Torahstudy band does not engagein it; band forone bwho is unable to engage in Torahstudy and nevertheless he endeavors and bengagesin it; band for a leader who lords over the community. /b,The Gemara relates: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas holdingthe bbook of Lamentations and was reading from it. When he reached the verse: “He has cast down from heaven to earththe beauty of Israel” (Lamentations 2:1), in his distress the book bfell from his hand. He said: From a high roof to a deep pit,i.e., it is terrible to tumble from the sky to the ground.,§ The Gemara relates: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi band Rabbi Ḥiyya were walking along the road. When they arrived at a certain city, they said: Is there a Torah scholar here whom wecan bgo and greet?The people of the city bsaid: There is a Torah scholar here but he is blind. Rabbi Ḥiyya said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bYou sithere; bdo not demean yourdignified status as iNasi /ito visit someone beneath your stature. bI will go and greet him. /b,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bgrabbed him and went with himanyway, and together they greeted the blind scholar. bWhen they were leaving him, he said to them: You greetedone who is bseen and does not see; may you be worthy to greetthe One Who bsees and is not seen.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid toRabbi Ḥiyya: bNow, ifI had listened to you and not gone to greet him, byou would have prevented me from receiving this blessing. /b, bThey said tothe blind scholar: bFrom whom did you hearthat we are worthy of this blessing? He said to them: bI heardit bfrom the instruction of Rabbi Ya’akov, as Rabbi Ya’akov of the village of Ḥitiyya would greet his teacher every day. WhenRabbi Ya’akov bgrew elderly,his teacher bsaid to him: Do not despair, my Master, that my Master is unableto make the effort to greet me. It is better that you should not visit me.,Rabbi Ya’akov bsaid to him: Is ita bminormatter, bthat which is written about the Sages: “That he should still live always, that he should not see the pit. For he sees that wise men die”(Psalms 49:10–11)? In this regard an ia fortiorireference applies: bJust as one who sees Sages in their death will live, all the more soone who sees them bin their lifetime.From here the blind scholar learned the importance of greeting Torah scholars, which is why he blessed the Sages who came to greet him.,The Gemara relates: bRav Idi, father of Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi, would regularly travel three months on the roadto reach the study hall bandas he would immediately travel back again to arrive home for the festival of iSukkot /i, he spent only bone day in the school of Rav. And the Sages woulddisparagingly bcall him: A studentof Torah bfor one day. He was offendedand breadthe following verse babout himself: “I am as one that is a laughingstock to his neighbor,a man who calls upon God, and He answers him” (Job 12:4). bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: Please do not punish the Sages,i.e., do not take offense and be harsh with them, as this will cause them to be punished by God., bRabbi Yoḥa leftRav Idi and went bto the study hall and taught: “Yet they seek Me daily, and delight to know My ways”(Isaiah 58:2). bBut isit possible that only bduring the day they seek Him and at night they do not seek Him?What is the meaning of daily? bRather,this verse comes bto say to youthat with regard to banyone who engages in Torahstudy beven one day a year, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he engagedin Torah study bthe entire year. /b, bAnd the sameapplies bto the attribute of punishment, as it is written: “After the number of the days in which you spied out the land,even forty days, for every day a year, shall you bear your iniquities” (Numbers 14:34). bBut did they sinfor bforty years? Didn’t they sinfor only bforty days? Rather,this comes bto say to youthat banyone who transgresses a sin even one day a year, the verse ascribes himliability bas though he transgressed the entire year. /b,§ The mishna taught: bWho is a minorwho is exempt from the mitzva of appearance in the Temple? bAnychild bwho is unable to ride on his father’s shouldersand ascend from Jerusalem to the Temple Mount. bRabbi Zeira strongly objects to this: /b
58. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

59. Ammianus Marcellinus, History, 29.1.36 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

29.1.36. When these had been removed after this information, Eutropius, Praetorian prefect in 380 and 381; whether he was the same as the author of the Epitome of Roman History is uncertain. then governing Asia with proconsular authority, was summoned on the charge of complicity in the plot. But he escaped without harm, saved by the philosopher Pasiphilus, who, although cruelly tortured to induce him to bring about the ruin of Eutropius through a false charge, could not be turned from the firmness of a steadfast mind.
60. Augustine, Confessions, 7.14 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

61. Augustine, De Sermone Domini In Monte Secundum Matthaeum, 1.1.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

62. Augustine, The City of God, 8.10, 8.23, 9.17, 10.14, 14.6-14.7, 14.13, 14.26-14.28 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8.10. For although a Christian man instructed only in ecclesiastical literature may perhaps be ignorant of the very name of Platonists, and may not even know that there have existed two schools of philosophers speaking the Greek tongue, to wit, the Ionic and Italic, he is nevertheless not so deaf with respect to human affairs, as not to know that philosophers profess the study, and even the possession, of wisdom. He is on his guard, however, with respect to those who philosophize according to the elements of this world, not according to God, by whom the world itself was made; for he is warned by the precept of the apostle, and faithfully hears what has been said, Beware that no one deceive you through philosophy and vain deceit, according to the elements of the world. Colossians 2:8 Then, that he may not suppose that all philosophers are such as do this, he hears the same apostle say concerning certain of them, Because that which is known of God is manifest among them, for God has manifested it to them. For His invisible things from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things which are made, also His eternal power and Godhead. Romans 1:19-20 And, when speaking to the Athenians, after having spoken a mighty thing concerning God, which few are able to understand, In Him we live, and move, and have our being, Acts 17:28 he goes on to say, As certain also of your own have said. He knows well, too, to be on his guard against even these philosophers in their errors. For where it has been said by him, that God has manifested to them by those things which are made His invisible things, that they might be seen by the understanding, there it has also been said that they did not rightly worship God Himself, because they paid divine honors, which are due to Him alone, to other things also to which they ought not to have paid them -because, knowing God, they glorified Him not as God: neither were thankful, but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into the likeness of the image of corruptible man, and of birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things; Romans 1:21-23 - where the apostle would have us understand him as meaning the Romans, and Greeks, and Egyptians, who gloried in the name of wisdom; but concerning this we will dispute with them afterwards. With respect, however, to that wherein they agree with us we prefer them to all others namely, concerning the one God, the author of this universe, who is not only above every body, being incorporeal, but also above all souls, being incorruptible - our principle, our light, our good. And though the Christian man, being ignorant of their writings, does not use in disputation words which he has not learned - not calling that part of philosophy natural (which is the Latin term), or physical (which is the Greek one), which treats of the investigation of nature; or that part rational, or logical, which deals with the question how truth may be discovered; or that part moral, or ethical, which concerns morals, and shows how good is to be sought, and evil to be shunned - he is not, therefore, ignorant that it is from the one true and supremely good God that we have that nature in which we are made in the image of God, and that doctrine by which we know Him and ourselves, and that grace through which, by cleaving to Him, we are blessed. This, therefore, is the cause why we prefer these to all the others, because, while other philosophers have worn out their minds and powers in seeking the causes of things, and endeavoring to discover the right mode of learning and of living, these, by knowing God, have found where resides the cause by which the universe has been constituted, and the light by which truth is to be discovered, and the fountain at which felicity is to be drunk. All philosophers, then, who have had these thoughts concerning God, whether Platonists or others, agree with us. But we have thought it better to plead our cause with the Platonists, because their writings are better known. For the Greeks, whose tongue holds the highest place among the languages of the Gentiles, are loud in their praises of these writings; and the Latins, taken with their excellence, or their renown, have studied them more heartily than other writings, and, by translating them into our tongue, have given them greater celebrity and notoriety. 8.23. The Egyptian Hermes, whom they call Trismegistus, had a different opinion concerning those demons. Apuleius, indeed, denies that they are gods; but when he says that they hold a middle place between the gods and men, so that they seem to be necessary for men as mediators between them and the gods, he does not distinguish between the worship due to them and the religious homage due to the supernal gods. This Egyptian, however, says that there are some gods made by the supreme God, and some made by men. Any one who hears this, as I have stated it, no doubt supposes that it has reference to images, because they are the works of the hands of men; but he asserts that visible and tangible images are, as it were, only the bodies of the gods, and that there dwell in them certain spirits, which have been invited to come into them, and which have power to inflict harm, or to fulfil the desires of those by whom divine honors and services are rendered to them. To unite, therefore, by a certain art, those invisible spirits to visible and material things, so as to make, as it were, animated bodies, dedicated and given up to those spirits who inhabit them - this, he says, is to make gods, adding that men have received this great and wonderful power. I will give the words of this Egyptian as they have been translated into our tongue: And, since we have undertaken to discourse concerning the relationship and fellowship between men and the gods, know, O Æsculapius, the power and strength of man. As the Lord and Father, or that which is highest, even God, is the maker of the celestial gods, so man is the maker of the gods who are in the temples, content to dwell near to men. And a little after he says, Thus humanity, always mindful of its nature and origin, perseveres in the imitation of divinity; and as the Lord and Father made eternal gods, that they should be like Himself, so humanity fashioned its own gods according to the likeness of its own countece. When this Æsculapius, to whom especially he was speaking, had answered him, and had said, Do you mean the statues, O Trismegistus? - Yes, the statues, replied he, however unbelieving you are, O Æsculapius - the statues, animated and full of sensation and spirit, and who do such great and wonderful things - the statues prescient of future things, and foretelling them by lot, by prophet, by dreams, and many other things, who bring diseases on men and cure them again, giving them joy or sorrow according to their merits. Do you not know, O Æsculapius, that Egypt is an image of heaven, or, more truly, a translation and descent of all things which are ordered and transacted there, that it is, in truth, if we may say so, to be the temple of the whole world? And yet, as it becomes the prudent man to know all things beforehand, you ought not to be ignorant of this, that there is a time coming when it shall appear that the Egyptians have all in vain, with pious mind, and with most scrupulous diligence, waited on the divinity, and when all their holy worship shall come to nought, and be found to be in vain. Hermes then follows out at great length the statements of this passage, in which he seems to predict the present time, in which the Christian religion is overthrowing all lying figments with a vehemence and liberty proportioned to its superior truth and holiness, in order that the grace of the true Saviour may deliver men from those gods which man has made, and subject them to that God by whom man was made. But when Hermes predicts these things, he speaks as one who is a friend to these same mockeries of demons, and does not clearly express the name of Christ. On the contrary, he deplores, as if it had already taken place, the future abolition of those things by the observance of which there was maintained in Egypt a resemblance of heaven, - he bears witness to Christianity by a kind of mournful prophecy. Now it was with reference to such that the apostle said, that knowing God, they glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful, but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened; professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into the likeness of the image of corruptible man, Romans 1:21 and so on, for the whole passage is too long to quote. For Hermes makes many such statements agreeable to the truth concerning the one true God who fashioned this world. And I know not how he has become so bewildered by that darkening of the heart as to stumble into the expression of a desire that men should always continue in subjection to those gods which he confesses to be made by men, and to bewail their future removal; as if there could be anything more wretched than mankind tyrannized over by the work of his own hands, since man, by worshipping the works of his own hands, may more easily cease to be man, than the works of his hands can, through his worship of them, become gods. For it can sooner happen that man, who has received an honorable position, may, through lack of understanding, become comparable to the beasts, than that the works of man may become preferable to the work of God, made in His own image, that is, to man himself. Wherefore deservedly is man left to fall away from Him who made Him, when he prefers to himself that which he himself has made. For these vain, deceitful, pernicious, sacrilegious things did the Egyptian Hermes sorrow, because he knew that the time was coming when they should be removed. But his sorrow was as impudently expressed as his knowledge was imprudently obtained; for it was not the Holy Spirit who revealed these things to him, as He had done to the holy prophets, who, foreseeing these things, said with exultation, If a man shall make gods, lo, they are no gods; Jeremiah 16:10 and in another place, And it shall come to pass in that day, says the Lord, that I will cut off the names of the idols out of the land, and they shall no more be remembered. Zechariah 13:2 But the holy Isaiah prophesies expressly concerning Egypt in reference to this matter, saying, And the idols of Egypt shall be moved at His presence, and their heart shall be overcome in them, Isaiah 19:1 and other things to the same effect. And with the prophet are to be classed those who rejoiced that that which they knew was to come had actually come - as Simeon, or Anna, who immediately recognized Jesus when He was born, or Elisabeth, who in the Spirit recognized Him when He was conceived, or Peter, who said by the revelation of the Father, You are Christ, the Son of the living God. Matthew 16:16 But to this Egyptian those spirits indicated the time of their own destruction, who also, when the Lord was present in the flesh, said with trembling, Have You come here to destroy us before the time? Matthew 8:29 meaning by destruction before the time, either that very destruction which they expected to come, but which they did not think would come so suddenly as it appeared to have done, or only that destruction which consisted in their being brought into contempt by being made known. And, indeed, this was a destruction before the time, that is, before the time of judgment, when they are to be punished with eternal damnation, together with all men who are implicated in their wickedness, as the true religion declares, which neither errs nor leads into error; for it is not like him who, blown here and there by every wind of doctrine, and mixing true things with things which are false, bewails as about to perish a religion, which he afterwards confesses to be error. 9.17. I am considerably surprised that such learned men, men who pronounce all material and sensible things to be altogether inferior to those that are spiritual and intelligible, should mention bodily contact in connection with the blessed life. Is that sentiment of Plotinus forgotten?- We must fly to our beloved fatherland. There is the Father, there our all. What fleet or flight shall convey us there? Our way is, to become like God. If, then, one is nearer to God the more alike he is to Him, there is no other distance from God than unlikeness to Him. And the soul of man is unlike that incorporeal and unchangeable and eternal essence, in proportion as it craves things temporal and mutable. And as the things beneath, which are mortal and impure, cannot hold intercourse with the immortal purity which is above, a mediator is indeed needed to remove this difficulty; but not a mediator who resembles the highest order of being by possessing an immortal body, and the lowest by having a diseased soul, which makes him rather grudge that we be healed than help our cure. We need a Mediator who, being united to us here below by the mortality of His body, should at the same time be able to afford us truly divine help in cleansing and liberating us by means of the immortal righteousness of His spirit, whereby He remained heavenly even while here upon earth. Far be it from the incontaminable God to fear pollution from the man He assumed, or from the men among whom He lived in the form of a man. For, though His incarnation showed us nothing else, these two wholesome facts were enough, that true divinity cannot be polluted by flesh, and that demons are not to be considered better than ourselves because they have not flesh. This, then, as Scripture says, is the Mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus, 1 Timothy 2:5 of whose divinity, whereby He is equal to the Father, and humanity, whereby He has become like us, this is not the place to speak as fully as I could. 14.6. But the character of the human will is of moment; because, if it is wrong, these motions of the soul will be wrong, but if it is right, they will be not merely blameless, but even praiseworthy. For the will is in them all; yea, none of them is anything else than will. For what are desire and joy but a volition of consent to the things we wish? And what are fear and sadness but a volition of aversion from the things which we do not wish? But when consent takes the form of seeking to possess the things we wish, this is called desire; and when consent takes the form of enjoying the things we wish, this is called joy. In like manner, when we turn with aversion from that which we do not wish to happen, this volition is termed fear; and when we turn away from that which has happened against our will, this act of will is called sorrow. And generally in respect of all that we seek or shun, as a man's will is attracted or repelled, so it is changed and turned into these different affections. Wherefore the man who lives according to God, and not according to man, ought to be a lover of good, and therefore a hater of evil. And since no one is evil by nature, but whoever is evil is evil by vice, he who lives according to God ought to cherish towards evil men a perfect hatred, so that he shall neither hate the man because of his vice, nor love the vice because of the man, but hate the vice and love the man. For the vice being cursed, all that ought to be loved, and nothing that ought to be hated, will remain. 14.13. Our first parents fell into open disobedience because already they were secretly corrupted; for the evil act had never been done had not an evil will preceded it. And what is the origin of our evil will but pride? For pride is the beginning of sin. Sirach 10:13 And what is pride but the craving for undue exaltation? And this is undue exaltation, when the soul abandons Him to whom it ought to cleave as its end, and becomes a kind of end to itself. This happens when it becomes its own satisfaction. And it does so when it falls away from that unchangeable good which ought to satisfy it more than itself. This falling away is spontaneous; for if the will had remained steadfast in the love of that higher and changeless good by which it was illumined to intelligence and kindled into love, it would not have turned away to find satisfaction in itself, and so become frigid and benighted; the woman would not have believed the serpent spoke the truth, nor would the man have preferred the request of his wife to the command of God, nor have supposed that it was a venial trangression to cleave to the partner of his life even in a partnership of sin. The wicked deed, then - that is to say, the trangression of eating the forbidden fruit - was committed by persons who were already wicked. That evil fruit Matthew 7:18 could be brought forth only by a corrupt tree. But that the tree was evil was not the result of nature; for certainly it could become so only by the vice of the will, and vice is contrary to nature. Now, nature could not have been depraved by vice had it not been made out of nothing. Consequently, that it is a nature, this is because it is made by God; but that it falls away from Him, this is because it is made out of nothing. But man did not so fall away as to become absolutely nothing; but being turned towards himself, his being became more contracted than it was when he clave to Him who supremely is. Accordingly, to exist in himself, that is, to be his own satisfaction after abandoning God, is not quite to become a nonentity, but to approximate to that. And therefore the holy Scriptures designate the proud by another name, self-pleasers. For it is good to have the heart lifted up, yet not to one's self, for this is proud, but to the Lord, for this is obedient, and can be the act only of the humble. There is, therefore, something in humility which, strangely enough, exalts the heart, and something in pride which debases it. This seems, indeed, to be contradictory, that loftiness should debase and lowliness exalt. But pious humility enables us to submit to what is above us; and nothing is more exalted above us than God; and therefore humility, by making us subject to God, exalts us. But pride, being a defect of nature, by the very act of refusing subjection and revolting from Him who is supreme, falls to a low condition; and then comes to pass what is written: You cast them down when they lifted up themselves. For he does not say, when they had been lifted up, as if first they were exalted, and then afterwards cast down; but when they lifted up themselves even then they were cast down - that is to say, the very lifting up was already a fall. And therefore it is that humility is specially recommended to the city of God as it sojourns in this world, and is specially exhibited in the city of God, and in the person of Christ its King; while the contrary vice of pride, according to the testimony of the sacred writings, specially rules his adversary the devil. And certainly this is the great difference which distinguishes the two cities of which we speak, the one being the society of the godly men, the other of the ungodly, each associated with the angels that adhere to their party, and the one guided and fashioned by love of self, the other by love of God. The devil, then, would not have ensnared man in the open and manifest sin of doing what God had forbidden, had man not already begun to live for himself. It was this that made him listen with pleasure to the words, You shall be as gods, Genesis 3:5 which they would much more readily have accomplished by obediently adhering to their supreme and true end than by proudly living to themselves. For created gods are gods not by virtue of what is in themselves, but by a participation of the true God. By craving to be more, man becomes less; and by aspiring to be self-sufficing, he fell away from Him who truly suffices him. Accordingly, this wicked desire which prompts man to please himself as if he were himself light, and which thus turns him away from that light by which, had he followed it, he would himself have become light - this wicked desire, I say, already secretly existed in him, and the open sin was but its consequence. For that is true which is written, Pride goes before destruction, and before honor is humility; Proverbs 18:12 that is to say, secret ruin precedes open ruin, while the former is not counted ruin. For who counts exaltation ruin, though no sooner is the Highest forsaken than a fall is begun? But who does not recognize it as ruin, when there occurs an evident and indubitable transgression of the commandment? And consequently, God's prohibition had reference to such an act as, when committed, could not be defended on any pretense of doing what was righteous. And I make bold to say that it is useful for the proud to fall into an open and indisputable transgression, and so displease themselves, as already, by pleasing themselves, they had fallen. For Peter was in a healthier condition when he wept and was dissatisfied with himself, than when he boldly presumed and satisfied himself. And this is averred by the sacred Psalmist when he says, Fill their faces with shame, that they may seek Your name, O Lord; that is, that they who have pleased themselves in seeking their own glory may be pleased and satisfied with You in seeking Your glory. 14.26. In Paradise, then, man lived as he desired so long as he desired what God had commanded. He lived in the enjoyment of God, and was good by God's goodness; he lived without any want, and had it in his power so to live eternally. He had food that he might not hunger, drink that he might not thirst, the tree of life that old age might not waste him. There was in his body no corruption, nor seed of corruption, which could produce in him any unpleasant sensation. He feared no inward disease, no outward accident. Soundest health blessed his body, absolute tranquillity his soul. As in Paradise there was no excessive heat or cold, so its inhabitants were exempt from the vicissitudes of fear and desire. No sadness of any kind was there, nor any foolish joy; true gladness ceaselessly flowed from the presence of God, who was loved out of a pure heart, and a good conscience, and faith unfeigned. 1 Timothy 1:5 The honest love of husband and wife made a sure harmony between them. Body and spirit worked harmoniously together, and the commandment was kept without labor. No languor made their leisure wearisome; no sleepiness interrupted their desire to labor. In tanta facilitate rerum et felicitate hominum, absit ut suspicemur, non potuisse prolem seri sine libidinis morbo: sed eo voluntatis nutu moverentur illa membra qua c tera, et sine ardoris illecebroso stimulo cum tranquillitate animi et corporis nulla corruptione integritatis infunderetur gremio maritus uxoris. Neque enim quia experientia probari non potest, ideo credendum non est; quando illas corporis partes non ageret turbidus calor, sed spontanea potestas, sicut opus esset, adhiberet; ita tunc potuisse utero conjugis salva integritate feminei genitalis virile semen immitti, sicut nunc potest eadem integritate salva ex utero virginis fluxus menstrui cruoris emitti. Eadem quippe via posset illud injici, qua hoc potest ejici. Ut enim ad pariendum non doloris gemitus, sed maturitatis impulsus feminea viscera relaxaret: sic ad fœtandum et concipiendum non libidinis appetitus, sed voluntarius usus naturam utramque conjungeret. We speak of things which are now shameful, and although we try, as well as we are able, to conceive them as they were before they became shameful, yet necessity compels us rather to limit our discussion to the bounds set by modesty than to extend it as our moderate faculty of discourse might suggest. For since that which I have been speaking of was not experienced even by those who might have experienced it - I mean our first parents (for sin and its merited banishment from Paradise anticipated this passionless generation on their part) - when sexual intercourse is spoken of now, it suggests to men's thoughts not such a placid obedience to the will as is conceivable in our first parents, but such violent acting of lust as they themselves have experienced. And therefore modesty shuts my mouth, although my mind conceives the matter clearly. But Almighty God, the supreme and supremely good Creator of all natures, who aids and rewards good wills, while He abandons and condemns the bad, and rules both, was not destitute of a plan by which He might people His city with the fixed number of citizens which His wisdom had foreordained even out of the condemned human race, discriminating them not now by merits, since the whole mass was condemned as if in a vitiated root, but by grace, and showing, not only in the case of the redeemed, but also in those who were not delivered, how much grace He has bestowed upon them. For every one acknowledges that he has been rescued from evil, not by deserved, but by gratuitous goodness, when he is singled out from the company of those with whom he might justly have borne a common punishment, and is allowed to go scathless. Why, then, should God not have created those whom He foresaw would sin, since He was able to show in and by them both what their guilt merited, and what His grace bestowed, and since, under His creating and disposing hand, even the perverse disorder of the wicked could not pervert the right order of things? 14.28. Accordingly, two cities have been formed by two loves: the earthly by the love of self, even to the contempt of God; the heavenly by the love of God, even to the contempt of self. The former, in a word, glories in itself, the latter in the Lord. For the one seeks glory from men; but the greatest glory of the other is God, the witness of conscience. The one lifts up its head in its own glory; the other says to its God, You are my glory, and the lifter up of mine head. In the one, the princes and the nations it subdues are ruled by the love of ruling; in the other, the princes and the subjects serve one another in love, the latter obeying, while the former take thought for all. The one delights in its own strength, represented in the persons of its rulers; the other says to its God, I will love You, O Lord, my strength. And therefore the wise men of the one city, living according to man, have sought for profit to their own bodies or souls, or both, and those who have known God glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful, but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened; professing themselves to be wise,- that is, glorying in their own wisdom, and being possessed by pride -they became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things. For they were either leaders or followers of the people in adoring images, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Romans 1:21-25 But in the other city there is no human wisdom, but only godliness, which offers due worship to the true God, and looks for its reward in the society of the saints, of holy angels as well as holy men, that God may be all in all. 1 Corinthians 15:28
63. Augustine, Sermons, 53-54, 56-59, 62, 67-68, 72, 80-81, 52 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

64. Anon., 4 Ezra, 4.35, 7.36, 7.38, 7.85, 7.91, 7.95, 7.99, 8.52

4.35. Did not the souls of the righteous in their chambers ask about these matters, saying, `How long are we to remain here? And when will come the harvest of our reward? 7.36. Then the pit of torment shall appear, and opposite it shall be the place of rest; and the furnace of hell shall be disclosed, and opposite it the paradise of delight. 7.38. Look on this side and on that; here are delight and rest, and there are fire and torments!' Thus he will speak to them on the day of judgment -- 7.85. The fifth way, they shall see how the habitations of the others are guarded by angels in profound quiet. 7.91. First of all, they shall see with great joy the glory of him who receives them, for they shall have rest in seven orders. 7.95. The fourth order, they understand the rest which they now enjoy, being gathered into their chambers and guarded by angels in profound quiet, and the glory which awaits them in the last days. 7.99. This is the order of the souls of the righteous, as henceforth is announced; and the aforesaid are the ways of torment which those who would not give heed shall suffer hereafter. 8.52. because it is for you that paradise is opened, the tree of life is planted, the age to come is prepared, plenty is provided, a city is built, rest is appointed, goodness is established and wisdom perfected beforehand.
65. Anon., 4 Baruch, 5

66. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 8.9, 15.7

67. Epigraphy, Icg, 481, 480



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech/ebed-melech, sleep of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 251, 253
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 251, 253, 271
abraham Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 239; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 425
adam and eve, biblical figures Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 31, 32
afterlife Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 121
amor Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
angels Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 239
anger deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 192
anima Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
antithesis Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 241
apollo of bawit Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 239
apophthegmata Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 115, 116
appropriateness, and performative context James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 99
apuleius Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 121
aramaic Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 167
argárate, p. Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 467
aristophanes Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 121
aristotle Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 31
arriano, personality Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 38
arriano, rhetorical training and methods Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 38
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
asceticism Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 241; Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 467
babylon/babylonians Schaaf, Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World (2019) 52
baptism Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 425
barsanuphius, old man of gaza, on meditation Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 115
beatitude, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 91
beatitudes, kingdom of god Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 419
beatitudes, poor in spirit Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 419
beatitudes, reception history Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 419
beatitudes Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 419
bishop Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
blood Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
boaz Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 95
body, head Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
body, shoulders Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
caesar Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
captive Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
catholicos Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
chaldaean/chaldaeans Schaaf, Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World (2019) 52
children Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
christian life Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 243
christians Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 362
cognitive-affectivity, and meta-cognition Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 116
coptic Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 239
coptic language Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 178
crow Schaaf, Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World (2019) 52
damascus document Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 400, 401
day of atonement Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
death Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
debts Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 91
decalogue Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
demons Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
desire Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
didache, and baptism Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 252
diogenes the cynic Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
divine-human relationships Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 121
doctrina Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
dominus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
drusiana Schaaf, Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World (2019) 52
edessa Schaaf, Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World (2019) 52
editions, wrede, w. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 496
education, coptic Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 178
education, greco-roman Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 178
education, jesus and Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 178
education, late ancient christianity and Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 178
eleusis/eleusinian mysteries Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 121
emotions, and ekphrasis Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 31
emotions, and ethopoeia Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 31
epigram Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
epigraphy/inscriptions, funerary inscriptions, epitaphs Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
epistemology, and humility and epistemological authority Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 115, 116
epistolary practices, of dorotheus to his monks Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 116
essenes Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
ethical teachings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
ethopoeia Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 31, 32
ethos Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 31, 32
exegesis, and ethopoeia Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 31, 32
exemplarity Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 31, 32
exhortations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
experience/experiential Jeong, Pauline Baptism among the Mysteries: Ritual Messages and the Promise of Initiation (2023) 121
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 211
father, heavenly Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 241, 242
father-son relation, unity Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 243
galatia Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
galen Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 241
gentleness deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 192
gnostic manipulationist sect type, gnosticism, category of Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 241
gnosticism/gnostic christianity Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 178
gods Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
good, goodness Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
good, the Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 242
gospel, of matthew Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 118
gospel of thomas Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 178
gospels, new testament Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
greek language Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 178
gregory of nazianzus Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
hadot, pierre Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 115
hagigah, tractate in mishna, tosefta and talmud Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
happiness/the happy life Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
healing/healing/health , medicine Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 241, 242
heart (καρδία) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
honor and dishonor deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 192
hospitality Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 239; Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 242
humility Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 239; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 192
incarnation, unity Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 243
intersubjectivity Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 116
isocolon Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 239
jerome Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 239
jesus, and torah observance Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 400, 401
jesus, christ Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
jesus, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 118
jesus, son of god as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 185
jesus, teaching of, as teacher Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 118
jesus Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224; Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 241, 242
jesus / christ Schaaf, Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World (2019) 52
jesus christ Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 362; Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135; Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
jews Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 362
johannine logos, firstborn (or son) image of Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 185
john of sardis Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 31
judaism Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
justice Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 118
king Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
kingdom of god Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 185
libertinism Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 241
life after death Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 253, 271
liturgical expressions/elements Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 271
litwa, david Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 425
lord, yoke of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
lords prayer, matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 91, 118
lot Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 239
love, charity Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
love, mystery of Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 467
love (see also eros agape) Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
macarism Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 91
manuscripts, of the didache Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
martyrdom Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
matthew, gospel of Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 400, 401
maximus the confessor, dialogue on the ascetic life Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 467
maximus the confessor, epistulae Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 467
maximus the confessor, on asceticism Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 467
maximus the confessor, on repentance Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 467
medical practices Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 241, 242
medicine Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 241
memra, shekhinah (and voice) related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 185
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
messiah, philos logos and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 185
messiah, son of god and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 185
messianism, stoic logos related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 185
metaphors, of reading as food Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 115, 116
metopus Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
midas Schaaf, Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World (2019) 52
missionary work Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 242
money Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
neoplatonism Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 115
offices (christian), diakonos (deacon) Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
offices (christian), presbyteros (presbyter/priest) Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
paganism Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
parison Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 239
pasiphilus Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
patience deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 192
paul, conversion experience Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 425
paul, st. Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 239
perfect, believer Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
perrone, lorenzo Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 115
pharisees Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 400, 401
phrygia Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
platonists/platonism Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
plotinus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
poetry (christian) Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
polemics Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 241
poor in spirit, meaning Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 419
poverty Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 91
prayer Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 271
prophecy James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 99
prosopopoeia Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 31
providence Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
purity Schaaf, Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World (2019) 52
qumran Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 91
reading and meditation, food, reading as metaphor for Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 115, 116
reading and meditation, memorization of texts Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 115, 116
reading and meditation, scriptural Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 115, 116
reading and meditation Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 115, 116
reanimation see also revivification Schaaf, Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World (2019) 52
redemption Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 241
remission, of debt Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 91
repentance Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 467
reptiles Schaaf, Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World (2019) 52
rest (eschatological) Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 251, 253
resurrection Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 271; Schaaf, Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World (2019) 52
rhetoric Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 31, 32; Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 38
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 216
righteousness/the righteous/the just Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 251, 253
rural areas Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
sabbath Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 400, 401
saccophori Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
sacrifice Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 401
samaritans Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 118
samosata Schaaf, Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World (2019) 52
sapiens, sapientia Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
schweitzer, a. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 496
schweitzer, quest, jesus, jewish context Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 496
schweitzer, quest, jesus, pre-existence Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 496
semantics (christian) Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
sermon, on the mount Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
sermon of the mount Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 91, 118
sermones ad populam (augustine), augustines personality Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 38
servant Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
shefa, memra related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 185
shepherd of hermas, use of mark Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 99
shout of joy Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 211
sleep Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 242
snake Schaaf, Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World (2019) 52
son, the, as model Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 243
son of god, jesus as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 185
son of god, messiah and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 185
soul, ascent of, humility first step Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 419
soul, ascent of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 419
soul Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247; Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
stoic logos, messianism related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 185
sungurlu Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 135
symploke Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 239
syria Schaaf, Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World (2019) 52
syriac Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
tax Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 224
temple in jerusalem Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 251
thoughts Champion, Dorotheus of Gaza and Ascetic Education (2022) 115, 116
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
torah Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 362
torah (law) Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 400, 401
traditions, matthean Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 247
translation, errors' Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 178
translation Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 178
tria officia (rhetoric) Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 38
virtues, justice Tite, Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity (2009) 241
vision Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119
wisdom, wise man Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 204
wisdom Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 91; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 119