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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8258
New Testament, Matthew, 1.6


Ἰεσσαὶ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Δαυεὶδ τὸν βασιλέα. Δαυεὶδ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Σολομῶνα ἐκ τῆς τοῦ ΟὐρίουJesse became the father of David the king. David became the father of Solomon by her who had been the wife of Uriah.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

37 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.1, 1.9 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The book of the acts of Tobit the son of Tobiel, son of Aiel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, of the descendants of Asiel and the tribe of Naphtali 1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 17.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold."
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.5. אִישׁ יְהוּדִי הָיָה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה וּשְׁמוֹ מָרְדֳּכַי בֶּן יָאִיר בֶּן־שִׁמְעִי בֶּן־קִישׁ אִישׁ יְמִינִי׃ 2.5. There was a certain Jew in Shushan the castle, whose name was Mordecai the son of Jair the son of Shimei the son of Kish, a Benjamite,"
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.6. וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.6. and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.9, 22.23, 24.15, 38.1-38.6, 38.11-38.14, 38.24-38.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.9. וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי מֵקִים אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם וְאֶת־זַרְעֲכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם׃ 22.23. וּבְתוּאֵל יָלַד אֶת־רִבְקָה שְׁמֹנָה אֵלֶּה יָלְדָה מִלְכָּה לְנָחוֹר אֲחִי אַבְרָהָם׃ 24.15. וַיְהִי־הוּא טֶרֶם כִּלָּה לְדַבֵּר וְהִנֵּה רִבְקָה יֹצֵאת אֲשֶׁר יֻלְּדָה לִבְתוּאֵל בֶּן־מִלְכָּה אֵשֶׁת נָחוֹר אֲחִי אַבְרָהָם וְכַדָּהּ עַל־שִׁכְמָהּ׃ 38.1. וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא וַיֵּרֶד יְהוּדָה מֵאֵת אֶחָיו וַיֵּט עַד־אִישׁ עֲדֻלָּמִי וּשְׁמוֹ חִירָה׃ 38.1. וַיֵּרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיָּמֶת גַּם־אֹתוֹ׃ 38.2. וַיַּרְא־שָׁם יְהוּדָה בַּת־אִישׁ כְּנַעֲנִי וּשְׁמוֹ שׁוּעַ וַיִּקָּחֶהָ וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ׃ 38.2. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוּדָה אֶת־גְּדִי הָעִזִּים בְּיַד רֵעֵהוּ הָעֲדֻלָּמִי לָקַחַת הָעֵרָבוֹן מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה וְלֹא מְצָאָהּ׃ 38.3. וְאַחַר יָצָא אָחִיו אֲשֶׁר עַל־יָדוֹ הַשָּׁנִי וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ זָרַח׃ 38.3. וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ עֵר׃ 38.4. וַתַּהַר עוֹד וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ אוֹנָן׃ 38.5. וַתֹּסֶף עוֹד וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֵׁלָה וְהָיָה בִכְזִיב בְּלִדְתָּהּ אֹתוֹ׃ 38.6. וַיִּקַּח יְהוּדָה אִשָּׁה לְעֵר בְּכוֹרוֹ וּשְׁמָהּ תָּמָר׃ 38.11. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה לְתָמָר כַּלָּתוֹ שְׁבִי אַלְמָנָה בֵית־אָבִיךְ עַד־יִגְדַּל שֵׁלָה בְנִי כִּי אָמַר פֶּן־יָמוּת גַּם־הוּא כְּאֶחָיו וַתֵּלֶךְ תָּמָר וַתֵּשֶׁב בֵּית אָבִיהָ׃ 38.12. וַיִּרְבּוּ הַיָּמִים וַתָּמָת בַּת־שׁוּעַ אֵשֶׁת־יְהוּדָה וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוּדָה וַיַּעַל עַל־גֹּזֲזֵי צֹאנוֹ הוּא וְחִירָה רֵעֵהוּ הָעֲדֻלָּמִי תִּמְנָתָה׃ 38.13. וַיֻּגַּד לְתָמָר לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה חָמִיךְ עֹלֶה תִמְנָתָה לָגֹז צֹאנוֹ׃ 38.14. וַתָּסַר בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתְּכַס בַּצָּעִיף וַתִּתְעַלָּף וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּפֶתַח עֵינַיִם אֲשֶׁר עַל־דֶּרֶךְ תִּמְנָתָה כִּי רָאֲתָה כִּי־גָדַל שֵׁלָה וְהִוא לֹא־נִתְּנָה לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 38.24. וַיְהִי כְּמִשְׁלֹשׁ חֳדָשִׁים וַיֻּגַּד לִיהוּדָה לֵאמֹר זָנְתָה תָּמָר כַּלָּתֶךָ וְגַם הִנֵּה הָרָה לִזְנוּנִים וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה הוֹצִיאוּהָ וְתִשָּׂרֵף׃ 38.25. הִוא מוּצֵאת וְהִיא שָׁלְחָה אֶל־חָמִיהָ לֵאמֹר לְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אֵלֶּה לּוֹ אָנֹכִי הָרָה וַתֹּאמֶר הַכֶּר־נָא לְמִי הַחֹתֶמֶת וְהַפְּתִילִים וְהַמַּטֶּה הָאֵלֶּה׃ 38.26. וַיַּכֵּר יְהוּדָה וַיֹּאמֶר צָדְקָה מִמֶּנִּי כִּי־עַל־כֵּן לֹא־נְתַתִּיהָ לְשֵׁלָה בְנִי וְלֹא־יָסַף עוֹד לְדַעְתָּה׃ 38.27. וַיְהִי בְּעֵת לִדְתָּהּ וְהִנֵּה תְאוֹמִים בְּבִטְנָהּ׃ 38.28. וַיְהִי בְלִדְתָּהּ וַיִּתֶּן־יָד וַתִּקַּח הַמְיַלֶּדֶת וַתִּקְשֹׁר עַל־יָדוֹ שָׁנִי לֵאמֹר זֶה יָצָא רִאשֹׁנָה׃ 38.29. וַיְהִי כְּמֵשִׁיב יָדוֹ וְהִנֵּה יָצָא אָחִיו וַתֹּאמֶר מַה־פָּרַצְתָּ עָלֶיךָ פָּרֶץ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ פָּרֶץ׃ 9.9. ’As for Me, behold, I establish My covet with you, and with your seed after you;" 22.23. And Bethuel begot Rebekah; these eight did Milcah bear to Nahor, Abraham’s brother." 24.15. And it came to pass, before he had done speaking, that, behold, Rebekah came out, who was born to Bethuel the son of Milcah, the wife of Nahor, Abraham’s brother, with her pitcher upon her shoulder." 38.1. And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah." 38.2. And Judah saw there a daughter of a certain Canaanite whose name was Shua; and he took her, and went in unto her." 38.3. And she conceived, and bore a son; and he called his name Er." 38.4. And she conceived again, and bore a son; and she called his name O." 38.5. And she yet again bore a son, and called his name Shelah; and he was at Chezib, when she bore him." 38.6. And Judah took a wife for Er his first-born, and her name was Tamar." 38.11. Then said Judah to Tamar his daughter-in-law: ‘Remain a widow in thy father’s house, till Shelah my son be grown up’; for he said: ‘Lest he also die, like his brethren.’ And Tamar went and dwelt in her father’s house." 38.12. And in process of time Shua’s daughter, the wife of Judah, died; and Judah was comforted, and went up unto his sheep-shearers to Timnah, he and his friend Hirah the Adullamite." 38.13. And it was told Tamar, saying: ‘Behold, thy father-in-law goeth up to Timnah to shear his sheep.’" 38.14. And she put off from her the garments of her widowhood, and covered herself with her veil, and wrapped herself, and sat in the entrance of Enaim, which is by the way to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given unto him to wife." 38.24. And it came to pass about three months after, that it was told Judah, saying: ‘Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot; and moreover, behold, she is with child by harlotry.’ And Judah said: ‘Bring her forth, and let her be burnt.’" 38.25. When she was brought forth, she sent to her father-in-law, saying: ‘By the man, whose these are, am I with child’; and she said: ‘Discern, I pray thee, whose are these, the signet, and the cords, and the staff.’" 38.26. And Judah acknowledged them, and said: ‘She is more righteous than I; forasmuch as I gave her not to Shelah my son.’ And he knew her again no more." 38.27. And it came to pass in the time of her travail, that, behold, twins were in her womb." 38.28. And it came to pass, when she travailed, that one put out a hand; and the midwife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, saying: ‘This came out first.’" 38.29. And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, that, behold his brother came out; and she said: ‘Wherefore hast thou made a breach for thyself?’ Therefore his name was called Perez." 38.30. And afterward came out his brother, that had the scarlet thread upon his hand; and his name was called Zerah."
6. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 11.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.1. אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה יֵלְכוּ כְּאַרְיֵה יִשְׁאָג כִּי־הוּא יִשְׁאַג וְיֶחֶרְדוּ בָנִים מִיָּם׃ 11.1. כִּי נַעַר יִשְׂרָאֵל וָאֹהֲבֵהוּ וּמִמִּצְרַיִם קָרָאתִי לִבְנִי׃ 11.1. When Israel was a child, then I loved him, And out of Egypt I called My son."
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 24.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.33. מְעַט שֵׁנוֹת מְעַט תְּנוּמוֹת מְעַט חִבֻּק יָדַיִם לִשְׁכָּב׃ 24.33. ’Yet a little sleep, a little slumber, A little folding of the hands to sleep’—"
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.7, 72.1, 88.19, 103.3, 104.3-104.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 72.1. מַלְכֵי תַרְשִׁישׁ וְאִיִּים מִנְחָה יָשִׁיבוּ מַלְכֵי שְׁבָא וּסְבָא אֶשְׁכָּר יַקְרִיבוּ׃ 72.1. לִשְׁלֹמֹה אֱ‍לֹהִים מִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ לְמֶלֶךְ תֵּן וְצִדְקָתְךָ לְבֶן־מֶלֶךְ׃ 88.19. הִרְחַקְתָּ מִמֶּנִּי אֹהֵב וָרֵעַ מְיֻדָּעַי מַחְשָׁךְ׃ 103.3. הַסֹּלֵחַ לְכָל־עֲוֺנֵכִי הָרֹפֵא לְכָל־תַּחֲלֻאָיְכִי׃ 104.3. הַמְקָרֶה בַמַּיִם עֲ‍לִיּוֹתָיו הַשָּׂם־עָבִים רְכוּבוֹ הַמְהַלֵּךְ עַל־כַּנְפֵי־רוּחַ׃ 104.3. תְּשַׁלַּח רוּחֲךָ יִבָּרֵאוּן וּתְחַדֵּשׁ פְּנֵי אֲדָמָה׃ 104.4. עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט׃ 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 72.1. [A Psalm] of Solomon. Give the king Thy judgments, O God, and Thy righteousness unto the king's son;" 88.19. Friend and companion hast Thou put far from me, And mine acquaintance into darkness." 103.3. Who forgiveth all thine iniquity; Who healeth all Thy diseases;" 104.3. Who layest the beams of Thine upper chambers in the waters, who makest the clouds Thy chariot, who walkest upon the wings of the wind;" 104.4. Who makest winds Thy messengers, the flaming fire Thy ministers."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 4.12-4.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.12. וִיהִי בֵיתְךָ כְּבֵית פֶּרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יָלְדָה תָמָר לִיהוּדָה מִן־הַזֶּרַע אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן יְהוָה לְךָ מִן־הַנַּעֲרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 4.13. וַיִּקַּח בֹּעַז אֶת־רוּת וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה לָהּ הֵרָיוֹן וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן׃ 4.14. וַתֹּאמַרְנָה הַנָּשִׁים אֶל־נָעֳמִי בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא הִשְׁבִּית לָךְ גֹּאֵל הַיּוֹם וְיִקָּרֵא שְׁמוֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 4.15. וְהָיָה לָךְ לְמֵשִׁיב נֶפֶשׁ וּלְכַלְכֵּל אֶת־שֵׂיבָתֵךְ כִּי כַלָּתֵךְ אֲ‍שֶׁר־אֲהֵבַתֶךְ יְלָדַתּוּ אֲשֶׁר־הִיא טוֹבָה לָךְ מִשִּׁבְעָה בָּנִים׃ 4.16. וַתִּקַּח נָעֳמִי אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּשִׁתֵהוּ בְחֵיקָהּ וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאֹמֶנֶת׃ 4.17. וַתִּקְרֶאנָה לוֹ הַשְּׁכֵנוֹת שֵׁם לֵאמֹר יֻלַּד־בֵּן לְנָעֳמִי וַתִּקְרֶאנָה שְׁמוֹ עוֹבֵד הוּא אֲבִי־יִשַׁי אֲבִי דָוִד׃ 4.18. וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדוֹת פָּרֶץ פֶּרֶץ הוֹלִיד אֶת־חֶצְרוֹן׃ 4.19. וְחֶצְרוֹן הוֹלִיד אֶת־רָם וְרָם הוֹלִיד אֶת־עַמִּינָדָב׃ 4.21. וְשַׂלְמוֹן הוֹלִיד אֶת־בֹּעַז וּבֹעַז הוֹלִיד אֶת־עוֹבֵד׃ 4.22. וְעֹבֵד הוֹלִיד אֶת־יִשָׁי וְיִשַׁי הוֹלִיד אֶת־דָּוִד׃ 4.12. and let thy house be like the house of Perez, whom Tamar bore unto Judah, of the seed which the LORD shall give thee of this young woman.’" 4.13. So Boaz took Ruth, and she became his wife; and he went in unto her, and the LORD gave her conception, and she bore a son." 4.14. And the women said unto Naomi: ‘Blessed be the LORD, who hath not left thee this day without a near kinsman, and let his name be famous in Israel." 4.15. And he shall be unto thee a restorer of life, and a nourisher of thine old age; for thy daughter-in-law, who loveth thee, who is better to thee than seven sons, hath borne him.’" 4.16. And Naomi took the child, and laid it in her bosom, and became nurse unto it." 4.17. And the women her neighbours gave it a name, saying: ‘There is a son born to Naomi’; and they called his name Obed; he is the father of Jesse, the father of David." 4.18. Now these are the generations of Perez: Perez begot Hezron;" 4.19. and Hezron begot Ram, and Ram begot Amminadab;" 4.20. and Amminadab begot Nahshon, and Nahshon begot Salmon;" 4.21. and Salmon begot Boaz, and Boaz begot Obed;" 4.22. and Obed begot Jesse, and Jesse begot David."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.1, 13.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.1. וְהִיא מָרַת נָפֶשׁ וַתִּתְפַּלֵּל עַל־יְהוָה וּבָכֹה תִבְכֶּה׃ 1.1. וַיְהִי אִישׁ אֶחָד מִן־הָרָמָתַיִם צוֹפִים מֵהַר אֶפְרָיִם וּשְׁמוֹ אֶלְקָנָה בֶּן־יְרֹחָם בֶּן־אֱלִיהוּא בֶּן־תֹּחוּ בֶן־צוּף אֶפְרָתִי׃ 13.14. וְעַתָּה מַמְלַכְתְּךָ לֹא־תָקוּם בִּקֵּשׁ יְהוָה לוֹ אִישׁ כִּלְבָבוֹ וַיְצַוֵּהוּ יְהוָה לְנָגִיד עַל־עַמּוֹ כִּי לֹא שָׁמַרְתָּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־צִוְּךָ יְהוָה׃ 1.1. Now there was a certain man of Ramatayim-żofim, in mount Efrayim, and his name was Elqana, the son of Yeroĥam, the son of Elihu the son of Toĥu, the son of Żuf, an Efratite:" 13.14. But now thy kingdom shall not endure: the Lord has sought him a man after his own heart, and the Lord has commanded him to be a prince over his people, because thou hast not kept that which the Lord commanded thee."
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 4.6, 11.3-11.27, 12.12-12.23, 20.16-20.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.6. וְהֵנָּה בָּאוּ עַד־תּוֹךְ הַבַּיִת לֹקְחֵי חִטִּים וַיַּכֻּהוּ אֶל־הַחֹמֶשׁ וְרֵכָב וּבַעֲנָה אָחִיו נִמְלָטוּ׃ 11.3. וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיִּדְרֹשׁ לָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר הֲלוֹא־זֹאת בַּת־שֶׁבַע בַּת־אֱלִיעָם אֵשֶׁת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי׃ 11.4. וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד מַלְאָכִים וַיִּקָּחֶהָ וַתָּבוֹא אֵלָיו וַיִּשְׁכַּב עִמָּהּ וְהִיא מִתְקַדֶּשֶׁת מִטֻּמְאָתָהּ וַתָּשָׁב אֶל־בֵּיתָהּ׃ 11.5. וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתִּשְׁלַח וַתַּגֵּד לְדָוִד וַתֹּאמֶר הָרָה אָנֹכִי׃ 11.6. וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד אֶל־יוֹאָב שְׁלַח אֵלַי אֶת־אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי וַיִּשְׁלַח יוֹאָב אֶת־אוּרִיָּה אֶל־דָּוִד׃ 11.7. וַיָּבֹא אוּרִיָּה אֵלָיו וַיִּשְׁאַל דָּוִד לִשְׁלוֹם יוֹאָב וְלִשְׁלוֹם הָעָם וְלִשְׁלוֹם הַמִּלְחָמָה׃ 11.8. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לְאוּרִיָּה רֵד לְבֵיתְךָ וּרְחַץ רַגְלֶיךָ וַיֵּצֵא אוּרִיָּה מִבֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתֵּצֵא אַחֲרָיו מַשְׂאַת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 11.9. וַיִּשְׁכַּב אוּרִיָּה פֶּתַח בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵת כָּל־עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנָיו וְלֹא יָרַד אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ׃ 11.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אוּרִיָּה אֶל־דָּוִד הָאָרוֹן וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה יֹשְׁבִים בַּסֻּכּוֹת וַאדֹנִי יוֹאָב וְעַבְדֵי אֲדֹנִי עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה חֹנִים וַאֲנִי אָבוֹא אֶל־בֵּיתִי לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וְלִשְׁכַּב עִם־אִשְׁתִּי חַיֶּךָ וְחֵי נַפְשֶׁךָ אִם־אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 11.12. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־אוּרִיָּה שֵׁב בָּזֶה גַּם־הַיּוֹם וּמָחָר אֲשַׁלְּחֶךָּ וַיֵּשֶׁב אוּרִיָּה בִירוּשָׁלִַם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וּמִמָּחֳרָת׃ 11.13. וַיִּקְרָא־לוֹ דָוִד וַיֹּאכַל לְפָנָיו וַיֵּשְׁתְּ וַיְשַׁכְּרֵהוּ וַיֵּצֵא בָעֶרֶב לִשְׁכַּב בְּמִשְׁכָּבוֹ עִם־עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנָיו וְאֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לֹא יָרָד׃ 11.14. וַיְהִי בַבֹּקֶר וַיִּכְתֹּב דָּוִד סֵפֶר אֶל־יוֹאָב וַיִּשְׁלַח בְּיַד אוּרִיָּה׃ 11.15. וַיִּכְתֹּב בַּסֵּפֶר לֵאמֹר הָבוּ אֶת־אוּרִיָּה אֶל־מוּל פְּנֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה הַחֲזָקָה וְשַׁבְתֶּם מֵאַחֲרָיו וְנִכָּה וָמֵת׃ 11.16. וַיְהִי בִּשְׁמוֹר יוֹאָב אֶל־הָעִיר וַיִּתֵּן אֶת־אוּרִיָּה אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יָדַע כִּי אַנְשֵׁי־חַיִל שָׁם׃ 11.17. וַיֵּצְאוּ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר וַיִּלָּחֲמוּ אֶת־יוֹאָב וַיִּפֹּל מִן־הָעָם מֵעַבְדֵי דָוִד וַיָּמָת גַּם אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי׃ 11.18. וַיִּשְׁלַח יוֹאָב וַיַּגֵּד לְדָוִד אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה׃ 11.19. וַיְצַו אֶת־הַמַּלְאָךְ לֵאמֹר כְּכַלּוֹתְךָ אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה לְדַבֵּר אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 11.21. מִי־הִכָּה אֶת־אֲבִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן־יְרֻבֶּשֶׁת הֲלוֹא־אִשָּׁה הִשְׁלִיכָה עָלָיו פֶּלַח רֶכֶב מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה וַיָּמָת בְּתֵבֵץ לָמָּה נִגַּשְׁתֶּם אֶל־הַחוֹמָה וְאָמַרְתָּ גַּם עַבְדְּךָ אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי מֵת׃ 11.22. וַיֵּלֶךְ הַמַּלְאָךְ וַיָּבֹא וַיַּגֵּד לְדָוִד אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר שְׁלָחוֹ יוֹאָב׃ 11.23. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמַּלְאָךְ אֶל־דָּוִד כִּי־גָבְרוּ עָלֵינוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיֵּצְאוּ אֵלֵינוּ הַשָּׂדֶה וַנִּהְיֶה עֲלֵיהֶם עַד־פֶּתַח הַשָּׁעַר׃ 11.24. ויראו [וַיֹּרוּ] המוראים [הַמּוֹרִים] אֶל־עֲבָדֶךָ מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה וַיָּמוּתוּ מֵעַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְגַם עַבְדְּךָ אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי מֵת׃ 11.25. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־הַמַּלְאָךְ כֹּה־תֹאמַר אֶל־יוֹאָב אַל־יֵרַע בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה כִּי־כָזֹה וְכָזֶה תֹּאכַל הֶחָרֶב הַחֲזֵק מִלְחַמְתְּךָ אֶל־הָעִיר וְהָרְסָהּ וְחַזְּקֵהוּ׃ 11.26. וַתִּשְׁמַע אֵשֶׁת אוּרִיָּה כִּי־מֵת אוּרִיָּה אִישָׁהּ וַתִּסְפֹּד עַל־בַּעְלָהּ׃ 11.27. וַיַּעֲבֹר הָאֵבֶל וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיַּאַסְפָהּ אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ בֵּן וַיֵּרַע הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה דָוִד בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 12.12. כִּי אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ בַסָּתֶר וַאֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנֶגֶד הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 12.13. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־נָתָן חָטָאתִי לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר נָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד גַּם־יְהוָה הֶעֱבִיר חַטָּאתְךָ לֹא תָמוּת׃ 12.14. אֶפֶס כִּי־נִאֵץ נִאַצְתָּ אֶת־אֹיְבֵי יְהוָה בַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה גַּם הַבֵּן הַיִּלּוֹד לְךָ מוֹת יָמוּת׃ 12.15. וַיֵּלֶךְ נָתָן אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיִּגֹּף יְהוָה אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד אֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה אֵשֶׁת־אוּרִיָּה לְדָוִד וַיֵּאָנַשׁ׃ 12.16. וַיְבַקֵּשׁ דָּוִד אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים בְּעַד הַנָּעַר וַיָּצָם דָּוִד צוֹם וּבָא וְלָן וְשָׁכַב אָרְצָה׃ 12.17. וַיָּקֻמוּ זִקְנֵי בֵיתוֹ עָלָיו לַהֲקִימוֹ מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְלֹא אָבָה וְלֹא־בָרָא אִתָּם לָחֶם׃ 12.18. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיָּמָת הַיָּלֶד וַיִּרְאוּ עַבְדֵי דָוִד לְהַגִּיד לוֹ כִּי־מֵת הַיֶּלֶד כִּי אָמְרוּ הִנֵּה בִהְיוֹת הַיֶּלֶד חַי דִּבַּרְנוּ אֵלָיו וְלֹא־שָׁמַע בְּקוֹלֵנוּ וְאֵיךְ נֹאמַר אֵלָיו מֵת הַיֶּלֶד וְעָשָׂה רָעָה׃ 12.19. וַיַּרְא דָּוִד כִּי עֲבָדָיו מִתְלַחֲשִׁים וַיָּבֶן דָּוִד כִּי מֵת הַיָּלֶד וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־עֲבָדָיו הֲמֵת הַיֶּלֶד וַיֹּאמְרוּ מֵת׃ 12.21. וַיֹּאמְרוּ עֲבָדָיו אֵלָיו מָה־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָה בַּעֲבוּר הַיֶּלֶד חַי צַמְתָּ וַתֵּבְךְּ וְכַאֲשֶׁר מֵת הַיֶּלֶד קַמְתָּ וַתֹּאכַל לָחֶם׃ 12.22. וַיֹּאמֶר בְּעוֹד הַיֶּלֶד חַי צַמְתִּי וָאֶבְכֶּה כִּי אָמַרְתִּי מִי יוֹדֵעַ יחנני [וְחַנַּנִי] יְהוָה וְחַי הַיָּלֶד׃ 12.23. וְעַתָּה מֵת לָמָּה זֶּה אֲנִי צָם הַאוּכַל לַהֲשִׁיבוֹ עוֹד אֲנִי הֹלֵךְ אֵלָיו וְהוּא לֹא־יָשׁוּב אֵלָי׃ 20.16. וַתִּקְרָא אִשָּׁה חֲכָמָה מִן־הָעִיר שִׁמְעוּ שִׁמְעוּ אִמְרוּ־נָא אֶל־יוֹאָב קְרַב עַד־הֵנָּה וַאֲדַבְּרָה אֵלֶיךָ׃ 20.17. וַיִּקְרַב אֵלֶיהָ וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הַאַתָּה יוֹאָב וַיֹּאמֶר אָנִי וַתֹּאמֶר לוֹ שְׁמַע דִּבְרֵי אֲמָתֶךָ וַיֹּאמֶר שֹׁמֵעַ אָנֹכִי׃ 20.18. וַתֹּאמֶר לֵאמֹר דַּבֵּר יְדַבְּרוּ בָרִאשֹׁנָה לֵאמֹר שָׁאֹל יְשָׁאֲלוּ בְּאָבֵל וְכֵן הֵתַמּוּ׃ 20.19. אָנֹכִי שְׁלֻמֵי אֱמוּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ לְהָמִית עִיר וְאֵם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לָמָּה תְבַלַּע נַחֲלַת יְהוָה׃ 20.21. לֹא־כֵן הַדָּבָר כִּי אִישׁ מֵהַר אֶפְרַיִם שֶׁבַע בֶּן־בִּכְרִי שְׁמוֹ נָשָׂא יָדוֹ בַּמֶּלֶךְ בְּדָוִד תְּנוּ־אֹתוֹ לְבַדּוֹ וְאֵלְכָה מֵעַל הָעִיר וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־יוֹאָב הִנֵּה רֹאשׁוֹ מֻשְׁלָךְ אֵלֶיךָ בְּעַד הַחוֹמָה׃ 20.22. וַתָּבוֹא הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם בְּחָכְמָתָהּ וַיִּכְרְתוּ אֶת־רֹאשׁ שֶׁבַע בֶּן־בִּכְרִי וַיַּשְׁלִכוּ אֶל־יוֹאָב וַיִּתְקַע בַּשּׁוֹפָר וַיָּפֻצוּ מֵעַל־הָעִיר אִישׁ לְאֹהָלָיו וְיוֹאָב שָׁב יְרוּשָׁלִַם אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 4.6. And they came into the midst of the house, as though they would have fetched wheat; and they smote him in the belly: and Rekhav and Ba῾ana his brother escaped." 11.3. And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said, Is not this Bat-sheva, the daughter of Eli῾am, the wife of Uriyya the Ĥittite?" 11.4. And David sent messengers, and took her; and she came in to him, and he lay with her; for she had purified herself from her uncleanness, and then she returned to her house." 11.5. And the woman conceived, and sent and told David, and said, I am with child." 11.6. And David sent to Yo᾽av, saying, Send me Uriyya the Ĥittite. And Yo᾽av sent Uriyya to David." 11.7. And when Uriyya was come to him, David asked how Yo᾽av did, and how the people did, and how the war prospered." 11.8. And David said to Uriyya, Go down to thy house, and wash thy feet. And Uriyya departed out of the king’s house, and there followed him a portion of food from the king." 11.9. But Uriyya slept at the door of the king’s house with all the servants of his lord, and went not down to his house." 11.10. And when they had told David, saying, Uriyya went not down to his house, David said to Uriyya, Didst thou not come from a journey? why then didst thou not go down to thy house?" 11.11. And Uriyya said to David, The ark, and Yisra᾽el, and Yehuda, dwell in booths; and my lord Yo᾽av, and the servants of my lord, are encamped in the open fields; shall I then go into my house, to eat and to drink, and to lie with my wife? as thou livest, and as thy soul lives, I will not do this thing." 11.12. And David said to Uriyya, Remain here today also, and to morrow I will let thee depart. So Uriyya remained in Yerushalayim that day, and the morrow." 11.13. And when David had called him, he did eat and drink before him; and he made him drunk: and at even he went out to lie on his bed with the servants of his lord, but went not down to his house." 11.14. And it came to pass in the morning, that David wrote a letter to Yo᾽av, and sent it by the hand of Uriyya." 11.15. And he wrote in the letter, saying, Set Uriyya in the forefront of the hottest battle, and withdraw from him, so that he may be hit, and die." 11.16. And it came to pass, when Yo᾽av besieged the city, that he assigned Uriyya to a place where he knew that fighting men were." 11.17. And the men of the city went out, and fought with Yo᾽av: and some of the people of the servants of David fell; and Uriyya the Ĥittite died also." 11.18. Then Yo᾽av sent and told David all the things concerning the war;" 11.19. and charged the messenger, saying, When thou hast made an end of telling the matters of the war to the king," 11.20. and if so be that the king’s anger be roused, and he say to thee, Why did you approach so near to the city when you did fight? knew you not that they would shoot from the wall?" 11.21. Who smote Avimelekh the son of Yerubbeshet? did not a woman cast an upper millstone upon him from the wall, that he died in Teveż? why did you go so near the wall? then say thou, Thy servant Uriyya the Ĥittite is dead also." 11.22. So the messenger went, and came and told David all that Yo᾽av had sent him for." 11.23. And the messenger said to David, Indeed, the men prevailed against us, and came out unto us into the field, and we were engaged with them right up to the entrance of the gate." 11.24. And the shooters shot from the wall upon thy servants; and some of the king’s servants are dead, and thy servant Uriyya the Ĥittite is dead also." 11.25. Then David said to the messenger, Thus shalt thou say to Yo᾽av, Let not this thing displease thee, for the sword devours one as well as another: make thy battle more strong against the city, and overthrow it: and encourage thou him." 11.26. And when the wife of Uriyya heard that Uriyya her husband was dead, she mourned for her husband." 11.27. And when the mourning was past, David sent and fetched her to his house, and she became his wife, and bore him a son. But the thing that David had done was evil in the eyes of the Lord." 12.12. For thou didst it secretly: but I will do this thing before all Yisra᾽el, and before the sun." 12.13. And David said to Natan, I have sinned against the Lord. And Natan said to David, The Lord also has commuted thy sin; thou shalt not die." 12.14. Howbeit because by this deed thou hast greatly blasphemed the Lord, the child also that is born to thee shall surely die." 12.15. And Natan departed to his house. And the Lord struck the child that Uriyya’s wife bore to David, and it was very sick." 12.16. David therefore besought God for the child; and David fasted, and went in, and lay all night upon the ground." 12.17. And the elders of his house arose, and went to him, to raise him up from the ground: but he would not, neither did he eat bread with them." 12.18. And it came to pass on the seventh day, that the child died. And the servants of David feared to tell him that the child was dead: for they said, Behold, while the child was yet alive, we spoke to him, and he would not hearken to our voice; how then shall we tell him that the child is dead, and he will do himself a mischief?" 12.19. But when David saw that his servants whispered, David understood that the child was dead: therefore David said to his servants, Is the child dead? And they said, He is dead." 12.20. Then David arose from the ground, and washed, and anointed himself, and changed his apparel, and came into the house of the Lord, and bowed down: then he came to his own house, and asked them to set bread before him, and he did eat." 12.21. Then his servants said to him, What thing is this that thou hast done? thou didst fast and weep for the child, while it was alive; but when the child was dead, thou didst rise and eat bread." 12.22. And he said, While the child was yet alive, I fasted and wept: for I said, Who can tell? God may be gracious to me, and the child may live?" 12.23. But now he is dead, why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he will not come back to me." 20.16. Then cried a wise woman out of the city, Hear, hear; say, I pray you, to Yo᾽av, Come near here; that I may speak with thee." 20.17. And when he was come near to her, the woman said, Art thou Yo᾽av? And he answered, I am he. Then she said to him, Hear the words of thy handmaid. And he answered, I do hear." 20.18. Then she spoke saying, Surely in early times they would have spoken saying, Let them ask Avel to yield, and so they would have ended the matter." 20.19. I am of the peaceable and faithful in Yisra᾽el: thou seekest to destroy a city and a mother in Yisra᾽el: why wilt thou swallow up the inheritance of the Lord?" 20.20. And Yo᾽av answered and said, Far be it, far be it from me, that I should swallow up or destroy." 20.21. The matter is not so: but a man of mount Efrayim, Sheva the son of Bikhri by name, has lifted up his hand against the king, against David: deliver him only, and I will depart from the city. And the woman said to Yo᾽av, Behold, his head shall be thrown to thee over the wall." 20.22. Then the woman went to all the people in her wisdom. And they cut off the head of Sheva the son of Bikhri, and cast it out to Yo᾽av. And he blew on the shofar, and they retired from the city, every man to his tent. And Yo᾽av returned to Yerushalayim to the king."
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 7.14, 11.1-11.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.14. לָכֵן יִתֵּן אֲדֹנָי הוּא לָכֶם אוֹת הִנֵּה הָעַלְמָה הָרָה וְיֹלֶדֶת בֵּן וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ עִמָּנוּ אֵל׃ 11.1. וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֵּזַע יִשָׁי וְנֵצֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו יִפְרֶה׃ 11.1. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שֹׁרֶשׁ יִשַׁי אֲשֶׁר עֹמֵד לְנֵס עַמִּים אֵלָיו גּוֹיִם יִדְרֹשׁוּ וְהָיְתָה מְנֻחָתוֹ כָּבוֹד׃ 11.2. וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃ 11.3. וַהֲרִיחוֹ בְּיִרְאַת יְהוָה וְלֹא־לְמַרְאֵה עֵינָיו יִשְׁפּוֹט וְלֹא־לְמִשְׁמַע אָזְנָיו יוֹכִיחַ׃ 11.4. וְשָׁפַט בְּצֶדֶק דַּלִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ בְּמִישׁוֹר לְעַנְוֵי־אָרֶץ וְהִכָּה־אֶרֶץ בְּשֵׁבֶט פִּיו וּבְרוּחַ שְׂפָתָיו יָמִית רָשָׁע׃ 11.5. וְהָיָה צֶדֶק אֵזוֹר מָתְנָיו וְהָאֱמוּנָה אֵזוֹר חֲלָצָיו׃ 7.14. Therefore the Lord Himself shall give you a sign: behold, the young woman shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel." 11.1. And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, And a twig shall grow forth out of his roots." 11.2. And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD." 11.3. And his delight shall be in the fear of the LORD; And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, Neither decide after the hearing of his ears;" 11.4. But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, And decide with equity for the meek of the land; And he shall smite the land with the rod of his mouth, And with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked." 11.5. And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, And faithfulness the girdle of his reins."
13. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 4.4-4.10, 4.17-4.22, 9.53-9.54 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.4. וּדְבוֹרָה אִשָּׁה נְבִיאָה אֵשֶׁת לַפִּידוֹת הִיא שֹׁפְטָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּעֵת הַהִיא׃ 4.5. וְהִיא יוֹשֶׁבֶת תַּחַת־תֹּמֶר דְּבוֹרָה בֵּין הָרָמָה וּבֵין בֵּית־אֵל בְּהַר אֶפְרָיִם וַיַּעֲלוּ אֵלֶיהָ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 4.6. וַתִּשְׁלַח וַתִּקְרָא לְבָרָק בֶּן־אֲבִינֹעַם מִקֶּדֶשׁ נַפְתָּלִי וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הֲלֹא צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵךְ וּמָשַׁכְתָּ בְּהַר תָּבוֹר וְלָקַחְתָּ עִמְּךָ עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי נַפְתָּלִי וּמִבְּנֵי זְבֻלוּן׃ 4.7. וּמָשַׁכְתִּי אֵלֶיךָ אֶל־נַחַל קִישׁוֹן אֶת־סִיסְרָא שַׂר־צְבָא יָבִין וְאֶת־רִכְבּוֹ וְאֶת־הֲמוֹנוֹ וּנְתַתִּיהוּ בְּיָדֶךָ׃ 4.8. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ בָּרָק אִם־תֵּלְכִי עִמִּי וְהָלָכְתִּי וְאִם־לֹא תֵלְכִי עִמִּי לֹא אֵלֵךְ׃ 4.9. וַתֹּאמֶר הָלֹךְ אֵלֵךְ עִמָּךְ אֶפֶס כִּי לֹא תִהְיֶה תִּפְאַרְתְּךָ עַל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ כִּי בְיַד־אִשָּׁה יִמְכֹּר יְהוָה אֶת־סִיסְרָא וַתָּקָם דְּבוֹרָה וַתֵּלֶך עִם־בָּרָק קֶדְשָׁה׃ 4.17. וְסִיסְרָא נָס בְּרַגְלָיו אֶל־אֹהֶל יָעֵל אֵשֶּׁת חֶבֶר הַקֵּינִי כִּי שָׁלוֹם בֵּין יָבִין מֶלֶךְ־חָצוֹר וּבֵין בֵּית חֶבֶר הַקֵּינִי׃ 4.18. וַתֵּצֵא יָעֵל לִקְרַאת סִיסְרָא וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו סוּרָה אֲדֹנִי סוּרָה אֵלַי אַל־תִּירָא וַיָּסַר אֵלֶיהָ הָאֹהֱלָה וַתְּכַסֵּהוּ בַּשְּׂמִיכָה׃ 4.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ הַשְׁקִינִי־נָא מְעַט־מַיִם כִּי צָמֵאתִי וַתִּפְתַּח אֶת־נֹאוד הֶחָלָב וַתַּשְׁקֵהוּ וַתְּכַסֵּהוּ׃ 4.21. וַתִּקַּח יָעֵל אֵשֶׁת־חֶבֶר אֶת־יְתַד הָאֹהֶל וַתָּשֶׂם אֶת־הַמַּקֶּבֶת בְּיָדָהּ וַתָּבוֹא אֵלָיו בַּלָּאט וַתִּתְקַע אֶת־הַיָּתֵד בְּרַקָּתוֹ וַתִּצְנַח בָּאָרֶץ וְהוּא־נִרְדָּם וַיָּעַף וַיָּמֹת׃ 4.22. וְהִנֵּה בָרָק רֹדֵף אֶת־סִיסְרָא וַתֵּצֵא יָעֵל לִקְרָאתוֹ וַתֹּאמֶר לוֹ לֵךְ וְאַרְאֶךָּ אֶת־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ וְהִנֵּה סִיסְרָא נֹפֵל מֵת וְהַיָּתֵד בְּרַקָּתוֹ׃ 9.53. וַתַּשְׁלֵךְ אִשָּׁה אַחַת פֶּלַח רֶכֶב עַל־רֹאשׁ אֲבִימֶלֶךְ וַתָּרִץ אֶת־גֻּלְגָּלְתּוֹ׃ 9.54. וַיִּקְרָא מְהֵרָה אֶל־הַנַּעַר נֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ שְׁלֹף חַרְבְּךָ וּמוֹתְתֵנִי פֶּן־יֹאמְרוּ לִי אִשָּׁה הֲרָגָתְהוּ וַיִּדְקְרֵהוּ נַעֲרוֹ וַיָּמֹת׃ 4.4. And Devora, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidot, she judged Yisra᾽el at that time." 4.5. And she dwelt under the palm tree of Devora between Rama and Bet-el in mount Efrayim: and the children of Yisra᾽el came up to her for judgment." 4.6. And she sent and called Baraq the son of Avino῾am out of Qedesh-naftali, and said to him, Has not the Lord God of Yisra᾽el commanded, saying, Go and gather your men to mount Tavor, and take with thee ten thousand men of the children of Naftali and of the children of Zevulun?" 4.7. And I will draw out to thee to the wadi of Qishon, Sisera, the captain of Yavin’s army, with his chariots and his multitude; and I will deliver him into thy hand." 4.8. And Baraq said to her, If thou wilt go with me, then I will go: but if thou wilt not go with me, then I will not go." 4.9. And she said, I will surely go with thee: however thou shalt scarcely attain honour on the journey that thou goest; for the Lord shall yield Sisera into the hand of a woman. And Devora arose, and went with Baraq to Qedesh." 4.10. And Baraq summoned Zevulun and Naftali to Qedesh; and he went up with ten thousand men at his feet: and Devora went up with him." 4.17. But Sisera fled away by foot to the tent of Ya᾽el the wife of Ĥever the Qenite: for there was peace between Yavin the king of Ĥażor and the house of Ĥever the Qeni." 4.18. And Ya᾽el went out to meet Sisera, and said to him, Turn in, my lord, turn in to me; fear not. And when he had turned in to her into the tent, she covered him with a blanket." 4.19. And he said to her, Give me, I pray thee, a little water to drink; for I am thirsty. And she opened a bottle of milk, and gave him drink, and covered him." 4.20. Then he said to her, Stand in the door of the tent, and it shall be, if any man comes and inquires of thee, and says, Is there anyone here? that thou shalt say, No." 4.21. Then Ya᾽el Ĥever’s wife took a tent peg, and took a hammer in her hand, and went softly to him, and drove the tent peg into his temple, and fastened it to the ground: for he was fast asleep and weary. So he died." 4.22. And, behold, as Baraq pursued Sisera, Ya᾽el came out to meet him, and said to him, Come, and I will show thee the man whom thou seekest. And when he came into her tent, behold, Sisera lay dead, and the peg in his temple." 9.53. And a woman cast an upper millstone upon Avimelekh’s head, and crushed his skull." 9.54. Then he called hastily to the lad, his armourbearer, and said to him, Draw thy sword, and slay me, so that men should not say of me, A woman slew him. And his lad pierced him, and he died."
14. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.11-34.16, 34.23 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.11. כִּי כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי־אָנִי וְדָרַשְׁתִּי אֶת־צֹאנִי וּבִקַּרְתִּים׃ 34.12. כְּבַקָּרַת רֹעֶה עֶדְרוֹ בְּיוֹם־הֱיוֹתוֹ בְתוֹךְ־צֹאנוֹ נִפְרָשׁוֹת כֵּן אֲבַקֵּר אֶת־צֹאנִי וְהִצַּלְתִּי אֶתְהֶם מִכָּל־הַמְּקוֹמֹת אֲשֶׁר נָפֹצוּ שָׁם בְּיוֹם עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל׃ 34.13. וְהוֹצֵאתִים מִן־הָעַמִּים וְקִבַּצְתִּים מִן־הָאֲרָצוֹת וַהֲבִיאֹתִים אֶל־אַדְמָתָם וּרְעִיתִים אֶל־הָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאֲפִיקִים וּבְכֹל מוֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 34.14. בְּמִרְעֶה־טּוֹב אֶרְעֶה אֹתָם וּבְהָרֵי מְרוֹם־יִשְׂרָאֵל יִהְיֶה נְוֵהֶם שָׁם תִּרְבַּצְנָה בְּנָוֶה טּוֹב וּמִרְעֶה שָׁמֵן תִּרְעֶינָה אֶל־הָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 34.15. אֲנִי אֶרְעֶה צֹאנִי וַאֲנִי אַרְבִּיצֵם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 34.16. אֶת־הָאֹבֶדֶת אֲבַקֵּשׁ וְאֶת־הַנִּדַּחַת אָשִׁיב וְלַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת אֶחֱבֹשׁ וְאֶת־הַחוֹלָה אֲחַזֵּק וְאֶת־הַשְּׁמֵנָה וְאֶת־הַחֲזָקָה אַשְׁמִיד אֶרְעֶנָּה בְמִשְׁפָּט׃ 34.23. וַהֲקִמֹתִי עֲלֵיהֶם רֹעֶה אֶחָד וְרָעָה אֶתְהֶן אֵת עַבְדִּי דָוִיד הוּא יִרְעֶה אֹתָם וְהוּא־יִהְיֶה לָהֶן לְרֹעֶה׃ 34.11. For thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, here am I, and I will search for My sheep, and seek them out." 34.12. As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day that he is among his sheep that are separated, so will I seek out My sheep; and I will deliver them out of all places whither they have been scattered in the day of clouds and thick darkness." 34.13. And I will bring them out from the peoples, and gather them from the countries, and will bring them into their own land; and I will feed them upon the mountains of Israel, by the streams, and in all the habitable places of the country." 34.14. I will feed them in a good pasture, and upon the high mountains of Israel shall their fold be; there shall they lie down in a good fold, and in a fat pasture shall they feed upon the mountains of Israel." 34.15. I will feed My sheep, and I will cause them to lie down, saith the Lord GOD." 34.16. I will seek that which was lost, and will bring back that which was driven away, and will bind up that which was broken, and will strengthen that which was sick; and the fat and the strong I will destroy, I will feed them in justice." 34.23. And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even My servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd."
15. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 2.3-2.4, 2.7, 2.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.3. וּבְנֵי נָדָב סֶלֶד וְאַפָּיִם וַיָּמָת סֶלֶד לֹא בָנִים׃ 2.3. בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה עֵר וְאוֹנָן וְשֵׁלָה שְׁלוֹשָׁה נוֹלַד לוֹ מִבַּת־שׁוּעַ הַכְּנַעֲנִית וַיְהִי עֵר בְּכוֹר יְהוּדָה רַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וַיְמִיתֵהוּ׃ 2.4. וְאֶלְעָשָׂה הֹלִיד אֶת־סִסְמָי וְסִסְמַי הֹלִיד אֶת־שַׁלּוּם׃ 2.4. וְתָמָר כַּלָּתוֹ יָלְדָה לּוֹ אֶת־פֶּרֶץ וְאֶת־זָרַח כָּל־בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה חֲמִשָּׁה׃ 2.7. וּבְנֵי כַּרְמִי עָכָר עוֹכֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר מָעַל בַּחֵרֶם׃ 2.9. וּבְנֵי חֶצְרוֹן אֲשֶׁר נוֹלַד־לוֹ אֶת־יְרַחְמְאֵל וְאֶת־רָם וְאֶת־כְּלוּבָי׃ 2.3. The sons of Judah: Er, and O, and Shelah; which three were born unto him of Bath-shua the Canaanitess. And Er, Judah’s first-born, was wicked in the sight of the LORD; and He slew him." 2.4. And Tamar his daughter-in-law bore him Perez and Zerah. All the sons of Judah were five." 2.7. And the sons of Carmi: Achar, the troubler of Israel, who committed a trespass concerning the devoted thing." 2.9. The sons also of Hezron, that were born unto him: Jerahmeel, and Ram, and Chelubai."
16. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.1, 1.9 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The book of the acts of Tobit the son of Tobiel, son of Aiel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, of the descendants of Asiel and the tribe of Naphtali 1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias.
17. Anon., Jubilees, 4.7-4.16, 8.5, 8.8-8.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.7. And for this reason we announce when we come before the Lord our God all the sin which is committed in heaven and on earth, and in light and in darkness, and everywhere. 4.8. And Adam and his wife mourned for Abel four weeks of years 4.9. and in the fourth year of the fifth week they became joyful, and Adam knew his wife again, and she bare him a son, and he called his name Seth; for he said "God hath raised up a second seed unto us on the earth instead of Abel; for Cain slew him. 4.10. And in the sixth week he begat his daughter ’Azûrâ. 4.11. And Cain took ’Âwân his sister to be his wife and she bare him Enoch at the close of the fourth jubilee. 4.12. And in the first year of the first week of the fifth jubilee, houses were built on the earth, and Cain built a city, and called its name after the name of his son Enoch. 4.13. And Adam knew Eve his wife and she bare yet nine sons. 4.14. And in the fifth week of the fifth jubilee Seth took ’Azûrâ his sister to be his wife, and in the fourth (year of the sixth week) she bare him Enos. br He began to call on the name of the Lord on the earth. 4.15. And in the seventh jubilee in the third week Enos took Nôâm his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the third year of the fifth week, and he called his name Ke. 4.16. And at the close of the eighth jubilee Ke took Mûalêlêth his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the ninth jubilee, in the first week in the third year of this week, and he called his name Mahalalel. 8.5. the omens of the sun and moon and stars in all the signs of heaven. 8.8. and in the fourth year he begat a son, and called his name Shelah; for he said: "Truly I have been sent. 8.9. [And in the fourth year he was born], and Shelah grew up and took to himself a wife, and her name was Mû’ak, the daughter of Kêsêd, his father's brother
18. Anon., Testament of Judah, 10.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 5.5-5.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

21. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 22.10, 47.1, 47.11, 50.20-50.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

47.1. And after him Nathan rose up to prophesy in the days of David. 47.1. He gave beauty to the feasts,and arranged their times throughout the year,while they praised Gods holy name,and the sanctuary resounded from early morning. 47.11. The Lord took away his sins,and exalted his power for ever;he gave him the covet of kings and a throne of glory in Israel. 50.21. and they bowed down in worship a second time,to receive the blessing from the Most High. 50.22. And now bless the God of all,who in every way does great things;who exalts our days from birth,and deals with us according to his mercy. 50.23. May he give us gladness of heart,and grant that peace may be in our days in Israel,as in the days of old.
22. Septuagint, Judith, 9.2, 13.7-13.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

9.2. O Lord God of my father Simeon, to whom thou gavest a sword to take revenge on the strangers who had loosed the girdle of a virgin to defile her, and uncovered her thigh to put her to shame, and polluted her womb to disgrace her; for thou hast said, `It shall not be done' -- yet they did it. 13.7. She came close to his bed and took hold of the hair of his head, and said, "Give me strength this day, O Lord God of Israel! 13.8. And she struck his neck twice with all her might, and severed it from his body. 13.9. Then she tumbled his body off the bed and pulled down the canopy from the posts; after a moment she went out, and gave Holofernes' head to her maid
23. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 47.1, 47.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

24. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 12.1-12.3, 32.4, 55.2, 62.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.1. Διὰ πίστιν καὶ φιλοξενίαν ἐσώθη Ῥαὰβ ἡ πόρνη. h( e)pilegome/nh po/rnh CLSK perhaps from Hebr. 11, 31. The text is found in A Clement. 12.2. ἐκπεμφθέντων γὰρ ὑπὸ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ τοῦ Josh. 2, 1-8 Ναυὴ κατασκόπων εἰς τὴν Ἱεριχώ, ἔγνω ὁ βασιλεὺς τῆς γῆς, ὅτι ἥκασιν κατασκοπεῦσαι τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν, καὶ ἐξέπεμψεν ἄνδρας τοὺς συλλημψομένους αὐτούς, ὅπως συλλημφθέντες Josh. 2, 6 θανατωθῶσιν. 12.3. ἡ οὖν φιλόξενος Ῥαὰβ εἰσδεξαμένη αὐτοὺς ἔκρυψεν εἰς τὸ ὑπερῷον ὑπὸ τὴν Josh. 2, 3 λινοκαλάμην. 32.4. καὶ ἡμεῖς οὖν, διὰ θελήματος αὐτοῦ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ κληθέντες, οὐ δἰ ἑαυτῶν δικαιούμεθα, οὐδὲ διὰ τῆς ἡμετέρας σοφίας ἢ συνέσεως ἢ εὐσεβείας ἢ ἔργων ὦν κατειργασάμεθα ἐν ὁσιότητι καρδίας, ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς πίστεως, δἰ ἦς πάντας τοὺς ἀπ̓ αἰῶνος ʽ??ʼ παντοκράτωρ θεὸς ἐδικαίωσεν: ᾧ ἔστω ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. ἀμήν. 55.2. ἐπιστάμεθα πολλοὺς ἐν ἡμῖν παραδεδωκότας ἑαυτοὺς εἰς δεσμά, ὅπως ἑτέρους λυτρώσονται: πολλοὶ ἑαυτοὺς παρέδωκαν εἰς δουλείαν. καὶ λαβόντες τὰς τιμὰς αὐτῶν ἑτέρους ἐψώμισαν. 62.2. περὶ γὰρ πίστεως καὶ μετανοίας καὶ γνησίας ἀγάπης καὶ ἐγκρατείας καὶ σωφροσύνης καὶ ὑπομονῆς πάντα τόπον ἐψηλαφήσαμεν, ὑπομιμνήσκοντες δεῖν ὑμᾶς ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἀληθείᾳ καὶ μακροθυμίᾳ τῷ παντοκράτορι θεῷ ὁσίως εὐαρεστεῖν, ὁμονοοῦντας ἀμνησικάκως ἐν ἀγάπῃ καὶ εἰρήνῃ μετὰ ἐκτενοῦς ἐπιεικείας, καθὼς καὶ οἱ προδεδηλωμένοι πατέρες ἡμῶν εὐηρέστησαν ταπεινοφρονοῦντες τὰ πρὸς τὸν πατέρα καὶ κτίστην θεὸν kti/sthn qeo/n SL, qeo kai\ O καὶ πάντας ἀνθρώπους.
25. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.241 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.241. nay, he names three of them, Apher, and Surim, and Japhran. That from Surim was the land of Assyria denominated; and that from the other two, Apher and Japbran, the country of Africa took its name, because these men were auxiliaries to Hercules, when he fought against Libya and Antaeus; and that Hercules married Aphra’s daughter, and of her he begat a son, Diodorus; and that Sophon was his son, from whom that barbarous people called Sophacians were denominated.”
26. New Testament, Acts, 2.22-2.36, 21.31-21.39 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.22. You men of Israel, hear these words. Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved by God to you by mighty works and wonders and signs which God did by him in the midst of you, even as you yourselves know 2.23. him, being delivered up by the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by the hand of lawless men, crucified and killed; 2.24. whom God raised up, having freed him from the agony of death, because it was not possible that he should be held by it. 2.25. For David says concerning him, 'I saw the Lord always before my face, For he is on my right hand, that I should not be moved. 2.26. Therefore my heart was glad, and my tongue rejoiced. Moreover my flesh also will dwell in hope; 2.27. Because you will not leave my soul in Hades, Neither will you allow your Holy One to see decay. 2.28. You made known to me the ways of life. You will make me full of gladness with your presence.' 2.29. Brothers, I may tell you freely of the patriarch David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. 2.30. Therefore, being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that of the fruit of his body, according to the flesh, he would raise up the Christ to sit on his throne 2.31. he foreseeing this spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that neither was his soul left in Hades, nor did his flesh see decay. 2.32. This Jesus God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses. 2.33. Being therefore exalted by the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this, which you now see and hear. 2.34. For David didn't ascend into the heavens, but he says himself, 'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit by my right hand 2.35. Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet."' 2.36. Let all the house of Israel therefore know assuredly that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified. 21.31. As they were trying to kill him, news came up to the commanding officer of the regiment that all Jerusalem was in an uproar. 21.36. for the multitude of the people followed after, crying out, "Away with him! 21.37. As Paul was about to be brought into the barracks, he asked the commanding officer, "May I say something to you?"He said, "Do you know Greek? 21.38. Aren't you then the Egyptian, who before these days stirred up to sedition and led out into the wilderness the four thousand men of the Assassins? 21.39. But Paul said, "I am a Jew, from Tarsus in Cilicia, a citizen of no insignificant city. I beg you, allow me to speak to the people.
27. New Testament, James, 2.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.25. In like manner wasn't Rahab the prostitute also justified by works, in that she received the messengers, and sent them out another way?
28. New Testament, Hebrews, 7.5-7.6, 7.14, 11.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.5. They indeed of the sons of Levi who receive the priest's office have a commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law, that is, of their brothers, though these have come out of the loins of Abraham 7.6. but he whose genealogy is not counted from them has taken tithes of Abraham, and has blessed him who has the promises. 7.14. For it is evident that our Lord has sprung out of Judah, about which tribe Moses spoke nothing concerning priesthood. 11.31. By faith, Rahab the prostitute, didn't perish with those who were disobedient, having received the spies in peace.
29. New Testament, Philippians, 2.6-2.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men.
30. New Testament, John, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. After these things, there was a feast of the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
31. New Testament, Luke, 1.1, 1.5-1.11, 1.35, 3.23-3.38, 4.14-4.21, 6.20, 24.50-24.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us 1.5. There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the priestly division of Abijah. He had a wife of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. 1.6. They were both righteous before God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and ordices of the Lord. 1.7. But they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren, and they both were well advanced in years. 1.8. Now it happened, while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his division 1.9. according to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to enter into the temple of the Lord and burn incense. 1.10. The whole multitude of the people were praying outside at the hour of incense. 1.11. An angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. 1.35. The angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God. 3.23. Jesus himself, when he began to teach, was about thirty years old, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli 3.24. the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph 3.25. the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai 3.26. the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Joseph, the son of Judah 3.27. the son of Joa, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri 3.28. the son of Melchi, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmodam, the son of Er 3.29. the son of Josa, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi 3.30. the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jo, the son of Eliakim 3.31. the son of Melea, the son of Me, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David 3.32. the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon 3.33. the son of Amminadab, the son of Aram, the son of Joram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah 3.34. the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor 3.35. the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah 3.36. the son of Cai, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech 3.38. the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God. 4.14. Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee, and news about him spread through all the surrounding area. 4.15. He taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 6.20. He lifted up his eyes to his disciples, and said, "Blessed are you poor, For yours is the Kingdom of God. 24.50. He led them out as far as Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. 24.51. It happened, while he blessed them, that he withdrew from them, and was carried up into heaven. 24.52. They worshiped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy 24.53. and were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.
32. New Testament, Mark, 1.11, 5.1-5.2, 5.18-5.19, 6.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 5.1. They came to the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gadarenes. 5.2. When he had come out of the boat, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit 5.18. As he was entering into the boat, he who had been possessed by demons begged him that he might be with him. 5.19. He didn't allow him, but said to him, "Go to your house, to your friends, and tell them what great things the Lord has done for you, and how he had mercy on you. 6.34. Jesus came out, saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things.
33. New Testament, Matthew, 1.1-1.5, 1.7-1.23, 2.6, 2.15, 3.13-3.17, 4.1-4.11, 5.17, 8.28-8.34, 9.36, 10.6, 10.16, 12.39-12.41, 15.24, 16.13-16.14, 17.1-17.3, 22.41-22.45, 25.31-25.46, 26.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. 1.2. Abraham became the father of Isaac. Isaac became the father of Jacob. Jacob became the father of Judah and his brothers. 1.3. Judah became the father of Perez and Zerah by Tamar. Perez became the father of Hezron. Hezron became the father of Ram. 1.4. Ram became the father of Amminadab. Amminadab became the father of Nahshon. Nahshon became the father of Salmon. 1.5. Salmon became the father of Boaz by Rahab. Boaz became the father of Obed by Ruth. Obed became the father of Jesse. 1.7. Solomon became the father of Rehoboam. Rehoboam became the father of Abijah. Abijah became the father of Asa. 1.8. Asa became the father of Jehoshaphat. Jehoshaphat became the father of Joram. Joram became the father of Uzziah. 1.9. Uzziah became the father of Jotham. Jotham became the father of Ahaz. Ahaz became the father of Hezekiah. 1.10. Hezekiah became the father of Manasseh. Manasseh became the father of Amon. Amon became the father of Josiah. 1.11. Josiah became the father of Jechoniah and his brothers, at the time of the exile to Babylon. 1.12. After the exile to Babylon, Jechoniah became the father of Shealtiel. Shealtiel became the father of Zerubbabel. 1.13. Zerubbabel became the father of Abiud. Abiud became the father of Eliakim. Eliakim became the father of Azor. 1.14. Azor became the father of Sadoc. Sadoc became the father of Achim. Achim became the father of Eliud. 1.15. Eliud became the father of Eleazar. Eleazar became the father of Matthan. Matthan became the father of Jacob. 1.16. Jacob became the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary, from whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ. 1.17. So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; from David to the exile to Babylon fourteen generations; and from the carrying away to Babylon to the Christ, fourteen generations. 1.18. Now the birth of Jesus Christ was like this; for after his mother, Mary, was engaged to Joseph, before they came together, she was found pregt by the Holy Spirit. 1.19. Joseph, her husband, being a righteous man, and not willing to make her a public example, intended to put her away secretly. 1.20. But when he thought about these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, "Joseph, son of David, don't be afraid to take to yourself Mary, your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. 1.21. She shall bring forth a son. You shall call his name Jesus, for it is he who shall save his people from their sins. 1.22. Now all this has happened, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying 1.23. Behold, the virgin shall be with child, And shall bring forth a son. They shall call his name Immanuel;" Which is, being interpreted, "God with us. 2.6. 'You Bethlehem, land of Judah, Are in no way least among the princes of Judah: For out of you shall come forth a governor, Who shall shepherd my people, Israel.' 2.15. and was there until the death of Herod; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, "Out of Egypt I called my son. 3.13. Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized by him. 3.14. But John would have hindered him, saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and you come to me? 3.15. But Jesus, answering, said to him, "Allow it now, for this is the fitting way for us to fulfill all righteousness." Then he allowed him. 3.16. Jesus, when he was baptized, went up directly from the water: and behold, the heavens were opened to him. He saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming on him. 3.17. Behold, a voice out of the heavens said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased. 4.1. Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 4.2. When he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was hungry afterward. 4.3. The tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread. 4.4. But he answered, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.' 4.5. Then the devil took him into the holy city. He set him on the pinnacle of the temple 4.6. and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you.' and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, So that you don't dash your foot against a stone.' 4.7. Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, 'You shall not test the Lord, your God.' 4.8. Again, the devil took him to an exceedingly high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory. 4.9. He said to him, "I will give you all of these things, if you will fall down and worship me. 4.10. Then Jesus said to him, "Get behind me, Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.11. Then the devil left him, and behold, angels came and ministered to him. 5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 8.28. When he came to the other side, into the country of the Gergesenes, two people possessed by demons met him there, coming out of the tombs, exceedingly fierce, so that nobody could pass by that way. 8.29. Behold, they cried out, saying, "What do we have to do with you, Jesus, Son of God? Have you come here to torment us before the time? 8.30. Now there was a herd of many pigs feeding far away from them. 8.31. The demons begged him, saying, "If you cast us out, permit us to go away into the herd of pigs. 8.32. He said to them, "Go!"They came out, and went into the herd of pigs: and behold, the whole herd of pigs rushed down the cliff into the sea, and died in the water. 8.33. Those who fed them fled, and went away into the city, and told everything, including what happened to those who were possessed with demons. 8.34. Behold, all the city came out to meet Jesus. When they saw him, they begged that he would depart from their borders. 9.36. But when he saw the multitudes, he was moved with compassion for them, because they were weary and scattered, as sheep without a shepherd. 10.6. Rather, go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 10.16. Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves. Therefore be wise as serpents, and harmless as doves. 12.39. But he answered them, "An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign, but no sign will be given it but the sign of Jonah the prophet. 12.40. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 12.41. The men of Nineveh will stand up in the judgment with this generation, and will condemn it, for they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, someone greater than Jonah is here. 15.24. But he answered, "I wasn't sent to anyone but the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 16.13. Now when Jesus came into the parts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, "Who do men say that I, the Son of Man, am? 16.14. They said, "Some say John the Baptizer, some, Elijah, and others, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets. 17.1. After six days, Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John his brother, and brought them up into a high mountain by themselves. 17.2. He was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his garments became as white as the light. 17.3. Behold, Moses and Elijah appeared to them talking with him. 22.41. Now while the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them a question 22.42. saying, "What do you think of the Christ? Whose son is he?"They said to him, "of David. 22.43. He said to them, "How then does David in the Spirit call him Lord, saying 22.44. 'The Lord said to my Lord, Sit on my right hand, Until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet?' 22.45. If then David calls him Lord, how is he his son? 25.31. But when the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then he will sit on the throne of his glory. 25.32. Before him all the nations will be gathered, and he will separate them one from another, as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. 25.33. He will set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. 25.34. Then the King will tell those on his right hand, 'Come, blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; 25.35. for I was hungry, and you gave me food to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave me drink; I was a stranger, and you took me in; 25.36. naked, and you clothed me; I was sick, and you visited me; I was in prison, and you came to me.' 25.37. Then the righteous will answer him, saying, 'Lord, when did we see you hungry, and feed you; or thirsty, and give you a drink? 25.38. When did we see you as a stranger, and take you in; or naked, and clothe you? 25.39. When did we see you sick, or in prison, and come to you?' 25.40. The King will answer them, 'Most assuredly I tell you, inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of these my brothers, you did it to me.' 25.41. Then he will say also to those on the left hand, 'Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels; 25.42. for I was hungry, and you didn't give me food to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave me no drink; 25.43. I was a stranger, and you didn't take me in; naked, and you didn't clothe me; sick, and in prison, and you didn't visit me.' 25.44. Then they will also answer, saying, 'Lord, when did we see you hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and didn't help you?' 25.45. Then he will answer them, saying, 'Most assuredly I tell you, inasmuch as you didn't do it to one of the least of these, you didn't do it to me.' 25.46. These will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life. 26.31. Then Jesus said to them, "All of you will be made to stumble because of me tonight, for it is written, 'I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.'
34. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 53.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

53.9. וַתֹּאמֶר מִי מִלֵּל לְאַבְרָהָם הֵינִיקָה בָנִים שָׂרָה (בראשית כא, ז), רַבִּי פִּינְחָס מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי חִלְקִיָה מִי אָמַר מִי דִּבֵּר אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא מִי מִלֵּל, רְמָזוֹ שֶׁהוּא מוֹלִיד לְמֵאָה שָׁנָה מִנְיַן מִלֵּ"ל. רַבִּי פִּנְחָס אָמַר קוֹמָתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ הָיְתָה יְבֵשָׁה וְנַעֲשָׂה מְלִילוֹת. הֵינִיקָה בָנִים שָׂרָה, הֵינִיקָה בֵן אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אִמֵּנוּ שָׂרָה הָיְתָה צְנוּעָה יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי, אָמַר לָהּ אָבִינוּ אַבְרָהָם אֵין זוֹ שְׁעַת הַצְּנִיעוּת אֶלָּא גַּלִּי אֶת דַּדַּיִךְ, כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהִתְחִיל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַעֲשׂוֹת נִסִּים, גִּלְּתָה אֶת דַּדֶּיהָ וְהָיוּ נוֹבְעוֹת חָלָב כִּשְׁנֵי מַעְיָנוֹת, וְהָיוּ מַטְרוֹנִיּוֹת בָּאוֹת וּמֵינִיקוֹת אֶת בְּנֵיהֶם מִמֶּנָּה, וְהָיוּ אוֹמְרוֹת אֵין אָנוּ כְּדַי לְהָנִיק אֶת בָּנֵינוּ מֵחֲלָבָהּ שֶׁל צַדֶּקֶת. רַבָּנָן וְרַבִּי אֲחָא, רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי כָּל מִי שֶׁבָּא לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם, נַעֲשָׂה יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם. רַבִּי אֲחָא אָמַר אַף מִי שֶׁלֹא בָּא לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם נִתַּן לוֹ מֶמְשָׁלָה בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִפְלִיגוּ עַצְמָן בְּסִינַי וְלֹא קִבְּלוּ אֶת הַתּוֹרָה נִטְּלָה מֵהֶם אוֹתָהּ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה.
35. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57b. אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה סח לי זקן אחד מאנשי ירושלים בבקעה זו הרג נבוזראדן רב טבחים מאתים ואחת עשרה רבוא ובירושלים הרג תשעים וארבע רבוא על אבן אחת עד שהלך דמן ונגע בדמו של זכריה לקיים מה שנאמר (הושע ד, ב) ודמים בדמים נגעו,אשכחיה לדמיה דזכריה דהוה קא מרתח וסליק אמר מאי האי אמרו ליה דם זבחים דאשתפוך אייתי דמי ולא אידמו,אמר להו אי אמריתו לי מוטב ואי לאו מסריקנא לבשרייכו במסרקי דפרזלי אמרי ליה מאי נימא לך נבייא הוה בן דהוה קא מוכח לן במילי דשמיא קמינן עילויה וקטלינן ליה והא כמה שנין דלא קא נייח דמיה,אמר להו אנא מפייסנא ליה אייתי סנהדרי גדולה וסנהדרי קטנה קטל עילויה ולא נח בחורים ובתולות קטל עילויה ולא נח אייתי תינוקות של בית רבן קטל עילויה ולא נח א"ל זכריה זכריה טובים שבהן איבדתים ניחא לך דאבדינהו לכולהו כדאמר ליה הכי נח,בההיא שעתא הרהר תשובה בדעתיה אמר ומה אם על נפש אחת כך ההוא גברא דקטל כל הני נשמתא על אחת כמה וכמה ערק אזל שדר שטר פרטתא בביתיה ואגייר,תנא נעמן גר תושב היה נבוזראדן גר צדק היה,מבני בניו של המן למדו תורה בבני ברק מבני בניו של סיסרא למדו תינוקות בירושלים מבני בניו של סנחריב למדו תורה ברבים מאן אינון שמעיה ואבטליון,היינו דכתיב (יחזקאל כד, ח) נתתי את דמה על צחיח סלע לבלתי הכסות,(בראשית כז, כב) הקול קול יעקב והידים ידי עשו הקול זה אדריינוס קיסר שהרג באלכסנדריא של מצרים ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא כפלים כיוצאי מצרים קול יעקב זה אספסיינוס קיסר שהרג בכרך ביתר ארבע מאות רבוא ואמרי לה ארבעת אלפים רבוא והידים ידי עשו זו מלכות הרשעה שהחריבה את בתינו ושרפה את היכלנו והגליתנו מארצנו,דבר אחר הקול קול יעקב אין לך תפלה שמועלת שאין בה מזרעו של יעקב והידים ידי עשו אין לך מלחמה שנוצחת שאין בה מזרעו של עשו,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר (איוב ה, כא) בשוט לשון תחבא בחירחורי לשון תחבא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלז, א) על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בזכרנו את ציון מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה לדוד חורבן בית ראשון וחורבן בית שני חורבן בית ראשון שנאמר על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בית שני דכתיב (תהלים קלז, ז) זכור ה' לבני אדום את יום ירושלים האומרים ערו ערו עד היסוד בה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ואיתימא רבי אמי ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מעשה בד' מאות ילדים וילדות שנשבו לקלון הרגישו בעצמן למה הן מתבקשים אמרו אם אנו טובעין בים אנו באין לחיי העולם הבא דרש להן הגדול שבהן (תהלים סח, כג) אמר ה' מבשן אשיב אשיב ממצולות ים מבשן אשיב מבין שיני אריה אשיב ממצולות ים אלו שטובעין בים,כיון ששמעו ילדות כך קפצו כולן ונפלו לתוך הים נשאו ילדים ק"ו בעצמן ואמרו מה הללו שדרכן לכך כך אנו שאין דרכנו לכך על אחת כמה וכמה אף הם קפצו לתוך הים ועליהם הכתוב אומר (תהלים מד, כג) כי עליך הורגנו כל היום נחשבנו כצאן טבחה,ורב יהודה אמר זו אשה ושבעה בניה אתיוהו קמא לקמיה דקיסר אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כ, ב) אנכי ה' אלהיך אפקוהו וקטלוהו,ואתיוהו לאידך לקמיה דקיסר אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כ, ב) לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים על פני אפקוהו וקטלוהו אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כב, יט) זובח לאלהים יחרם אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות לד, יד) לא תשתחוה לאל אחר אפקוהו וקטלוהו אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים ד, לט) וידעת היום והשבות אל לבבך כי ה' הוא האלהים בשמים ממעל ועל הארץ מתחת אין עוד אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים כו, יז) את ה' האמרת וגו' וה' האמירך היום כבר נשבענו להקדוש ברוך הוא שאין אנו מעבירין אותו באל אחר ואף הוא נשבע לנו שאין מעביר אותנו באומה אחרת,א"ל קיסר אישדי לך גושפנקא וגחין ושקליה כי היכי דלימרו קביל עליה הרמנא דמלכא א"ל חבל עלך קיסר חבל עלך קיסר על כבוד עצמך כך על כבוד הקב"ה על אחת כמה וכמה,אפקוהו למיקטליה אמרה להו אימיה יהבוהו ניהלי ואינשקיה פורתא אמרה לו בניי לכו ואמרו לאברהם אביכם אתה עקדת מזבח אחד ואני עקדתי שבעה מזבחות אף היא עלתה לגג ונפלה ומתה יצתה בת קול ואמרה (תהלים קיג, ט) אם הבנים שמחה,ר' יהושע בן לוי אמר זו מילה שניתנה בשמיני ר' שמעון בן לקיש אמר אלו ת"ח שמראין הלכות שחיטה בעצמן דאמר רבא כל מילי ליחזי איניש בנפשיה בר משחיטה ודבר אחר,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אלו תלמידי חכמים שממיתין עצמן על דברי תורה כדר' שמעון בן לקיש דאמר ר"ש בן לקיש אין דברי תורה מתקיימין אלא במי שממית עצמו עליהם שנאמר (במדבר יט, יד) זאת התורה אדם כי ימות באהל וגו' אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן ארבעים סאה 57b. § With regard to the Babylonian exile following the destruction of the First Temple, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saysthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: An old man fromamong bthe inhabitants of Jerusalem related to me: In this valleythat lies before you, bNebuzaradan, captain of the guardof the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar, bkilled 2,110,000people. bAnd in Jerusalemitself bhe killed 940,000people bon one stone, until the bloodof his victims bflowed and touched the blood of Zechariah to fulfill what is stated: “And blood touches blood”(Hosea 4:2).,The Gemara clarifies the details of what happened: Nebuzaradan bfound the blood of Zechariah,the son of Jehoiada the priest, and saw bthat it was bubbling upfrom the ground, and bhe said: What is this?Those in the Temple bsaid to him:It is bsacrificial blood that had been pouredthere. bHe broughtanimal bblood,compared it to the blood bubbling up from the ground, bandsaw that bit was not similarto it.,Nebuzaradan bsaid tothem: bIf you tell mewhose blood this is, it will be bwellfor you. bBut if not, I will comb your flesh with iron combs. They said to him: What shall we say to you? He was a prophet among us, who used to rebuke us about heavenly matters,and bwe rose up against him, and killed him(II Chronicles 24:20–22), band for many yearsnow bhis blood has not settled. /b,Nebuzaradan bsaid to them: I will appeaseZechariah. bHe broughtthe members of bthe Great Sanhedrin andof ba lesser Sanhedrinand bkilled them alongsidethe bubbling blood, bbutit still bdid not settle.He then brought byoung men and virgins and killed them alongside it, butit still bdid not settle. Hethen bbrought schoolchildren and killed them alongside it, butit still bdid not settle.Finally Nebuzaradan bsaid to him: Zechariah, Zechariah, I have killed the best of them.Would it bplease you if I destroyed them all? When he said this,the blood at last bsettled. /b, bAt that momentNebuzaradan bcontemplatedthe idea of brepentanceand bsaidto himself: bIf, forthe death of bone soul,that of Zechariah, God punishes the Jewish people in bthismanner, then bthat man,that is to say, I, bwho has killed all of those souls, all the more sowill be I be subject to great punishment from God. bHe fled, sent to his house a document detailingwhat was to be done with his property, band convertedto Judaism.,A Sage btaughta ibaraitarelating to this matter: bNaaman,commander of the army of the king of Aram (see II Kings, chapter 5), was not a convert, as he did not accept all of the mitzvot, but rather he bwas a iger toshav /i, a gentile who resides in Eretz Israel and observes the seven Noahide mitzvot. Nebuzaradan,by contrast, bwas a convert,as explained previously.,The Gemara adds that some bof Haman’s descendants studied Torah in Bnei Brak,and some bof Sisera’s descendants taught childrenTorah bin Jerusalem,and some bof Sennacherib’s descendants taught Torah in public. Who are they?They are bShemaya and Avtalyon,the teachers of Hillel the Elder.,As for the incident involving the blood of Zechariah, bthis isalluded to by bthat which is written: “I have set her blood upon the bare rock that it should not be covered”(Ezekiel 24:8).,§ Apropos its discussion of the destruction of the Temple and the calamities that befell Israel, the Gemara cites the verse: b“The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau”(Genesis 27:22), which the Sages expounded as follows: b“The voice”; thisis the cry stirred up by bthe emperor Hadrian, whocaused the Jewish people to cry out when he bkilled six hundred thousand on six hundred thousand in Alexandria of Egypt, twicethe number of men bwho left Egypt. “The voice of Jacob”; this isthe cry aroused by bthe emperor Vespasian, who killed four millionpeople bin the city of Beitar. And some say:He killed bforty millionpeople. b“And the hands are the hands of Esau”; this is the wicked kingdomof Rome bthat destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land. /b, bAlternatively, “the voice is the voice of Jacob”means that bno prayer is effectivein the world bunlesssome member of bthe seed of Jacob hasa part bin it.The second clause in the verse, b“and the hands are the hands of Esau,”means that bno war grants victory unlesssome member of bthe seed of Esau hasa part bin it. /b, bAnd this iswhat bRabbi Elazar says:The verse that says: b“You shall be hid from the scourge of the tongue”(Job 5:21), means: bYou shallneed to bhide on account of quarrelsprovoked bby the tongue. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “By the rivers of Babylonia, there we sat down and wept, when we remembered Zion”(Psalms 137:1)? This bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed David the destruction of the First Temple and the destruction of the Second Temple.He saw the destruction of bthe First Temple, as it is stated: “By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept.”He saw the destruction of the bSecond Temple, as it is writtenlater in that same psalm: b“Remember, O Lord, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem, when they said: Raze it, raze it, to its very foundation”(Psalms 137:7), as the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans, “the children of Edom.”, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says, and some saythat it was bRabbi Amiwho says this, band some saythat bit was taught in a ibaraita /i:There was ban incident involving four hundred boys and girls who were taken as captives forthe purpose of bprostitution.These children bsensed on their own what they were expectedto do, and bthey said: If wecommit suicide and bdrown in the sea,will bwe come toeternal blife in the World-to-Come? The oldestchild bamong them expoundedthe verse: b“The Lord said, I will bring back from Bashan, I will bring them back from the depths of the sea”(Psalms 68:23). b“I will bring back from Bashan,”i.e., bfrom between the teeth [ ibein shen /i] of the lion,and b“I will bring them back from the depths of the sea”is referring to bthose who drown in the seafor the sake of Heaven., bWhen the girls heard this, they all leapt and fell into the sea. The boysthen bdrew an ia fortiori /iinference bwith regard to themselves and said: If thesegirls, bfor whomsexual intercourse with men bis their natural way,act in bsucha manner, then bwe, for whomsexual intercourse with men bis not our natural way,should ball the more soconduct ourselves likewise. bThey too leapt into the sea. Concerning themand others like them bthe verse states: “As For Your sake we are killed all the day long; we are reckoned as sheep for the slaughter”(Psalms 44:23)., bAnd Rav Yehuda said: Thisverse applies to the bwoman and her seven sonswho died as martyrs for the sake of the sanctification of God’s name. The incident occurred as follows: bThey broughtin bthe firstof the woman’s sons bbefore the emperorand bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “I am the Lord your God”(Exodus 20:2). bTheyimmediately btook him out and killed him. /b, bAnd theythen bbroughtin banotherson bbefore the emperor,and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You shall have no other gods beside Me”(Exodus 20:3). And so bthey took him out and killed him. Theythen bbrought inyet banotherson before the emperor, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “He that sacrifices to any god,save to the Lord only, bhe shall be utterly destroyed”(Exodus 22:19). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You shall not bow down to any other god”(Exodus 34:14). And so bthey took him out and killed him. Theythen bbroughtin yet banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One”(Deuteronomy 6:4). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “Know therefore this today, and consider it in your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above and upon the earth beneath; there is no other”(Deuteronomy 4:39). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin yet banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You have avouched the Lordthis day to be your God… band the Lord has avouched you this dayto be a people for His own possession” (Deuteronomy 26:17–18). bWe already took an oath to the Holy One, Blessed be He, that we will not exchange Him for a different god, and He too has taken an oath to us that He will not exchange us for another nation. /b,It was the youngest brother who had said this, and the emperor pitied him. Seeking a way to spare the boy’s life, bthe emperor said to him: I will throw down my seal before you; bend over and pick it up, so thatpeople bwill saythat bhe has accepted the king’s authority [ iharmana /i].The boy bsaid to him: Woe [ iḥaval /i] to you, Caesar, woe to you, Caesar.If you think that bfor the sake of your honorI should fulfill your command and do bthis,then bfor the sake of the honor of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more soshould I fulfill His command.,As bthey were taking him out to be killed, his mother said to them: Give him to me so that I may give him a small kiss. She said to him: My son, go and say to your father Abraham, You bound oneson to the baltar, but I bound seven altars. She tooin the end bwent up to the roof, fell, and died. A Divine Voice emerged and said: “A joyful mother of children”(Psalms 113:9), as she raised her children to be devoted in their service of God., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saysconcerning the verse: “For Your sake we are killed all the day long” (Psalms 44:23), that bthisis referring to bcircumcision, which was given for the eighthday, as the blood of our newborn sons is spilled for the sake of the covet with God. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says:This verse was stated in reference to bTorah scholars who demonstrate the ihalakhotof slaughter on themselves,meaning that they demonstrate on their own bodies how ritual slaughter should be performed and occasionally injure themselves in the process. This is bas Rava says: A person may demonstrate anything using himselfto illustrate the act bexcept for slaughter and another matter,a euphemism for sexual intercourse., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: Thesepeople in the verse bare Torah scholars who kill themselves over the words of Torah, in accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The words of the Torah endure only for one who kills himself over them, as it is stated: “This is the Torah, when a man dies in a tent”(Numbers 19:14). bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Forty ise’a/b
36. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. אף דברי תורה בסתר,יצא רבי חייא ושנה לשני בני אחיו בשוק לרב ולרבה בר בר חנה שמע ר' איקפד אתא ר' חייא לאיתחזויי ליה א"ל עייא מי קורא לך בחוץ ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה תלתין יומין,ביום תלתין שלח ליה תא הדר שלח ליה דלא ליתי,מעיקרא מאי סבר ולבסוף מאי סבר מעיקרא סבר מקצת היום ככולו ולבסוף סבר לא אמרינן מקצת היום ככולו,לסוף אתא א"ל אמאי אתית א"ל דשלח לי מר דליתי והא שלחי לך דלא תיתי א"ל זה ראיתי וזה לא ראיתי קרי עליה (משלי טז, ז) ברצות ה' דרכי איש גם אויביו ישלים אתו,מ"ט עבד מר הכי א"ל דכתיב (משלי א, כ) חכמות בחוץ תרונה א"ל אם קרית לא שנית ואם שנית לא שילשת ואם שילשת לא פירשו לך,חכמות בחוץ תרונה כדרבא דאמר רבא כל העוסק בתורה מבפנים תורתו מכרזת עליו מבחוץ,והא כתיב (ישעיהו מח, טז) לא מראש בסתר דברתי ההוא ביומי דכלה,ור' חייא האי חמוקי ירכיך מאי עביד לה מוקי לה בצדקה ובגמילות חסדים,אלמא נזיפה דידהו תלתין יומין נזיפת נשיא שאני,ונזיפה דידן כמה הוי חד יומא כי הא דשמואל ומר עוקבא כי הוו יתבי גרס שמעתא הוה יתיב מר עוקבא קמיה דשמואל ברחוק ד' אמות וכי הוו יתבי בדינא הוה יתיב שמואל קמיה דמר עוקבא ברחוק ד' אמות והוו חייקי ליה דוכתא למר עוקבא בציפתא ויתיב עילויה כי היכי דלישתמען מיליה,כל יומא הוה מלוי ליה מר עוקבא לשמואל עד אושפיזיה יומא חד איטריד בדיניה הוה אזיל שמואל בתריה כי מטא לביתיה א"ל לא נגה לך לישרי לי מר בתיגריה ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה חד יומא,ההיא איתתא דהוות יתבה בשבילא הוות פשטה כרעה וקא מניפה חושלאי והוה חליף ואזיל צורבא מרבנן ולא איכנעה מקמיה אמר כמה חציפא ההיא איתתא אתאי לקמיה דר"נ אמר לה מי שמעת שמתא מפומיה אמרה ליה לא אמר לה זילי נהוגי נזיפותא חד יומא בנפשיך,זוטרא בר טוביה הוה קפסיק סידרא קמיה דרב יהודה כי מטא להאי פסוקא (שמואל ב כג, א) ואלה דברי דוד האחרונים א"ל אחרונים מכלל דאיכא ראשונים ראשונים מאי נינהו,שתיק ולא אמר ליה ולא מידי הדר א"ל אחרונים מכלל דאיכא ראשונים ראשונים מאי היא א"ל מאי דעתך דלא ידע פירושא דהאי קרא לאו גברא רבה הוא ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה חד יומא,ודאתן עלה מיהא אחרונים מכלל דאיכא ראשונים ראשונים מאי היא (שמואל ב כב, א) וידבר דוד לה' את דברי השירה הזאת ביום הציל ה' אותו מכף כל אויביו ומכף שאול,אמר לו הקב"ה לדוד דוד שירה אתה אומר על מפלתו של שאול אלמלי אתה שאול והוא דוד איבדתי כמה דוד מפניו,היינו דכתיב (תהלים ז, א) שגיון לדוד אשר שר לה' על דברי כוש בן ימיני וכי כוש שמו והלא שאול שמו אלא מה כושי משונה בעורו אף שאול משונה במעשיו,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (במדבר יב, א) על אודות האשה הכושית אשר לקח וכי כושית שמה והלא ציפורה שמה אלא מה כושית משונה בעורה אף ציפורה משונה במעשיה כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (ירמיהו לח, ז) וישמע עבד מלך הכושי וכי כושי שמו והלא צדקיה שמו אלא מה כושי משונה בעורו אף צדקיה משונה במעשיו,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (עמוס ט, ז) הלא כבני כושיים אתם לי (בית) ישראל וכי כושיים שמן והלא ישראל שמן אלא מה כושי משונה בעורו אף ישראל משונין במעשיהן מכל האומות,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב כג, א) נאם דוד בן ישי ונאם הגבר הוקם על נאם דוד בן ישי שהקים עולה של תשובה,(שמואל ב כג, ג) אמר אלהי ישראל לי דבר צור ישראל מושל באדם צדיק מושל יראת אלהים מאי קאמר א"ר אבהו ה"ק אמר אלהי ישראל לי דבר צור ישראל אני מושל באדם מי מושל בי צדיק שאני גוזר גזרה ומבטלה,(שמואל ב כג, ח) אלה שמות הגבורים אשר לדוד יושב בשבת וגו' מאי קאמר א"ר אבהו ה"ק ואלה שמות גבורותיו של דוד,יושב בשבת בשעה שהיה יושב בישיבה לא היה יושב על גבי כרים וכסתות אלא על גבי קרקע דכל כמה דהוה רביה עירא היאירי קיים הוה מתני להו לרבנן על גבי כרים וכסתות כי נח נפשיה הוה מתני דוד לרבנן והוה יתיב על גבי קרקע אמרו ליה ליתיב מר אכרים וכסתות לא קביל עליה,תחכמוני אמר רב אמר לו הקב"ה הואיל והשפלת עצמך תהא כמוני שאני גוזר גזרה ואתה מבטלה,ראש השלישים תהא ראש לשלשת אבות הוא עדינו העצני כשהיה יושב ועוסק בתורה היה מעדן עצמו כתולעת ובשעה שיוצא למלחמה היה מקשה עצמו כעץ,על שמונה מאות חלל בפעם אחת שהיה זורק חץ ומפיל שמונה מאות חלל בפעם אחת והיה מתאנח על מאתים דכתיב (דברים לב, ל) איכה ירדף אחד אלף,יצתה בת קול ואמרה (מלכים א טו, ה) רק בדבר אוריה החתי,אמר רבי תנחום בריה דרבי חייא איש כפר עכו אמר רבי יעקב בר אחא אמר ר' שמלאי ואמרי לה אמר ר' תנחום אמר רב הונא ואמרי לה אמר רב הונא לחודיה 16b. bso too, the words of Torah,which are “the work of the hands of an artist,” i.e., God, must remain bhiddenin the study hall.,Despite Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s decree, bRabbi Ḥiyya went out and taught his two nephews, Rav and Rabba bar bar Ḥana, in the marketplace. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bheardwhat he had done and bbecame angrywith him. When bRabbi Ḥiyya cameat some later date bto visit him,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi mockingly bsaid to him: Iyya, who is calling you outside?By asking this question Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was intimating that Rabbi Ḥiyya should leave his house. Rabbi Ḥiyya bunderstood thatRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bhad taken the matter to heartand was insulted, and so bhe conductedhimself as if he had been badmonished,as a self-imposed punishment, bfor thirty days. /b, bOn the thirtieth day,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsent hima message, saying: bComeand visit me. However, bhe laterreversed his opinion and bsent himanother message, telling him bnot to come. /b,The Gemara asks: bAt the outset what did he hold, and ultimately what did he hold? Initially,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bheld thatthe legal status of bpart of the day is likethat bof an entireday, and since the thirtieth day already begun, Rabbi Ḥiyya’s time of admonition had ended. bBut ultimately he heldthat with regard to this issue bwe do not saythat the legal status of bpart of the day is likethat bof an entireday., bIn the endRabbi Ḥiyya bcameon that same day. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi basked him: Why have you come?Rabbi Ḥiyya bresponded: Becauseyou, bMaster, sentme a message that bI should come.He said to him: bBut I sentyou a second message bthat you should not come. He responded: Thismessenger that you sent, i.e., the first one, bI sawhim and I did as he said, bbut thatmessenger, i.e., the second one, bI did not see.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi breadthe verse baboutRabbi Ḥiyya: b“When a man’s ways please the Lord, He makes even his enemies to be at peace with him”(Proverbs 16:7), as it was clear to him that Rabbi Ḥiyya had merited divine assistance.,§ Concerning the issue with which the entire incident had begun, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi asked Rabbi Ḥiyya: bWhat is the reason thatyou, bthe Master, acted asyou did, ignoring my instructions not to teach Torah in the marketplace? Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: As it is written: “Wisdom cries aloud in the streets”(Proverbs 1:20), which implies that Torah should be publicized in the streets. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: If you readthis verse once, byoucertainly bdid not readit ba second timein greater depth; band if you readit ba second time, youcertainly bdid not readit ba third time;and bif you readit ba third time,then bit was notadequately bexplained to you,as it is clear that you do not understand it properly.,The words: b“Wisdom cries aloud in the streets,”should be understood bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rava. As Rava said:With regard to beveryone who occupies himself with Torahstudy binsidethe privacy of his home, bhis Torahknowledge bwill proclaim hisgreatness boutside,as it will be revealed to the masses and they will see his greatness.,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it written: “From the beginning I have not spoken in secret”(Isaiah 48:16), implying that the Torah should be taught and proclaimed in public? The Gemara answers: bThatverse is referring to bthe days of the ikalla /i,the gathering for Torah study held during Elul and Adar, when many people come to listen to Torah discourses. During this time, it is not only permitted but even recommended to teach Torah to the masses. In this way, the verse can be explained in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what did Rabbi Ḥiyya do with thisverse: b“Your rounded thighs are like jewels”?How did he understand it? This verse implies that the Torah must be kept hidden in the study hall and not publicized in the marketplace. The Gemara explains: bHe interprets itnot as a reference to Torah, but as referring btoacts of bcharity and loving-kindness,which should certainly be performed in private.,This incident demonstrates bthat, apparently, admonition of thosewho live in Eretz Yisrael lasts for bthirty daysand not for seven days. The Gemara answers that this is not a conclusive proof, since Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was the iNasi /i. bThe admonition of the iNasi /iof the Sanhedrin bis differenti.e., more severe, than the admonition of anyone else.,The Gemara asks: bAnd howlong bis our admonitionin Babylonia? The Gemara answers: It is only bone day, as inthe case involving bShmuel andthe Exilarch bMar Ukva. When they would sit and study ihalakha /i, Mar Ukva would sit before Shmuel at a distance of four cubitsas a sign of respect. Mar Ukva would conduct himself as though Shmuel were his teacher because Shmuel was much greater than him in Torah matters. bAnd when they would sittogether bin judgment, Shmuel would sit before Mar Ukva at a distance of four cubitsbecause Mar Ukva was the Exilarch and the chief judge. bBut they would lower a place for Mar Ukva in the mattingupon which he sat, band he would sit on it so that he could hearShmuel’s bwordsof Torah even when they were engaged in judgment., bEvery day, Mar Ukva would accompany Shmuel to his lodgings,in the manner that a student would show honor toward his teacher. bOne day,Mar Ukva bwasso heavily bpreoccupied with a casethat had been brought before him for judgment that he did not realize that bShmuel was walking behind himto show him respect due to his position as the Exilarch. bWhenMar Ukva breached his home,Shmuel bsaid to him: Is it not enough for youthat I accompanied you until here? bRelease me, Master, from my obligation,so that I may return home. Mar Ukva bunderstood thatShmuel bhad taken the matter to heartand was insulted. Therefore, bhe conductedhimself as if he had been badmonished, for one dayas a self-imposed punishment.,It was related that ba certain woman was sitting alongside a pathwith bher leg extendedwhile bshe was sifting barley. A Torah scholar passedby her on this path, bbut she did not yield to himand move her leg to make room for him. bHe said: How rude is that woman!The woman bcame before Rav Naḥmanto ask if this statement should be deemed as excommunication. bHe said to her: Did you hearthe word bexcommunicationexplicitly issue bfrom his mouth? She said to him: No. He said to her:If this is the case, then bgo and observe an admonition for one day,as it appears that the Torah scholar sought only to admonish you.,§ bZutra bar Toviyya wasonce breading the portionof the Bible bbefore Rav Yehuda. When he reached the verse: “Now these are the last words of David”(II Samuel 23:1), Zutra bar Toviyya bsaid toRav Yehuda: If it is written that these are the blastof David’s words, bby inference there are firstwords as well. If this is the case, bwhat are these firstwords of David? Prior to this, it mentions only David’s song, but not his words.,Rav Yehuda bremained silent and said nothing to him.Zutra bar Toviyya thought that Rav Yehuda did not hear what he had said, so he bthen said to hima second time: If it is written that these are the blastof David’s words, bby inference there are firstwords as well. If this is the case, bwhat are these firstwords of David? bHe said to him: What do you think?Do you think that anyone bwho does not know the meaning of this verse is not a great man?Why are you stressing the fact that I do not know the answer to your question? Zutra bar Toviyya bunderstood thatRav Yehuda bhad taken the matter to heartand was insulted. Therefore, bhe conductedhimself as if had been badmonished for one dayas a self-imposed punishment.,The Gemara asks: bButnow bthat we have cometo discuss this issue, since the verse mentions David’s blastwords, bby inference there arealso bfirstwords. bWhatthen bare these firstwords of David? The Gemara answers: The first words are: b“And David spoke to the Lord the words of this song in the day that the Lord delivered him out of the hand of his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul”(II Samuel 22:1), as that song is also referred to as words.,The Gemara elaborates: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: David, do you recite a song over the fall of Saul? Had you been Saul and he were David,then bI would have destroyed many Davids before him.Although I decreed that Saul’s kingdom would not continue, as an individual he was far greater and more important than you.,The response to this admonishment bisfound in the verse, bas it is written: “Shiggaion of David, which he sang to the Lord, concerning the words of Cush the Benjaminite”(Psalms 7:1). bIs Cush his name? Saul is his name. Rather,this is a designation that indicates: bJust as a Cushite,a native of the ancient kingdom of Cush in eastern Africa, bis distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, Saul was distinguished by his actions,as he was absolutely righteous and performed many good deeds. Therefore, David uses the word ishiggaionas an allusion to the error [ ishegia /i] that he had made when he sang a song of praise over Saul’s downfall.,The Gemara notes: bSimilarly, you can explainthe verse: “And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses bdue to the Cushite woman whom he had married,for he had taken a Cushite woman” (Numbers 12:1). bBut is her name Cushite? Zipporah is her name. Rather, just as a Cushite is distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, Zipporah was distinguished by her actions.The Gemara continues: bSimilarly, you can explainthe verse: b“Now when Ebed-Melech the Cushite heard”(Jeremiah 38:7). bIs his name Cushite? Zedekiah is his name. Rather, just as a Cushite is distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, Zedekiah was distinguished by hisrighteous bactions. /b, bSimilarly, you can explainthe verse: b“Are you not as much Mine as the children of the Cushites, O children of Israel?”(Amos 9:7). bIs their name Cushite? Israel is their name. Rather, just as a Cushite is distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, the Jewish people are distinguished by their actions,and they are different bfrom all theother bnations. /b,§ Having mentioned the last words of David, the Gemara continues to explain other expressions in that passage. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said in the name of Rabbi Yonatan: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “The saying of David, son of Yishai, and the saying of the man who was raised up on high [ ial]”(II Samuel 23:1)? It means as follows: bThe saying of David, son of Yishai, who raised the yoke of [ iulla /i] repentance,as through his actions he taught the power of repentance. The word ial /i, on high, and the word iullaare comprised of the same consots in Hebrew.,The passage continues: b“The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke to me, He that rules over men must be righteous, ruling in the fear of God”(II Samuel 23:3). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthis verse bsaying?What does it mean? bRabbi Abbahu said: This is whatthe verse bis saying: The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke to me:Although bI rule over man, who rules over Me?It is ba righteous person.How is it possible to say that a righteous person rules over God, as it were? bAs I,God, bissue a decreeand the righteous person bnullifies it. /b,Similarly, the verse states there: b“These are the names of David’s warriors; Josheb-Basshebetha Tahchemonite, chief of the captains; the same was Adino the Eznite; he raised his spear against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time” (II Samuel 23:8). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthis verse bsaying? Rabbi Abbahu said: This is whatthe verse bis saying: These are the names of the mighty actions of David.These expressions should not be read as names of people but instead as descriptions of David’s good deeds., bJosheb-Basshebeth [ iyoshev bashevet /i]indicates that bwhenDavid bwould sit [ iyoshev /i] in the study hall, he would not sit upon pillows and cushions,as an important person ordinarily would. bRather,he would sit bon the groundlike one of the students. bFor as long asDavid’s bteacher, Ira the Jairite, was alive,Ira bwould teach the Sageswhile sitting bon pillows and cushions. WhenIra bpassed away, David would teach the Sages, and hedid this while bsitting on the ground. They said to him: Master,you bshould sit upon pillows and blankets. He did not accepttheir suggestions, since in his humility he did not wish to appear as the teacher of the Jewish people.,In this verse, David is described as b“a Tahchemonite [ itaḥkemoni /i].” Rav said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Since you have humbled yourself, be younow blike Me [ itehe kamoni /i].How so? bAs I issue a decree, and you,owing to your righteousness, bmay nullify it. /b,David is also described here as b“chief of the captains [ irosh hashalishim /i]”because God said to him: bYou will be the head [ irosh /i] of the three [ isheloshet /i] Patriarchs. “The same was Adino the Eznite”;this alludes to the fact that bwhenDavid bwould sit and occupy himself with Torah, he would make himself soft [ ime’aden /i] as a worm, and when he would go out to war, he would make himself hardand strong bas a tree [ ietz /i]. /b,The expression: b“Against eight hundred people, which he slew at one time,”means bthat he would throw an arrowin the air bandwith it bkill eight hundred people at one time. AndDavid bwould sigh over the two hundredwho were missing from fulfillment of the Torah’s promise, bas it is written: “How should one man chase a thousand”(Deuteronomy 32:30)., bA Divine Voice issued forth and saidby way of explanation as to why the promise was not entirely fulfilled: “Because David did that which was right in the eyes of the Lord, and turned not aside from anything that He commanded him all the days of his life, bsave only the matter of Uriah the Hittite”(I Kings 15:5). Had David not committed this sin, then all of the promises mentioned in the Torah would have been fulfilled in their entirety through him.,The Gemara returns to the ihalakhotof ostracism and mentions that bRabbi Tanḥum, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, of the village of Akko, saidthat bRabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa saidthat bRabbi Simlai said, andsome bsaythat this tradition was transmitted in the following manner: bRabbi Tanḥum saidthat bRav Huna said, andothers bsaythat bRav Huna himselfmade this statement without the chain of transmission:
37. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

107a. אוכל לחמי הגדיל עלי עקב,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם אל יביא אדם עצמו לידי נסיון שהרי דוד מלך ישראל הביא עצמו לידי נסיון ונכשל אמר לפניו רבש"ע מפני מה אומרים אלהי אברהם אלהי יצחק ואלהי יעקב ואין אומרים אלהי דוד אמר אינהו מינסו לי ואת לא מינסית לי אמר לפניו רבש"ע בחנני ונסני שנאמר (תהלים כו, ב) בחנני ה' ונסני וגו',אמר מינסנא לך ועבידנא מילתא בהדך דלדידהו לא הודעתינהו ואילו אנא קא מודענא לך דמנסינא לך בדבר ערוה מיד (שמואל ב יא, ב) ויהי לעת הערב ויקם דוד מעל משכבו וגו',אמר רב יהודה שהפך משכבו של לילה למשכבו של יום ונתעלמה ממנו הלכה אבר קטן יש באדם משביעו רעב ומרעיבו שבע,(שמואל ב יא, ב) ויתהלך על גג בית המלך וירא אשה רוחצת מעל הגג והאשה טובת מראה מאד בת שבע הוה קא חייפא רישא תותי חלתא אתא שטן אידמי ליה כציפרתא פתק ביה גירא פתקה לחלתא איגליה וחזייה,מיד (שמואל ב יא, ג) וישלח דוד וידרוש לאשה ויאמר הלא זאת בת שבע בת אליעם אשת אוריה החתי וישלח דוד מלאכים ויקחה ותבא אליו וישכב עמה והיא מתקדשת מטומאתה ותשב אל ביתה והיינו דכתיב (תהלים יז, ג) בחנת לבי פקדת לילה צרפתני בל תמצא זמותי בל יעבר פי אמר איכו זממא נפל בפומיה דמאן דסני לי ולא אמר כי הא מילתא,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים יא, א) למנצח לדוד בה' חסיתי איך תאמרו לנפשי נודי הרכם צפור אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון שלא יאמרו הר שבכם צפור נדדתו,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים נא, ו) לך לבדך חטאתי והרע בעיניך עשיתי למען תצדק בדברך תזכה בשפטך אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה גליא וידיעא קמך דאי בעיא למכפייה ליצרי הוה כייפינא אלא אמינא דלא לימרו עבדא זכי למריה,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לח, יח) כי אני לצלע נכון ומכאובי נגדי תמיד ראויה היתה בת שבע בת אליעם לדוד מששת ימי בראשית אלא שבאה אליו במכאוב וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל ראויה היתה לדוד בת שבע בת אליעם אלא שאכלה פגה,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לה, טו) ובצלעי שמחו ונאספו נאספו עלי נכים [ולא ידעתי] קרעו ולא דמו אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע גלוי וידוע לפניך שאם היו קורעין בשרי לא היה דמי שותת,ולא עוד אלא בשעה שהם עוסקין בארבע מיתות ב"ד פוסקין ממשנתן ואומרים לי דוד הבא על אשת איש מיתתו במה אמרתי להם הבא על אשת איש מיתתו בחנק ויש לו חלק לעוה"ב אבל המלבין פני חבירו ברבים אין לו חלק לעולם הבא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אפילו בשעת חליו של דוד קיים שמנה עשרה עונות שנאמר (תהלים ו, ז) יגעתי באנחתי אשחה בכל לילה מטתי בדמעתי ערשי אמסה ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בקש דוד לעבוד ע"ז שנאמר (שמואל ב טו, לב) ויהי דוד בא עד הראש אשר ישתחוה שם לאלהים ואין ראש אלא ע"ז שנאמר (דניאל ב, לב) והוא צלמא רישיה די דהב טב,(שמואל ב טו, לב) והנה לקראתו חושי הארכי קרוע כתנתו ואדמה על ראשו אמר לו לדוד יאמרו מלך שכמותך יעבוד ע"ז אמר לו מלך שכמותי יהרגנו בנו מוטב יעבוד ע"ז ואל יתחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא,אמר מאי טעמא קנסיבת יפת תואר א"ל יפת תואר רחמנא שרייה א"ל לא דרשת סמוכין דסמיך ליה (דברים כא, יח) כי יהיה לאיש בן סורר ומורה כל הנושא יפת תואר יש לו בן סורר ומורה,דרש ר' דוסתאי דמן בירי למה דוד דומה לסוחר כותי אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע (תהלים יט, יג) שגיאות מי יבין [א"ל] שביקי לך ומנסתרות נקני שביקי לך גם מזדים חשוך עבדך שביקי לך אל ימשלו בי אז איתם דלא לישתעו בי רבנן שביקי לך,ונקיתי מפשע רב שלא יכתב סרחוני אמר לו א"א ומה יו"ד שנטלתי משרי עומד וצווח כמה שנים עד שבא יהושע והוספתי לו שנאמר (במדבר יג, טז) ויקרא משה להושע בן נון יהושע כל הפרשה כולה עאכ"ו,ונקיתי מפשע רב אמר לפניו רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון כולו אמר כבר עתיד שלמה בנך לומר בחכמתו (משלי ו, כז) היחתה איש אש בחיקו ובגדיו לא תשרפנה אם יהלך איש על הגחלים ורגליו לא תכוינה כן הבא על אשת רעהו לא ינקה כל הנוגע בה א"ל כל הכי נטרד ההוא גברא א"ל קבל עליך יסורין קבל עליו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ששה חדשים נצטרע דוד ונסתלקה הימנו שכינה ופירשו ממנו סנהדרין נצטרע דכתיב (תהלים נא, ט) תחטאני באזוב ואטהר תכבסני ומשלג אלבין נסתלקה הימנו שכינה דכתיב (תהלים נא, יד) השיבה לי ששון ישעך ורוח נדיבה תסמכני ופרשו ממנו סנהדרין דכתי' (תהלים קיט, עט) ישובו לי יראיך וגו' ששה חדשים מנלן דכתי' (מלכים א ב, יא) והימים אשר מלך דוד על ישראל ארבעים שנה 107a. bwho did eat of my bread, has lifted his heel against me”(Psalms 41:10). Bread is a metaphor for Torah knowledge.,§ Apropos Ahithophel, the Gemara relates the events that led to his death. bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: A person should never bring himself toundergo ban ordeal, as David, king of Israel, brought himself toundergo ban ordeal and failed.David bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, for whatreason bdoes one sayin prayer: bGod of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, and one does not say: God of David?God bsaidto David: bThey have undergone ordeals before Me, and you have not undergone an ordeal before Me.David bsaid before Him: Examine me and subject me to an ordeal, as it is stated: “Examine me, Lord, and subject me to an ordeal;try my kidneys and my heart” (Psalms 26:2).,God bsaidto him: bI will subject you to an ordeal, and I will perform a matter for youthat I did not perform for the Patriarchs, bas for them, I did not inform themof the nature of the ordeal, bwhile I am informing you that I will subject you to an ordeal involving a matter ofa married woman, with whom brelationsare bforbidden. Immediately,it is written: b“And it came to pass one evening that David rose from his bed”(II Samuel 11:2)., bRav Yehuda says:Once David heard the nature of his ordeal, he sought to prevent himself from experiencing lust. bHe transformed his nighttime bed into his daytime bed,i.e., he engaged in intercourse with his wives during the day, in an attempt to quell his lust. bBut a ihalakha /i,i.e., a Torah statement, bescaped him: There is a small limb in manthat he employs in sexual intercourse. If bhe starvesthe limb, and does not overindulge, it bis satiated; butif bhe satiatesthe limb and overindulges in sexual intercourse, it bis starving,and desires more. Therefore, his plan had the opposite effect.,The verse states: b“And he walked upon the roof of the king’s house; from the roof he saw a woman bathing, and the woman was very fair to look upon”(II Samuel 11:2). bBathsheba was shampooing her head behind a beehive,which concealed her from sight. bSatan came and appeared toDavid bas a bird.David bshot an arrow atthe bird, the arrow bsevered the beehive,Bathsheba bwas exposed, andDavid bsaw her. /b, bImmediately,it is written: b“And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said: Is not this Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite? And David sent messengers, and took her, and she came to him, and he lay with her, for she was purified from her impurity, and then she returned to her house”(II Samuel 11:3–4). bAnd that isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “You have proved my heart; You have visited me in the night: You have tried me, but You find nothing; let no presumptuous thought pass my lips”(Psalms 17:3). David bsaid: Oh, that a muzzle would have fallen upon the mouth of the one who hates me,a euphemism for his own mouth, band I would not have said anything like thatand I would have withstood the ordeal., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “To the leader, of David. In the Lord I put my trust; how can you say to my soul: Flee like a bird to your mountain”(Psalms 11:1)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, pardon me for that sinwith Bathsheba so bthatthe wicked people bwill not say: The mountain that is among you,i.e., the luminary of the generation, David, bwas drivenfrom the world due to ba birdthat led to his transgression., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Against You, only You, have I sinned, and done what is evil in Your eyes; that You are justified when You speak, and right when You judge”(Psalms 51:6)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: It is revealed and known before You that if I sought to suppress myevil binclination, I would have suppressed it; but I said:I will sin, so bthat they will not say a servant overcame his masterand withstood the ordeal even though God said that he would not., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “For I am ready to stumble [ iletzela /i] and my pain is always before me”(Psalms 38:18)? bBathsheba, daughter of Eliam, wasdesignated as bfit for David from the six days of Creation.Rava interprets that the term iletzelais referring to Eve, who was taken from the side [ itzela /i] of Adam, the first man, and explains that she was destined for him, just as Eve was destined for Adam. bBut she came to him through pain. And likewise, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, wasdesignated as bfit for David, but he partook of her unripe,before the appointed time. David would have ultimately married her in a permitted manner after the death of Uriah., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And when I limped they rejoiced and gathered, the wretched gather themselves together against me, and those whom I know not; they tore and did not cease [ idammu /i]”(Psalms 35:15)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe. It is revealed and known before you that ifmy enemies bwere to tear my flesh, my blood [ idami /i] would not flow to the ground,due to excessive fasting (see II Samuel 12:16–17).,David continued: bMoreover,my enemies torment me to the extent that bat the time when they are engaged inthe public study of the ihalakhotof the bfour court-imposed death penalties they interrupt their study and say to me: David,concerning bone who engages in intercourse with a married woman, his deathis effected bwith whatform of execution? And bI said to them:Concerning bone who engages in intercourse with a married womanbefore witnesses and with forewarning, bhis death is by strangulation, and he has a share in the World-to-Come. But one who humiliates another before the multitudes has no share in the World-to-Come.The transgression of those who humiliated David is clearly more severe than the transgression of David himself., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Even during the time of his illness he fulfilledthe mitzva of bconjugal rights for eighteenwives, bas it is stated: “I am weary with my groaning; every night I speak in my bed; I melt away my couch with tears”(Psalms 6:7). Even when he was weary and groaning he still spoke in his bed, a euphemism for sexual intercourse. bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: David sought to engage in idol worshipduring Absalom’s coup, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass when David was at the top [ irosh /i] of the ascent, where he would bow to God”(II Samuel 15:32), band irosh /imeans bnothing other than idol worship, as it is stated: “As for that image, its head [ ireishei /i] was of fine gold”(Daniel 2:32).,It is written: b“Behold Hushai the Archite came to meet him with his coat rent and earth upon his head”(II Samuel 15:32). Hushai bsaid to David: Shall they say a king like you will engage in idol worship?David bsaid to him:Is it preferable that they say with regard to ba king like me,known to be righteous, that bhis son will kill him?David continued, referring to himself in third person: bIt is preferable that he shall engage in idol worship and the name of Heaven shall not be desecrated in publicthrough the murder of a righteous king in this manner.,Hushai bsaidto him: bWhat is the reasonthat byou married a beautiful woman,the mother of Absalom? David bsaid to him:With regard to ba beautiful woman, the Merciful One permittedmarrying bher.Hushai bsaid to him:But byou did not interpret the juxtaposedverses, bas juxtaposed tothe portion of the beautiful woman is the portion beginning: b“If a man has a stubborn and rebellious son”(Deuteronomy 21:18). From that juxtaposition it is derived: bAnyone who marries a beautiful woman has a stubborn and rebellious son.Therefore, even if Absalom kills you, there will be no desecration of God’s name, as the people will attribute his actions to his mother., bRabbi Dostai from Biri taught: To what is David comparable?He is comparable bto a Samaritan merchant,who incrementally lowers the price until the buyer agrees to purchase the merchandise. bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe: “Who can discern his errors”(Psalms 19:13), i.e., forgive me for the unwitting sins that I committed. God bsaid to him: They are forgiven for you.David asked more: b“Cleanse me from hidden faults”(Psalms 19:13), i.e., pardon me for transgressions that I committed in private, even if I performed them intentionally. God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you.David requested: b“Keep back your servant also from intentional sins”(Psalms 19:14). God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you.David requested: b“Let them not have dominion over me, then I shall be faultless”(Psalms 19:14), and I further request bthat the Sages will not speak of meand condemn me. God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you. /b,David requested: b“And I shall be clear from great transgression”(Psalms 19:14), meaning bthat my transgressionwith Bathsheba and Uriah bwill not be writtenin the Bible. God bsaid to him:That is bimpossible. And just asthe letter iyodthat I removed fromthe name of bSarai,wife of Abraham, when I changed her name to Sarah, was bstanding and screaming several yearsover its omission from the Bible buntil Joshua came and I addedthe iyod bto hisname, bas it is stated: “And Moses called Hosea, son of Nun, Joshua [ iYehoshua /i]”(Numbers 13:16); bthe entire portionof your transgression, which is fit to be included in the Bible, ball the more soit cannot be omitted.,The verse states: b“And I shall be clear from great transgression”(Psalms 19:14). David bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, pardon me for that entire sin.God bsaidto him: bYour son Solomon is already destined to say with his wisdom: “Can a man take fire in his lap and his garments not be burned? Can one walk on hot coals and his feet not be scorched? So too one who lies with his neighbor’s wife; anyone who touches her shall not go unpunished”(Proverbs 6:27–29). David bsaid to Him: Will that man,David, bbe expelledfor bthat entiretransgression, with no remedy? God bsaid toDavid: bAccept upon yourself afflictions,and that will atone for your sins. bHe acceptedafflictions bupon himself. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:For bsix months David was afflicted with leprosy and the Divine Presence abandoned him andthe members of bthe Sanhedrin dissociatedthemselves bfrom him. He was afflicted with leprosy, as it is stated: “Purge me with hyssop and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow”(Psalms 51:9), indicating that he required purification like a leper. bThe Divine Presence abandoned him, as it is stated: “Restore me to joy of Your salvation; and uphold me with a willing spirit”(Psalms 51:14). bAndthe members of bthe Sanhedrin dissociatedthemselves bfrom him, as it is stated: “Let those who fear You turn to me,and those who have known Your testimonies” (Psalms 119:79). bFrom where do wederive that this lasted for bsix months?It is derived bas it is written: “And the days that David reigned over Israel were forty years; /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 5; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 78; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 319, 446
adam Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 78; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 319
adultery Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 211; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
akitho Gera, Judith (2014) 256
allotment, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
antioch Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
apocrypha Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 319
asleep Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
augustine Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
baptism Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
bathsheba Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 211; Gera, Judith (2014) 256; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 404, 446
bethlehem Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 44, 131
biblical women, and geneaologies Gera, Judith (2014) 256
body, bodies Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 211
book of judith, author Gera, Judith (2014) 256
book of judith, date Gera, Judith (2014) 256
book of judith, fictionality Gera, Judith (2014) 256
book of judith, message Gera, Judith (2014) 256
bägäna (amh., ethiopian musical instrument) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 319
chabris Gera, Judith (2014) 256
charmis Gera, Judith (2014) 256
child, children Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 211
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
children, children (grandchildren), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
christ Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
christian, early christian, anti-christian, christianity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 44
christians Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 98
christmas Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
church Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
cloelia Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 304
cloud Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
conversion narrative, book of ruth as Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 297
covenant Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 404
cross Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 44
crucifixion, jesus death Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 44
damascus Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 404
david, his sin Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
david, his story Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
david, the king, davidic kingdom Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25, 131
david, the king, house, dynasty, progeny of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25, 44
david Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 5; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 319, 404, 446
deborah, judge Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 304
diodore, preference for historical exegesis Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 242
easter Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
egyptian Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 98
eliab Gera, Judith (2014) 256
elijah, judiths forefather Gera, Judith (2014) 256
elijah, prophet Gera, Judith (2014) 256
elijah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 131
eternity Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
ethnicity Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 98
faith Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
fig Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
foreknowledge (gods) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 131
fragrances, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
fragrances Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
gender Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 304
genealogies Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 78
genealogy Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 507
gideon Gera, Judith (2014) 256
god, mountain of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
hades Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 131
hananiah Gera, Judith (2014) 256
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 131
hilkiah, judiths ancestor Gera, Judith (2014) 256
history, as christian history Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 78
hope Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 44, 131
human Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 98
identity Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 98
immersion Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25
incarnation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
inclusiveness, jews and Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 291, 297
intertextuality vii Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
isaac Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 131; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 131
israel Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 404
jacob Gera, Judith (2014) 256; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
jael Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 304
jeremiah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 131
jesse, father of david Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
jesus, as a prophetic anointed of the spirit Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25
jesus, descendant of david Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 68
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25, 44, 131
jesus, kingly/davidic messiahship/descent Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 44
jesus, miraculous birth Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25
jesus, priestly (aaronic) connection Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 131
jesus (christ) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
john (the baptist) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
john the baptist/baptizer/immerser Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25
jonah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 131
joseph, father of jesus Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
joseph Gera, Judith (2014) 256
joseph (father of jesus), descendant of david Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 68
joshua, jubilees, book of Gera, Judith (2014) 256
judah Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
judith, geneaology Gera, Judith (2014) 256
judith, symbolic figure Gera, Judith (2014) 256
judith Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 304
kinship Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 78
kish Gera, Judith (2014) 256
land of israel Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 404
langlands, rebecca Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 304
law Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 404
lent Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
levi Gera, Judith (2014) 256
levirate marriage Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 291
liber antiquitatum biblicarum, women of Gera, Judith (2014) 256
literary structure of surahs Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 507
liturgy, liturgical Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
lord Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 319
marriage Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 211; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
mary, mother of jesus Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 33; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 319, 446
mary Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25
mary (mother of jesus), betrothed to joseph Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 68
mary (mother of jesus), descendant of david Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 68
matrimony, jesus and church Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 68
merari Gera, Judith (2014) 256
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic, davidic, kingly Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25, 44
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25
messiah, gods anointed, of aaron Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 44
messiah, gods anointed, prophetic messiahship Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25
messiah, gods anointed, spiritual birth Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25
messiah, gods anointed, suffering, death of the messiah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 44
messiah, son of david Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
military discourse Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 304
moab and moabites, in book of ruth Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 297
mordecai Gera, Judith (2014) 256
moses, mosaic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 131
moses Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
multiculturalism, jews and Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 291, 297
mystical marriage Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
naomi and ruth Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 297
nathan, prophet Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 211
nathan Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 404
nathanael Gera, Judith (2014) 256
nazareth, nazarene Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25
necessity, necessary Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
nehemiah Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 297
ox Gera, Judith (2014) 256
oziel Gera, Judith (2014) 256
passion of christ Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
patriarchs Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 78
penitence Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 211
peter, simon Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 131
philo Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 291
plant of paradise Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
prayer Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
rabbanite sages, talmud Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 404
race Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 98
rahab Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
raphaim Gera, Judith (2014) 256
rebecca Gera, Judith (2014) 256
redemption, salvation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 44
regions Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
repentance Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 404
resurrection Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 131
rhetoric Williams, Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement (2023) 98
ruth Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
ruth and naomi Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 297
salamiel Gera, Judith (2014) 256
salvation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
samaritans Gera, Judith (2014) 256
samuel Gera, Judith (2014) 256; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 319
sarasadai Gera, Judith (2014) 256
saul, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 304
saul, king of israel Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 319
saul Gera, Judith (2014) 256
scholars Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 404
sentencing, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
separatism, jewish' Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 297
separatism, jewish Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 291
serpent (of paradise) Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 507
shame Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
simeon, ancestor of judith Gera, Judith (2014) 256
simeon, tribe of Gera, Judith (2014) 256
sin Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 404
sleep Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 211
solomon (king of israel) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 319, 446
son of david Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25
sons of god, sons of heaven Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25, 44
spirit (of god), holy spirit, gift of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 25
sun Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
symbol of faith Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 197
synoptic gospels, tradition, pre-synoptic v-vi Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 131
tamar, wife of er Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 446
tamar and judah Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 291
tamar as Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 291
temple (in jerusalem), second Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 404
testament of judah Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 291
tobit Gera, Judith (2014) 256
transfiguration Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 131
transitus (of mary) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 319
tribes, israelite Gera, Judith (2014) 256
uriah (the hittite) Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 211
uriah the hittite Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 404, 446
uzziah Gera, Judith (2014) 256
virgin birth Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 68
wind, messenger of god, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
wind Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
wing, wind, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 929
zephaniah Gera, Judith (2014) 256