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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8257
New Testament, Mark, 9.7


καὶ ἐγένετο νεφέλη ἐπισκιάζουσα αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἐγένετο φωνὴ ἐκ τῆς νεφέλης Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός, ἀκούετε αὐτοῦ.A cloud came, overshadowing them, and a voice came out of the cloud, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to him.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

75 results
1. Septuagint, Exodus, 19.15 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.2, 11.17, 18.15, 18.18, 28.1-28.2, 28.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.2. כַּגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה מַאֲבִיד מִפְּנֵיכֶם כֵּן תֹאבֵדוּן עֵקֶב לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּן בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 8.2. וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־כָּל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר הֹלִיכֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ זֶה אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה בַּמִּדְבָּר לְמַעַן עַנֹּתְךָ לְנַסֹּתְךָ לָדַעַת אֶת־אֲשֶׁר בִּלְבָבְךָ הֲתִשְׁמֹר מצותו [מִצְוֺתָיו] אִם־לֹא׃ 11.17. וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְעָצַר אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר וְהָאֲדָמָה לֹא תִתֵּן אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ וַאֲבַדְתֶּם מְהֵרָה מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃ 18.15. נָבִיא מִקִּרְבְּךָ מֵאַחֶיךָ כָּמֹנִי יָקִים לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵלָיו תִּשְׁמָעוּן׃ 18.18. נָבִיא אָקִים לָהֶם מִקֶּרֶב אֲחֵיהֶם כָּמוֹךָ וְנָתַתִּי דְבָרַי בְּפִיו וְדִבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּנּוּ׃ 28.1. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם וּנְתָנְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ עֶלְיוֹן עַל כָּל־גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 28.1. וְרָאוּ כָּל־עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ כִּי שֵׁם יְהוָה נִקְרָא עָלֶיךָ וְיָרְאוּ מִמֶּךָּ׃ 28.2. יְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה בְּךָ אֶת־הַמְּאֵרָה אֶת־הַמְּהוּמָה וְאֶת־הַמִּגְעֶרֶת בְּכָל־מִשְׁלַח יָדְךָ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה עַד הִשָּׁמֶדְךָ וְעַד־אֲבָדְךָ מַהֵר מִפְּנֵי רֹעַ מַעֲלָלֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר עֲזַבְתָּנִי׃ 28.2. וּבָאוּ עָלֶיךָ כָּל־הַבְּרָכוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְהִשִּׂיגֻךָ כִּי תִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 28.15. וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם וּבָאוּ עָלֶיךָ כָּל־הַקְּלָלוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְהִשִּׂיגוּךָ׃ 8.2. And thou shalt remember all the way which the LORD thy God hath led thee these forty years in the wilderness, that He might afflict thee, to prove thee, to know what was in thy heart, whether thou wouldest keep His commandments, or no." 11.17. and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain, and the ground shall not yield her fruit; and ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you." 18.15. A prophet will the LORD thy God raise up unto thee, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;" 18.18. I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee; and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him." 28.1. And it shall come to pass, if thou shalt hearken diligently unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all His commandments which I command thee this day, that the LORD thy God will set thee on high above all the nations of the earth." 28.2. And all these blessings shall come upon thee, and overtake thee, if thou shalt hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God." 28.15. But it shall come to pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all His commandments and His statutes which I command thee this day; that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.4, 7.1, 9.33, 12.11, 12.14, 16.23, 19.13, 19.16, 19.19, 24.1, 24.9, 24.13-24.18, 33.1, 34.4-34.6, 34.29-34.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה שְׁלַח יָדְךָ וֶאֱחֹז בִּזְנָבוֹ וַיִּשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וַיַּחֲזֶק בּוֹ וַיְהִי לְמַטֶּה בְּכַפּוֹ׃ 7.1. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן אֶל־פַּרְעֹה וַיַּעַשׂוּ כֵן כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אַהֲרֹן אֶת־מַטֵּהוּ לִפְנֵי פַרְעֹה וְלִפְנֵי עֲבָדָיו וַיְהִי לְתַנִּין׃ 7.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה רְאֵה נְתַתִּיךָ אֱלֹהִים לְפַרְעֹה וְאַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ יִהְיֶה נְבִיאֶךָ׃ 9.33. וַיֵּצֵא מֹשֶׁה מֵעִם פַּרְעֹה אֶת־הָעִיר וַיִּפְרֹשׂ כַּפָּיו אֶל־יְהוָה וַיַּחְדְּלוּ הַקֹּלוֹת וְהַבָּרָד וּמָטָר לֹא־נִתַּךְ אָרְצָה׃ 12.11. וְכָכָה תֹּאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ מָתְנֵיכֶם חֲגֻרִים נַעֲלֵיכֶם בְּרַגְלֵיכֶם וּמַקֶּלְכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּחִפָּזוֹן פֶּסַח הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 12.14. וְהָיָה הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לָכֶם לְזִכָּרוֹן וְחַגֹּתֶם אֹתוֹ חַג לַיהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם תְּחָגֻּהוּ׃ 16.23. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה שַׁבָּתוֹן שַׁבַּת־קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה מָחָר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאפוּ אֵפוּ וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־תְּבַשְּׁלוּ בַּשֵּׁלוּ וְאֵת כָּל־הָעֹדֵף הַנִּיחוּ לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת עַד־הַבֹּקֶר׃ 19.13. לֹא־תִגַּע בּוֹ יָד כִּי־סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל אוֹ־יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה אִם־בְּהֵמָה אִם־אִישׁ לֹא יִחְיֶה בִּמְשֹׁךְ הַיֹּבֵל הֵמָּה יַעֲלוּ בָהָר׃ 19.16. וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בִּהְיֹת הַבֹּקֶר וַיְהִי קֹלֹת וּבְרָקִים וְעָנָן כָּבֵד עַל־הָהָר וְקֹל שֹׁפָר חָזָק מְאֹד וַיֶּחֱרַד כָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר בַּמַּחֲנֶה׃ 19.19. וַיְהִי קוֹל הַשּׁוֹפָר הוֹלֵךְ וְחָזֵק מְאֹד מֹשֶׁה יְדַבֵּר וְהָאֱלֹהִים יַעֲנֶנּוּ בְקוֹל׃ 24.1. וַיִּרְאוּ אֵת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְתַחַת רַגְלָיו כְּמַעֲשֵׂה לִבְנַת הַסַּפִּיר וּכְעֶצֶם הַשָּׁמַיִם לָטֹהַר׃ 24.1. וְאֶל־מֹשֶׁה אָמַר עֲלֵה אֶל־יְהוָה אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם מֵרָחֹק׃ 24.9. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.13. וַיָּקָם מֹשֶׁה וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ מְשָׁרְתוֹ וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הַר הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 24.14. וְאֶל־הַזְּקֵנִים אָמַר שְׁבוּ־לָנוּ בָזֶה עַד אֲשֶׁר־נָשׁוּב אֲלֵיכֶם וְהִנֵּה אַהֲרֹן וְחוּר עִמָּכֶם מִי־בַעַל דְּבָרִים יִגַּשׁ אֲלֵהֶם׃ 24.15. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָהָר וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־הָהָר׃ 24.16. וַיִּשְׁכֹּן כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי וַיְכַסֵּהוּ הֶעָנָן שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִתּוֹךְ הֶעָנָן׃ 24.17. וּמַרְאֵה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה כְּאֵשׁ אֹכֶלֶת בְּרֹאשׁ הָהָר לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.18. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה בְּתוֹךְ הֶעָנָן וַיַּעַל אֶל־הָהָר וַיְהִי מֹשֶׁה בָּהָר אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה׃ 33.1. וְרָאָה כָל־הָעָם אֶת־עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן עֹמֵד פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְקָם כָּל־הָעָם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ אִישׁ פֶּתַח אָהֳלוֹ׃ 33.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵךְ עֲלֵה מִזֶּה אַתָּה וְהָעָם אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלִיתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב לֵאמֹר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה׃ 34.4. וַיִּפְסֹל שְׁנֵי־לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים כָּרִאשֹׁנִים וַיַּשְׁכֵּם מֹשֶׁה בַבֹּקֶר וַיַּעַל אֶל־הַר סִינַי כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֹתוֹ וַיִּקַּח בְּיָדוֹ שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים׃ 34.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בֶּעָנָן וַיִּתְיַצֵּב עִמּוֹ שָׁם וַיִּקְרָא בְשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 34.6. וַיַּעֲבֹר יְהוָה עַל־פָּנָיו וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה יְהוָה אֵל רַחוּם וְחַנּוּן אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת 34.29. וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן־הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא־יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ׃ 34.31. וַיִּקְרָא אֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֵלָיו אַהֲרֹן וְכָל־הַנְּשִׂאִים בָּעֵדָה וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם׃ 34.32. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן נִגְּשׁוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְצַוֵּם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינָי׃ 34.33. וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה מִדַּבֵּר אִתָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל־פָּנָיו מַסְוֶה׃ 34.34. וּבְבֹא מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ יָסִיר אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַד־צֵאתוֹ וְיָצָא וְדִבֶּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר יְצֻוֶּה׃ 34.35. וְרָאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְהֵשִׁיב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַל־פָּנָיו עַד־בֹּאוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ׃ 4.4. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Put forth thy hand, and take it by the tail—and he put forth his hand, and laid hold of it, and it became a rod in his hand—" 7.1. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘See, I have set thee in God’s stead to Pharaoh; and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet." 9.33. And Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh, and spread forth his hands unto the LORD; and the thunders and hail ceased, and the rain was not poured upon the earth." 12.11. And thus shall ye eat it: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste—it is the LORD’s passover." 12.14. And this day shall be unto you for a memorial, and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD; throughout your generations ye shall keep it a feast by an ordice for ever." 16.23. And he said unto them: ‘This is that which the LORD hath spoken: To-morrow is a solemn rest, a holy sabbath unto the LORD. Bake that which ye will bake, and seethe that which ye will seethe; and all that remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.’" 19.13. no hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live; when the ram’s horn soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.’" 19.16. And it came to pass on the third day, when it was morning, that there were thunders and lightnings and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of a horn exceeding loud; and all the people that were in the camp trembled." 19.19. And when the voice of the horn waxed louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice." 24.1. And unto Moses He said: ‘Come up unto the LORD, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; and worship ye afar off;" 24.9. Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel;" 24.13. And Moses rose up, and Joshua his minister; and Moses went up into the mount of God." 24.14. And unto the elders he said: ‘Tarry ye here for us, until we come back unto you; and, behold, Aaron and Hur are with you; whosoever hath a cause, let him come near unto them.’" 24.15. And Moses went up into the mount, and the cloud covered the mount." 24.16. And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days; and the seventh day He called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud." 24.17. And the appearance of the glory of the LORD was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel." 24.18. And Moses entered into the midst of the cloud, and went up into the mount; and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights." 33.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses: ‘Depart, go up hence, thou and the people that thou hast brought up out of the land of Egypt, unto the land of which I swore unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying: Unto thy seed will I give it—" 34.4. And he hewed two tables of stone like unto the first; and Moses rose up early in the morning, and went up unto mount Sinai, as the LORD had commanded him, and took in his hand two tables of stone." 34.5. And the LORD descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD." 34.6. And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed: ‘The LORD, the LORD, God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth;" 34.29. And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses’hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth abeams while He talked with him." 34.30. And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face sent forth beams; and they were afraid to come nigh him." 34.31. And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him; and Moses spoke to them." 34.32. And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh, and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai." 34.33. And when Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face." 34.34. But when Moses went in before the LORD that He might speak with him, he took the veil off, until he came out; and he came out; and spoke unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded." 34.35. And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’face sent forth beams; and Moses put the veil back upon his face, until he went in to speak with Him."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1, 2.7, 2.26, 3.17-3.19, 5.22-5.24, 7.4, 15.5, 22.2, 22.12, 22.16, 24.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 3.17. וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.18. וְקוֹץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃ 5.22. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־מְתוּשֶׁלַח שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.23. וַיְהִי כָּל־יְמֵי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 7.4. כִּי לְיָמִים עוֹד שִׁבְעָה אָנֹכִי מַמְטִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה וּמָחִיתִי אֶת־כָּל־הַיְקוּם אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 15.5. וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הַבֶּט־נָא הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וּסְפֹר הַכּוֹכָבִים אִם־תּוּכַל לִסְפֹּר אֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ׃ 22.2. וַיֹּאמֶר קַח־נָא אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ אֲשֶׁר־אָהַבְתָּ אֶת־יִצְחָק וְלֶךְ־לְךָ אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַמֹּרִיָּה וְהַעֲלֵהוּ שָׁם לְעֹלָה עַל אַחַד הֶהָרִים אֲשֶׁר אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ׃ 22.2. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיֻּגַּד לְאַבְרָהָם לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה יָלְדָה מִלְכָּה גַם־הִוא בָּנִים לְנָחוֹר אָחִיךָ׃ 22.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ אֶל־הַנַּעַר וְאַל־תַּעַשׂ לוֹ מְאוּמָּה כִּי עַתָּה יָדַעְתִּי כִּי־יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ מִמֶּנִּי׃ 22.16. וַיֹּאמֶר בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי יַעַן אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידֶךָ׃ 24.17. וַיָּרָץ הָעֶבֶד לִקְרָאתָהּ וַיֹּאמֶר הַגְמִיאִינִי נָא מְעַט־מַיִם מִכַּדֵּךְ׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 3.17. And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." 3.18. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field." 3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’" 5.22. And Enoch walked with God after he begot Methuselah three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.23. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years." 5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him." 7.4. For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I blot out from off the face of the earth.’" 15.5. And He brought him forth abroad, and said: ‘Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them’; and He said unto him: ‘So shall thy seed be.’" 22.2. And He said: ‘Take now thy son, thine only son, whom thou lovest, even Isaac, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.’" 22.12. And he said: ‘Lay not thy hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him; for now I know that thou art a God-fearing man, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, from Me.’" 22.16. and said: ‘By Myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son," 24.17. And the servant ran to meet her, and said: ‘Give me to drink, I pray thee, a little water of thy pitcher.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 37.6, 38.8, 38.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

37.6. כִּי לַשֶּׁלַג יֹאמַר הֱוֵא אָרֶץ וְגֶשֶׁם מָטָר וְגֶשֶׁם מִטְרוֹת עֻזּוֹ׃ 38.8. וַיָּסֶךְ בִּדְלָתַיִם יָם בְּגִיחוֹ מֵרֶחֶם יֵצֵא׃ 38.11. וָאֹמַר עַד־פֹּה תָבוֹא וְלֹא תֹסִיף וּפֹא־יָשִׁית בִּגְאוֹן גַּלֶּיךָ׃ 37.6. For He saith to the snow: ‘Fall thou on the earth’; Likewise to the shower of rain, and to the showers of His mighty rain." 38.8. Or who shut up the sea with doors, When it broke forth, and issued out of the womb;" 38.11. And said: ‘Thus far shalt thou come, but no further; And here shall thy proud waves be stayed’?"
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 23.3, 23.34, 23.41 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.3. וְכָל־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה כָּל־מְלָאכָה בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וְהַאֲבַדְתִּי אֶת־הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּהּ׃ 23.3. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ כָּל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ שַׁבָּת הִוא לַיהוָה בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 23.34. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הַזֶּה חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לַיהֹוָה׃ 23.41. וְחַגֹּתֶם אֹתוֹ חַג לַיהוָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי תָּחֹגּוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 23.3. Six days shall work be done; but on the seventh day is a sabbath of solemn rest, a holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of work; it is a sabbath unto the LORD in all your dwellings." 23.34. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: On the fifteenth day of this seventh month is the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto the LORD." 23.41. And ye shall keep it a feast unto the LORD seven days in the year; it is a statute for ever in your generations; ye shall keep it in the seventh month."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 14.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.34. בְּמִסְפַּר הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־תַּרְתֶּם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם יוֹם לַשָּׁנָה יוֹם לַשָּׁנָה תִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־עֲוֺנֹתֵיכֶם אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וִידַעְתֶּם אֶת־תְּנוּאָתִי׃ 14.34. After the number of the days in which ye spied out the land, even forty days, for every day a year, shall ye bear your iniquities, even forty years, and ye shall know My displeasure."
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.29, 30.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃ 30.4. מִי עָלָה־שָׁמַיִם וַיֵּרַד מִי אָסַף־רוּחַ בְּחָפְנָיו מִי צָרַר־מַיִם בַּשִּׂמְלָה מִי הֵקִים כָּל־אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ מַה־שְּׁמוֹ וּמַה־שֶּׁם־בְּנוֹ כִּי תֵדָע׃ 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;" 30.4. Who hath ascended up into heaven, and descended? Who hath gathered the wind in his fists? Who hath bound the waters in his garment? Who hath established all the ends of the earth? What is his name, and what is his son’s name, if thou knowest?"
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 33.7, 47.5, 65.7, 89.9, 104.9, 107.29, 110.1, 118.25-118.26, 148.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

33.7. כֹּנֵס כַּנֵּד מֵי הַיָּם נֹתֵן בְּאֹצָרוֹת תְּהוֹמוֹת׃ 47.5. יִבְחַר־לָנוּ אֶת־נַחֲלָתֵנוּ אֶת גְּאוֹן יַעֲקֹב אֲשֶׁר־אָהֵב סֶלָה׃ 65.7. מֵכִין הָרִים בְּכֹחוֹ נֶאְזָר בִּגְבוּרָה׃ 89.9. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי צְבָאוֹת מִי־כָמוֹךָ חֲסִין יָהּ וֶאֱמוּנָתְךָ סְבִיבוֹתֶיךָ׃ 104.9. גְּבוּל־שַׂמְתָּ בַּל־יַעֲבֹרוּן בַּל־יְשׁוּבוּן לְכַסּוֹת הָאָרֶץ׃ 107.29. יָקֵם סְעָרָה לִדְמָמָה וַיֶּחֱשׁוּ גַּלֵּיהֶם׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 118.25. אָנָּא יְהוָה הוֹשִׁיעָה נָּא אָנָּא יְהוָה הַצְלִיחָה נָּא׃ 118.26. בָּרוּךְ הַבָּא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה בֵּרַכְנוּכֶם מִבֵּית יְהוָה׃ 148.8. אֵשׁ וּבָרָד שֶׁלֶג וְקִיטוֹר רוּחַ סְעָרָה עֹשָׂה דְבָרוֹ׃ 33.7. He gathereth the waters of the sea together as a heap; He layeth up the deeps in storehouses." 47.5. He chooseth our inheritance for us, the pride of Jacob whom He loveth. Selah" 65.7. Who by Thy strength settest fast the mountains, who art girded about with might;" 89.9. O LORD God of hosts, Who is a mighty one, like unto Thee, O LORD? And Thy faithfulness is round about Thee." 104.9. Thou didst set a bound which they should not pass over, That they might not return to cover the earth." 107.29. He made the storm a calm, So that the waves thereof were still." 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'" 118.25. We beseech Thee, O LORD, save now! We beseech Thee, O LORD, make us now to prosper!" 118.26. Blessed be he that cometh in the name of the LORD; We bless you out of the house of the LORD." 148.8. Fire and hail, snow and vapour, Stormy wind, fulfilling His word;"
10. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 1.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.16. יוֹם שׁוֹפָר וּתְרוּעָה עַל הֶעָרִים הַבְּצֻרוֹת וְעַל הַפִּנּוֹת הַגְּבֹהוֹת׃ 1.16. A day of the horn and alarm, Against the fortified cities, and against the high towers."
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 19.5-19.8, 22.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.5. וַיִּשְׁכַּב וַיִּישַׁן תַּחַת רֹתֶם אֶחָד וְהִנֵּה־זֶה מַלְאָךְ נֹגֵעַ בּוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ קוּם אֱכוֹל׃ 19.6. וַיַּבֵּט וְהִנֵּה מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו עֻגַת רְצָפִים וְצַפַּחַת מָיִם וַיֹּאכַל וַיֵּשְׁתְּ וַיָּשָׁב וַיִּשְׁכָּב׃ 19.7. וַיָּשָׁב מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה שֵׁנִית וַיִּגַּע־בּוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר קוּם אֱכֹל כִּי רַב מִמְּךָ הַדָּרֶךְ׃ 19.8. וַיָּקָם וַיֹּאכַל וַיִּשְׁתֶּה וַיֵּלֶךְ בְּכֹחַ הָאֲכִילָה הַהִיא אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה עַד הַר הָאֱלֹהִים חֹרֵב׃ 22.23. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה נָתַן יְהוָה רוּחַ שֶׁקֶר בְּפִי כָּל־נְבִיאֶיךָ אֵלֶּה וַיהוָה דִּבֶּר עָלֶיךָ רָעָה׃ 19.5. And he lay down and slept under a broom-tree; and, behold, an angel touched him, and said unto him: ‘Arise and eat.’" 19.6. And he looked, and, behold, there was at his head a cake baked on the hot stones, and a cruse of water. And he did eat and drink, and laid him down again." 19.7. And the angel of the LORD came again the second time, and touched him, and said: ‘Arise and eat; because the journey is too great for thee.’" 19.8. And he arose, and did eat and drink, and went in the strength of that meal forty days and forty nights unto Horeb the mount of God." 22.23. Now therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets; and the LORD hath spoken evil concerning thee.’"
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 4.42-4.44 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.42. וְאִישׁ בָּא מִבַּעַל שָׁלִשָׁה וַיָּבֵא לְאִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים לֶחֶם בִּכּוּרִים עֶשְׂרִים־לֶחֶם שְׂעֹרִים וְכַרְמֶל בְּצִקְלֹנוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר תֵּן לָעָם וְיֹאכֵלוּ׃ 4.43. וַיֹּאמֶר מְשָׁרְתוֹ מָה אֶתֵּן זֶה לִפְנֵי מֵאָה אִישׁ וַיֹּאמֶר תֵּן לָעָם וְיֹאכֵלוּ כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה אָכֹל וְהוֹתֵר׃ 4.44. וַיִּתֵּן לִפְנֵיהֶם וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיּוֹתִרוּ כִּדְבַר יְהוָה׃ 4.42. And there came a man from Baal-shalishah, and brought the man of God bread of the first-fruits, twenty loaves of barley, and fresh ears of corn in his sack. And he said: ‘Give unto the people, that they may eat.’" 4.43. And his servant said: ‘How should I set this before a hundred men?’ But he said: ‘Give the people, that they may eat; for thus saith the LORD: They shall eat, and shall leave thereof.’" 4.44. So he set it before them, and they did eat, and left thereof, according to the word of the LORD."
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 11.1-11.9, 49.1-49.2, 49.6, 56.7, 60.8, 60.13, 61.1-61.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.1. וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֵּזַע יִשָׁי וְנֵצֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו יִפְרֶה׃ 11.1. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שֹׁרֶשׁ יִשַׁי אֲשֶׁר עֹמֵד לְנֵס עַמִּים אֵלָיו גּוֹיִם יִדְרֹשׁוּ וְהָיְתָה מְנֻחָתוֹ כָּבוֹד׃ 11.2. וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃ 11.3. וַהֲרִיחוֹ בְּיִרְאַת יְהוָה וְלֹא־לְמַרְאֵה עֵינָיו יִשְׁפּוֹט וְלֹא־לְמִשְׁמַע אָזְנָיו יוֹכִיחַ׃ 11.4. וְשָׁפַט בְּצֶדֶק דַּלִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ בְּמִישׁוֹר לְעַנְוֵי־אָרֶץ וְהִכָּה־אֶרֶץ בְּשֵׁבֶט פִּיו וּבְרוּחַ שְׂפָתָיו יָמִית רָשָׁע׃ 11.5. וְהָיָה צֶדֶק אֵזוֹר מָתְנָיו וְהָאֱמוּנָה אֵזוֹר חֲלָצָיו׃ 11.6. וְגָר זְאֵב עִם־כֶּבֶשׂ וְנָמֵר עִם־גְּדִי יִרְבָּץ וְעֵגֶל וּכְפִיר וּמְרִיא יַחְדָּו וְנַעַר קָטֹן נֹהֵג בָּם׃ 11.7. וּפָרָה וָדֹב תִּרְעֶינָה יַחְדָּו יִרְבְּצוּ יַלְדֵיהֶן וְאַרְיֵה כַּבָּקָר יֹאכַל־תֶּבֶן׃ 11.8. וְשִׁעֲשַׁע יוֹנֵק עַל־חֻר פָּתֶן וְעַל מְאוּרַת צִפְעוֹנִי גָּמוּל יָדוֹ הָדָה׃ 11.9. לֹא־יָרֵעוּ וְלֹא־יַשְׁחִיתוּ בְּכָל־הַר קָדְשִׁי כִּי־מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ דֵּעָה אֶת־יְהוָה כַּמַּיִם לַיָּם מְכַסִּים׃ 49.1. לֹא יִרְעָבוּ וְלֹא יִצְמָאוּ וְלֹא־יַכֵּם שָׁרָב וָשָׁמֶשׁ כִּי־מְרַחֲמָם יְנַהֲגֵם וְעַל־מַבּוּעֵי מַיִם יְנַהֲלֵם׃ 49.1. שִׁמְעוּ אִיִּים אֵלַי וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ לְאֻמִּים מֵרָחוֹק יְהוָה מִבֶּטֶן קְרָאָנִי מִמְּעֵי אִמִּי הִזְכִּיר שְׁמִי׃ 49.2. עוֹד יֹאמְרוּ בְאָזְנַיִךְ בְּנֵי שִׁכֻּלָיִךְ צַר־לִי הַמָּקוֹם גְּשָׁה־לִּי וְאֵשֵׁבָה׃ 49.2. וַיָּשֶׂם פִּי כְּחֶרֶב חַדָּה בְּצֵל יָדוֹ הֶחְבִּיאָנִי וַיְשִׂימֵנִי לְחֵץ בָּרוּר בְּאַשְׁפָּתוֹ הִסְתִּירָנִי׃ 49.6. וַיֹּאמֶר נָקֵל מִהְיוֹתְךָ לִי עֶבֶד לְהָקִים אֶת־שִׁבְטֵי יַעֲקֹב ונצירי [וּנְצוּרֵי] יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהָשִׁיב וּנְתַתִּיךָ לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם לִהְיוֹת יְשׁוּעָתִי עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ׃ 56.7. וַהֲבִיאוֹתִים אֶל־הַר קָדְשִׁי וְשִׂמַּחְתִּים בְּבֵית תְּפִלָּתִי עוֹלֹתֵיהֶם וְזִבְחֵיהֶם לְרָצוֹן עַל־מִזְבְּחִי כִּי בֵיתִי בֵּית־תְּפִלָּה יִקָּרֵא לְכָל־הָעַמִּים׃ 60.8. מִי־אֵלֶּה כָּעָב תְּעוּפֶינָה וְכַיּוֹנִים אֶל־אֲרֻבֹּתֵיהֶם׃ 60.13. כְּבוֹד הַלְּבָנוֹן אֵלַיִךְ יָבוֹא בְּרוֹשׁ תִּדְהָר וּתְאַשּׁוּר יַחְדָּו לְפָאֵר מְקוֹם מִקְדָּשִׁי וּמְקוֹם רַגְלַי אֲכַבֵּד׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 11.1. And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, And a twig shall grow forth out of his roots." 11.2. And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD." 11.3. And his delight shall be in the fear of the LORD; And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, Neither decide after the hearing of his ears;" 11.4. But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, And decide with equity for the meek of the land; And he shall smite the land with the rod of his mouth, And with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked." 11.5. And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, And faithfulness the girdle of his reins." 11.6. And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, And the leopard shall lie down with the kid; And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them." 11.7. And the cow and the bear feed; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox." 11.8. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, And the weaned child shall put his hand on the basilisk’s den." 11.9. They shall not hurt nor destroy In all My holy mountain; For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD, As the waters cover the sea." 49.1. Listen, O isles, unto me, And hearken, ye peoples, from far: The LORD hath called me from the womb, From the bowels of my mother hath He made mention of my name;" 49.2. And He hath made my mouth like a sharp sword, In the shadow of His hand hath He hid me; And He hath made me a polished shaft, In His quiver hath He concealed me;" 49.6. Yea, He saith: ‘It is too light a thing that thou shouldest be My servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the offspring of Israel; I will also give thee for a light of the nations, That My salvation may be unto the end of the earth.’" 56.7. Even them will I bring to My holy mountain, And make them joyful in My house of prayer; Their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices Shall be acceptable upon Mine altar; For My house shall be called A house of prayer for all peoples." 60.8. Who are these that fly as a cloud, And as the doves to their cotes?" 60.13. The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, The cypress, the plane-tree and the larch together; To beautify the place of My sanctuary, And I will make the place of My feet glorious." 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;"
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 1.5, 5.22, 6.1, 7.5-7.7, 7.11, 10.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.5. בְּטֶרֶם אצורך [אֶצָּרְךָ] בַבֶּטֶן יְדַעְתִּיךָ וּבְטֶרֶם תֵּצֵא מֵרֶחֶם הִקְדַּשְׁתִּיךָ נָבִיא לַגּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ׃ 5.22. הַאוֹתִי לֹא־תִירָאוּ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה אִם מִפָּנַי לֹא תָחִילוּ אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי חוֹל גְּבוּל לַיָּם חָק־עוֹלָם וְלֹא יַעַבְרֶנְהוּ וַיִּתְגָּעֲשׁוּ וְלֹא יוּכָלוּ וְהָמוּ גַלָּיו וְלֹא יַעַבְרֻנְהוּ׃ 6.1. הָעִזוּ בְּנֵי בִניָמִן מִקֶּרֶב יְרוּשָׁלִַם וּבִתְקוֹעַ תִּקְעוּ שׁוֹפָר וְעַל־בֵּית הַכֶּרֶם שְׂאוּ מַשְׂאֵת כִּי רָעָה נִשְׁקְפָה מִצָּפוֹן וְשֶׁבֶר גָּדוֹל׃ 6.1. עַל־מִי אֲדַבְּרָה וְאָעִידָה וְיִשְׁמָעוּ הִנֵּה עֲרֵלָה אָזְנָם וְלֹא יוּכְלוּ לְהַקְשִׁיב הִנֵּה דְבַר־יְהוָה הָיָה לָהֶם לְחֶרְפָּה לֹא יַחְפְּצוּ־בוֹ׃ 7.5. כִּי אִם־הֵיטֵיב תֵּיטִיבוּ אֶת־דַּרְכֵיכֶם וְאֶת־מַעַלְלֵיכֶם אִם־עָשׂוֹ תַעֲשׂוּ מִשְׁפָּט בֵּין אִישׁ וּבֵין רֵעֵהוּ׃ 7.6. גֵּר יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה לֹא תַעֲשֹׁקוּ וְדָם נָקִי אַל־תִּשְׁפְּכוּ בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְאַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים לֹא תֵלְכוּ לְרַע לָכֶם׃ 7.7. וְשִׁכַּנְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לַאֲבוֹתֵיכֶם לְמִן־עוֹלָם וְעַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.11. הַמְעָרַת פָּרִצִים הָיָה הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא־שְׁמִי עָלָיו בְּעֵינֵיכֶם גַּם אָנֹכִי הִנֵּה רָאִיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 10.13. לְקוֹל תִּתּוֹ הֲמוֹן מַיִם בַּשָּׁמַיִם וַיַּעֲלֶה נְשִׂאִים מִקְצֵה ארץ [הָאָרֶץ] בְּרָקִים לַמָּטָר עָשָׂה וַיּוֹצֵא רוּחַ מֵאֹצְרֹתָיו׃ 1.5. Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee, And before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee; I have appointed thee a prophet unto the nations." 5.22. Fear ye not Me? saith the LORD; Will ye not tremble at My presence? Who have placed the sand for the bound of the sea, An everlasting ordice, which it cannot pass; And though the waves thereof toss themselves, yet can they not prevail; Though they roar, yet can they not pass over it." 6.1. Put yourselves under covert, ye children of Benjamin, Away from the midst of Jerusalem, And blow the horn in Tekoa, And set up a signal on Beth-cherem; For evil looketh forth from the north, And a great destruction." 7.5. Nay, but if ye thoroughly amend your ways and your doings; if ye thoroughly execute justice between a man and his neighbour;" 7.6. if ye oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, and shed not innocent blood in this place, neither walk after other gods to your hurt;" 7.7. then will I cause you to dwell in this place, in the land that I gave to your fathers, for ever and ever." 7.11. Is this house, whereupon My name is called, become a den of robbers in your eyes? Behold, I, even I, have seen it, saith the LORD." 10.13. At the sound of His giving a multitude of waters in the heavens, When He causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth; When He maketh lightnings with the rain, And bringeth forth the wind out of His treasuries;"
15. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 6.5, 6.17-6.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.5. וְהָיָה בִּמְשֹׁךְ בְּקֶרֶן הַיּוֹבֵל בשמעכם [כְּשָׁמְעֲכֶם] אֶת־קוֹל הַשּׁוֹפָר יָרִיעוּ כָל־הָעָם תְּרוּעָה גְדוֹלָה וְנָפְלָה חוֹמַת הָעִיר תַּחְתֶּיהָ וְעָלוּ הָעָם אִישׁ נֶגְדּוֹ׃ 6.17. וְהָיְתָה הָעִיר חֵרֶם הִיא וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ לַיהוָה רַק רָחָב הַזּוֹנָה תִּחְיֶה הִיא וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר אִתָּהּ בַּבַּיִת כִּי הֶחְבְּאַתָה אֶת־הַמַּלְאָכִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁלָחְנוּ׃ 6.18. וְרַק־אַתֶּם שִׁמְרוּ מִן־הַחֵרֶם פֶּן־תַּחֲרִימוּ וּלְקַחְתֶּם מִן־הַחֵרֶם וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל לְחֵרֶם וַעֲכַרְתֶּם אוֹתוֹ׃ 6.19. וְכֹל כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב וּכְלֵי נְחֹשֶׁת וּבַרְזֶל קֹדֶשׁ הוּא לַיהוָה אוֹצַר יְהוָה יָבוֹא׃ 6.5. And it shall be, that when they make a long blast with the ram’s horn, and when ye hear the sound of the horn, all the people shall shout with a great shout; and the wall of the city shall fall down flat, and the people shall go up every man straight before him.’" 6.17. And the city shall be devoted, even it and all that is therein, to the LORD; only Rahab the harlot shall live, she and all that are with her in the house, because she hid the messengers that we sent." 6.18. And ye, in any wise keep yourselves from the devoted thing, lest ye make yourselves accursed by taking of the devoted thing, so should ye make the camp of Israel accursed, and trouble it." 6.19. But all the silver, and gold, and vessels of brass and iron, are holy unto the LORD; they shall come into the treasury of the LORD.’" 6.20. So the people shouted, and [the priests] blew with the horns. And it came to pass, when the people heard the sound of the horn, that the people shouted with a great shout, and the wall fell down flat, so that the people went up into the city, every man straight before him, and they took the city."
16. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 7.8-7.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.8. וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־צֵדָה הָעָם בְּיָדָם וְאֵת שׁוֹפְרֹתֵיהֶם וְאֵת כָּל־אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׁלַּח אִישׁ לְאֹהָלָיו וּבִשְׁלֹשׁ־מֵאוֹת הָאִישׁ הֶחֱזִיק וּמַחֲנֵה מִדְיָן הָיָה לוֹ מִתַּחַת בָּעֵמֶק׃ 7.9. וַיְהִי בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו יְהוָה קוּם רֵד בַּמַּחֲנֶה כִּי נְתַתִּיו בְּיָדֶךָ׃ 7.11. וְשָׁמַעְתָּ מַה־יְדַבֵּרוּ וְאַחַר תֶּחֱזַקְנָה יָדֶיךָ וְיָרַדְתָּ בַּמַּחֲנֶה וַיֵּרֶד הוּא וּפֻרָה נַעֲרוֹ אֶל־קְצֵה הַחֲמֻשִׁים אֲשֶׁר בַּמַּחֲנֶה׃ 7.12. וּמִדְיָן וַעֲמָלֵק וְכָל־בְּנֵי־קֶדֶם נֹפְלִים בָּעֵמֶק כָּאַרְבֶּה לָרֹב וְלִגְמַלֵּיהֶם אֵין מִסְפָּר כַּחוֹל שֶׁעַל־שְׂפַת הַיָּם לָרֹב׃ 7.13. וַיָּבֹא גִדְעוֹן וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ מְסַפֵּר לְרֵעֵהוּ חֲלוֹם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה חֲלוֹם חָלַמְתִּי וְהִנֵּה צלול [צְלִיל] לֶחֶם שְׂעֹרִים מִתְהַפֵּךְ בְּמַחֲנֵה מִדְיָן וַיָּבֹא עַד־הָאֹהֶל וַיַּכֵּהוּ וַיִּפֹּל וַיַּהַפְכֵהוּ לְמַעְלָה וְנָפַל הָאֹהֶל׃ 7.14. וַיַּעַן רֵעֵהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵין זֹאת בִּלְתִּי אִם־חֶרֶב גִּדְעוֹן בֶּן־יוֹאָשׁ אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל נָתַן הָאֱלֹהִים בְּיָדוֹ אֶת־מִדְיָן וְאֶת־כָּל־הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 7.15. וַיְהִי כִשְׁמֹעַ גִּדְעוֹן אֶת־מִסְפַּר הַחֲלוֹם וְאֶת־שִׁבְרוֹ וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיָּשָׁב אֶל־מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר קוּמוּ כִּי־נָתַן יְהוָה בְּיֶדְכֶם אֶת־מַחֲנֵה מִדְיָן׃ 7.16. וַיַּחַץ אֶת־שְׁלֹשׁ־מֵאוֹת הָאִישׁ שְׁלֹשָׁה רָאשִׁים וַיִּתֵּן שׁוֹפָרוֹת בְּיַד־כֻּלָּם וְכַדִּים רֵקִים וְלַפִּדִים בְּתוֹךְ הַכַּדִּים׃ 7.17. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם מִמֶּנִּי תִרְאוּ וְכֵן תַּעֲשׂוּ וְהִנֵּה אָנֹכִי בָא בִּקְצֵה הַמַּחֲנֶה וְהָיָה כַאֲשֶׁר־אֶעֱשֶׂה כֵּן תַּעֲשׂוּן׃ 7.18. וְתָקַעְתִּי בַּשּׁוֹפָר אָנֹכִי וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר אִתִּי וּתְקַעְתֶּם בַּשּׁוֹפָרוֹת גַּם־אַתֶּם סְבִיבוֹת כָּל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וַאֲמַרְתֶּם לַיהוָה וּלְגִדְעוֹן׃ 7.19. וַיָּבֹא גִדְעוֹן וּמֵאָה־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ בִּקְצֵה הַמַּחֲנֶה רֹאשׁ הָאַשְׁמֹרֶת הַתִּיכוֹנָה אַךְ הָקֵם הֵקִימוּ אֶת־הַשֹּׁמְרִים וַיִּתְקְעוּ בַּשּׁוֹפָרוֹת וְנָפוֹץ הַכַּדִּים אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדָם׃ 7.21. וַיַּעַמְדוּ אִישׁ תַּחְתָּיו סָבִיב לַמַּחֲנֶה וַיָּרָץ כָּל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיָּרִיעוּ ויניסו [וַיָּנוּסוּ׃] 7.22. וַיִּתְקְעוּ שְׁלֹשׁ־מֵאוֹת הַשּׁוֹפָרוֹת וַיָּשֶׂם יְהוָה אֵת חֶרֶב אִישׁ בְּרֵעֵהוּ וּבְכָל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיָּנָס הַמַּחֲנֶה עַד־בֵּית הַשִּׁטָּה צְרֵרָתָה עַד שְׂפַת־אָבֵל מְחוֹלָה עַל־טַבָּת׃ 7.8. So the people took provisions in their hands, and their shofarot: and he sent all the rest of Yisra᾽el, every man to his tent, and retained those three hundred men: and the host of Midyan was beneath him in the valley." 7.9. And it was on the same night, that the Lord said to him, Arise, go down to the camp; for I have delivered it into thy hand." 7.10. But if thou fear to go down, go thou with Pura thy boy down to the camp:" 7.11. and thou shalt hear what they say; and afterwards shall thy hands be strengthened to go down unto the host. Then went he down with Pura his boy to the fringe of the armed men that were in the camp." 7.12. Now Midyan and ῾Amaleq and all the children of the east lay along in the valley like locusts for multitude; and their camels were without number, as the sand by the sea side for multitude." 7.13. And when Gid῾on was come, behold, there was a man that told a dream to his fellow, and said, Behold, I dreamed a dream, and, lo, a slice of barley bread was rolling through the camp of Midyan, and it came to a tent, and smote it so that it fell, and overturned it, so that the tent tumbled down." 7.14. And his fellow answered and said, This is nothing else but the sword of Gid῾on the son of Yo᾽ash, a man of Yisra᾽el: for into his hand has God delivered Midyan, and all the camp." 7.15. And it was, when Gid῾on heard the telling of the dream, and its interpretation, that he bowed himself down to the ground, and returned to the camp of Yisra᾽el and said, Arise; for the Lord has delivered into your hand the host of Midyan. 7.16. And he divided the three hundred men into three companies, and he put a shofar in every man’s hand, with empty jars, and torches within the jars." 7.17. And he said to them, Whatever you see me do, do likewise: and, behold, I am going to the edge of the camp, and it shall be, whatever I do, so shall you do." 7.18. When I blow on the shofar, I and all that are with me, then you blow your shofarot also on every side of all the camp, and say, The sword of the Lord, and of Gid῾on." 7.19. So Gid῾on, and the hundred men that were with him, came to the edge of the camp at the beginning of the middle watch; and they had newly posted the sentinels: and they blew with the shofarot, and broke the jars that were in their hands." 7.20. Then the three companies blew on the shofarot, and broke the jars, and held the torches in their left hands, and the shofarot in their right hands to blow on them: and they cried, The sword of the Lord, and of Gid῾on." 7.21. And they stood every man in his place round about the camp: and all the camp ran, and cried, and fled." 7.22. And the three hundred blew the horns, and the Lord set every man’s sword against his fellow, throughout all the camp: and the host fled to Bet-hashshitta in Żerera, and to the border of Avel-meĥola, at Tabbat."
17. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 11.23 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.23. וַיַּעַל כְּבוֹד יְהוָה מֵעַל תּוֹךְ הָעִיר וַיַּעֲמֹד עַל־הָהָר אֲשֶׁר מִקֶּדֶם לָעִיר׃ 11.23. And the glory of the LORD went up from the midst of the city, and stood upon the mountain which is on the east side of the city."
18. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 18.21-18.22 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.21. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵצֵא וְהָיִיתִי לְרוּחַ שֶׁקֶר בְּפִי כָּל־נְבִיאָיו וַיֹּאמֶר תְּפַתֶּה וְגַם־תּוּכָל צֵא וַעֲשֵׂה־כֵן׃ 18.22. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה נָתַן יְהוָה רוּחַ שֶׁקֶר בְּפִי נְבִיאֶיךָ אֵלֶּה וַיהוָה דִּבֶּר עָלֶיךָ רָעָה׃ 18.21. And he said: I will go forth, and will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. And He said: Thou shalt entice him, and shalt prevail also; go forth, and do so." 18.22. Now therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of these thy prophets; and the LORD hath spoken evil concerning thee.’"
19. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 9.9, 9.14, 13.7, 13.9, 14.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.9. גִּילִי מְאֹד בַּת־צִיּוֹן הָרִיעִי בַּת יְרוּשָׁלִַם הִנֵּה מַלְכֵּךְ יָבוֹא לָךְ צַדִּיק וְנוֹשָׁע הוּא עָנִי וְרֹכֵב עַל־חֲמוֹר וְעַל־עַיִר בֶּן־אֲתֹנוֹת׃ 9.14. וַיהוָה עֲלֵיהֶם יֵרָאֶה וְיָצָא כַבָּרָק חִצּוֹ וַאדֹנָי יְהֹוִה בַּשּׁוֹפָר יִתְקָע וְהָלַךְ בְּסַעֲרוֹת תֵּימָן׃ 13.7. חֶרֶב עוּרִי עַל־רֹעִי וְעַל־גֶּבֶר עֲמִיתִי נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת הַךְ אֶת־הָרֹעֶה וּתְפוּצֶיןָ הַצֹּאן וַהֲשִׁבֹתִי יָדִי עַל־הַצֹּעֲרִים׃ 13.9. וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶת־הַשְּׁלִשִׁית בָּאֵשׁ וּצְרַפְתִּים כִּצְרֹף אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף וּבְחַנְתִּים כִּבְחֹן אֶת־הַזָּהָב הוּא יִקְרָא בִשְׁמִי וַאֲנִי אֶעֱנֶה אֹתוֹ אָמַרְתִּי עַמִּי הוּא וְהוּא יֹאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי׃ 14.4. וְעָמְדוּ רַגְלָיו בַּיּוֹם־הַהוּא עַל־הַר הַזֵּתִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם מִקֶּדֶם וְנִבְקַע הַר הַזֵּיתִים מֵחֶצְיוֹ מִזְרָחָה וָיָמָּה גֵּיא גְּדוֹלָה מְאֹד וּמָשׁ חֲצִי הָהָר צָפוֹנָה וְחֶצְיוֹ־נֶגְבָּה׃ 9.9. Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion, Shout, O daughter of Jerusalem; Behold, thy king cometh unto thee, He is triumphant, and victorious, Lowly, and riding upon an ass, Even upon a colt the foal of an ass." 9.14. And the LORD shall be seen over them, And His arrow shall go forth as the lightning; And the Lord GOD will blow the horn, And will go with whirlwinds of the south." 13.7. Awake, O sword, against My shepherd, And against the man that is near unto Me, Saith the LORD of hosts; Smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered; And I will turn My hand upon the little ones." 13.9. And I will bring the third part through the fire, And will refine them as silver is refined, And will try them as gold is tried; They shall call on My name, And I will answer them; I will say: ‘It is My people’, And they shall say: ‘The LORD is my God.’" 14.4. And His feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, Which is before Jerusalem on the east, And the mount of Olives shall cleft in the midst thereof Toward the east and toward the west, So that there shall be a very great valley; And half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, And half of it toward the south."
20. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1.9, 14.8, 65.4 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.9. And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him. 14.8. written. And the vision was shown to me thus: Behold, in the vision clouds invited me and a mist summoned me, and the course of the stars and the lightnings sped and hastened me, and the winds in 65.4. and shaken, lest perchance I shall perish with it ' And thereupon there was a great commotion, on the earth, and a voice was heard from heaven, and I fell on my face. And Enoch my grandfather came and stood by me, and said unto me: ' Why hast thou cried unto me with a bitter cry and weeping 1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
21. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 8.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

22. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.5, 3.7, 3.10, 7.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.5. בְּעִדָּנָא דִּי־תִשְׁמְעוּן קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרוס [קַתְרוֹס] סַבְּכָא פְּסַנְתֵּרִין סוּמְפֹּנְיָה וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא תִּפְּלוּן וְתִסְגְּדוּן לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא׃ 3.7. כָּל־קֳבֵל דְּנָה בֵּהּ־זִמְנָא כְּדִי שָׁמְעִין כָּל־עַמְמַיָּא קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְּסַנְטֵרִין וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא נָפְלִין כָּל־עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא סָגְדִין לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא׃ 7.13. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃ 3.5. that at what time ye hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, bagpipe, and all kinds of music, ye fall down and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up;" 3.7. Therefore at that time, when all the peoples heard the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and all kinds of music, all the peoples, the nations, and the languages, fell down and worshipped the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up." 3.10. Thou, O king, hast made a decree, that every man that shall hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and bagpipe, and all kinds of music, shall fall down and worship the golden image;" 7.13. I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him."
23. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 2.7-2.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.7. When Jeremiah learned of it, he rebuked them and declared: 'The place shall be unknown until God gathers his people together again and shows his mercy.' 2.8. And then the Lord will disclose these things, and the glory of the Lord and the cloud will appear, as they were shown in the case of Moses, and as Solomon asked that the place should be specially consecrated.'
24. Septuagint, Judith, 5.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

5.5. Then Achior, the leader of all the Ammonites, said to him, "Let my lord now hear a word from the mouth of your servant, and I will tell you the truth about this people that dwells in the nearby mountain district. No falsehood shall come from your servant's mouth.
25. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 6.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.11. Let not the vain-minded praise their vanities at the destruction of your beloved people, saying, `Not even their god has rescued them.'
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.189 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.189. for then the voice of a trumpet sounded from heaven, which it is natural to suppose reached to the very extremities of the universe, so that so wondrous a sound attracted all who were present, making them consider, as it is probable, that such mighty events were signs betokening some great things to be accomplished.
27. Anon., 2 Baruch, 22.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.6. To this end therefore, my brethren, He that is long-suffering, foreseeing that the people whom He had prepared in His well-beloved would believe in simplicity, manifested to us beforehand concerning all things, that we might not as novices shipwreck ourselves upon their law.
29. Anon., Didache, 16.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 17.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17.1. Μιμηταὶ γενώμεθα κἀκείνων, οἵτινες ἐν δέρμασιν αἰγείοις καὶ μηλωταῖς περιεπάτησαν κηρύσσοντες τὴν ἔλευσιν τοῦ Χριστοῦ: λέγομεν δὲ Ἠλίαν καὶ Ἑλισαιέ, ἔτι δὲ καὶ Ἰεζεκιήλ, τοὺς προφήτας: πρὸς τούτοις καὶ τοὺς μεμαρτυρημένους.
31. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.504-5.505, 6.300 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.504. Titus began the wall from the camp of the Assyrians, where his own camp was pitched, and drew it down to the lower parts of Cenopolis; thence it went along the valley of Cedron, to the Mount of Olives; 5.505. it then bent towards the south, and encompassed the mountain as far as the rock called Peristereon, and that other hill which lies next to it, and is over the valley which reaches to Siloam; whence it bended again to the west, and went down to the valley of the Fountain
32. Josephus Flavius, Life, 259 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

33. Mishnah, Avot, 3.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.15. Everything is foreseen yet freedom of choice is granted, And the world is judged with goodness; And everything is in accordance with the preponderance of works.
34. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
35. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.3-5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.3. There were four seals in the Temple, and on them was inscribed [respectively]: ‘calf’, ‘ram’, ‘kid’, ‘sinner’. Ben Azzai says: there were five and on them was inscribed in Aramaic [respectively]” ‘calf’, ‘ram’, ‘kid’, ‘poor sinner’, and ‘rich sinner’. [The seal inscribed] ‘calf’ served for the libations of cattle, both large and small, male and female. [The seal inscribed] ‘kid’ served for the libations of flock animals, both large and small, male and female, with the exception of rams. [The one inscribed] ‘ram’ served for the libations of rams alone. [The one inscribed] ‘sinner’ served for the libations of the three animals [offered] by lepers." 5.4. If one required libations he would go to Yoha who was the officer over the seals, and give him money and receive from him a seal. Then he would go to Ahiyah who was the officer over the libations, and give him the seal, and receive from him the libations. And in the evening these two [officers] would come together, and Ahiyah would bring out the seals and receive money for their value. And if there was more [than their value] the surplus belonged to the sanctuary, but if there was less [than their value] Yoha would pay [the loss] out of his own pocket; for the Temple has the upper hand."
36. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 14.8, 15.7, 15.51-15.57 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.8. For if the trumpet gave an uncertainsound, who would prepare himself for war? 15.7. Then he appeared to James, then to allthe apostles 15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed 15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory. 15.55. Death, where is your sting?Hades, where is your victory? 15.56. The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 15.57. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our LordJesus Christ.
37. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.13-4.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.13. But we don't want you to be ignorant, brothers, concerning those who have fallen asleep, so that you don't grieve like the rest, who have no hope. 4.14. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so those who have fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with him. 4.15. For this we tell you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left to the coming of the Lord, will in no way precede those who have fallen asleep. 4.16. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with God's trumpet. The dead in Christ will rise first 4.17. then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. So we will be with the Lord forever.
38. New Testament, 2 Peter, 1.17, 3.15-3.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. For he received from God the Father honor and glory, when the voice came to him from the Majestic Glory, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 3.15. Regard the patience of our Lord as salvation; even as our beloved brother Paul also, according to the wisdom given to him, wrote to you; 3.16. as also in all of his letters, speaking in them of these things. In those are some things hard to be understood, which the ignorant and unsettled twist, as they also do to the other Scriptures, to their own destruction.
39. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 12.2-12.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

40. New Testament, Acts, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 2, 3, 3.18, 3.22, 3.23, 4, 5, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 6, 7.31, 7.37, 7.52, 7.54-8.1, 9.12, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 10.22, 10.23, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 13.2, 16.10, 28.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.10. While they were looking steadfastly into the sky as he went, behold, two men stood by them in white clothing
41. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.12-1.20, 4.1, 8.2, 8.6-8.13, 9.1, 10.4, 10.7, 11.11-11.12, 11.15, 18.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. Having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands. 1.13. And in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man, clothed with a robe reaching down to his feet, and with a golden sash around his chest. 1.14. His head and his hair were white as white wool, like snow. His eyes were like a flame of fire. 1.15. His feet were like burnished brass, as if it had been refined in a furnace. His voice was like the voice of many waters. 1.16. He had seven stars in his right hand. Out of his mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining at its brightest. 1.17. When I saw him, I fell at his feet like a dead man. He laid his right hand on me, saying, "Don't be afraid. I am the first and the last 1.18. and the Living one. I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. I have the keys of Death and of Hades. 1.19. Write therefore the things which you have seen, and the things which are, and the things which will happen hereafter; 1.20. the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands. The seven stars are the angels of the seven assemblies. The seven lampstands are seven assemblies. 4.1. After these things I looked and saw a door opened in heaven, and the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was one saying, "Come up here, and I will show you the things which must happen after this. 8.2. I saw the seven angels who stand before God, and seven trumpets were given to them. 8.6. The seven angels who had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound. 8.7. The first sounded, and there followed hail and fire, mixed with blood, and they were thrown on the earth. One third of the earth was burnt up, and one third of the trees were burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up. 8.8. The second angel sounded, and something like a great burning mountain was thrown into the sea. One third of the sea became blood 8.9. and one third of the creatures which were in the sea died, those who had life. One third of the ships were destroyed. 8.10. The third angel sounded, and a great star fell from the sky, burning like a torch, and it fell on one third of the rivers, and on the springs of the waters. 8.11. The name of the star is called "Wormwood." One third of the waters became wormwood. Many men died from the waters, because they were made bitter. 8.12. The fourth angel sounded, and one third of the sun was struck, and one third of the moon, and one third of the stars; so that one third of them would be darkened, and the day wouldn't shine for one third of it, and the night in the same way. 8.13. I saw, and I heard an eagle, flying in mid heaven, saying with a loud voice, "Woe! Woe! Woe for those who dwell on the earth, because of the other voices of the trumpets of the three angels, who are yet to sound! 9.1. The fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star from the sky fallen to the earth. The key to the pit of the abyss was given to him. 10.4. When the seven thunders sounded, I was about to write; but I heard a voice from the sky saying, "Seal up the things which the seven thunders said, and don't write them. 10.7. but in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he is about to sound, then the mystery of God is finished, as he declared to his servants, the prophets. 11.11. After the three and a half days, the breath of life from God entered into them, and they stood on their feet. Great fear fell on those who saw them. 11.12. I heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, "Come up here!" They went up into heaven in the cloud, and their enemies saw them. 11.15. The seventh angel sounded, and great voices in heaven followed, saying, "The kingdom of the world has become the Kingdom of our Lord, and of his Christ. He will reign forever and ever! 18.4. I heard another voice from heaven, saying, "Come forth, my people, out of her, that you have no participation in her sins, and that you don't receive of her plagues
42. New Testament, Colossians, 1.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. who delivered us out of the power of darkness, and translated us into the Kingdom of the Son of his love;
43. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved
44. New Testament, Galatians, 1.11-1.12, 1.15-1.16, 1.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. But Imake known to you, brothers, concerning the gospel which was preachedby me, that it is not according to man. 1.12. For neither did Ireceive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came to me throughrevelation of Jesus Christ. 1.15. Butwhen it was the good pleasure of God, who separated me from my mother'swomb, and called me through his grace 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 1.19. But of the otherapostles I saw no one, except James, the Lord's brother.
45. New Testament, Romans, 9.25, 11.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.25. As he says also in Hosea, "I will call them 'my people,' which were not my people; And her 'beloved,' who was not beloved. 11.28. Concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sake. But concerning the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sake.
46. New Testament, John, 1.3-1.4, 1.9, 1.21, 1.26, 1.32-1.33, 1.51, 2.17, 3.11-3.13, 5.25, 5.31-5.40, 5.46, 6.1-6.21, 6.38, 6.51, 6.62, 6.69, 8.12-8.20, 8.23, 8.47, 10.20, 11.4, 11.21-11.22, 11.25-11.27, 11.39-11.40, 11.42, 11.44, 12.28-12.29, 14.9, 21.1-21.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.21. They asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?"He said, "I am not.""Are you the Prophet?"He answered, "No. 1.26. John answered them, "I baptize in water, but among you stands one whom you don't know. 1.32. John testified, saying, "I have seen the Spirit descending like a dove out of heaven, and it remained on him. 1.33. I didn't recognize him, but he who sent me to baptize in water, he said to me, 'On whomever you will see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.' 1.51. He said to him, "Most assuredly, I tell you, hereafter you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man. 2.17. His disciples remembered that it was written, "Zeal for your house will eat me up. 3.11. Most assuredly I tell you, we speak that which we know, and testify of that which we have seen, and you don't receive our witness. 3.12. If I told you earthly things and you don't believe, how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things? 3.13. No one has ascended into heaven, but he who descended out of heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven. 5.25. Most assuredly, I tell you, the hour comes, and now is, when the dead will hear the Son of God's voice; and those who hear will live. 5.31. If I testify about myself, my witness is not valid. 5.32. It is another who testifies about me. I know that the testimony which he testifies about me is true. 5.33. You have sent to John, and he has testified to the truth. 5.34. But the testimony which I receive is not from man. However, I say these things that you may be saved. 5.35. He was the burning and shining lamp, and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light. 5.36. But the testimony which I have is greater than that of John, for the works which the Father gave me to accomplish, the very works that I do, testify about me, that the Father has sent me. 5.37. The Father himself, who sent me, has testified about me. You have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his form. 5.38. You don't have his word living in you; because you don't believe him whom he sent. 5.39. You search the Scriptures, because you think that in them you have eternal life; and these are they which testify about me. 5.40. Yet you will not come to me, that you may have life. 5.46. For if you believed Moses, you would believe me; for he wrote about me. 6.1. After these things, Jesus went away to the other side of the sea of Galilee, which is also called the Sea of Tiberias. 6.2. A great multitude followed him, because they saw his signs which he did on those who were sick. 6.3. Jesus went up into the mountain, and he sat there with his disciples. 6.4. Now the Passover, the feast of the Jews, was at hand. 6.5. Jesus therefore lifting up his eyes, and seeing that a great multitude was coming to him, said to Philip, "Where are we to buy bread, that these may eat? 6.6. This he said to test him, for he himself knew what he would do. 6.7. Philip answered him, "Two hundred denarii worth of bread is not sufficient for them, that everyone of them may receive a little. 6.8. One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, said to him 6.9. There is a boy here who has five barley loaves and two fish, but what are these among so many? 6.10. Jesus said, "Have the people sit down." Now there was much grass in that place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand. 6.11. Jesus took the loaves; and having given thanks, he distributed to the disciples, and the disciples to those who were sitting down; likewise also of the fish as much as they desired. 6.12. When they were filled, he said to his disciples, "Gather up the broken pieces which are left over, that nothing be lost. 6.13. So they gathered them up, and filled twelve baskets with broken pieces from the five barley loaves, which were left over by those who had eaten. 6.14. When therefore the people saw the sign which Jesus did, they said, "This is truly the prophet who comes into the world. 6.15. Jesus therefore, perceiving that they were about to come and take him by force, to make him king, withdrew again to the mountain by himself. 6.16. When evening came, his disciples went down to the sea 6.17. and they entered into the boat, and were going over the sea to Capernaum. It was now dark, and Jesus had not come to them. 6.18. The sea was tossed by a great wind blowing. 6.19. When therefore they had rowed about twenty-five or thirty stadia, they saw Jesus walking on the sea, and drawing near to the boat; and they were afraid. 6.20. But he said to them, "I AM. Don't be afraid. 6.21. They were willing therefore to receive him into the boat. Immediately the boat was at the land where they were going. 6.38. For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him who sent me. 6.51. I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh. 6.62. Then what if you would see the Son of Man ascending to where he was before? 6.69. We have come to believe and know that you are the Christ, the Son of the living God. 8.12. Again, therefore, Jesus spoke to them, saying, "I am the light of the world. He who follows me will not walk in the darkness, but will have the light of life. 8.13. The Pharisees therefore said to him, "You testify about yourself. Your testimony is not valid. 8.14. Jesus answered them, "Even if I testify about myself, my testimony is true, for I know where I came from, and where I am going; but you don't know where I came from, or where I am going. 8.15. You judge according to the flesh. I judge no one. 8.16. Even if I do judge, my judgment is true, for I am not alone, but I am with the Father who sent me. 8.17. It's also written in your law that the testimony of two people is valid. 8.18. I am one who testifies about myself, and the Father who sent me testifies about me. 8.19. They said therefore to him, "Where is your Father?"Jesus answered, "You know neither me, nor my Father. If you knew me, you would know my Father also. 8.20. Jesus spoke these words in the treasury, as he taught in the temple. Yet no one arrested him, because his hour had not yet come. 8.23. He said to them, "You are from beneath. I am from above. You are of this world. I am not of this world. 8.47. He who is of God hears the words of God. For this cause you don't hear, because you are not of God. 10.20. Many of them said, "He has a demon, and is insane! Why do you listen to him? 11.4. But when Jesus heard it, he said, "This sickness is not to death, but for the glory of God, that God's Son may be glorified by it. 11.21. Therefore Martha said to Jesus, "Lord, if you would have been here, my brother wouldn't have died. 11.22. Even now I know that, whatever you ask of God, God will give you. 11.25. Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me, though he die, yet will he live. 11.26. Whoever lives and believes in me will never die. Do you believe this? 11.27. She said to him, "Yes, Lord. I have come to believe that you are the Christ, God's Son, he who comes into the world. 11.39. Jesus said, "Take away the stone."Martha, the sister of him who was dead, said to him, "Lord, by this time there is a stench, for he has been dead four days. 11.40. Jesus said to her, "Didn't I tell you that if you believed, you would see God's glory? 11.42. I know that you always listen to me, but because of the multitude that stands around I said this, that they may believe that you sent me. 11.44. He who was dead came out, bound hand and foot with wrappings, and his face was wrapped around with a cloth. Jesus said to them, "Free him, and let him go. 12.28. Father, glorify your name!"Then there came a voice out of the sky, saying, "I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again. 12.29. The multitude therefore, who stood by and heard it, said that it had thundered. Others said, "An angel has spoken to him. 14.9. Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, 'Show us the Father?' 21.1. After these things, Jesus revealed himself again to the disciples at the sea of Tiberias. He revealed himself this way. 21.2. Simon Peter, Thomas called Didymus, Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples were together. 21.3. Simon Peter said to them, "I'm going fishing."They told him, "We are also coming with you." They immediately went out, and entered into the boat. That night, they caught nothing. 21.4. But when day had already come, Jesus stood on the beach, yet the disciples didn't know that it was Jesus. 21.5. Jesus therefore said to them, "Children, have you anything to eat?"They answered him, "No. 21.6. He said to them, "Cast the net on the right side of the boat, and you will find some."They cast it therefore, and now they weren't able to draw it in for the multitude of fish. 21.7. That disciple therefore whom Jesus loved said to Peter, "It's the Lord!"So when Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he wrapped his coat around him (for he was naked), and threw himself into the sea. 21.8. But the other disciples came in the little boat (for they were not far from the land, but about two hundred cubits away), dragging the net full of fish. 21.9. So when they got out on the land, they saw a fire of coals there, and fish laid on it, and bread. 21.10. Jesus said to them, "Bring some of the fish which you have just caught. 21.11. Simon Peter went up, and drew the net to land, full of great fish, one hundred fifty-three; and even though there were so many, the net wasn't torn. 21.12. Jesus said to them, "Come and eat breakfast."None of the disciples dared inquire of him, "Who are you?" knowing that it was the Lord. 21.13. Then Jesus came and took the bread, gave it to them, and the fish likewise. 21.14. This is now the third time that Jesus was revealed to his disciples, after he had risen from the dead. 21.15. So when they had eaten their breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love me more than these?"He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you."He said to him, "Feed my lambs. 21.16. He said to him again a second time, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love me?"He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you."He said to him, "Tend my sheep. 21.17. He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you have affection for me?"Peter was grieved because he asked him the third time, "Do you have affection for me?" He said to him, "Lord, you know everything. You know that I have affection for you."Jesus said to him, "Feed my sheep. 21.18. Most assuredly I tell you, when you were young, you dressed yourself, and walked where you wanted to. But when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will dress you, and carry you where you don't want to go. 21.19. Now he said this, signifying by what kind of death he would glorify God. When he had said this, he said to him, "Follow me. 21.20. Then Peter, turning around, saw a disciple following. This was the disciple whom Jesus sincerely loved, the one who had also leaned on Jesus' breast at the supper and asked, "Lord, who is going to betray You? 21.21. Peter seeing him, said to Jesus, "Lord, what about this man? 21.22. Jesus said to him, "If I desire that he stay until I come, what is that to you? You follow me. 21.23. This saying therefore went out among the brothers, that this disciple wouldn't die. Yet Jesus didn't say to him that he wouldn't die, but, "If I desire that he stay until I come, what is that to you?
47. New Testament, Luke, 1.20, 1.63, 3.21-3.22, 4.1-4.12, 4.16-4.32, 4.36, 7.39, 8.22-8.25, 9.10-9.22, 9.28-9.36, 10.16, 10.18, 11.5, 11.14, 11.18, 16.29, 19.30, 20.13, 21.7, 24.6, 24.13-24.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.20. Behold, you will be silent and not able to speak, until the day that these things will happen, because you didn't believe my words, which will be fulfilled in their proper time. 1.63. He asked for a writing tablet, and wrote, "His name is John."They all marveled. 3.21. Now it happened, when all the people were baptized, Jesus also had been baptized, and was praying. The sky was opened 3.22. and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased. 4.1. Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness 4.2. for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 4.3. The devil said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread. 4.4. Jesus answered him, saying, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.' 4.5. The devil, leading him up on a high mountain, showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 4.6. The devil said to him, "I will give you all this authority, and their glory, for it has been delivered to me; and I give it to whomever I want. 4.7. If you therefore will worship before me, it will all be yours. 4.8. Jesus answered him, "Get behind me Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.9. He led him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down from here 4.10. for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you, to guard you;' 4.11. and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, Lest perhaps you dash your foot against a stone.' 4.12. Jesus answering, said to him, "It has been said, 'You shall not tempt the Lord your God.' 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian. 4.28. They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. 4.29. They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff. 4.30. But he, passing through the midst of them, went his way. 4.31. He came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee. He was teaching them on the Sabbath day 4.32. and they were astonished at his teaching, for his word was with authority. 4.36. Amazement came on all, and they spoke together, one with another, saying, "What is this word? For with authority and power he commands the unclean spirits, and they come out! 7.39. Now when the Pharisee who had invited him saw it, he said to himself, "This man, if he were a prophet, would have perceived who and what kind of woman this is who touches him, that she is a sinner. 8.22. Now it happened on one of those days, that he entered into a boat, himself and his disciples, and he said to them, "Let's go over to the other side of the lake." So they launched out. 8.23. But as they sailed, he fell asleep. A wind storm came down on the lake, and they were taking on dangerous amounts of water. 8.24. They came to him, and awoke him, saying, "Master, master, we are dying!" He awoke, and rebuked the wind and the raging of the water, and they ceased, and it was calm. 8.25. He said to them, "Where is your faith?" Being afraid they marveled, saying one to another, "Who is this, then, that he commands even the winds and the water, and they obey him? 9.10. The apostles, when they had returned, told him what things they had done. He took them, and withdrew apart to a deserted place of a city called Bethsaida. 9.11. But the multitudes, perceiving it, followed him. He welcomed them, and spoke to them of the Kingdom of God, and he cured those who needed healing. 9.12. The day began to wear away; and the twelve came, and said to him, "Send the multitude away, that they may go into the surrounding villages and farms, and lodge, and get provisions, for we are here in a deserted place. 9.13. But he said to them, "You give them something to eat."They said, "We have no more than five loaves and two fish, unless we should go and buy food for all these people. 9.14. For they were about five thousand men. He said to his disciples, "Make them sit down in groups of about fifty each. 9.15. They did so, and made them all sit down. 9.16. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to the sky, he blessed them, and broke them, and gave them to the disciples to set before the multitude. 9.17. They ate, and were all filled. They gathered up twelve baskets of broken pieces that were left over. 9.18. It happened, as he was praying alone, that the disciples were with him, and he asked them, "Who do the multitudes say that I am? 9.19. They answered, "'John the Baptizer,' but others say, 'Elijah,' and others, that one of the old prophets is risen again. 9.20. He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?"Peter answered, "The Christ of God. 9.21. But he warned them, and commanded them to tell this to no one 9.22. saying, "The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up. 9.28. It happened about eight days after these sayings, that he took with him Peter, John, and James, and went up onto the mountain to pray. 9.29. As he was praying, the appearance of his face was altered, and his clothing became white and dazzling. 9.30. Behold, two men were talking with him, who were Moses and Elijah 9.31. who appeared in glory, and spoke of his departure, which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem. 9.32. Now Peter and those who were with him were heavy with sleep, but when they were fully awake, they saw his glory, and the two men who stood with him. 9.33. It happened, as they were parting from him, that Peter said to Jesus, "Master, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah," not knowing what he said. 9.34. While he said these things, a cloud came and overshadowed them, and they were afraid as they entered into the cloud. 9.35. A voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to him! 9.36. When the voice came, Jesus was found alone. They were silent, and told no one in those days any of the things which they had seen. 10.16. Whoever listens to you listens to me, and whoever rejects you rejects me. Whoever rejects me rejects him who sent me. 10.18. He said to them, "I saw Satan having fallen like lightning from heaven. 11.5. He said to them, "Which of you, if you go to a friend at midnight, and tell him, 'Friend, lend me three loaves of bread 11.14. He was casting out a demon, and it was mute. It happened, when the demon had gone out, the mute man spoke; and the multitudes marveled. 11.18. If Satan also is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? For you say that I cast out demons by Beelzebul. 16.29. But Abraham said to him, 'They have Moses and the prophets. Let them listen to them.' 19.30. saying, "Go your way into the village on the other side, in which, as you enter, you will find a colt tied, whereon no man ever yet sat. Untie it, and bring it. 20.13. The lord of the vineyard said, 'What shall I do? I will send my beloved son. It may be that seeing him, they will respect him.' 21.7. They asked him, "Teacher, so when will these things be? What is the sign that these things are about to happen? 24.6. He isn't here, but is risen. Remember what he told you when he was still in Galilee 24.13. Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem. 24.14. They talked with each other about all of these things which had happened. 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.19. He said to them, "What things?"They said to him, "The things concerning Jesus, the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; 24.20. and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.22. Also, certain women of our company amazed us, having arrived early at the tomb; 24.23. and when they didn't find his body, they came saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. 24.24. Some of us went to the tomb, and found it just like the women had said, but they didn't see him. 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.28. They drew near to the village, where they were going, and he acted like he would go further. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them. 24.30. It happened, that when he had sat down at the table with them, he took the bread and gave thanks. Breaking it, he gave to them. 24.31. Their eyes were opened, and they recognized him, and he vanished out of their sight. 24.32. They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us? 24.33. Rising rose up that very hour, they returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon! 24.35. They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread. 24.36. As they said these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them, "Peace be to you. 24.37. But they were terrified and filled with fear, and supposed that they had seen a spirit. 24.38. He said to them, "Why are you troubled? Why do doubts arise in your hearts? 24.39. See my hands and my feet, that it is truly me. Touch me and see, for a spirit doesn't have flesh and bones, as you see that I have. 24.40. When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet. 24.41. While they still didn't believe for joy, and wondered, he said to them, "Do you have anything here to eat? 24.42. They gave him a piece of a broiled fish and some honeycomb. 24.43. He took it, and ate in front of them. 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled. 24.45. Then he opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures. 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem. 24.48. You are witnesses of these things. 24.49. Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high. 24.50. He led them out as far as Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. 24.51. It happened, while he blessed them, that he withdrew from them, and was carried up into heaven. 24.52. They worshiped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy 24.53. and were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.
48. New Testament, Mark, a b c d\n0 "10.27" "10.27" "10 27"\n1 1.1 1.1 1 1 \n2 1.10 1.10 1 10 \n3 1.11 1.11 1 11 \n4 1.12 1.12 1 12 \n.. ... ... .. .. \n456 9.41 9.41 9 41 \n457 9.5 9.5 9 5 \n458 9.6 9.6 9 6 \n459 9.8 9.8 9 8 \n460 9.9 9.9 9 9 \n\n[461 rows x 4 columns] (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

49. New Testament, Matthew, 3.13-3.17, 4.1-4.11, 5.21-5.22, 6.25-6.34, 7.29, 8.23-8.27, 9.34, 12.18, 12.23-12.24, 12.26, 14.13-14.21, 14.23, 14.25, 14.28-14.31, 14.33, 16.13-16.20, 16.22-16.23, 17.1-17.18, 17.27, 18.15-18.16, 21.1-21.22, 24.29-24.31, 26.64, 27.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.13. Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized by him. 3.14. But John would have hindered him, saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and you come to me? 3.15. But Jesus, answering, said to him, "Allow it now, for this is the fitting way for us to fulfill all righteousness." Then he allowed him. 3.16. Jesus, when he was baptized, went up directly from the water: and behold, the heavens were opened to him. He saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming on him. 3.17. Behold, a voice out of the heavens said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased. 4.1. Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 4.2. When he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was hungry afterward. 4.3. The tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread. 4.4. But he answered, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.' 4.5. Then the devil took him into the holy city. He set him on the pinnacle of the temple 4.6. and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you.' and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, So that you don't dash your foot against a stone.' 4.7. Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, 'You shall not test the Lord, your God.' 4.8. Again, the devil took him to an exceedingly high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory. 4.9. He said to him, "I will give you all of these things, if you will fall down and worship me. 4.10. Then Jesus said to him, "Get behind me, Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.11. Then the devil left him, and behold, angels came and ministered to him. 5.21. You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' 5.22. But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. 6.25. Therefore, I tell you, don't be anxious for your life: what you will eat, or what you will drink; nor yet for your body, what you will wear. Isn't life more than food, and the body more than clothing? 6.26. See the birds of the sky, that they don't sow, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns. Your heavenly Father feeds them. Aren't you of much more value than they? 6.27. Which of you, by being anxious, can add one cubit to the measure of his life? 6.28. Why are you anxious about clothing? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow. They don't toil, neither do they spin 6.29. yet I tell you that even Solomon in all his glory was not dressed like one of these. 6.30. But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which today exists, and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, won't he much more clothe you, you of little faith? 6.31. Therefore don't be anxious, saying, 'What will we eat?', 'What will we drink?' or, 'With what will we be clothed?' 6.32. For the Gentiles seek after all these things, for your heavenly Father knows that you need all these things. 6.33. But seek first God's Kingdom, and his righteousness; and all these things will be given to you as well. 6.34. Therefore don't be anxious for tomorrow, for tomorrow will be anxious for itself. Each day's own evil is sufficient. 7.29. for he taught them with authority, and not like the scribes. 8.23. When he got into a boat, his disciples followed him. 8.24. Behold, a great tempest arose in the sea, so much that the boat was covered with the waves, but he was asleep. 8.25. They came to him, and woke him up, saying, "Save us, Lord! We are dying! 8.26. He said to them, "Why are you fearful, oh you of little faith?" Then he got up, rebuked the wind and the sea, and there was a great calm. 8.27. The men marveled, saying, "What kind of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him? 9.34. But the Pharisees said, "By the prince of the demons, he casts out demons. 12.18. Behold, my servant whom I have chosen; My beloved in whom my soul is well pleased: I will put my Spirit on him. He will proclaim justice to the Gentiles. 12.23. All the multitudes were amazed, and said, "Can this be the son of David? 12.24. But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, "This man does not cast out demons, except by Beelzebul, the prince of the demons. 12.26. If Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself. How then will his kingdom stand? 14.13. Now when Jesus heard this, he withdrew from there in a boat, to a deserted place apart. When the multitudes heard it, they followed him on foot from the cities. 14.14. Jesus went out, and he saw a great multitude. He had compassion on them, and healed their sick. 14.15. When evening had come, his disciples came to him, saying, "This place is deserted, and the hour is already late. Send the multitudes away, that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves food. 14.16. But Jesus said to them, "They don't need to go away. You give them something to eat. 14.17. They told him, "We only have here five loaves and two fish. 14.18. He said, "Bring them here to me. 14.19. He commanded the multitudes to sit down on the grass; and he took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, broke and gave the loaves to the disciples, and the disciples gave to the multitudes. 14.20. They all ate, and were filled. They took up twelve baskets full of that which remained left over from the broken pieces. 14.21. Those who ate were about five thousand men, besides women and children. 14.23. After he had sent the multitudes away, he went up into the mountain by himself to pray. When evening had come, he was there alone. 14.25. In the fourth watch of the night Jesus came to them, walking on the sea. 14.28. Peter answered him and said, "Lord, if it is you, command me to come to you on the waters. 14.29. He said, "Come!"Peter stepped down from the boat, and walked on the waters to come to Jesus. 14.30. But when he saw that the wind was strong, he was afraid, and beginning to sink, he cried out, saying, "Lord, save me! 14.31. Immediately Jesus stretched out his hand, took hold of him, and said to him, "You of little faith, why did you doubt? 14.33. Those who were in the boat came and worshiped him, saying, "You are truly the Son of God! 16.13. Now when Jesus came into the parts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, "Who do men say that I, the Son of Man, am? 16.14. They said, "Some say John the Baptizer, some, Elijah, and others, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets. 16.15. He said to them, "But who do you say that I am? 16.16. Simon Peter answered, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God. 16.17. Jesus answered him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. 16.18. I also tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my assembly, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it. 16.19. I will give to you the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven. 16.20. Then he charged the disciples that they should tell no one that he is Jesus the Christ. 16.22. Peter took him aside, and began to rebuke him, saying, "Far be it from you, Lord! This will never be done to you. 16.23. But he turned, and said to Peter, "Get behind me, Satan! You are a stumbling-block to me, for you are not setting your mind on the things of God, but on the things of men. 17.1. After six days, Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John his brother, and brought them up into a high mountain by themselves. 17.2. He was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his garments became as white as the light. 17.3. Behold, Moses and Elijah appeared to them talking with him. 17.4. Peter answered, and said to Jesus, "Lord, it is good for us to be here. If you want, let's make three tents here: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 17.5. While he was still speaking, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them. Behold, a voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Listen to him. 17.6. When the disciples heard it, they fell on their faces, and were very afraid. 17.7. Jesus came and touched them and said, "Get up, and don't be afraid. 17.8. Lifting up their eyes, they saw no one, except Jesus alone. 17.9. As they were coming down from the mountain, Jesus commanded them, saying, "Don't tell anyone what you saw, until the Son of Man has risen from the dead. 17.10. His disciples asked him, saying, "Then why do the scribes say that Elijah must come first? 17.11. Jesus answered them, "Elijah indeed comes first, and will restore all things 17.12. but I tell you that Elijah has come already, and they didn't recognize him, but did to him whatever they wanted to. Even so the Son of Man will also suffer by them. 17.13. Then the disciples understood that he spoke to them of John the Baptizer. 17.14. When they came to the multitude, a man came to him, kneeling down to him, saying 17.15. Lord, have mercy on my son, for he is epileptic, and suffers grievously; for he often falls into the fire, and often into the water. 17.16. So I brought him to your disciples, and they could not cure him. 17.17. Jesus answered, "Faithless and perverse generation! How long will I be with you? How long will I bear with you? Bring him here to me. 17.18. Jesus rebuked him, the demon went out of him, and the boy was cured from that hour. 17.27. But, lest we cause them to stumble, go to the sea, and cast a hook, and take up the first fish that comes up. When you have opened its mouth, you will find a stater. Take that, and give it to them for me and you. 18.15. If your brother sins against you, go, show him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained back your brother. 18.16. But if he doesn't listen, take one or two more with you, that at the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. 21.1. When they drew near to Jerusalem, and came to Bethsphage, to the Mount of Olives, then Jesus sent two disciples 21.2. saying to them, "Go into the village that is opposite you, and immediately you will find a donkey tied, and a colt with her. Untie them, and bring them to me. 21.3. If anyone says anything to you, you shall say, 'The Lord needs them,' and immediately he will send them. 21.4. All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophet, saying 21.5. Tell the daughter of Zion, Behold, your King comes to you, Humble, and riding on a donkey, On a colt, the foal of a donkey. 21.6. The disciples went, and did just as Jesus commanded them 21.7. and brought the donkey and the colt, and laid their clothes on them; and he sat on them. 21.8. A very great multitude spread their clothes on the road. Others cut branches from the trees, and spread them on the road. 21.9. The multitudes who went before him, and who followed kept shouting, "Hosanna to the son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest! 21.10. When he had come into Jerusalem, all the city was stirred up, saying, "Who is this? 21.11. The multitudes said, "This is the prophet, Jesus, from Nazareth of Galilee. 21.12. Jesus entered into the temple of God, and drove out all of those who sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the money-changers' tables and the seats of those who sold the doves. 21.13. He said to them, "It is written, 'My house shall be called a house of prayer,' but you have made it a den of robbers! 21.14. The blind and the lame came to him in the temple, and he healed them. 21.15. But when the chief priests and the scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children who were crying in the temple and saying, "Hosanna to the son of David!" they were indigt 21.16. and said to him, "Do you hear what these are saying?"Jesus said to them, "Yes. Did you never read, 'Out of the mouth of babes and nursing babies you have perfected praise?' 21.17. He left them, and went out of the city to Bethany, and lodged there. 21.18. Now in the morning, as he returned to the city, he was hungry. 21.19. Seeing a fig tree by the road, he came to it, and found nothing on it but leaves. He said to it, "Let there be no fruit from you forever!"Immediately the fig tree withered away. 21.20. When the disciples saw it, they marveled, saying, "How did the fig tree immediately wither away? 21.21. Jesus answered them, "Most assuredly I tell you, if you have faith, and don't doubt, you will not only do what is done to the fig tree, but even if you told this mountain, 'Be taken up and cast into the sea,' it would be done. 21.22. All things, whatever you ask in prayer, believing, you will receive. 24.29. But immediately after the oppression of those days, the sun will be darkened, the moon will not give its light, the stars will fall from the sky, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken; 24.30. and then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky. Then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky with power and great glory. 24.31. He will send out his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other. 26.64. Jesus said to him, "You have said it. Nevertheless, I tell you, henceforth you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of the sky. 27.19. While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, "Have nothing to do with that righteous man, for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him.
50. Plutarch, Sulla, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

51. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

52. Tosefta, Sotah, 13.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

53. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 28 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. And the apostle ceased not to preach and to say unto them: Ye men and women, boys and girls, young men and maidens, strong men and aged, whether bond or free, abstain from fornication and covetousness and the service of the belly: for under these three heads all iniquity cometh about. For fornication blindeth the mind and darkeneth the eyes of the soul, and is an impediment to the life (conversation) of the body, turning the whole man unto weakness and casting the whole body into sickness. And greed putteth the soul into fear and shame; being within the body it seizeth upon the goods of others, and is under fear lest if it restore other men's goods to their owner it be put to shame. And the service of the belly casteth the soul into thoughts and cares and vexations, taking thought lest it come to be in want, and have need of those things that are far from it. If, then, ye be rid of these ye become free of care and grief and fear, and that abideth with you which was said by the Saviour: Take no thought for the morrow, for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Remember also that word of him of whom I spake: Look at the ravens and see the fowls of the heaven, that they neither sow nor reap nor gather into barns, and God dispenseth unto them; how much more unto you, O ye of little faith? But look ye for his coming and have your hope in him and believe on his name. For he is the judge of quick and dead, and he giveth to every one according to their deeds, and at his coming and his latter appearing no man hath any word of excuse when he is to be judged by him, as though he had not heard. For his heralds do proclaim in the four quarters (climates) of the world. Repent ye, therefore, and believe the promise and receive the yoke of meekness and the light burden, that ye may live and not die. These things get, these keep. Come forth of the darkness that the light may receive you! Come unto him that is indeed good, that ye may receive grace of him and implant his sign in your souls.
54. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.4. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים קָדְמוּ לִבְרִיאַת הָעוֹלָם, יֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁעָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת. הַתּוֹרָה וְהַכִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, נִבְרְאוּ. תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז וגו'. הָאָבוֹת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, עָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת, הָאָבוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ט, י): כַּעֲנָבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וגו'. יִשְׂרָאֵל מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עד, ב): זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶדֶם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן וגו'. שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עב, יז): יְהִי שְׁמוֹ לְעוֹלָם וגו'. רַבִּי אַהֲבָה בְּרַבִּי זְעִירָא אָמַר אַף הַתְּשׁוּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צ, ב): בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים יֻלָּדוּ, וְאוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא וגו', אֲבָל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם קֹדֶם, אִם הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד וְאִם כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד קֹדֶם לַתּוֹרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ וגו', קוֹדֵם לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ, מַחְשַׁבְתָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל קָדְמָה לְכָל דָּבָר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לְמַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת, וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן, פַּעַם אַחַת נִמְצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹבֵר בַּשּׁוּק, אָמַר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, וְהָיוּ הַכֹּל אוֹמְרִין, בֵּן אֵין לוֹ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַסְטְרוֹלוֹגוּס גָּדוֹל הוּא, אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין לִבְנִי. כָּךְ אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאַחַר עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דּוֹרוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲתִידִין לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לֹא הָיָה כּוֹתֵב בַּתּוֹרָה צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי בַּנָאי, הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אֶרֶץ וגו'. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בִּזְכוּת משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, כא): וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב מַתְנָה אָמַר, בִּזְכוּת שְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, בִּזְכוּת חַלָּה, וּבִזְכוּת מַעַשְׂרוֹת, וּבִזְכוּת בִּכּוּרִים, וּמַה טַּעַם, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָא חַלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו, כ): רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם, אֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא מַעַשְׂרוֹת, הֵיךְ דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים יח, ד): רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא בִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, יט): רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ וגו'. 1.4. \"In the beginning of God's creating...\" - Six things preceded the creation of the world; some of them were created and some of them were decided to be created. The Torah and the Throne of Glory were created. How do we know the Torah was? As it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way.\" How do we know the Throne of Glory was? As it says (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old etc.\" The Patriarchs, Israel, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah were decided to be created. How do we know the Patriarchs were? As it says (Hosea 9:10): \"Like grapes in the wilderness etc.\" How do we know Israel was? As it says (Psalms 74:2): \"Remember your congregation, whom you purchased from old.\" How do we know the Temple was? As it says (Jeremiah 17:12): \"Your throne of glory, on high from the beginning etc.\" How do we know the name of the Messiah was? As it says (Psalms 72:17): \"May his name exist forever etc. [his name shall be Yinnon as long as the sun].\" Rabbi Ahavah said in the name of Rabbi Ze'ira: Even repentance was, as it says (Psalms 90:2): \"Before the mountains were birthed,\" and at the same time (Psalms 90:3), \"You turned man to contrition etc.\" However, I do not know which was first--if the Torah preceded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory preceded the Torah. Rabbi Abba Bar Cahana said: The Torah preceded the Throne of Glory, as it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way, the first of his works of old.\" This is before that of which it is written (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old.\" Rabbi Hunna and Rabbi Yirmiyah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel the son of Rabbi Yitzchak said: The thought of Israel was before everything. This is like a king who was married to a woman and did not have a son. One time the king was in the market and said: \"Take this ink and pen for my son.\" They said: \"He does not have a son.\" He replied: \"Take them; the king must expect a son, because otherwise he would not command that the ink and pen be taken.\" Similarly, if there was no expectation of Israel receiving it after 26 generations, God would not have written in the Torah: \"Command the children of Israel\" or \"Speak to the children of Israel.\" Rabbi Bannai said: The world and its contents were only created in the merit of the Torah, as it says (Proverbs 3:19): \"God founded the world with wisdom etc.\" Rabbi Berachiyah said: In the merit of Moses, as it says (Deuteronomy 33:21): \"He saw a first part for himself.\" Rabbi Hunna said in the name of Rabbi Matanah: The world was created in the merit of three things--challah, tithes, and first fruits. The verse \"In the beginning God created\" refers to challah, as it says (Numbers 15:20): \"The beginning of your doughs.\" It also refers to tithes, as it says (Deuteronomy 18:4): \"The beginning of your grains.\" It also refers to first fruits, as it says (Exodus 23:19): \"The beginning of the fruits of the land.\""
55. Anon., Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, None (2nd cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)

56. Anon., Tchacos 3 Gospel of Judas, 37.1-37.6, 37.8, 45.13-45.14, 46.1-46.2, 46.7, 51.13-51.15, 56.19-56.20, 57.16-57.26 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

57. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.10.1, 4.5.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

58. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 4.22.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

59. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

8b. כל תלתין יומין בין א"ל מחמת הלולא ובין לא א"ל מחמת הלולא אסור מכאן ואילך אי א"ל מחמת הלולא אסור ואי לא אמר ליה מחמת הלולא שרי,וכי א"ל מחמת הלולא עד אימת אמר רב פפא עד תריסר ירחי שתא ומעיקרא מאימת אסור אמר רב פפא משמיה דרבא מכי רמו שערי באסינתי,ולבתר תריסר ירחי שתא שרי והא רב יצחק בריה דרב משרשיא איקלע לבי ההוא עובד כוכבים לבתר תריסר ירחי שתא ושמעיה דאודי ופירש ולא אכל שאני רב יצחק בריה דרב משרשיא דאדם חשוב הוא:,וקרטסים וכו': מאי קרטסים אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל יום שתפסה בו רומי מלכות והתניא קרטסים ויום שתפסה בו רומי מלכות אמר רב יוסף שתי תפיסות תפסה רומי אחת בימי קלפטרא מלכתא ואחת שתפסה בימי יונים,דכי אתא רב דימי אמר תלתין ותרין קרבי עבדו רומאי בהדי יונאי ולא יכלו להו עד דשתפינהו לישראל בהדייהו והכי אתנו בהדייהו אי מינן מלכי מנייכו הפרכי אי מנייכו מלכי מינן הפרכי,ושלחו להו רומאי ליונאי עד האידנא עבידנא בקרבא השתא נעביד בדינא מרגלית ואבן טובה איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו שלחו להו מרגלית לאבן טובה,אבן טובה (ואינך) איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו אבן טובה לאינך אינך וספר תורה איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו אינך לספר תורה,שלחו להו [א"כ] אנן ספר תורה גבן וישראל בהדן כפו להו עשרין ושית שנין קמו להו בהימנותייהו בהדי ישראל מכאן ואילך אישתעבדו בהו,מעיקרא מאי דרוש ולבסוף מאי דרוש מעיקרא דרוש (בראשית לג, יב) נסעה ונלכה ואלכה לנגדך ולבסוף דרוש (בראשית לג, יד) יעבר נא אדני לפני עבדו,עשרין ושית שנין דקמו בהימנותייהו בהדי ישראל מנא לן דאמר רב כהנא כשחלה רבי ישמעאל בר יוסי שלחו ליה רבי אמור לנו שנים וג' דברים שאמרת לנו משום אביך,אמר להו מאה ושמנים שנה קודם שנחרב הבית פשטה מלכות הרשעה על ישראל פ' שנה עד לא חרב הבית גזרו טומאה על ארץ העמים ועל כלי זכוכית מ' שנה עד לא חרב הבית גלתה סנהדרין וישבה לה בחנות,למאי הלכתא א"ר יצחק בר אבדימי לומר שלא דנו דיני קנסות דיני קנסות סלקא דעתך והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב ברם זכור אותו האיש לטוב ורבי יהודה בן בבא שמו שאלמלא הוא נשתכחו דיני קנסות מישראל נשתכחו לגרסינהו,אלא בטלו דיני קנסות מישראל שגזרה מלכות הרשעה גזרה כל הסומך יהרג וכל הנסמך יהרג ועיר שסומכין בה תחרב ותחום שסומכין בו יעקר,מה עשה רבי יהודה בן בבא הלך וישב בין שני הרים גדולים ובין שתי עיירות גדולות בין ב' תחומי שבת בין אושא לשפרעם וסמך שם חמשה זקנים ר"מ ור' יהודה ור' יוסי ור"ש ורבי אלעזר בן שמוע ורב אויא מוסיף אף רבי נחמיה,כיון שהכירו בהם אויבים אמר להם בני רוצו אמרו לו רבי ואתה מה תהא עליך אמר להם הריני מוטל לפניהם כאבן שאין לה הופכין אמרו לא זזו משם עד שנעצו לגופו ג' מאות לולניאות של ברזל ועשאוהו לגופו ככברה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק לא תימא דיני קנסות אלא שלא דנו דיני נפשות,מ"ט כיון דחזו דנפישי להו רוצחין ולא יכלי למידן אמרו מוטב נגלי ממקום למקום כי היכי דלא ליחייבו,דכתיב (דברים יז, י) ועשית על פי הדבר אשר יגידו לך מן המקום ההוא מלמד שהמקום גורם:,מאה ושמנים ותו לא והתני רבי יוסי ברבי 8b. during ballthe bthirty daysthat follow the wedding celebration, if the gentile invites a Jew to a feast, bwhether he saidto the Jew that the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration or whether he did not say to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bprohibitedto attend, as it is assumed the festivity is part of the wedding celebration. bFrom thispoint bforward, if he said to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bprohibitedto participate, bbut if he did not say to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bpermittedto do so.,The Gemara asks: bAndin a case bwhere he said to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration, until whenis the feast assumed to be connected to idol worship? bRav Pappa said: Until twelve months of the yearhave passed since the wedding. The Gemara asks: bAnd initially,before the wedding, bfrom when is it prohibited? Rav Pappa said in the name of Rava: Fromthe time bwhen they cast barley into the mortars [ iba’asintei /i]to prepare beer for the wedding.,The Gemara asks: bAnd after the twelve months of the yearhave passed since the wedding, is it always bpermittedto participate in a feast? bBut Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, happenedto come bto the house of a certain gentile after twelve months of the yearhad passed since his son’s wedding, band he heardthe gentile bgiving thanksto his idol for the marriage of his son, band he withdrewfrom the feast band did not eatthere. The Gemara answers: bRav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, is different, as he is an important personand therefore his presence caused the gentile to rejoice.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd Kratesis,and the day of the festival of their kings. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the festival of bKratesis? Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:It commemorates bthe day when Rome seizedcontrol of ban empire.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: Two festivals are bKratesis and the day when Rome seizedcontrol of ban empire?This indi-cates that Kratesis and the day when Rome seized control of an empire are two separate festivals. bRav Yosef said:On btwoseparate occasions bRome seizedcontrol of ban empire. Oneoccurred bin the days of Queen Cleopatra,when they conquered Egypt, band onehappened much earlier, bwhenRome bseizedcontrol bin the days of the Greeks. /b,The Gemara elaborates: bAs when Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael bhe said: The Romans waged thirty-two battles with the Greeks but were unable todefeat bthem, until they formed a partnership with the Jewish peopleand finally vanquished the Greeks. bAnd this is the condition that they stipulated withthe Jewish people: bIf the kingscome bfrom among us, the governors [ ihiparkhei /i]will come bfrom among you;and bif the kingscome bfrom among you, the governorswill come bfrom among us. /b, bAnd the Romans sentthe following message bto the Greeks: Until now, weattempted to resolve our conflict bthroughfighting bbattles; now, let ussettle the matter bbymeans of bjudgment.In the case of ba pearl and a precious stone, whichone bof them should serve as a base for the other?The Greeks bsent themin response: The bpearlshould serve as the base bforthe bprecious stone,which has a greater value.,The Romans further inquired: If there was ba precious stone and an onyx [ iinnakh /i],a particularly valuable precious stone, bwhichone bof them should serve as a base for the other?The Greeks answered: The bprecious stoneshould serve as the base bforthe bonyx.Once again, the Romans asked: In the case of ban onyx and a Torah scroll, whichone bof them should be serve as a base for the other?The Greeks responded: The bonyxshould serve as the base bfor the Torah scroll. /b,The Romans bsentthis response bto them: Ifthat is bso,then you should submit to us, as bwe havethe bTorah scroll with us, and the Jewish peopleare bwith us.The Romans are akin to the precious stone, and they are allied with the Jewish people who are akin to the onyx, and they possess the Torah scroll. The Romans therefore bforcedthe Greeks to surrender and took over their world domice. For btwenty-six yearsthe Romans bstood faithfully with the Jewish people; from thatpoint bforward, they subjugated them. /b,The Gemara asks: bInitially,when the Romans acted faithfully, bwhatverse bdid they interpret, and ultimately,when they subjugated the Jews, bwhatverse bdid they interpret? Initially, they interpretedthe verse where Esau said to Jacob upon their meeting: b“Let us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go before you”(Genesis 33:12). In this verse, Esau equates himself to Jacob, prefiguring the initial Roman treatment of the Jews. bAnd ultimately, they interpretedthe verse that recites Jacob’s response to Esau: b“Let my lord, I pray you, pass over before his servant”(Genesis 33:14), demonstrating Jacob’s subjugation to Esau, and by extension that of the Jews to Rome.,The Gemara asks: With regard to the btwenty-six years during whichthe Romans bstood faithfully with the Jewish people, from where do weknow that this was the case? The Gemara cites a proof. bAs Rav Kahana says: When Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, fell ill,the Sages bsentthe following message bto him:Our bteacher, tell us two or three statements that youonce btold us in the name of your father,Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta, as we do not remember the statements precisely.,Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsaid to themthe following statements that were passed down to him by his father: bOne hundred and eighty years before theSecond bTemple was destroyed, the evilRoman bEmpire stretched forth over Israeland ruled over them. bEighty years before the Temple was destroyed,the Sages bdecreed impurity on the land of the nations and on glass vessels. Forty years before the Temple was destroyed, the Sanhedrin was exiledfrom the Chamber of Hewn Stone band sat in the storenear the Temple Mount.,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to what ihalakha /iis it necessary to know where the Sanhedrin would convene? bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said:It is necessary in order bto say that they nolonger bjudged cases of fines.The Gemara asks: bDoes it enter your mindthat at this point the Sanhedrin no longer judged bcases of fines? But doesn’t Rav Yehuda saythat bRav says: Indeed [ iberam /i], that man will be remembered favorably, and Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava is his name, as had it not been for him the laws of fines would have been forgotten fromamong bthe Jewish people.The Gemara challenges that assertion: bWouldthe laws of fines actually bhave been forgotten? Letthe scholars bstudy them,so they will not be forgotten., bRather,his intention was to say that bthe laws of fines would have ceasedto be implemented bfromamong bthe Jewish people,as they would not have been able to adjudicate cases involving these ihalakhotdue to a lack of ordained judges. This is bbecauseat one time bthe wicked kingdomof Rome bissued decrees of religious persecution against the Jewish peoplewith the aim of abolishing the chain of ordination and the authority of the Sages. They said that banyone who ordainsjudges bwill be killed, and anyone who is ordained will be killed, and the city in which they ordainthe judges bwill be destroyed, andthe areas around bthe boundaryof the city bin which they ordainjudges bwill be uprooted.These measures were intended to discourage the Sages from performing or receiving ordination due to fear for the welfare of the local population., bWhat didRabbi bYehuda ben Bava do? He went and sat between two large mountains, and between two large cities,and bbetween two Shabbat boundaries: Between Usha and Shefaram,i.e., in a desolate place that was not associated with any particular city so that he would not endanger anyone not directly involved, band there he ordained five Elders,namely: bRabbi Meir, and Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua. And Rav Avya addsthat bRabbi Neḥemyawas balsoamong those ordained., bWhentheir benemies discovered them,Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava bsaid tothe newly ordained rabbis: bMy sons, runfor your lives. bThey said to him:Our bteacher, and what will be with you?Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava was elderly and unable to run. He bsaid to them:In any case, bI am cast before them like a stone that cannot be overturned;even if you attempt to assist me I will not be able to escape due to my frailty, but if you do not escape without me you will also be killed. People bsaidabout this incident: The Roman soldiers bdid not move from there until they had inserted three hundred iron spears [ ilulniot /i] into his body, making his bodyappear blike a sievepierced with many holes. It can be inferred from this episode that there were ordained judges who could hear cases of fines for many years after the destruction of the Temple, in contrast to Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi’s statement., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saysin explanation: bDo not saythat after the Sanhedrin was exiled from the Chamber of Hewn Stone they no longer judged cases of bfines; rather,emend the statement to say bthat they nolonger bjudgedcases of bcapital law,as a court does not have the authority to hear capital cases when the Sanhedrin is not sitting in the Chamber of Hewn Stone.,The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonthat the members of the Sanhedrin ceased to meet in their proper place and thereby ended the adjudication of capital cases? bOnce they saw that the murderers were so numerous and they were not able to judgethem and punish them with death, bthey said:It is bbetter that we should be exiledfrom the Chamber of Hewn Stone and move bfrom place to place, so thatoffenders bwill not bedeemed bliableto receive the death penalty in a time period when the court does not carry out their sentences.,The Gemara explains why a court may not adjudicate capital cases once the Sanhedrin has left the Chamber of Hewn Stone. bAs it is written: “And you shall do according to the tenor of the sentence, which they shall declare to you from that place”(Deuteronomy 17:10). This verse bteaches thatit is bthe placewhere the Sanhedrin resides that bcausesthe judgment to take place. In other words, if the Sanhedrin has abandoned its proper place, the Chamber of Hewn Stone, all courts must cease judging capital cases.,The Gemara returns to the earlier comment of Rabbi Yishmael in the name of his father Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta, that the Roman Empire ruled over Israel one hundred and eighty years before the second Temple was destroyed. The Gemara asks: Did Rome rule over Israel for bone hundred and eightyyears before the destruction of the Temple band no more? But didn’t Rabbi Yosei the Great,i.e., Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta himself, bteach: /b
60. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

6a. אמר ר' יוסי ברבי חנינא זוכה לברכות הללו שנאמר (ישעיהו מח, יח) לוא הקשבת למצותי ויהי כנהר שלומך וצדקתך כגלי הים ויהי כחול זרעך וצאצאי מעיך וגו':,תניא אבא בנימין אומר אלמלי נתנה רשות לעין לראות אין כל בריה יכולה לעמוד מפני המזיקין,אמר אביי אינהו נפישי מינן וקיימי עלן כי כסלא לאוגיא,אמר רב הונא כל חד וחד מינן אלפא משמאליה ורבבתא מימיניה,אמר רבא האי דוחקא דהוי בכלה מנייהו הוי הני ברכי דשלהי מנייהו הני מאני דרבנן דבלו מחופיא דידהו הני כרעי דמנקפן מנייהו,האי מאן דבעי למידע להו לייתי קיטמא נהילא ונהדר אפורייה ובצפרא חזי כי כרעי דתרנגולא האי מאן דבעי למחזינהו ליתי שלייתא דשונרתא אוכמתא בת אוכמתא בוכרתא בת בוכרתא ולקליה בנורא ולשחקיה ולימלי עיניה מניה וחזי להו ולשדייה בגובתא דפרזלא ולחתמי' בגושפנקא דפרזלא דילמא גנבי מניה ולחתום פומיה כי היכי דלא ליתזק רב ביבי בר אביי עבד הכי חזא ואתזק בעו רבנן רחמי עליה ואתסי:,תניא אבא בנימין אומר אין תפלה של אדם נשמעת אלא בבית הכנסת שנאמר (מלכים א ח, כח) לשמוע אל הרנה ואל התפלה במקום רנה שם תהא תפלה,אמר רבין בר רב אדא א"ר יצחק מנין שהקב"ה מצוי בבית הכנסת שנאמר (תהלים פב, א) אלהים נצב בעדת אל,ומנין לעשרה שמתפללין ששכינה עמהם שנאמר אלהים נצב בעדת אל,ומנין לשלשה שיושבין בדין ששכינה עמהם שנאמר (תהלים פב, א) בקרב אלהים ישפוט,ומנין לשנים שיושבים ועוסקין בתורה ששכינה עמהם שנאמר (מלאכי ג, טז) אז נדברו יראי ה' איש אל רעהו ויקשב ה' וגו',מאי (מלאכי ג, טז) ולחושבי שמו אמר רב אשי חשב אדם לעשות מצוה ונאנס ולא עשאה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה,ומנין שאפילו אחד שיושב ועוסק בתורה ששכינה עמו שנאמר (שמות כ, כד) בכל המקום אשר אזכיר את שמי אבוא אליך וברכתיך,וכי מאחר דאפילו חד תרי מבעיא תרי מכתבן מלייהו בספר הזכרונות חד לא מכתבן מליה בספר הזכרונות,וכי מאחר דאפי' תרי תלתא מבעיא מהו דתימא דינא שלמא בעלמא הוא ולא אתיא שכינה קמ"ל דדינא נמי היינו תורה,וכי מאחר דאפי' תלתא עשרה מבעיא עשרה קדמה שכינה ואתיא תלתא עד דיתבי:,א"ר אבין בר רב אדא א"ר יצחק מנין שהקב"ה מניח תפילין שנאמר (ישעיהו סב, ח) נשבע ה' בימינו ובזרוע עוזו,בימינו זו תורה שנאמר (דברים לג, ב) מימינו אש דת למו ובזרוע עוזו אלו תפילין שנאמר (תהלים כט, יא) ה' עוז לעמו יתן,ומנין שהתפילין עוז הם לישראל דכתי' (דברים כח, י) וראו כל עמי הארץ כי שם ה' נקרא עליך ויראו ממך ותניא ר' אליעזר הגדול אומר אלו תפילין שבראש,א"ל רב נחמן בר יצחק לרב חייא בר אבין הני תפילין דמרי עלמא מה כתיב בהו א"ל (דברי הימים א יז, כא) ומי כעמך ישראל גוי אחד בארץ,ומי משתבח קוב"ה בשבחייהו דישראל אין דכתיב (דברים כו, יז) את ה' האמרת היום (וכתיב) וה' האמירך היום אמר להם הקב"ה לישראל אתם עשיתוני חטיבה אחת בעולם ואני אעשה אתכם חטיבה אחת בעולם,אתם עשיתוני חטיבה אחת בעולם שנאמר (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד ואני אעשה אתכם חטיבה אחת בעולם שנאמר ומי כעמך ישראל גוי אחד בארץ,אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי תינח בחד ביתא בשאר בתי מאי,א"ל (דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול ומי גוי גדול (דברים לג, כט) אשריך ישראל (דברים ד, לד) או הנסה אלהים (דברים כו, יט)ולתתך עליון,אי הכי נפישי להו טובי בתי אלא כי מי גוי גדול ומי גוי גדול דדמיין להדדי בחד ביתא אשריך ישראל ומי כעמך ישראל בחד ביתא או הנסה אלהים בחד ביתא ולתתך עליון בחד ביתא 6a. In terms of this reward, bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina said:One who waits in the synagogue for the other to finish his prayer bmerits the following blessings, as it is stated: “If only you had listened to My mitzvot then your peace would be as a river, and your righteousness as the waves of the sea. Your seed would be as the sand, and the offspring of your bodylike the grains thereof; his name would be neither cut off nor destroyed from before Me” (Isaiah 48:18–19). The explanation of this passage is based on the etymological similarity between the word mitzva and the word itzevet /i, which means group. If he keeps the other person company and does not abandon him after his prayer, all of the blessings that appear later in the verse will be fulfilled in him ( iTalmidei Rabbeinu Yona /i).,In another ibaraita bit was taughtthat bAbba Binyamin says: If the eye was given permission to see, no creature would be able to withstand theabundance and ubiquity of the bdemonsand continue to live unaffected by them.,Similarly, bAbaye said: They are more numerous than weare band they stand over us like mounds of earth surrounding a pit. /b, bRav Huna said: Each and every one of us has a thousanddemons bto his left and ten thousand to his right.God protects man from these demons, as it says in the verse: “A thousand may fall at your side, and ten thousand at your right hand; they will not approach you” (Psalms 91:7).,Summarizing the effects of the demons, bRava said: br bThe crowding at the ikalla /i,the gatherings for Torah study during Elul and Adar, bis fromthe demons; br bthose knees that are fatiguedeven though one did not exert himself bis fromthe demons; br bthose clothes of the Sages that wear out,despite the fact that they do not engage in physical labor, bis from frictionwith the demons; br bthose feet that are in pain is fromthe demons., bOne who seeks to knowthat the demons exist bshould place fine ashes around his bed, and in the morningthe demons’ footprints bappear like chickens’ footprints,in the ash. bOne who seeks to see them should take the afterbirth of a firstborn female black cat, born to a firstborn female black cat, burn it in the fire, grind it and place it in his eyes, and he will see them.He must then bplacethe ashes bin an iron tube sealed with an iron seal [ igushpanka /i] lest the demons steal it from him, andthen bseal the openingso bhe will not be harmed. Rav Beivai bar Abaye performed thisprocedure, bsawthe demons, band was harmed. The Sages prayed for mercy on hisbehalf band he was healed. /b, bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bAbba Binyamin said: One’s prayer is onlyfully bheard in a synagogue, as it is statedwith regard to King Solomon’s prayer in the Temple: “Yet have You turned toward the prayer of Your servant and to his supplication, Lord my God, bto listen to the song and the prayerwhich Your servant prays before You on this day” (I Kings 8:28). The following verse concludes: “To hear the prayer Your servant directs toward this place” (I Kings 8:29). We see that one’s prayer is heard specifically in the Temple, of which the synagogue is a microcosm (Rav Yoshiyahu Pinto). It may be inferred that bin a place of song,a synagogue where God’s praises are sung, bthere prayer should be. /b,In explaining Abba Binyamin’s statement, bRavin bar Rav Adda saidthat bRabbi Yitzḥak said: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, is located in a synagogue? As it is stated: “God stands in the congregation of God;in the midst of the judges He judges” (Psalms 82:1). The congregation of God is the place where people congregate to sing God’s praises, and God is located among His congregation., bAnd from whereis it derived that bten people who pray, the Divine Presence is with them? As it is stated: “God stands in the congregation of God,”and the minimum number of people that constitute a congregation is a quorum of ten., bFrom whereis it derived bthat three who sit in judgment, the Divine Presence is with them?It is derived from this same verse, bas it is stated: “In the midst of the judges He judges,”and the minimum number of judges that comprises a court is three., bFrom whereis it derived bthat two who sit and engage in Torahstudy, bthe Divine Presence is with them? As it is stated: “Then they that feared the Lord spoke one with the other, and the Lord listened,and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that fear the Lord, and that think upon His name” (Malachi 3:16). The Divine Presence listens to any two God-fearing individuals who speak with each other.,With regard to this verse, the Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase, b“And that think upon His name”? Rav Ashi said:If ba person intended to perform a mitzva, but due tocircumstances bbeyondhis bcontrol, he did not perform it, the verse ascribes himcredit bas if he performedthe mitzva, as he is among those that think upon His name.,The Gemara returns to Ravin bar Rav Adda’s statement: bAnd from whereis it derived bthat when even one who sits and engages in Torahstudy, bthe Divine Presence is with him? As it is stated: “In every place where I cause My Name to be mentioned, I will come to you and bless you”(Exodus 20:21); God blesses even a single person who mentions God’s name, a reference to Torah study ( iIyyun Ya’akov /i).,The Gemara asks: bSincethe Divine Presence rests bevenupon bonewho engages in Torah study, bwas it necessaryto say that the Divine Presence rests upon btwowho study Torah together? The Gemara answers: There is a difference between them. bTwopeople, btheir wordsof Torah bare written in the book of remembrance,as it is stated: “And a book of remembrance was written”; however ba singleindividual’s bwordsof Torah bare not written in a book of remembrance. /b,The Gemara continues: bSincethe Divine Presence rests bevenupon btwowho engage in Torah study, is it bnecessaryto mention bthree?The Gemara answers: Here too, a special verse is necessary blest you say that judgment is merely tokeep the bpeaceamong the citizenry, band the Divine Presence does not comeand rest upon those who sit in judgment as they are not engaged in Torah study. Ravin bar Rav Adda bteaches us thatsitting in bjudgment is also Torah. /b,The Gemara asks: bSincethe Divine Presence rests bevenupon bthree,is it bnecessaryto mention bten?The Gemara answers: bThe Divine Presence arrives before a group of ten,as the verse: “God stands in the congregation of God,” indicates that when the ten individuals who comprise a congregation arrive, the Divine Presence is already there. For a group of bthreejudges, however, the Divine Presence does not arrive buntil they sitand begin their deliberations, as in the midst of the judges He judges. God aids them in their judgment, but does not arrive before them.,The Gemara cites another aggadic statement: bRabbi Avin bar Rav Adda saidthat bRabbi Yitzḥak said: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, wears phylacteries? As it is stated: “The Lord has sworn by His right hand, and by the arm of His strength”(Isaiah 62:8). Since it is customary to swear upon holy objects, it is understood that His right hand and the arm of His strength are the holy objects upon which God swore.,Specifically, b“His right hand” refers to the Torah, as it is statedin describing the giving of the Torah: b“From His right hand, a fiery law for His people”(Deuteronomy 33:2). b“The arm of His strength,”His left hand, brefers to phylacteries, as it is stated: “The Lord gave strength to His nation”(Psalms 29:11), in the form of the mitzva of phylacteries.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from whereis it derived bthat phylacteries provide strength for Israel? As it is written: “And all the nations of the land shall see that the name of the Lord is called upon you, and they will fear you”(Deuteronomy 28:10). bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer the Great says: This isa reference to bthe phylacteries of the head,upon which the name of God is written in fulfillment of the verse: “That the name of the Lord is called upon you.”, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said to Rav Ḥiyya bar Avin: What is written in the phylacteries of the Master of the world? Rav Ḥiyya bar Avin replied:It is written: b“Who is like Your people, Israel, one nation in the land?”(I Chronicles 17:21). God’s phylacteries serve to connect Him, in a sense, to the world, the essence of which is Israel.,Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak continues: bIs the Holy One, Blessed be He, glorified through the glory of Israel?Rav Ḥiyya bar Avin answered: bYes,as indicated by the juxtaposition of two verses; bas it is stated: “You have affirmed, this day,that bthe Lordis your God, and that you will walk in His ways and keep His laws and commandments, and listen to His voice.” bAnd thesubsequent bverse states: “And the Lord has affirmed, this day,that byouare His treasure, as He spoke to you, to keep His commandments” (Deuteronomy 26:17–18). From these two verses it is derived that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Israel: You have made Me a single entity [ iḥativa /i] in the world,as you singled Me out as separate and unique. bAndbecause of this, bI will make you a single entity in the world,and you will be a treasured nation, chosen by God., bYou have made Me a single entity in the world, as it is statedthat Israel declares God’s oneness by saying: b“Hear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One”(Deuteronomy 6:4). bAndbecause of this, bI will make you a single entity in the world,unique and elevated with the utterance: b“Who is like Your people, Israel, one nation in the land?”Consequently, the Holy One, Blessed be He, is glorified through the glory of Israel whose praises are written in God’s phylacteries., bRav Aḥa, son of Rava said to Rav Ashi: It works out wellwith regard to the contents of boneof the four bcompartmentsof God’s phylacteries of the head. However, all four compartments of Israel’s phylacteries of the head contain portions of the Torah that praise God. bWhatportions in praise of Israel are written in bthe rest of the compartmentsof God’s phylacteries of the head?,Rav Ashi bsaid to him:In those three compartments it is written: b“For who is a great nation,to whom God is close, like the Lord our God whenever we call upon Him?” (Deuteronomy 4:7); b“And who is a great nation,who has righteous statutes and laws, like this entire Torah which I set before you today?” (Deuteronomy 4:8); b“Happy are you, Israel,who is like you? A people saved by the Lord, the shield of your help, and that is the sword of your excellence. And your enemies shall dwindle away before you, and you shall tread upon their high places” (Deuteronomy 33:29); b“Or has God attemptedto go and take for Himself a nation from the midst of another nation, by trials, by signs and by wonders” (Deuteronomy 4:34); b“And to elevate youabove all nations that He has made, in praise, in name and in glory; that you may be a holy people to the Lord, your God, as He has spoken” (Deuteronomy 26:19).,Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, raises an objection: bIfall of these verses are included in God’s phylacteries of the head, bthere are too many compartmentsas more than four verses of praise were listed. bRather,the portions in God’s phylacteries must be arranged as follows: The verses b“For who is a great nation” and “And who is a great nation”are included bin one compartment,as they are similar. b“Happy are you, Israel” and "Who is like your people, Israel" are in one compartment. “Or has God attempted” is in one compartment and “And to elevate you” isin one bcompartment /b
61. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

102a. ואף אחיה השילוני טעה וחתם דהא יהוא צדיקא רבה הוה שנאמר (מלכים ב י, ל) ויאמר ה' אל יהוא יען אשר הטיבות לעשות הישר בעיני ככל אשר בלבבי עשית לבית אחאב בני רביעים ישבו לך על כסא ישראל וכתיב (מלכים ב י, לא) ויהוא לא שמר ללכת בתורת ה' אלהי ישראל בכל לבבו לא סר מעל חטאת ירבעם אשר החטיא את ישראל,מאי גרמא ליה אמר אביי ברית כרותה לשפתים שנאמר (מלכים ב י, יח) אחאב עבד הבעל מעט יהוא יעבדנו הרבה רבא אמר חותמו של אחיה השילוני ראה וטעה,דכתיב (הושע ה, ב) ושחטה שטים העמיקו ואני מוסר לכולם אמר רבי יוחנן אמר הקב"ה הם העמיקו משלי אני אמרתי כל שאינו עולה לרגל עובר בעשה והם אמרו כל העולה לרגל ידקר בחרב,(מלכים א יא, כט) ויהי בעת ההיא וירבעם יצא מירושלם וימצא אותו אחיה השילוני הנביא בדרך והוא מתכסה בשלמה חדשה תנא משום רבי יוסי עת היא מזומנת לפורענות,(ירמיהו נא, יח) בעת פקודתם יאבדו תנא משום רבי יוסי עת מזומנת לפורענות (ישעיהו מט, ח) בעת רצון עניתיך תנא משום ר' יוסי עת מזומנת לטובה (שמות לב, לד) וביום פקדי ופקדתי עליהם חטאתם תנא משום רבי יוסי עת היא מזומנת לפורענות (בראשית לח, א) ויהי בעת ההיא וירד יהודה מאת אחיו תנא משום ר' יוסי עת מזומנת לפורענות,(מלכים א יב, א) וילך רחבעם שכם כי שכם בא כל ישראל להמליך אותו תנא משום ר' יוסי מקום מזומן לפורענות בשכם עינו את דינה בשכם מכרו אחיו את יוסף בשכם נחלקה מלכות בית דוד,(מלכים א יא, כט) וירבעם יצא מירושלים אמר ר' חנינא בר פפא שיצא מפיתקה של ירושלים,(מלכים א יא, כט) וימצא אותו אחיה השילוני הנביא בדרך והוא מתכסה בשלמה חדשה ושניהם לבדם בשדה מאי בשלמה חדשה אמר רב נחמן כשלמה חדשה מה שלמה חדשה אין בה שום דופי אף תורתו של ירבעם לא היה בה שום דופי ד"א שלמה חדשה שחידשו דברים שלא שמעה אזן מעולם,מאי ושניהם לבדם בשדה אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שכל תלמידי חכמים דומין לפניהם כעשבי השדה ואיכא דאמר שכל טעמי תורה מגולין להם כשדה,(מיכה א, יד) לכן תתני שלוחים על מורשת גת בתי אכזיב לאכזב למלכי ישראל אמר ר' חנינא בר פפא יצאה בת קול ואמרה להן מי שהרג את הפלשתי והוריש אתכם גת תתנו שילוחים לבניו בתי אכזיב לאכזב למלכי ישראל,אמר רב חיננא בר פפא כל הנהנה מן העולם הזה בלא ברכה כאילו גוזל להקב"ה וכנסת ישראל שנאמר (משלי כח, כד) גוזל אביו ואמו ואומר אין פושע חבר הוא לאיש משחית ואין אביו אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (דברים לב, ו) הלא הוא אביך קנך ואין אמו אלא כנסת ישראל שנאמר (משלי א, ח) שמע בני מוסר אביך ואל תטוש תורת אמך,מאי חבר הוא לאיש משחית חבר הוא לירבעם בן נבט שהשחית ישראל לאביהם שבשמים,(מלכים ב יז, כא) וידח ירבעם (בן נבט) את ישראל מאחרי ה' והחטיאם חטאה גדולה אמר רבי חנין כשתי מקלות המתיזות זו את זו,(דברים א, א) ודי זהב אמרו דבי ר' ינאי אמר משה לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם בשביל כסף וזהב שהשפעת להן לישראל עד שיאמרו דיי גרם להם לעשות להם אלהי זהב משל אין ארי דורס ונוהם מתוך קופה של תבן אלא מתוך קופה של בשר,אמר ר' אושעיא עד ירבעם היו ישראל יונקים מעגל אחד מכאן ואילך משנים ושלשה עגלים אמר ר' יצחק אין לך כל פורענות ופורענות שבאה לעולם שאין בה אחד מעשרים וארבעה בהכרע ליטרא של עגל הראשון שנאמר (שמות לב, לד) וביום פקדי ופקדתי עליהם חטאתם,אמר רבי חנינא לאחר עשרים וארבעה דורות נגבה פסוק זה שנאמר (יחזקאל ט, א) ויקרא באזני קול גדול לאמר קרבו פקדות העיר ואיש כלי משחתו בידו,(מלכים א יג, לג) אחר הדבר הזה לא שב ירבעם מדרכו הרעה מאי אחר אמר ר' אבא אחר שתפשו הקב"ה לירבעם בבגדו ואמר לו חזור בך ואני ואתה ובן ישי נטייל בגן עדן אמר לו מי בראש בן ישי בראש אי הכי לא בעינא,ר' אבהו הוה רגיל דהוה קא דריש בשלשה מלכים חלש קביל עליה דלא דריש כיון 102a. bAnd even Ahijah the Shilonite erredin this matter band signedthat he would accept all of Jeroboam’s pronouncements. And generations later this caused Jehu to sin. The Gemara explains: bAs Jehu was an extremely righteous person. As it is stated: “And the Lord said to Jehu: Because you have done well, to perform what is right in My eyes, and have done to the house of Ahab according to all that was in My heart, your children of the fourth generation shall sit on the throne of Israel”(II Kings 10:30). bAnd it is written: “But Jehu took no care to walk in the Torah of the Lord, God of Israel, with all his heart; he departed not from the sins of Jeroboam, who made Israel sin”(II Kings 10:31)., bWhat causedJehu to do so? bAbaye says: A covet is made with the lips, as it is statedthat Jehu said cunningly in an attempt to entrap the priests of the Baal: b“Ahab worshipped Baal a little, but Jehu shall serve him much”(II Kings 10:18). Although it was not his intention, once the statement escaped his lips he began following the path to its fulfillment. bRava says: He saw the seal of Ahijah the Shiloniteon the coronation document of Jeroboam band he erredand believed that it was permitted to act as Jeroboam did.,The Gemara continues its discussion of Jeroboam. With regard to that bwhich is written: “And the apostates are deep in slaughter and I am rejected by them all”(Hosea 5:2), bRabbi Yoḥa saysthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Theyissued decrees that are bmore profoundand more extreme bthan my own. I said: Anyone who does not ascendto Jerusalem bfor the pilgrimage Festival violates a positive mitzva, and they said: Anyone who ascendsto Jerusalem bfor the pilgrimage Festival will be stabbed with the sword.In that way, Jeroboam successfully prevented the residents of the kingdom of Israel from ascending to Jerusalem.,The verse states: b“And it came to pass at that time, and Jeroboam left Jerusalem, and the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite found him on the way, and he was clad in a new garment,and the two were alone in the field” (I Kings 11:29). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “at that time” indicates that bit is a time ordained for calamity. /b,The verse states: b“At the time of their punishment, they shall perish”(Jeremiah 51:18). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “at the time” indicates that it is ba time ordained for calamity.The verse states: b“In an acceptable time have I answered you”(Isaiah 49:8). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “in an acceptable time” indicates that it is ba time ordained for good.The verse states: b“On the day when I punish, I will punish their sin upon them”(Exodus 32:34). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “on the day when I punish” indicates that bit is a time ordained for calamity.The verse states: b“And it came to pass at that time, and Judah descended from his brothers”(Genesis 38:1). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:The phrase “at that time” indicates that it is ba time ordained for calamity. /b,The verse states: b“And Rehoboam went to Shechem; for all Israel came to Shechem, to make him king”(I Kings 12:1). It was btaught in the name of Rabbi Yosei:Shechem is ba place ordained for calamity. In Shechem, they tormentedand raped bDinah, inthe outskirts of bShechem the brothers sold Joseph, in Shechem the kingdom of the house of David was divided. /b,With regard to the verse which states: b“And Jeroboam left Jerusalem”(I Kings 11:29), bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says:It means bthat he left the destiny of Jerusalem,meaning he removed himself from the category of the residents of Jerusalem, never to return.,The verse states: b“And the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite found him on the way, and he was clad in a new [ iḥadasha /i] garment, and the two were alone in the field.” Whatis taught by the phrase b“in a new garment”? Rav Naḥman says:It was blike a new garment; just as a new garment has no imperfection, so too, the Torahstudies bof Jeroboamat that time bhad no imperfection. Alternatively, “a new garment”teaches bthat they introduced [ isheḥideshu /i] matters thatno bear had ever heard. /b, bWhatis taught by the phrase b“and the two were alone in the field”? Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:It teaches bthat allthe bTorah scholarsof that generation bseemed,relative bto them, like grass of the field,as they were wiser than all of them. bAnd there arethose bwho say:It teaches bthat all the rationales of the Torah were revealed to them like a fieldthat is exposed for all to see.,The verse states: b“Therefore shall you give parting gifts to Moresheth Gath; the houses of Achzib are a deceitful thing for the kings of Israel”(Micah 1:14). bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says:When they crowned Jeroboam, ba Divine Voice emerged and said tothe subjects of the kingdom of Israel: bHe who killed the Philistine and bequeathedthe city of bGath to you,i.e., King David, bwill you give parting gifts to his sonsand revolt against them? Ultimately, bthe houses of Achzib are a deceitful thing for the kings of Israel,as the kings of Israel will also be forsaken by their subjects., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says:With regard to banyone who derives benefit from this world withoutreciting ba blessing, it is as though he stole from the Holy One, Blessed be He, and the congregation of Israel, as it is stated: “Whoever robs his father and his mother and says: It is no transgression, he is the companion of a corrupter”(Proverbs 28:24). bAndthe term b“his father”is referring to bnone other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Is He not your Father Who created you,Who made you and established you?” (Deuteronomy 32:6). bAndthe term b“his mother”is referring to bnone other than the congregation of Israel, as it is stated: “Hear, my son, the discipline of your father, and do not forsake the Torah of your mother”(Proverbs 1:8). The mention of the Torah as emanating from the mother indicates that the mother represents the congregation of Israel, and the Torah of the mother is the tradition of the Jewish people., bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“He is the companion of a corrupter”?It means that bhe is a companion of Jeroboam, son of Nebat, who corruptedthe people of bIsrael before their Father in Heavenby sinning and by causing others to sin.,With regard to the verse: b“And Jeroboam drove Israel from following the Lord, and caused them to sin a great sin”(II Kings 17:21), bRabbi Ḥanin says:This is blike two sticksthat when they collide bcause each other to carom,as due to the strife, Jeroboam caused the subjects of the kingdom of Israel to grow distant from God.,§ Apropos the calves of Jeroboam, the Gemara discusses the Golden Calf discussed in the Torah. The verse states: b“And Di Zahav”(Deuteronomy 1:1). bThe school of Rabbi Yannai said: Moses said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, because of the gold and silver that You lavished upon the Jewish peopleduring the exodus from Egypt buntil they said enough [ idai /i],this wealth bcaused the Jewish people to fashion for themselves gods of gold.The combination of wealth and leisure left them open to a transgression of that sort. There is ba parablefor this: bA lion does not maul and roar over a basket of strawfrom which he derives no pleasure; brather,he mauls and roars bover a basket of meat,as he roars only when satiated. In other words, the guilt is not exclusively theirs., bRabbi Oshaya says: Until Jeroboam, Israel was suckling,i.e., suffering the consequences, bfromworshipping bone calfthat they fashioned in the wilderness. bFrom thatpoint bforward,they were suckling bfrom two and three calves,as Jeroboam added the calves in Bethel and Dan. bRabbi Yitzḥak says: You have no punishment that comes to the world in which there is not one twenty-fourth of the surplus of a ilitraof the first calf.When weighing a substance, there would often be a disparity of up to one twenty-fourth of its weight. The point is that a minuscule portion of the sin of the Golden Calf is added to every punishment imposed upon the Jewish people, bas it is stated: “On the day when I punish, I will punish their sin upon them”(Exodus 32:34), indicating that atonement for that sin is incomplete, and the Jewish people will continue to suffer for it., bRabbi Ḥanina says: After twenty-four generationselapsed from the sin of the Golden Calf, the debt referred to in bthis verse was collected, as it is stated: “And he cried in my ears with a loud voice, saying: Those who have charge over the city draw near, every man with his deadly weapon in his hand”(Ezekiel 9:1). This prophecy occurred twenty-four generations after the sin of the Golden Calf.,The verse states: b“And after this matter, Jeroboam returned not from his evil way”(I Kings 13:33). To bwhatevent is the verse alluding, when it states: b“Afterthis matter”? bRabbi Abba says:It is bafter the Holy One, Blessed be He, grabbed Jeroboam by his garment,i.e., he sent prophets and implored him, band said to him: Repent, and you and I andthe bson of Yishai will strolltogether bin the Garden of Eden.Jeroboam bsaid to Him: Whowill walk bin the lead?God bsaid toJeroboam: The bson of Yishaiwill walk bin the lead.Jeroboam said: bIf so, I do not wishto repent.,§ The Gemara relates: bRabbi Abbahu was accustomed to lectureat great length babout the three kingsenumerated in the mishna, who have no share in the World-to-Come. bHe fell ill, and he undertook that he would not lectureabout those kings. bOnce /b
62. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

48b. הרחיבה שאול נפשה ופערה פיה לבלי חק וירד הדרה והמונה ושאונה ועלז בה,משמתו נביאים הראשונים מאן נביאים הראשונים אמר רב הונא זה דוד ושמואל ושלמה רב נחמן אמר בימי דוד זימנין סליק וזימנין לא סליק שהרי שאל צדוק ועלתה לו שאל אביתר ולא עלתה לו שנאמר (שמואל ב טו, כד) ויעל אביתר,מתיב רבה בר שמואל (דברי הימים ב כו, ה) ויהי לדרוש אלהים כל ימי זכריה המבין בראות אלהים מאי לאו באורים ותומים לא בנביאים,ת"ש משחרב בהמ"ק ראשון בטלו ערי מגרש ופסקו אורים ותומים ופסק מלך מבית דוד,ואם לחשך אדם לומר (עזרא ב, סג) ויאמר התרשתא להם אשר לא יאכלו מקדש הקדשים עד עמוד כהן לאורים ותומים [אמור לו] כאדם שאומר לחבירו עד שיחיו מתים ויבא משיח בן דוד,אלא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מאן נביאים הראשונים לאפוקי מחגי זכריה ומלאכי דאחרונים נינהו דת"ר משמתו חגי זכריה ומלאכי נסתלקה רוח הקודש מישראל ואע"פ כן היו משתמשים בבת קול,שפעם אחת היו מסובין בעליית בית גוריא ביריחו נתנה עליהן בת קול מן השמים ואמרה יש בכם אדם אחד שראוי שתשרה שכינה עליו אלא שאין דורו ראוי לכך נתנו עיניהם בהלל הזקן וכשמת הספידוהו הי חסיד הי עניו תלמידו של עזרא,ושוב פעם אחרת היו מסובין בעלייה ביבנה נתנה להן בת קול מן השמים ואמרה להן יש בכם אדם א' שראוי שתשרה שכינה עליו אלא שאין דורו זכאין לכך נתנו עיניהם בשמואל הקטן וכשמת הספידוהו הי עניו הי חסיד תלמידו של הלל,ואף הוא אמר בשעת מיתתו שמעון וישמעאל לחרבא וחברוהי לקטלא ושאר עמא לביזא ועקן סגיאין עתידין למיתי על עמא ואף על ר' יהודה בן בבא בקשו לומר הי חסיד הי עניו אלא שנטרפה שעה שאין מספידין על הרוגי מלכות,משחרב בהמ"ק בטל השמיר כו' ת"ר שמיר שבו בנה שלמה את בהמ"ק שנא' (מלכים א ו, ז) והבית בהבנותו אבן שלמה מסע נבנה הדברים ככתבן דברי ר' יהודה,אמר לו ר' נחמיה וכי אפשר לומר כן והלא כבר נאמר (מלכים א ז, ט) כל אלה אבנים יקרות וגו' מגוררות במגרה אם כן מה ת"ל לא נשמע בבית בהבנותו שהיה מתקין מבחוץ ומכניס מבפנים אמר רבי נראין דברי רבי יהודה באבני מקדש ודברי ר' נחמיה באבני ביתו,ור' נחמיה שמיר למאי אתא מיבעי ליה לכדתניא אבנים הללו אין כותבין אותן בדיו משום שנאמר (שמות כח, יא) פתוחי חותם ואין מסרטין עליהם באיזמל משום שנאמר במלואותם,אלא כותב עליהם בדיו ומראה להן שמיר מבחוץ והן נבקעות מאליהן כתאינה זו שנבקעת בימות החמה ואינה חסירה כלום וכבקעה זו שנבקעת בימות הגשמים ואינה חסירה כלום,ת"ר שמיר זה ברייתו כשעורה ומששת ימי בראשית נברא ואין כל דבר קשה יכול לעמוד בפניו במה משמרין אותו כורכין אותו בספוגין של צמר ומניחין אותו באיטני של אבר מליאה סובי שעורין,אמר רבי אמי משחרב מקדש ראשון בטלה שירא פרנדא וזכוכית לבנה תניא נמי הכי משחרב מקדש ראשון בטלה שירא פרנדא וזכוכית לבנה ורכב ברזל וי"א אף יין קרוש הבא משניר הדומה כעיגולי דבילה,ונופת צופים מאי נופת צופים אמר רב סולת שצפה על גבי נפה ודומה לעיסה שנילושה בדבש ושמן ולוי אמר שתי ככרות הנדבקות בתנור ותופחות ובאות עד שמגיעות זו לזו ורבי יהושע בן לוי אמר זה דבש הבא מן הציפיא מאי משמע כדמתרגם רב ששת כמא דנתזן דבריאתה ושייטן ברומי עלמא ומתיין דובשא מעישבי טורא,תנן התם כל הנצוק טהור חוץ מדבש זיפים והצפיחים מאי זיפים אמר רבי יוחנן דבש שמזייפין בו וריש לקיש אמר על שם מקומו כדכתיב (יהושע טו, כד) זיף וטלם ובעלות,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (תהלים נד, ב) בבא הזיפים ויאמרו לשאול הלא דוד וגו' מאי זיפים אמר רבי יוחנן בני אדם המזייפין דבריהם ורבי אלעזר אומר על שם מקומן כדכתיב זיף וטלם ובעלות,ופסקו אנשי אמנה אמר רבי יצחק אלו בני אדם שהן מאמינין בהקב"ה דתניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר כל מי שיש לו פת בסלו ואומר מה אוכל למחר אינו אלא מקטני אמנה,והיינו דאמר ר' אלעזר מאי דכתיב (זכריה ד, י) כי מי בז ליום קטנות מי גרם לצדיקים שיתבזבז שולחנן לעתיד לבא קטנות שהיה בהן שלא האמינו בהקב"ה רבא אמר אלו קטני בני רשעי ישראל 48b. bthe netherworld has enlarged her desire, and opened her mouth without measure, and down goes their glory and their tumult and their uproar, and he who rejoices among them”(Isaiah 5:14). Their punishment is that they shall descend into the netherworld.,§ The mishna taught: bFromthe time bwhen the early prophets died,the iUrim VeTummimwas nullified. The Gemara poses a question: bWhoare bthe early prophets? Rav Huna says: This isreferring to bDavid, and Samuel, and Solomon,and after their death the iUrim VeTummimwas no longer used. bRav Naḥman said: In the days of Davidthere were btimesan answer brose upfor them from the iUrim VeTummim bandthere were btimesan answer bdid not rise up,i.e., they did not receive an answer. The proof for this is bthat Tzadok,the High Priest in David’s time, baskedthe iUrim VeTummim bandan answer brose up for him,whereas bAbiathar asked andan answer bdid not rise up for him, asit bis stated: “And Abiathar went up”(II Samuel 15:24), and he was removed from serving as the High Priest as a result., bRabba bar Shmuel raises an objection:The verse states concerning Uzziah: b“And he set himself to seek God in the days of Zechariah, who had an understanding of the vision of God”(II Chronicles 26:5). bWhat, isthe verse bnotstating that Uzziah would seek God by asking questions bofthe iUrim VeTummim /i,despite the fact that he lived after the time of Solomon? The Gemara rejects this claim: bNo,he would seek God by asking questions bofthe bprophets,but not of the iUrim VeTummim /i.,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from a ibaraita( iTosefta13:2) with regard to when the iUrim VeTummimceased: bFromthe time bwhen the First Temple was destroyed, the cities with fieldsthat were allocated to the Levites bwere nullified, and the iUrim VeTummimceased, and the monarchy ceased from the house of David. /b, bAnd if a person would whisper to you sayingthat the iUrim VeTummimwas still extant, as it states with regard to when the Second Temple first stood: b“And the Tirshatha said to them that they should not eat of the most sacred things, until there stood a priest with the iUrim VeTummim /i”(Ezra 2:63), which seems to indicate that they merely had to wait until the Second Temple was built for the reappearance of the iUrim VeTummim /i; you should bsay to himthat this is not referring to an expectation of a short-term development, but it is blike a person who says to his friend,with regard to something that will occur in the distant future: bUntil the dead live and the Messiah,the bson of David, comes.In any case, the ibaraitaindicates that the iUrim VeTummimceased only from the time when the First Temple was destroyed, and not in the time of Solomon., bRather, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Whoare bthe early prophets,with regard to whom it states that use of the iUrim VeTummimceased immediately after their death? This term early prophets serves bto exclude Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi,who barethe blatter prophets.The iUrim VeTummimwas used throughout the First Temple period, up to, but not including, their time. bAs the Sages taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta13:3): bFromthe time bwhen Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi died the Divine Spirit departed from the Jewish people,as these three were considered to be the last prophets. bAndeven after the Urim VeTummim ceased to exist, they would bneverthelessstill bmake use of a Divine Voiceto receive instructions from Above, even after this time., bFor on one occasionthe Sages bwere reclining in the upper story of the house of Gurya in Jericho. A Divine Voice from Heaven was issued to them, and it said: There is one person among youfor bwhom it is fitting that the Divine Presence should rest upon himas a prophet, bbut his generation is not fit for it;they do not deserve to have a prophet among them. The Sages present bdirected their gaze to Hillel the Elder. And when he died, they eulogized himin the following manner: bAlas pious one, alas humble one, student of Ezra. /b, bAnd again, on another occasionseveral generations later, the Sages bwere reclining in an upper storyof a house bin Yavne,and ba Divine Voice from Heaven was issued to them, and said: There is one person among youfor bwhom it is fitting that the Divine Presence should rest upon him, but his generation is not fit for it.The Sages present bdirected their gaze to Shmuel HaKatan. And when he died, they eulogized himin the following manner: bAlas humble one, alas pious one, student of Hillel. /b, bAnd he too,Shmuel HaKatan, bsaidthe following statement of divinely inspired prediction bat the time of his death: Shimon,i.e., Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, band Yishmael,i.e., Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha the High Priest, are slated bfor the sword, and their colleagues for killing, and the rest of the people for plunder, and great troubles are destined to befall the people.The Gemara relates: bAnd they also sought to say about Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava,when eulogizing him: bAlas pious one, alas humble one, but the moment was disturbedand they could not do so. That is because beulogies are not given for those killed by the monarchy,which was Rabbi Yehuda ben Baba’s fate, in order not to arouse the monarchy’s wrath.,§ The mishna taught: bFromthe time bwhen theFirst bTemple was destroyed the ishamirceasedto exist. bThe Sages taught:This ishamir /iis the creature bwith which Solomon built the Temple, as it is stated: “For the house, when it was built, was built of whole stone from the quarry”(I Kings 6:7). Now bthese wordsshould be understood exactly bas they are written,that King Solomon took whole stones and shaped them by having the ishamirdo the cutting. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. /b, bRabbi Neḥemya said to him: And is it possible to say so? But isn’t it already stated: “All these were costly stones,according to the measures of hewn stones, bsawed with saws”(II Kings 7:9), which indicates that saws, which are iron implements, were used to shape the stones? bIf so, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states:“And hammer, ax, and any tool of iron bwere not heard in the house when it was being built”(I Kings 6:7)? It means bthat he would preparethe stones boutsidethe Temple Mount using tools, band bringthem binsidealready cut, so that no iron tools were used inside the Temple itself. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: The statement of Rabbi Yehudathat no iron tools were used bappearsto be correct bwith regard to the Temple stones, and the statement of Rabbi Neḥemyathat tools were used appears to be correct bwith regard to the stones of theking’s own bhouse. /b,The Gemara poses a question: bAndaccording to bRabbi Neḥemya,who maintains that they used iron tools even in the cutting of the stones for the Temple, bfor whatpurpose bdid the ishamircome?The Gemara answers: bItwas bnecessary for that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThese stonesin the breastplate and ephod, upon which were inscribed the names of the tribes, bthey may not be written on with ink, because it is stated: “Like the engravings of a signet”(Exodus 28:21), which means the names must be engraved onto the stones. bAnd they may not be scratched on with a scalpel [ iizemel /i], because it is stated: “In their full settings”(Exodus 28:20), indicating that the stones must be complete and not missing any of their mass.,The ibaraitacontinues: bRather,one bwritesthe letters bon them in ink, and shows them,i.e., he places the ishamir /iclose to the ink markings bfrom outside,without having it touch the stones, band they splitopen along the lines of the ink bof their own accord, like this fig that splits in the summer without losing anythingof its mass, band like thisfield in ba valley that cracks in the rainy season without losing anythingof its mass. The ishamirwas used in this way for these engravings., bThe Sages taught: This ishamir /i, its size is that of a barleycorn, and it was created in the six days of creation, and nothing hard can withstand it. In what is it kept,so that it will not break everything in the vicinity? bThey wrap it in tufts [ isefogin /i] of wool and place it in a leaden vessel [ iitenei /i], full of barley bran,which is soft and will not be broken by the ishamir /i.,§ bRabbi Ami says: Fromthe time bwhen the First Temple was destroyed, shiny [ iperanda /i] silk [ ishira /i] and white glass ceasedto exist. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFromthe time bwhen the First Temple was destroyed, shiny silk, white glass, and iron chariots ceased; and some saythat beven congealed wine that comes from Senir,the Hermon, bwhich is similar to round fig cakesafter it congeals, ceased to exist as well.,The mishna taught: bAndthe bsweetness of the honeycomb [ inofet tzufim /i]also ceased when the First Temple was destroyed. The Gemara asks: bWhatis inofet tzufim /i? Rav says: Fine flour that floatsup and remains bon the top of the sieve [ inafa /i], which is similarin taste bto dough kneaded with honey and oil. And Levi saysthat inofet tzufimis the term for btwo loaves stuck together in an oven, which keep swelling until they reach each other. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: This is honey that comes from elevated areas [ itzipiyya /i].The Gemara explains: bFrom where mayit bbe inferredthat this is what inofet tzufimis? bAs Rav Sheshet would translatethe words: “As the bees do” (Deuteronomy 1:44): bLike the bees spread out and fly all over the world and bring honey from mountainous plants.Similarly, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi states that honey comes from elevated areas., bWe learnedin a mishna bthere( iMakhshirin5:9): bAnything that is pouredremains britually pure.In other words, even if a liquid is poured into a ritually impure utensil, the stream of the liquid does not defile the contents that remain in the ritually pure utensil from which they were poured, bapart from izifimhoney and waferbatter. These substances are too viscous to be considered liquids. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of izifim /i? Rabbi Yoḥa says: Honeyof such rare quality that btheycould bfalsify [ imezayyefin /i] it,by diluting it with other substances, and it would not be noticed. bAnd Reish Lakish says:It is named bafter its place, as it is written: “Ziph and Telem and Bealoth”(Joshua 15:24)., bSimilarly, youcan bsaywith regard to the verse: b“When the izifimcame and said to Saul, does not Davidhide himself with us” (Psalms 54:2). bWhat isthe meaning of izifim /i,mentioned in this verse? bRabbi Yoḥa says:It means bpeople whowould bfalsify [ ihamzayyefin /i] their words. And Rabbi Elazar says:They are called bafter their place, as it is written: “Ziph and Telem and Bealoth.” /b,§ The mishna states that from the time when the Second Temple was destroyed bmen of faith ceased. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: These are people who believe in the Holy One, Blessed be He,and place their trust in Him in all their ways. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer the Great saysthat bwhoever has bread in his basketto eat today band says: What shall I eat tomorrow,meaning he does not know how he will acquire bread for tomorrow, bhe is nothing otherthan bfrom those of little faith.One must trust in God to provide him with his sustece., bAnd this is what Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For who plunders the day of small things”(Zechariah 4:10)? bWhat caused the table,i.e., the reward, bof the righteous to be plundered,meaning wasted, bin the future?It was bthesmall-mindedness bthey possessed.And what is this small-mindedness? bThat they did not believe in the Holy One, Blessed be He,with a complete faith. bRava said:Who plunders the day of small things? bThese are the small children of the wicked ones of the Jewish people,who die young
63. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. כי הא (דרבה) בר חמא כי הוו קיימי מקמיה דרב חסדא מרהטי בגמרא בהדי הדדי והדר מעייני בסברא,אמר רבא מאני משתיא במטללתא מאני מיכלא בר ממטללתא חצבא ושחיל בר ממטללתא ושרגא במטללתא ואמרי לה בר ממטללתא ולא פליגי הא בסוכה גדולה הא בסוכה קטנה:,ירדו גשמים: תנא משתסרח המקפה של גריסין,אביי הוה קא יתיב קמיה דרב יוסף במטללתא נשב זיקא וקא מייתי ציבותא אמר להו רב יוסף פנו לי מאני מהכא אמר ליה אביי והא תנן משתסרח המקפה אמר ליה לדידי כיון דאנינא דעתאי כמי שתסרח המקפה דמי לי,ת"ר היה אוכל בסוכה וירדו גשמים וירד אין מטריחין אותו לעלות עד שיגמור סעודתו היה ישן תחת הסוכה וירדו גשמים וירד אין מטריחין אותו לעלות עד שיאור,איבעיא להו עד שיעור או עד שיאור ת"ש עד שיאור ויעלה עמוד השחר תרתי אלא אימא עד שיעור ויעלה עמוד השחר:,משל למה הדבר דומה: איבעיא להו מי שפך למי ת"ש דתניא שפך לו רבו קיתון על פניו ואמר לו אי אפשי בשמושך,ת"ר בזמן שהחמה לוקה סימן רע לכל העולם כולו משל למה הדבר דומה למלך בשר ודם שעשה סעודה לעבדיו והניח פנס לפניהם כעס עליהם ואמר לעבדו טול פנס מפניהם והושיבם בחושך,תניא רבי מאיר אומר כל זמן שמאורות לוקין סימן רע לשונאיהם של ישראל מפני שמלומדין במכותיהן משל לסופר שבא לבית הספר ורצועה בידו מי דואג מי שרגיל ללקות בכל יום ויום הוא דואג,תנו רבנן בזמן שהחמה לוקה סימן רע לעובדי כוכבים לבנה לוקה סימן רע לשונאיהם של ישראל מפני שישראל מונין ללבנה ועובדי כוכבים לחמה לוקה במזרח סימן רע ליושבי מזרח במערב סימן רע ליושבי מערב באמצע הרקיע סימן רע לכל העולם כולו,פניו דומין לדם חרב בא לעולם לשק חיצי רעב באין לעולם לזו ולזו חרב וחיצי רעב באין לעולם לקה בכניסתו פורענות שוהה לבא ביציאתו ממהרת לבא וי"א חילוף הדברים,ואין לך כל אומה ואומה שלוקה שאין אלהיה לוקה עמה שנאמר (שמות יב, יב) ובכל אלהי מצרים אעשה שפטים ובזמן שישראל עושין רצונו של מקום אין מתיראין מכל אלו שנאמר (ירמיהו י, ב) כה אמר ה' אל דרך הגוים אל תלמדו ומאותות השמים אל תחתו כי יחתו הגוים מהמה עובדי כוכבים יחתו ואין ישראל יחתו,ת"ר בשביל ארבעה דברים חמה לוקה על אב בית דין שמת ואינו נספד כהלכה ועל נערה המאורסה שצעקה בעיר ואין מושיע לה ועל משכב זכור ועל שני אחין שנשפך דמן כאחד,ובשביל ארבעה דברים מאורות לוקין על כותבי (פלסתר) ועל מעידי עדות שקר ועל מגדלי בהמה דקה בא"י ועל קוצצי אילנות טובות,ובשביל ד' דברים נכסי בעלי בתים נמסרין למלכות על משהי שטרות פרועים ועל מלוי ברבית 29a. bAsin bthatsituation involving Rava and Rami bbar Ḥama, when they would stand before Rav Ḥisda,after he taught them a ihalakha btheywould bquicklyreview bthe traditionthat they heard from him btogether andonly bthen analyze the rationaleof the tradition that they had received. Apparently, in the study of Mishna and the amoraic commentary on the Mishna there is a distinction between extensive and intensive study.,With regard to residence in the isukka /i, bRava said: Drinking vesselssuch as cups, which are usually clean, remain bin the isukka /i. Eating vesselsare taken bout of the isukka /iafter use. bAn earthenware jug and a wicker basket [ ishaḥil]that are used for drawing water are taken boutside the isukka /i. And a lampremains binside the isukka /i, and some sayit is taken boutside the isukka /i.The Gemara comments: bAnd they do not disagree.Rather, bthisopinion, that a lamp remains inside the isukka /i, is referring bto a large isukka /i,where the lamp and its odor do not disturb those residing in the isukka /i. And bthatopinion, that the lamp is taken outside the isukka /i, is referring bto a small isukka /i,where the lamp’s odor is offensive.,§ The mishna stated: If brain fell,it is permitted to leave the isukkafrom the point that it is raining so hard that the congealed dish will spoil. bIt was taughtin the iTosefta /i: The measure is bfrom when a congealed dish of pounded grain,a dish ruined by even slight rainfall, bwill spoil. /b, bAbaye was sitting before Rav Yosef in the isukka /i. The wind blew and broughtwith it bsplintersfrom the roofing, and they fell onto the food. bRav Yosef said to him: Vacate my vessels from here,and I will eat in the house. bAbaye said to him: Didn’t we learnin the mishna that one remains in the isukka buntil the congealed dish will spoil?That is not yet the case. bHe said to him: For me, since I am delicate,this situation bis as if the congealed dish will spoil. /b, bThe Sages taught:If bone was eating in the isukka /i, and rain fell,and bhe descendedfrom the isukkaon the roof to eat in his house, bone does not burden him to ascendback to the isukkaonce the rain ceases buntilafter bhe finishes his meal.Similarly, if bone was sleeping underthe roofing of bthe isukka /i, and rain fell, and he descendedto sleep in the house, bone does not burden him to ascendback to the isukkaonce the rain ceases; rather, he may sleep in the house buntil it becomes light. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Is the correct reading of the ibaraita /i: bUntil one awakens [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an iayin /i, and once he awakens he returns to the isukkaeven in the middle of the night? Or is the correct reading: bUntil it becomes light [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an ialef /i, and he need not return to the isukkauntil morning? bComeand bheara proof that will resolve the matter from a related ibaraita /i: One need not return to the isukka buntil it becomes light [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an ialef /i, band dawnarrives. The Gemara asks: Why did the ibaraitarepeat the arrival of light btwotimes (Ritva)? bRather, sayinstead: bUntil he awakens [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an iayin /i, band the dawnarrives. Both of the readings are accurate, as until one awakens and it becomes light he may remain in the house.,§ The mishna continues: The Sages btold a parable: To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable to a servant who comes to pour wine for his master, and he pours a jug of water in his face. bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bWho pouredthe water bin whoseface? bComeand bheara proof, bas it is taughtexplicitly in a ibaraita /i: bHis master poured a jugof water bon his face and said to him: I do not want your service. /b,Apropos the fact that rain on iSukkotis an indication of divine rebuke, the Gemara cites several related topics. bThe Sages taught: When the sun is eclipsed it is a bad omen for the entire world.The Gemara tells ba parable. To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable bto a king of flesh and blood who prepared a feast for his servants and placed a lantern [ ipanas /i] before themto illuminate the hall. bHe became angry at them and said to his servant: Take the lantern from before them and seat them in darkness. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir says: When theheavenly blights,i.e., the sun and the moon, bare eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the enemies of the Jewish people,which is a euphemism for the Jewish people, bbecause they are experienced in their beatings.Based on past experience, they assume that any calamity that afflicts the world is directed at them. The Gemara suggests ba parable:This is similar bto a teacher who comes to the school with a strap in his hand. Who worries?The child bwho is accustomed to be beaten each and every day isthe one who bworries. /b, bThe Sages taughtin another ibaraita /i: bWhen the sun is eclipsed, it is a bad omen for theother bnations.When bthe moon is eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the enemies of the Jewish people.This is bdue tothe fact bthat the Jewish people calculatetheir calendar primarily based bon the moon, and theother bnationscalculate based bon the sun.When the sun is beclipsed in the east, it is a bad omen for the residentsof the lands of bthe east.When it is eclipsed bin the west, it is a bad omen for the residentsof the lands of bthe west.When it is eclipsed bin the middle of the sky, it is a bad omen for the entire world. /b,If, during an eclipse, bthe visageof the sun bisred blike blood,it is an omen that bsword,i.e., war, bis coming to the world.If the sun bisblack blike sackclothmade of dark goat hair, it is an omen that barrows of hunger are coming to the world,because hunger darkens people’s faces. When it is similar both bto this,to blood, band to that,to sackcloth, it is a sign that both bsword and arrows of hunger are coming to the world.If it was beclipsed upon its entry,soon after rising, it is an omen that bcalamity is tarrying to come.If the sun is eclipsed bupon its departureat the end of the day, it is an omen that bcalamity is hastening to come. And some say the matters are reversed:An eclipse in the early morning is an omen that calamity is hastening, while an eclipse in the late afternoon is an omen that calamity is tarrying.,The Sages said: bThere is no nation that is afflicted whose god is not afflicted with it, as it is stated: “And against all the gods of Egypt I will mete out judgment; I am God”(Exodus 12:12). The Gemara adds: bWhen the Jewish people perform God’s will, theyneed bnot fear any of theseomens, bas it is stated: “Thus says the Lord: Learn not the way of the nations, and be not dismayed at the signs of Heaven; for the nations are dismayed at them”(Jeremiah 10:2). bThe nations will be dismayed, but the Jewish people will not be dismayed,provided they do not follow the ways of the nations., bThe Sages taughtthat bon account of four matters the sun is eclipsed: Onaccount of ba president of the court who dies and is not eulogized appropriately,and the eclipse is a type of eulogy by Heaven; bonaccount of ba betrothed young woman who screamed in the citythat she was being raped band there was no one to rescue her; onaccount of bhomosexuality; and onaccount of btwo brothers whose blood was spilled as one. /b, bAnd on account of four matters theheavenly blightsare beclipsed: Onaccount of bforgers of a fraudulent document [ ipelaster /i]that is intended to discredit others; bonaccount of btestifiers of false testimony; onaccount of braisers of small domesticated animals in Eretz Yisraelin a settled area; band onaccount of bchoppers of good,fruit-producing btrees. /b, bAnd on account of four matters the property of homeowners is delivered to the monarchyas punishment: bOnaccount of those bkeepers of paidpromissory bnotes,who keep these documents instead of tearing them or returning them to the borrowers, as that would allow the lender to collect money with the note a second time; band onaccount of blenders with interest; /b
64. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.27.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

65. Nag Hammadi, Allogenes, 59.20-59.23 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

66. Nag Hammadi, Apocalypse of James, 31.2-31.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

67. Origen, Commentary On John, 2.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.12. We have thus enquired as to the life of God, and the life which is Christ, and the living who are in a place by themselves, and have seen how the living are not justified before God, and we have noticed the cognate statement, Who alone has immortality. We may now take up the assumption which may appear to be involved in this, namely, that whatever being is gifted with reason does not possess blessedness as a part of its essence, or as an inseparable part of its nature. For if blessedness and the highest life were an inseparable characteristic of reasonable being, how could it be truly said of God that He only has immortality? We should therefore remark, that the Saviour is some things, not to Himself but to others, and some things both to Himself and others, and we must enquire if there are some things which He is to Himself and to no other. Clearly it is to others that He is a Shepherd, not a shepherd like those among men who make gain out of their occupation; unless the benefit conferred on the sheep might be regarded, on account of His love to men, as a benefit to Himself also. Similarly it is to others that He is the Way and the Door, and, as all will admit, the Rod. To Himself and to others He is Wisdom and perhaps also Reason (Logos). It may be asked whether, as He has in Himself a system of speculations, inasmuch as He is wisdom, there are some of those speculations which cannot be received by any nature that is begotten, but His own, and which He knows for Himself only. Nor should the reverence we owe to the Holy Spirit keep us from seeking to answer this question. For the Holy Spirit Himself receives instruction, as is clear from what is said about the Paraclete and the Holy Spirit, John 16:14-15 He shall take of mine and shall declare it to you. Does He, then, from these instructions, take in everything that the Son, gazing at the Father from the first, Himself knows? That would require further consideration. And if the Saviour is some things to others, and some things it may be to Himself, and to no other, or to one only, or to few, then we ask, in so far as He is the life which came in the Logos, whether he is life to Himself and to others, or to others, and if to others, to what others. And are life and the light of men the same thing, for the text says, That which was made was life in Him and the life was the light of men. But the light of men is the light only of some, not of all, rational creatures; the word men which is added shows this. But He is the light of men, and so He is the life of those whose light he is also. And inasmuch as He is life He may be called the Saviour, not for Himself but to be life to others, whose light also He is. And this life comes to the Logos and is inseparable from Him, once it has come to Him. But the Logos, who cleanses the soul, must have been in the soul first; it is after Him and the cleansing that proceeds from Him, when all that is dead or weak in her has been taken away, that pure life comes to every one who has made himself a fit dwelling for the Logos, considered as God.
68. Anon., 2 Enoch, 37.2

69. Anon., 3 Baruch, 11.3

70. Anon., 3 Enoch, 16.4

71. Anon., 4 Ezra, 6.23

6.23. and the trumpet shall sound aloud, and when all hear it, they shall suddenly be terrified.
72. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 10.3, 19.1

73. Anon., 4 Baruch, 3.8, 3.10, 6.22, 8.3, 9.3

3.8. And Jeremiah said: Behold, Lord, now we know that you are delivering the city into the hands of its enemies, and they will take the people away to Babylon. What do you want me to do with the holy vessels of the temple service? 3.10. And the Lord said to him: Take them and consign them to the earth, saying: Hear, Earth, the voice of your creator who formed you in the abundance of waters, who sealed you with seven seals for seven epochs, and after this you will receive your ornaments (?) -- 6.22. And he sent his angel to me, and he told me these words which I send to you. 8.3. As for the men who took wives from them and the women who took husbands from them -- those who listen to you shall cross over, and you take them into Jerusalem; but those who do not listen to you, do not lead them there. 9.3. And he prayed a prayer, saying: Holy, holy, holy, fragrant aroma of the living trees, true light that enlightens me until I ascend to you;
74. Anon., Apocalypse of Zephaniah, 10.1

75. Anon., Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 31



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 349, 425; Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 114
adam and eve Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 226
adoption metaphor in gospel of mark Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 130
agency Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279, 286, 288, 291
ages of the world Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 156
al minya codex (tchacos) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 131
alexandria Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 344
allogenes, character Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 99
allusions, biblical Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 142
altar Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 254
andrew, the apostle Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 142
angel Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 143, 425
angels, heavenly mansion of Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 220
anti-christ Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407, 486
apocalyptic Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108
apostles Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 344
aramaic Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 486
armozel, betrayal by judas Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 220
astrology Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 114
augustus worship of Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 130
authority, religious Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279, 286
authority Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 84; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
baptism Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 142; Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246, 262; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407
barnaban source Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 262
barnabas Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 134
belief Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 291
believers - non-believers, christian Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 291
betrayal of jesus, judass motivation and knowledge Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 220
betrayal of jesus, role of judas in Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 220
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
blindness Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 66
blood Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
caiaphas Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
canon (scriptural), canonical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 486
care, of god or christ for creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 226, 227
celsus Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 196
centurion at, in gospel of mark Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 130
centurion at Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 130
charismatic wonderworkers, elijah Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 156
charismatic wonderworkers, jesus Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 156
charismatic wonderworkers Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 156
children, childhood Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 291
christ Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 262; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108, 344
christian, early christian, anti-christian, christianity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 33, 129
christian Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108, 344
christian scriptures, new testament Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 84, 254
christology, christological Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407
christology DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 236
church Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 344
clement of alexandria Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 134
clouds of glory, cloud Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 254
comitia curiata (representative assembly) Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 130
commemoration Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 84
community, christian Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279
community Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
conversion, models/variations Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 22
coptic Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 99
cosmology, of the gnostic world, revelation to judas of Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 220
covenant Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
creator, christ as, with god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 226, 227
creator Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
cross Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
crowds Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 84
daemones, demons Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279, 286, 288, 291
daniel Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407
danielic (see also enochic) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 486
death, eschatology Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279, 286
death, of jesus Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 84
death, resurrection Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 286, 288
death Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108
deconstructive criticism Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 204
demon, demonic Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 66
demons Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 262
devil Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 211
dialogue, in narrative Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 84
disciple Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246; Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 22; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 344
disciples Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 142
discipleship, followers, christian Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 288, 291
discipleship, relation Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279, 286, 288, 291
discourse Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 84
divi filius jesus as Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 130
divine presence, spirit Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
divine voice at transfiguration Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 130
doubt Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 227, 238
dreams and visions, examples, gospels and acts Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 452
easter Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 291
eastern church Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 344
ecstasy/ecstatic prophecy Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 135
elijah, in early christianity DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 266
elijah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 142; Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 156; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108, 344; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 32, 129; Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 286
elisha Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 156
emotions, fear Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 286
emotions Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 291
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
enlightenment, personal, testimony, christian Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279
enoch Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108
enoch (also, book of) Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 142
enochic tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 486
ephrem Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 319
epiphany Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 288
eschatological Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 142
eschatology Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 254
ethics Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 286
eusebius of caesarea Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 134
evil Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 226
exodus Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 84, 254
exorcise, exorcism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 66
exorcism Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279, 286, 288, 291
experience, religious, personal Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 291
ezra Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 254
face, frozen Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 142
face Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 66
galilee, galilean Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 33
gentiles Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 262
glory, hope of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 226
gnostic Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108
gnosticism, valentinian gnosticism, jewish thought in Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 114
god, kingdom of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
god, son of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246, 262
god Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 84
gospel/gospels Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 22
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 211, 226, 227, 238
great tradition Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 209
greek syntax, verb tense usage Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 140
greek syntax, word order Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 140
groups, christian Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279
halakhah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
hanuth Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
heresy Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
hero (heroes, heroic) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 84
herodiass daughter Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 204
hillel Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
hope Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
identity, ethnic identity Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279
identity, of jesus Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 84
identity, redefinition Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 22
identity, transformation/change Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 22
individuation, and christian, discourse Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279, 286, 288, 291
instruction Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 66
irony (literary, dramatic) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 84
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 32, 129
israel Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 286
israel x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 142
jairus, daughter of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
jairuss daughter Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 204
james, the apostle Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 142
james Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 344; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129
james (brother) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 131
james (brother of jesus) Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 25, 134
jerusalem Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 344; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 33
jerusalem church Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 486
jerusalem temple, negative portrayal of in gospel Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 114
jerusalem temple Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
jesus, as a prophetic anointed of the spirit Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 32
jesus, as prophet like moses DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 236, 266
jesus, betrayal by judas of Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 220
jesus, disciples, early followers, messianic movement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 32, 33, 129
jesus, failure of his messianic enterprise vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 33
jesus, healer Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279
jesus, historical jesus, authenticity of sayings, self-perception Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 32, 33
jesus, kingly/davidic messiahship/descent Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 32
jesus, marks story of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 209
jesus, purity Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 209
jesus, son of man Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 286, 288
jesus, suffering of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
jesus Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246, 262; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 142; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108, 344; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 84, 254; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 32, 129; Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279, 286, 288, 291
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407, 486
jesus christ, in nt Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 84
jesus death Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 286, 288
jesus destiny Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 286
jesus miracles, other healings Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 156
jesus–paul parallels Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 206
jews Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108
john, apostle Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279, 291
john, the baptist Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 142
john Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108, 344
john (writer of gospel and gospel) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
john chrysostom, on old testament in the new testament Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 487
john the baptist/baptizer/immerser Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 32
john the baptist Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 344; Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 286, 288
jonathan Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108
josephus Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 84
joshua son of nun Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 32
judas, as abraham-like figure Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 114
judas, betrayal of jesus by Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 220
judas, destiny of Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 114
judas, motivation and knowledge in actions Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 220
judas Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
judas (also, gospel of) Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 25
judas iscariot Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 131
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
kingdom, of priests Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 262
kingdom of god Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407
last judgment Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108
law Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
lazarus, raising of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 226, 227
letters/epistles Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 304, 349
liturgical expressions/elements, luke, gospel of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 143
love Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 226, 227; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
lucian of samosata Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 156
lulav Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 84
magdalene source Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 262
mark, anonymous characters Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 116
mark, discipleship Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 116
mark, gospel of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 209; Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 84
mark, gospel of adoption metaphors in Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 130
mark, gospel of crucifixion scene Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 130
mark, linguistic usage Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 140
mark, revision of sources Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 689
mark Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 689; Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279, 286, 288, 291; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407
mark (gospel) Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 204
mark (gospel writer and gospel) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246, 262
markan tradition Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 142
martyrdom Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 288
martyrdom and ascension of isaiah, matthew, gospel of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 143
martyrdom and ascension of isaiah Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 156
martyrs Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 288
mary, mother of jesus Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 25
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
matthias Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
melchizedek Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic, diarchic messianism Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 33
messiah/messianic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 22
messiah Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 689; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407
messiahs name Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129
messianic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407
messianism Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 84, 254
metatron Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108
michael Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407
miracle Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 156
miracles Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
mohammed Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 689
moses, mosaic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 32, 129
moses, veil of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 142
moses Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 380; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 142; Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 156; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108, 344; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 254; Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 135
mount of olives Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 142; Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246, 262
mysticism, mystical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407
narrative Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 142
narrator (narrative voice) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 84
national hero (romance) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 84
nazareth, nazarene Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 33
new testament, allusion and intertextuality Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 487
new testament, new testament, old testament in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 487
norms, behavior Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279, 288
obedience and disobedience Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 304, 349, 380, 425
oligopistos Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 226, 227
origen of alexandria Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 99
parables (genre) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407
parallelism/repetition Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 380
passover Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 32
patriarchs Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129
paul Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 99; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 108; Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 142
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407, 486
performed traditions Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 262
persona Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279, 286, 288, 291
pesaḥ, passover Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 84
peter, apostle Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279, 286, 288
peter, simon Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 32, 129
peter Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246; Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 689; Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 130; Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 25, 134, 136; Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 204; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
peter (apostle), gospel of Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 100
peter (apostle), syrian views of Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 100
peter (apostle), visionary Dijkstra, The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman (2020) 100
peter (apostle) Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 344; Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 135
peter (cephas, simon –) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407
petrine source Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246, 262
pharisees Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
philip (herod's son)" '28.0_49.0@polycarp Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 130
pilgrimage Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 84
plato Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 219
politics and religion Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 279
postcolonial theory and colonial mimicry Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 130
power, divine Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 291
power Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 66
practice Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 66
prayer, christian Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 291
prayer Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 156; Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 99; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 344; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 66
predictions Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 84
priest Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 66
prophecy, eschatological return of DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 236
prophecy, of jesus, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 211
prophecy Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 286
prophetess, prophetesses Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 135
prophetic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 142
prophets Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
propositional trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 227
pseudo-prophecy/pseudoprophets Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 135
psyche Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 288
purity, in marks gospel Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 209
qumran Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 142
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 486
rabbinic tradition/literature, movement Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 407; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 49
rabbis (sages) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 246
redemption, salvation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 32