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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8257
New Testament, Mark, 8.15


καὶ διεστέλλετο αὐτοῖς λέγων Ὁρᾶτε, βλέπετε ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ τῆς ζύμης Ἡρῴδου.He charged them, saying, "Take heed: beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

23 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not."
2. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.18-7.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 7.18-7.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 10.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.20. Then said he: Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? and now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia; and when I go forth, lo, the prince of Greece shall come."
5. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 11.2-11.3, 11.14-11.17 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 300-305, 299 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

299. Moreover, I have it in my power to relate one act of ambition on his part, though I suffered an infinite number of evils when he was alive; but nevertheless the truth is considered dear, and much to be honoured by you. Pilate was one of the emperor's lieutets, having been appointed governor of Judaea. He, not more with the object of doing honour to Tiberius than with that of vexing the multitude, dedicated some gilt shields in the palace of Herod, in the holy city; which had no form nor any other forbidden thing represented on them except some necessary inscription, which mentioned these two facts, the name of the person who had placed them there, and the person in whose honour they were so placed there.
7. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 77, 89-91, 76 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

76. These men, in the first place, live in villages, avoiding all cities on account of the habitual lawlessness of those who inhabit them, well knowing that such a moral disease is contracted from associations with wicked men, just as a real disease might be from an impure atmosphere, and that this would stamp an incurable evil on their souls. of these men, some cultivating the earth, and others devoting themselves to those arts which are the result of peace, benefit both themselves and all those who come in contact with them, not storing up treasures of silver and of gold, nor acquiring vast sections of the earth out of a desire for ample revenues, but providing all things which are requisite for the natural purposes of life;
8. Strabo, Geography, 16.2.46 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16.2.46. Pompey curtailed the territory which had been forcibly appropriated by the Jews, and assigned to Hyrcanus the priesthood. Some time afterwards, Herod, of the same family, and a native of the country, having surreptitiously obtained the priesthood, distinguished himself so much above his predecessors, particularly in his intercourse, both civil and political, with the Romans, that he received the title and authority of king, first from Antony, and afterwards from Augustus Caesar. He put to death some of his sons, on the pretext of their having conspired against him; other sons he left at his death, to succeed him, and assigned to each, portions of his kingdom. Caesar bestowed upon the sons also of Herod marks of honour, on his sister Salome, and on her daughter Berenice. The sons were unfortunate, and were publicly accused. One of them died in exile among the Galatae Allobroges, whose country was assigned for his abode. The others, by great interest and solicitation, but with difficulty, obtained leave to return to their own country, each with his tetrarchy restored to him.
9. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.311, 18.21, 18.245-18.246 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.311. But here one may take occasion to wonder at one Judas, who was of the sect of the Essenes, and who never missed the truth in his predictions; for this man, when he saw Antigonus passing by the temple, cried out to his companions and friends, who abode with him as his scholars, in order to learn the art of foretelling things to come? 18.21. and neither marry wives, nor are desirous to keep servants; as thinking the latter tempts men to be unjust, and the former gives the handle to domestic quarrels; but as they live by themselves, they minister one to another. 18.21. that it turned greatly to the advantage of his son among all; and, among others, the soldiery were so peculiarly affected to him, that they reckoned it an eligible thing, if need were, to die themselves, if he might but attain to the government. 18.245. 2. But for Herod, he opposed her request at this time, out of the love of ease, and having a suspicion of the trouble he should have at Rome; so he tried to instruct her better. But the more she saw him draw back, the more she pressed him to it, and desired him to leave no stone unturned in order to be king; 18.246. and at last she left not off till she engaged him, whether he would or not, to be of her sentiments, because he could no otherwise avoid her importunity. So he got all things ready, after as sumptuous a manner as he was able, and spared for nothing, and went up to Rome, and took Herodias along with him.
10. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.78, 2.120-2.121, 2.137-2.145, 2.151, 2.160-2.161 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.78. 5. And truly anyone would be surprised at Judas upon this occasion. He was of the sect of the Essenes, and had never failed or deceived men in his predictions before. Now, this man saw Antigonus as he was passing along by the temple, and cried out to his acquaintance (they were not a few who attended upon him as his scholars) 2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.137. 7. But now, if anyone hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use, for a year, while he continues excluded; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the fore-mentioned girdle, and the white garment. 2.138. And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years; and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 2.141. that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though anyone should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. 2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves. 2.143. 8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; 2.144. for which reason they receive many of them again when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of. 2.145. 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator [Moses], whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally. 2.151. They are long-lived also, insomuch that many of them live above a hundred years, by means of the simplicity of their diet; nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of life they observe also. They condemn the miseries of life, and are above pain, by the generosity of their mind. And as for death, if it will be for their glory, they esteem it better than living always; 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes.
11. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.6-2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. If he immersed for unconsecrated [food], and was presumed to be fit to eat unconsecrated [food], he is prohibited from [eating second] tithe. If he immersed for [second] tithe, and was presumed to be fit to eat [second] tithe, he is prohibited from [eating] terumah. If he immersed for terumah, and was presumed to be fit to eat terumah, he is prohibited from [eating] holy things. If he immersed for holy things, and was presumed to be fit to eat holy things he is prohibited from [touching the waters of] purification. If one immersed for something possessing a stricter [degree of holiness], one is permitted [to have contact with] something possessing a lighter [degree of holiness]. If he immersed but without special intention, it is as though he had not immersed." 2.7. The garments of an am haaretz possess midras-impurity for Pharisees. The garments of Pharisees possess midras-impurity for those who eat terumah. The garments of those who eat terumah possess midras-impurity for [those who eat] sacred things. The garments of [those who eat] sacred things possess midras-impurity for [those who occupy themselves with the waters of] purification. Yose ben Yoezer was the most pious in the priesthood, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who ate] sacred things. Yoha ben Gudgada all his life used to eat [unconsecrated food] in accordance with the purity required for sacred things, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who occupied themselves with the water of] purification."
12. Mishnah, Sotah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. She had barely finished drinking when her face turns yellow, her eyes protrude and her veins swell. And [those who see her] exclaim, “Remove her! Remove her, so that the temple-court should not be defiled”. If she had merit, it [causes the water] to suspend its effect upon her. Some merit suspends the effect for one year, some merit suspends the effects for two years, and some merit suspends the effect for three years. Hence Ben Azzai said: a person must teach his daughter Torah, so that if she has to drink [the water of bitterness], she should know that the merit suspends its effect. Rabbi Eliezer says: whoever teaches his daughter Torah teaches her lasciviousness. Rabbi Joshua says: a woman prefers one kav (of food) and sexual indulgence to nine kav and sexual separation. He used to say, a foolish pietist, a cunning wicked person, a female separatist, and the blows of separatists bring destruction upon the world."
13. Mishnah, Toharot, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.12. \"A condition of doubt concerning non-sacred food\"--this refers to the cleanness practiced by Pharisees. \"A condition of doubt concerning a sheretz\" –according [to their condition at] the time they are found. \"A condition of doubt concerning negaim\" it is deemed clean in the beginning before it had been determined to be unclean, but after it had been determined to be unclean, a condition of doubt is deemed unclean. \"A condition of doubt concerning a nazirite vow\" [in such a condition of doubt he] is permitted [all that is forbidden to a nazirite]. \"A condition of doubt concerning first-borns\" whether they are human firstborn or firstborn of cattle, whether the firstborn of an unclean beast or a clean one, for the one who wishes to extract from his fellow bears the burden of proof."
14. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.6. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, because you say that the Holy Scriptures defile the hands, but the books of Homer do not defile the hands. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai said: Have we nothing against the Pharisees but this? Behold they say that the bones of a donkey are clean, yet the bones of Yoha the high priest are unclean. They said to him: according to the affection for them, so is their impurity, so that nobody should make spoons out of the bones of his father or mother. He said to them: so also are the Holy Scriptures according to the affection for them, so is their uncleanness. The books of Homer which are not precious do not defile the hands."
15. New Testament, Acts, 4.21, 4.27 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.21. They, when they had further threatened them, let them go, finding no way to punish them, because of the people; for everyone glorified God for that which was done. 4.27. For truly, in this city against your holy servant, Jesus, whom you anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of Israel, were gathered together
16. New Testament, Luke, 3.1, 3.18-3.20, 6.11, 7.24-7.25, 8.3, 8.10, 9.7-9.9, 12.1, 13.20-13.21, 13.31-13.33, 20.20-20.22, 23.1-23.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene 3.18. Then with many other exhortations he preached good news to the people 3.19. but Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias, his brother's wife, and for all the evil things which Herod had done 3.20. added this also to them all, that he shut up John in prison. 6.11. But they were filled with rage, and talked with one another about what they might do to Jesus. 7.24. When John's messengers had departed, he began to tell the multitudes about John, "What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken by the wind? 7.25. But what did you go out to see? A man clothed in soft clothing? Behold, those who are gorgeously dressed, and live delicately, are in kings' courts. 8.3. and Joanna, the wife of Chuzas, Herod's steward; Susanna; and many others; who ministered to them from their possessions. 8.10. He said, "To you it is given to know the mysteries of the Kingdom of God, but to the rest in parables; that 'seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not understand.' 9.7. Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done by him; and he was very perplexed, because it was said by some that John had risen from the dead 9.8. and by some that Elijah had appeared, and by others that one of the old prophets had risen again. 9.9. Herod said, "John I beheaded, but who is this, about whom I hear such things?" He sought to see him. 12.1. Meanwhile, when a multitude of many thousands had gathered together, so much so that they trampled on each other, he began to tell his disciples first of all, "Beware of the yeast of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. 13.20. Again he said, "To what shall I compare the Kingdom of God? 13.21. It is like yeast, which a woman took and hid in three sata of flour, until it was all leavened. 13.31. On that same day, some Pharisees came, saying to him, "Get out of here, and go away, for Herod wants to kill you. 13.32. He said to them, "Go and tell that fox, 'Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I complete my mission. 13.33. Nevertheless I must go on my way today and tomorrow and the next day, for it can't be that a prophet perish outside of Jerusalem.' 20.20. They watched him, and sent out spies, who pretended to be righteous, that they might trap him in something he said, so as to deliver him up to the power and authority of the governor. 20.21. They asked him, "Teacher, we know that you say and teach what is right, and aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. 20.22. Is it lawful for us to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 23.1. The whole company of them rose up and brought him before Pilate. 23.2. They began to accuse him, saying, "We found this man perverting the nation, forbidding paying taxes to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ, a king. 23.3. Pilate asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?"He answered him, "So you say. 23.4. Pilate said to the chief priests and the multitudes, "I find no basis for a charge against this man. 23.5. But they insisted, saying, "He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee even to this place. 23.6. But when Pilate heard Galilee mentioned, he asked if the man was a Galilean. 23.7. When he found out that he was in Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem during those days. 23.8. Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceedingly glad, for he had wanted to see him for a long time, because he had heard many things about him. He hoped to see some miracle done by him. 23.9. He questioned him with many words, but he gave no answers. 23.10. The chief priests and the scribes stood, vehemently accusing him. 23.11. Herod with his soldiers humiliated him and mocked him. Dressing him in luxurious clothing, they sent him back to Pilate. 23.12. Herod and Pilate became friends with each other that very day, for before that they were enemies with each other. 23.13. Pilate called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people 23.14. and said to them, "You brought this man to me as one that perverts the people, and see, I have examined him before you, and found no basis for a charge against this man concerning those things of which you accuse him. 23.15. Neither has Herod, for I sent you to him, and see, nothing worthy of death has been done by him. 23.16. I will therefore chastise him and release him.
17. New Testament, Mark, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.12, 1.13, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.34, 1.35, 1.44, 2.6, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.24, 2.25, 2.26, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 3.30, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 4.32, 4.33, 4.34, 4.35, 4.36, 4.37, 4.38, 4.39, 4.40, 4.41, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, 5.29, 5.30, 5.31, 5.32, 5.33, 5.34, 5.35, 5.36, 5.37, 5.38, 5.39, 5.40, 5.41, 5.42, 5.43, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.25, 6.26, 6.27, 6.28, 6.29, 6.30, 6.31, 6.32, 6.33, 6.34, 6.35, 6.36, 6.37, 6.38, 6.39, 6.40, 6.41, 6.42, 6.43, 6.44, 6.45, 6.46, 6.47, 6.48, 6.49, 6.50, 6.51, 6.52, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.27-9.1, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.29, 9.31, 9.35, 9.38, 9.39, 9.40, 9.41, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.22, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.33, 10.34, 10.35, 10.36, 10.37, 10.38, 10.39, 10.40, 10.42, 10.43, 10.44, 10.49, 10.50, 10.52, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.32, 11.33, 12.1, 12.2, 12.4, 12.6, 12.13, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 12.21, 12.22, 12.23, 12.24, 12.25, 12.26, 12.27, 12.28, 12.29, 12.30, 12.31, 12.32, 12.33, 12.34, 12.35, 12.38, 12.39, 12.40, 12.41, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 14.1, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 14.23, 14.24, 14.25, 14.27, 14.28, 14.29, 14.30, 14.31, 14.32, 14.33, 14.34, 14.35, 14.36, 14.37, 14.38, 14.39, 14.40, 14.41, 14.42, 14.43, 14.44, 14.45, 14.46, 14.47, 14.48, 14.49, 14.50, 14.53, 14.54, 14.55, 14.60, 14.61, 14.63, 14.66, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.8, 15.10, 15.11, 15.15, 15.16, 15.24, 15.31, 15.34, 15.39, 15.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. Immediately the Spirit drove him out into the wilderness.
18. New Testament, Matthew, 11.7-11.8, 12.14, 12.43-12.45, 13.33, 14.1-14.13, 16.6, 16.12, 22.15-22.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.7. As these went their way, Jesus began to say to the multitudes concerning John, "What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken by the wind? 11.8. But what did you go out to see? A man in soft clothing? Behold, those who wear soft clothing are in king's houses. 12.14. But the Pharisees went out, and conspired against him, how they might destroy him. 12.43. But the unclean spirit, when he is gone out of the man, passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and doesn't find it. 12.44. Then he says, 'I will return into my house from which I came out,' and when he has come back, he finds it empty, swept, and put in order. 12.45. Then he goes, and takes with himself seven other spirits more evil than he is, and they enter in and dwell there. The last state of that man becomes worse than the first. Even so will it be also to this evil generation. 13.33. He spoke another parable to them. "The Kingdom of Heaven is like yeast, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, until it was all leavened. 14.1. At that time, Herod the tetrarch heard the report concerning Jesus 14.2. and said to his servants, "This is John the Baptizer. He is risen from the dead. That is why these powers work in him. 14.3. For Herod had laid hold of John, and bound him, and put him in prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife. 14.4. For John said to him, "It is not lawful for you to have her. 14.5. When he would have put him to death, he feared the multitude, because they counted him as a prophet. 14.6. But when Herod's birthday came, the daughter of Herodias danced among them and pleased Herod. 14.7. Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatever she should ask. 14.8. She, being prompted by her mother, said, "Give me here on a platter the head of John the Baptizer. 14.9. The king was grieved, but for the sake of his oaths, and of those who sat at the table with him, he commanded it to be given 14.10. and he sent and beheaded John in the prison. 14.11. His head was brought on a platter, and given to the young lady: and she brought it to her mother. 14.12. His disciples came, and took the body, and buried it; and they went and told Jesus. 14.13. Now when Jesus heard this, he withdrew from there in a boat, to a deserted place apart. When the multitudes heard it, they followed him on foot from the cities. 16.6. Jesus said to them, "Take heed and beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 16.12. Then they understood that he didn't tell them to beware of the yeast of bread, but of the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 22.15. Then the Pharisees went and took counsel how they might entrap him in his talk. 22.16. They sent their disciples to him, along with the Herodians, saying, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and teach the way of God in truth, no matter who you teach, for you aren't partial to anyone. 22.17. Tell us therefore, what do you think? Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 22.18. But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, "Why do you test me, you hypocrites? 22.19. Show me the tax money."They brought to him a denarius. 22.20. He asked them, "Whose is this image and inscription? 22.21. They said to him, "Caesar's."Then he said to them, "Give therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 22.22. When they heard it, they marveled, and left him, and went away.
19. Tacitus, Histories, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.9.  The first Roman to subdue the Jews and set foot in their temple by right of conquest was Gnaeus Pompey; thereafter it was a matter of common knowledge that there were no representations of the gods within, but that the place was empty and the secret shrine contained nothing. The walls of Jerusalem were razed, but the temple remained standing. Later, in the time of our civil wars, when these eastern provinces had fallen into the hands of Mark Antony, the Parthian prince, Pacorus, seized Judea, but he was slain by Publius Ventidius, and the Parthians were thrown back across the Euphrates: the Jews were subdued by Gaius Sosius. Antony gave the throne to Herod, and Augustus, after his victory, increased his power. After Herod's death, a certain Simon assumed the name of king without waiting for Caesar's decision. He, however, was put to death by Quintilius Varus, governor of Syria; the Jews were repressed; and the kingdom was divided into three parts and given to Herod's sons. Under Tiberius all was quiet. Then, when Caligula ordered the Jews to set up his statue in their temple, they chose rather to resort to arms, but the emperor's death put an end to their uprising. The princes now being dead or reduced to insignificance, Claudius made Judea a province and entrusted it to Roman knights or to freedmen; one of the latter, Antonius Felix, practised every kind of cruelty and lust, wielding the power of king with all the instincts of a slave; he had married Drusilla, the grand-daughter of Cleopatra and Antony, and so was Antony's grandson-in‑law, while Claudius was Antony's grandson.
20. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 55.27.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

55.27.6.  These were the events in the city that year. In Achaia the governor died in the middle of his term and instructions were given to his quaestor and to his assessor (whom, as I have stated, we call envoy) for the former to administer the province as far as the Isthmus and the other the remainder. Herod of Palestine, who was accused by his brothers of some wrongdoing or other, was banished beyond the Alps and a portion of the domain was confiscated to the state.
21. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 80.3-80.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17a. בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה ובין התלמידים העוסקים בתורתך בין עוסקין לשמה בין עוסקין שלא לשמה וכל העוסקין שלא לשמה יהי רצון שיהו עוסקין לשמה.,ר' אלכסנדרי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתעמידנו בקרן אורה ואל תעמידנו בקרן חשכה ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו איכא דאמרי הא רב המנונא מצלי לה ור' אלכסנדרי בתר דמצלי אמר הכי רבון העולמים גלוי וידוע לפניך שרצוננו לעשות רצונך ומי מעכב שאור שבעיסה ושעבוד מלכיות יהי רצון מלפניך שתצילנו מידם ונשוב לעשות חוקי רצונך בלבב שלם.,רבא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי אלהי עד שלא נוצרתי איני כדאי ועכשיו שנוצרתי כאלו לא נוצרתי עפר אני בחיי ק"ו במיתתי הרי אני לפניך ככלי מלא בושה וכלימה יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהי שלא אחטא עוד ומה שחטאתי לפניך מרק ברחמיך הרבים אבל לא ע"י יסורין וחלאים רעים והיינו וידוי דרב המנונא זוטי ביומא דכפורי.,מר בריה דרבינא כי הוה מסיים צלותיה אמר הכי אלהי נצור לשוני מרע ושפתותי מדבר מרמה ולמקללי נפשי תדום ונפשי כעפר לכל תהיה פתח לבי בתורתך ובמצותיך תרדוף נפשי ותצילני מפגע רע מיצר הרע ומאשה רעה ומכל רעות המתרגשות לבא בעולם וכל החושבים עלי רעה מהרה הפר עצתם וקלקל מחשבותם יהיו לרצון אמרי פי והגיון לבי לפניך ה' צורי וגואלי.,רב ששת כי הוה יתיב בתעניתא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי רבון העולמים גלוי לפניך בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אדם חוטא ומקריב קרבן ואין מקריבין ממנו אלא חלבו ודמו ומתכפר לו ועכשיו ישבתי בתענית ונתמעט חלבי ודמי יהי רצון מלפניך שיהא חלבי ודמי שנתמעט כאילו הקרבתיו לפניך על גבי המזבח ותרצני.,ר' יוחנן כי הוה מסיים ספרא דאיוב אמר הכי סוף אדם למות וסוף בהמה לשחיטה והכל למיתה הם עומדים אשרי מי שגדל בתורה ועמלו בתורה ועושה נחת רוח ליוצרו וגדל בשם טוב ונפטר בשם טוב מן העולם ועליו אמר שלמה (קהלת ז, א) טוב שם משמן טוב ויום המות מיום הולדו.,מרגלא בפומיה דר"מ גמור בכל לבבך ובכל נפשך לדעת את דרכי ולשקוד על דלתי תורתי נצור תורתי בלבך ונגד עיניך תהיה יראתי שמור פיך מכל חטא וטהר וקדש עצמך מכל אשמה ועון ואני אהיה עמך בכל מקום.,מרגלא בפומייהו דרבנן דיבנה אני בריה וחברי בריה אני מלאכתי בעיר והוא מלאכתו בשדה אני משכים למלאכתי והוא משכים למלאכתו כשם שהוא אינו מתגדר במלאכתי כך אני איני מתגדר במלאכתו ושמא תאמר אני מרבה והוא ממעיט שנינו אחד המרבה ואחד הממעיט ובלבד שיכוין לבו לשמים.,מרגלא בפומיה דאביי לעולם יהא אדם ערום ביראה (משלי טו, א) מענה רך משיב חמה ומרבה שלום עם אחיו ועם קרוביו ועם כל אדם ואפילו עם נכרי בשוק כדי שיהא אהוב למעלה ונחמד למטה ויהא מקובל על הבריות,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שלא הקדימו אדם שלום מעולם ואפילו נכרי בשוק.,מרגלא בפומיה דרבא תכלית חכמה תשובה ומעשים טובים שלא יהא אדם קורא ושונה ובועט באביו ובאמו וברבו ובמי שהוא גדול ממנו בחכמה ובמנין שנאמר (תהלים קיא, י) ראשית חכמה יראת ה' שכל טוב לכל עושיהם לעושים לא נאמר אלא לעושיהם לעושים לשמה ולא לעושים שלא לשמה וכל העושה שלא לשמה נוח לו שלא נברא.,מרגלא בפומיה דרב [לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא] העולם הבא אין בו לא אכילה ולא שתיה ולא פריה ורביה ולא משא ומתן ולא קנאה ולא שנאה ולא תחרות אלא צדיקים יושבין ועטרותיהם בראשיהם ונהנים מזיו השכינה שנאמר (שמות כד, יא) ויחזו את האלהים ויאכלו וישתו:,גדולה הבטחה שהבטיחן הקב"ה לנשים יותר מן האנשים שנא' (ישעיהו לב, ט) נשים שאננות קומנה שמענה קולי בנות בוטחות האזנה אמרתי,א"ל רב לר' חייא נשים במאי זכיין באקרויי בנייהו לבי כנישתא ובאתנויי גברייהו בי רבנן ונטרין לגברייהו עד דאתו מבי רבנן.,כי הוו מפטרי רבנן מבי ר' אמי ואמרי לה מבי ר' חנינא אמרי ליה הכי עולמך תראה בחייך ואחריתך לחיי העולם הבא ותקותך לדור דורים לבך יהגה תבונה פיך ידבר חכמות ולשונך ירחיש רננות עפעפיך יישירו נגדך עיניך יאירו במאור תורה ופניך יזהירו כזוהר הרקיע שפתותיך יביעו דעת וכליותיך תעלוזנה מישרים ופעמיך ירוצו לשמוע דברי עתיק יומין.,כי הוו מפטרי רבנן מבי רב חסדא ואמרי לה מבי ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמרו ליה הכי (תהלים קמד, יד) אלופינו מסובלים וגו',אלופינו מסובלים רב ושמואל ואמרי לה רבי יוחנן ור' אלעזר חד אמר אלופינו בתורה ומסובלים במצות וחד אמר אלופינו בתורה ובמצות ומסובלים ביסורים 17a. bin the heavenly entourage [ ipamalia /i]of angels each of whom ministers to a specific nation (see Daniel 10), and whose infighting causes war on earth; br band in the earthly entourage,the Sages, br band among the disciples engaged inthe study of bYour Torah, br bwhether they engage in itsstudy bfor its own sake or not for its own sake. br bAnd all those engagedin Torah study bnot for its own sake, br bmay it beYour bwillthat bthey will come to engagein its study bfor its own sake. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rabbi Alexandri said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You station us in a lighted corner and not in a darkened corner, br band do not let our hearts become faint nor our eyes dim. br bSome say that this was the prayer that Rav Hamnuna would recite, and that after Rabbi Alexandri prayed, he would say the following: br bMaster of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You br bthat our will is to perform Your will, and what prevents us? brOn the one hand, bthe yeast in the dough,the evil inclination that is within every person; br band the subjugation to the kingdomson the other. br bMay it be Your will br bthat You will deliver us from their hands,of both the evil inclination and the foreign kingdoms, brso that bwe may return to perform the edicts of Your will with a perfect heart. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rava said the following: br bMy God, before I was created I was worthless, br band now that I have been created it is as if I had not been created,I am no more significant. br bI am dust in life, all the more so in my death. br bI am before You as a vessel filled with shame and humiliation. brTherefore, bmay it be Your will, Lord my God, that I will sin no more, br band that thosetransgressions bthat I have committed, br bcleanse in Your abundant mercy; br bbutmay this cleansing bnotbe bby means of suffering and serious illness,but rather in a manner I will be able to easily endure. br bAnd this is the confession of Rav Hamnuna Zuti on Yom Kippur. /b, bWhen Mar, son of Ravina, would conclude his prayer, he said the following: br bMy God, guard my tongue from evil and my lips from speaking deceit. br bTo those who curse me let my soul be silent br band may my soul be like dust to all. br bOpen my heart to Your Torah, br band may my soul pursue your mitzvot. br bAnd save me from a bad mishap, from the evil inclination, br bfrom a bad woman, and from all evils that suddenly come upon the world. br bAnd all who plan evil against me, br bswiftly thwart their counsel, and frustrate their plans. br bMay the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart find favor before You, br bLord, my Rock and my Redeemer. /b,The Gemara recounts that bwhen Rav Sheshet would sit inobservance of ba fast, after he prayed he said as follows: br bMaster of the Universe, it is revealed before You brthat bwhen the Temple is standing, one sins and offers a sacrifice. br bAndalthough bonly its fat and blood were offered fromthat sacrifice on the altar, his transgression bis atoned for him. br bAnd now, I sat inobservance of ba fast and my fat and blood diminished. br bMay it be Your will that my fat and blood that diminished beconsidered as if bI offereda sacrifice bbefore You on the altar, br band may I find favor in Your eyes.brHaving cited statements that various Sages would recite after their prayers, the Gemara cites additional passages recited by the Sages on different occasions., bWhen Rabbi Yoḥa would concludestudy of bthe book of Job, he said the following: br bA person will ultimately die and an animal will ultimately be slaughtered, and all are destined for death.Therefore, death itself is not a cause for great anguish. brRather, bhappy is he who grew up in Torah, whose labor is in Torah, br bwho gives pleasure to his Creator, br bwho grew up with a good name and who took leave of the world with a good name. brSuch a person lived his life fully, band about him, Solomon said: br b“A good name is better than fine oil, and the day of death than the day of one’s birth”(Ecclesiastes 7:1); one who was faultless in life reaches the day of his death on a higher level than he was at the outset., bRabbi Meir was wont to saythe following idiom: br bStudy with all your heart and with all your soul to know My ways br band to be diligent at the doors of My Torah. br bKeep My Torah in your heart, br band fear of Me should be before your eyes. br bGuard your mouth from all transgression, br band purify and sanctify yourself from all fault and iniquity. br bAndif you do so, bI,God, bwill be with you everywhere. /b, bThe Sages in Yavne were wont to say: br bIwho learn Torah bamGod’s bcreature and my counterpartwho engages in other labor bisGod’s bcreature. br bMy work is in the city and his work is in the field. br bI rise early for my work and he rises early for his work. br bAnd just as he does not presume toperform bmy work, so I do not presume toperform bhis work. br bLest you say: Iengage in Torah study ba lot, while heonly engages in Torah study ba little,so I am better than he, br bit hasalready bbeen taught: br bOne who brings a substantialsacrifice band one who brings a meagersacrifice have equal merit, br bas long as he directs his heart towards Heaven(Rav Hai Gaon, iArukh /i)., bAbaye was wont to say: br bOne must always be shrewdand utilize every strategy binorder to achieve bfearof Heaven and performance of mitzvot. brOne must fulfill the verse: b“A soft answer turns away wrath”(Proverbs 15:1) brand take steps to bincrease peace with one’s brethren and with one’s relatives, br band with all people, even with a non-Jew in the marketplace,despite the fact that he is of no importance to him and does not know him at all ( iMe’iri /i), br bso that he will be loved abovein God’s eyes, br bpleasant belowin the eyes of the people, br band acceptable to allof God’s bcreatures. /b,Tangentially, the Gemara mentions that bthey said about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai that no one ever preceded him inissuing a bgreeting, not even a non-Jew in the marketplace,as Rabban Yoḥa would always greet him first., bRava was wont to say: br bThe objective ofTorah bwisdomis to achieve brepentance and good deeds; br bthat one should not readthe Torah band studymishna and become arrogant br band spurn his father and his mother and his teacher br band one who is greater than he in wisdom or inthe bnumberof students who study before him, br bas it is stated: “The beginning of wisdom is fear of the Lord, a good understanding have all who fulfill them”(Psalms 111:10). br bIt is not statedsimply: bAll who fulfill, but rather: All who fulfill them,those who perform these actions as they ought to be performed, meaning bthose who dosuch deeds bfor their own sake,for the sake of the deeds themselves, bnot those who do them not for their own sake. brRava continued: bOne who does them not for their own sake,it would have been bpreferable for him had he not been created. /b, bRav was wont to say: br bThe World-to-Come is not like this world. br bIn the World-to-Come there is no eating, no drinking, br bno procreation, nobusiness bnegotiations, br bno jealousy, no hatred, and no competition. br bRather, the righteous sit with their crowns upon their heads, enjoying the splendor of the Divine Presence, as it is stated: br b“And they beheld God, and they ate and drank”(Exodus 24:11), meaning that beholding God’s countece is tantamount to eating and drinking.,The Gemara states: bGreater is the promisefor the future bmade by the Holy One, Blessed be He, to women than to men, as it is stated: “Rise up, women at ease; hear My voice, confident daughters, listen to what I say”(Isaiah 32:9). This promise of ease and confidence is not given to men., bRav said to Rabbi Ḥiyya:By bwhatvirtue bdo women meritto receive this reward? Rabbi Ḥiyya answered: They merit this reward bfor bringing their children to readthe Torah bin the synagogue, and for sending their husbands to studymishna bin the study hall, and for waiting for their husbands until they return from the study hall. /b, bWhen the Sageswho had been studying there btook leave of the study hall of Rabbi Ami, and some sayit was bthe study hall of Rabbi Ḥanina, they would say to him the followingblessing: br bMay you see your world,may you benefit from all of the good in the world, bin your lifetime, br band may your end be to life in the World-to-Come, br band may your hopebe sustained bfor many generations. brMay byour heart meditate understanding, br byour mouth speak wisdom, and your tongue whisper with praise. brMay byour eyelids look directly before you, br byour eyes shine in the light of Torah, br band your face radiate like the brightness of the firmament. brMay byour lips express knowledge, br byour kidneys rejoice in the upright, br band your feet run to hear the words of the Ancient of Days,God (see Daniel 7)., bWhen the Sages took leave of the study hall of Rav Ḥisda, and some sayit was bthe study hall of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, they would say to him the following,in accordance with the verse: b“Our leaders are laden,there is no breach and no going forth and no outcry in our open places” (Psalms 144:14)., bOur leaders are laden. Rav and Shmuel, and some say Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar,disputed the proper understanding of this verse. bOne said: Our leaders in Torah are laden with mitzvot. And one said: Our leaders in Torah and mitzvot are laden with suffering. /b
23. Synesius of Cyrene, Dion, 3.2 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
afflict/afflictions Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 80
agency Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277, 290
archelaos Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 101, 124
authority(ies) Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 80
bethsaida Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 231
boccaccini, g. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
capernaum Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 231
celibacy, and essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
children, childhood Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 290
chorazin Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 231
communication, with the divine, language and religion Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277
d/demonisation Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 80
daemones, demons Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277, 290
dead sea scrolls, groningen hypothesis Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
dead sea scrolls, qumran-essene hypothesis Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
dead sea scrolls Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
death, resurrection Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277
deliver/deliverance Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 80
dio chrysostoms essenes, as ideal stoic polis/city Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
discipleship, relation Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277, 290
education, teacher figure Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 290
elijah Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 121
elite and non-elite, retainers in mark Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 204, 205
elite and non-elite, urban elite in mark Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 204
elite and non-elite, urban non-elite in mark Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 205
essenes, and qumran-essene hypothesis Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
essenes, groningen hypotheses and Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
essenes, historically verifiable essene features Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
exorcism Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277, 290
exorcisms/exorcise/exorcists/exorcistic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 80
fasting Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 290
forgive/forgiveness Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 80
gaius caligula Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 123
god, kingdom of Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 164
goodman, m. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
great tradition Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 205
greek syntax, direct discourse Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 142
greek syntax, participles Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 142
greek vocables and phrases, γάρ Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 142
hasmonean dynasty, essene opposition to Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
hasmonean dynasty Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
healing and medicines, and jesus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 120
health, of urban non-elite Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 205
herod antipas, coins of Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 109
herod antipas Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 101, 109, 111, 122, 123, 124, 231
herod antipas (antipater) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 120, 121
herod the great Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 101; Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
herodian dynasty Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
herodians, use of term, as different to herods officials Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 120
herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 123
herodians, use of term, in the gospels Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 120
herodians Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 109, 111, 231
herodias Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 123, 231
hoehner, h. w. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 121
identity Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 290
images, ban against Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 109
individuation, and christian, discourse Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277, 290
israel Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 290
jerusalem Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 101, 109, 122, 123, 124; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 164
jesus, as healer/exorcist Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 80
jesus, authority of Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 80
jesus, healer Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277, 290
jesus, work/acts/miracles of Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 80
jesus Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277, 290
jesus death Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277
jesus of nazareth Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 120, 121, 123
jewish law/legal schools, and the hakhamim (sages) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
jewish law/legal schools, essenes as separate Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
john the baptist, and herod antipas Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 120, 121
john the baptist, death of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 120
john the baptist Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 101, 109; Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 120, 121
josephus, and judaisms three schools of law Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 123
josephus, and the fourth philosophy Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 123
josephus Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 101, 123, 124, 231
josephus essenes, admission and lifestyle Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, and celibacy Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, and women Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, daily routine and meals Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, legal system Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, marriage and children Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, oaths of commitment Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, purity and purification rituals Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
josephus essenes, wealth and communality Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
judaea, region of, enochic Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
judaea, region of, rabbinic Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
judaea, region of, sabbath, rules of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
judeans Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 205
justin martyr Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
kingdom of god Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 231
luke, gospel of, and the herodians Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 120, 121, 123
luke Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277
maccabean revolt Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
maccabeus, jonathan Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
maccabeus, judas Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
magic, voces magicae Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277
magic Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277, 290
mareotis, lake, and the scribes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 120, 121
mareotis, lake, characterization of the herodians Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 120, 121, 123
mareotis, lake, essene identity and Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 123, 197
mareotis, lake, herod antipas, presentation of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 120, 121, 123
mareotis, lake, mark, gospel of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14, 120, 121, 123
mareotis, lake, pharisees in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 120, 121, 123
mareotis, lake, three legal authorities in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 123
mark, anonymous characters Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 131, 132
mark, discipleship Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 103, 131, 132
mark, gospel of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 204, 205
mark, linguistic usage Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 142
mark, suffering Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 103
mark Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277, 290
martinez, f. g. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
matthew, gospel of, herodians, use of term in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 123, 197
matthew, gospel of, portrayal of pharisees in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 123
matthew, gospel of, sadducees and Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 123
matthew, gospel of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
matthew Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277
miracles Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277
norms, behavior Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 290
persona Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277, 290
perushim, essenes link with Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
peter, apostle Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277
pharisees, and josephus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 123
pharisees, in the new testament gospels Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 123
pharisees Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 656; Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 109, 111, 231
philip the tetrarch Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 101
philos essenes, and communality Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
philos essenes, and mosaic law Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
philos essenes, and women Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
philos essenes, as aged mature men Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
pilate Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 101, 109, 122, 124, 231
plinys essenes, celibacy of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
prayer, christian Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 290
prescience Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 164
prophets/prophetic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 80
ps.-tertullian Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 656
purity and purification rituals, and the essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
purity and purification rituals, in josephus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
qumran-essene hypothesis Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
qumran Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
sadducees (tsedukim/tseduqim), in the new testament gospels Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 123
sadducees (tsedukim/tseduqim), josephus portrayal of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 123
sanhedrin Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 122
satan Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 277; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 164
schweitzer, a. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 532
schweitzer, quest, caesarea philippi Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 532
schweitzer, quest, jesus, galilean ministry Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 532
schweitzer, quest, jesus, transfiguration Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 532
schweitzer, quest, marks narrative confusion Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 532
schweitzer, quest, schweitzers changed views Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 532
scribes Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 204
sepphoris Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 231
social location, marks gospel Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 204, 205
social stratification Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 204, 205
son of man Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 164
stegemann, h. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
synesius of crete, presentation of dios essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 197
taxes Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 109
temple, jerusalem temple Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 290
temple and essene practices, rejection, view of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 123
testing passim, agents of Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 164
tiberias Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 231
torah, interpretations of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 120
van der woude, a.' Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 14
wilderness passim, place Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 164