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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8257
New Testament, Mark, 7.3-7.4


—οἱ γὰρ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἐὰν μὴ πυγμῇ νίψωνται τὰς χεῖρας οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν, κρατοῦντες τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων(For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, don't eat unless they wash their hands and forearms, holding to the tradition of the elders.


καὶ ἀπʼ ἀγορᾶς ἐὰν μὴ ῥαντίσωνται οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν, καὶ ἄλλα πολλά ἐστιν ἃ παρέλαβον κρατεῖν, βαπτισμοὺς ποτηρίων καὶ ξεστῶν καὶ χαλκίων.They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.)


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

65 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 2.9 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.9. On the same night I returned from burying him, and because I was defiled I slept by the wall of the courtyard, and my face was uncovered.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.16, 9.5, 10.17, 12.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.16. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיכֻן יָמֶיךָ וּלְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 9.5. לֹא בְצִדְקָתְךָ וּבְיֹשֶׁר לְבָבְךָ אַתָּה בָא לָרֶשֶׁת אֶת־אַרְצָם כִּי בְּרִשְׁעַת הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מוֹרִישָׁם מִפָּנֶיךָ וּלְמַעַן הָקִים אֶת־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב׃ 10.17. כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הוּא אֱלֹהֵי הָאֱלֹהִים וַאֲדֹנֵי הָאֲדֹנִים הָאֵל הַגָּדֹל הַגִּבֹּר וְהַנּוֹרָא אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִשָּׂא פָנִים וְלֹא יִקַּח שֹׁחַד׃ 12.15. רַק בְּכָל־אַוַּת נַפְשְׁךָ תִּזְבַּח וְאָכַלְתָּ בָשָׂר כְּבִרְכַּת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לְךָ בְּכָל־שְׁעָרֶיךָ הַטָּמֵא וְהַטָּהוֹר יֹאכְלֶנּוּ כַּצְּבִי וְכָאַיָּל׃ 5.16. Honour thy father and thy mother, as the LORD thy God commanded thee; that thy days may be long, and that it may go well with thee, upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 9.5. Not for thy righteousness, or for the uprightness of thy heart, dost thou go in to possess their land; but for the wickedness of these nations the LORD thy God doth drive them out from before thee, and that He may establish the word which the LORD swore unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob." 10.17. For the LORD your God, He is God of gods, and Lord of lords, the great God, the mighty, and the awful, who regardeth not persons, nor taketh reward." 12.15. Notwithstanding thou mayest kill and eat flesh within all thy gates, after all the desire of thy soul, according to the blessing of the LORD thy God which He hath given thee; the unclean and the clean may eat thereof, as of the gazelle, and as of the hart."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.12-20.16, 21.16, 25.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.12. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 20.13. לֹא תִּרְצָח׃ לֹא תִּנְאָף׃ לֹא תִּגְנֹב׃ לֹא־תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁקֶר׃ 20.14. לֹא תַחְמֹד בֵּית רֵעֶךָ לֹא־תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ וְשׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ׃ 20.15. וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃ 20.16. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה דַּבֵּר־אַתָּה עִמָּנוּ וְנִשְׁמָעָה וְאַל־יְדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ אֱלֹהִים פֶּן־נָמוּת׃ 21.16. וְגֹנֵב אִישׁ וּמְכָרוֹ וְנִמְצָא בְיָדוֹ מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 25.2. וְהָיוּ הַכְּרֻבִים פֹּרְשֵׂי כְנָפַיִם לְמַעְלָה סֹכְכִים בְּכַנְפֵיהֶם עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת וּפְנֵיהֶם אִישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו אֶל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת יִהְיוּ פְּנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים׃ 25.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִקְחוּ־לִי תְּרוּמָה מֵאֵת כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִדְּבֶנּוּ לִבּוֹ תִּקְחוּ אֶת־תְּרוּמָתִי׃ 20.12. Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 20.13. Thou shalt not murder. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour." 20.14. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house; thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s." 20.15. And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off." 20.16. And they said unto Moses: ‘Speak thou with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die.’" 21.16. And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death." 25.2. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, that they take for Me an offering; of every man whose heart maketh him willing ye shall take My offering."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.27, 2.24, 6.9, 17.1, 24.40 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 2.24. עַל־כֵּן יַעֲזָב־אִישׁ אֶת־אָבִיו וְאֶת־אִמּוֹ וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד׃ 6.9. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃ 17.1. זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ 17.1. וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי־אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים׃ 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 2.24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh." 6.9. These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God." 17.1. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be thou wholehearted." 24.40. And he said unto me: The LORD, before whom I walk, will send His angel with thee, and prosper thy way; and thou shalt take a wife for my son of my kindred, and of my father’s house;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.13, 20.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.13. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת־אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי־שְׁאֵר אִמְּךָ הִוא׃ 20.19. וְעֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת אִמְּךָ וַאֲחוֹת אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי אֶת־שְׁאֵרוֹ הֶעֱרָה עֲוֺנָם יִשָּׂאוּ׃ 18.13. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister; for she is thy mother’s near kinswoman." 20.19. And thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister, nor of thy father’s sister; for he hath made naked his near kin; they shall bear their iniquity."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.18. בְּאֵר חֲפָרוּהָ שָׂרִים כָּרוּהָ נְדִיבֵי הָעָם בִּמְחֹקֵק בְּמִשְׁעֲנֹתָם וּמִמִּדְבָּר מַתָּנָה׃ 21.18. The well, which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre, and with their staves. And from the wilderness to Mattanah;"
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 29.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

29.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲדֹנָי יַעַן כִּי נִגַּשׁ הָעָם הַזֶּה בְּפִיו וּבִשְׂפָתָיו כִּבְּדוּנִי וְלִבּוֹ רִחַק מִמֶּנִּי וַתְּהִי יִרְאָתָם אֹתִי מִצְוַת אֲנָשִׁים מְלֻמָּדָה׃ 29.13. And the Lord said: Forasmuch as this people draw near, and with their mouth and with their lips do honour Me, But have removed their heart far from Me, And their fear of Me is a commandment of men learned by rote;"
8. Septuagint, Tobit, 2.9 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.9. On the same night I returned from burying him, and because I was defiled I slept by the wall of the courtyard, and my face was uncovered.
9. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 5.8, 6.3, 8.14, 9.21, 10.3, 12.19, 12.22, 20.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 5.8, 6.3, 8.14, 9.21, 10.3, 12.19, 16.7-16.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.20-3.21, 4.15, 5.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 12.38 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.38. Then Judas assembled his army and went to the city of Adullam. As the seventh day was coming on, they purified themselves according to the custom, and they kept the sabbath there.'
13. Septuagint, Judith, 12.6-12.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

12.6. and sent to Holofernes and said, "Let my lord now command that your servant be permitted to go out and pray. 12.7. So Holofernes commanded his guards not to hinder her. And she remained in the camp for three days, and went out each night to the valley of Bethulia, and bathed at the spring in the camp. 12.8. When she came up from the spring she prayed the Lord God of Israel to direct her way for the raising up of her people. 12.9. So she returned clean and stayed in the tent until she ate her food toward evening.
14. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.591-3.593 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.591. But when from Italy shall come a man 3.592. A spoiler, then, Laodicea, thou 3.593. Beautiful city of the Carian
15. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, On The Admirable Style of Demosthenes, 24 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.323, 5.199, 5.227, 12.106, 13.296-13.298, 13.408, 14.258, 15.418-15.419, 17.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.323. o Laban left off searching any further, not supposing that his daughter in such circumstances would approach to those images. So he made a league with Jacob, and bound it by oaths, that he would not bear him any malice on account of what had happened; and Jacob made the like league, and promised to love Laban’s daughters. 5.199. for this Jabin came out of Hazor, a city that was situate over the lake Semechonitis, and had in pay three hundred thousand footmen, and ten thousand horsemen, with no fewer than three thousand chariots. Sisera was the commander of all his army, and was the principal person in the king’s favor. He so sorely beat the Israelites when they fought with him, that he ordered them to pay tribute. 5.227. And as the report of Gideon’s victory came to the Israelites, they took their weapons and pursued their enemies, and overtook them in a certain valley encompassed with torrents, a place which these could not get over; so they encompassed them, and slew them all, with their kings, Oreb and Zeeb. 12.106. But in the morning they came to the court and saluted Ptolemy, and then went away to their former place, where, when they had washed their hands, and purified themselves, they betook themselves to the interpretation of the laws. 13.296. that he made him leave the party of the Pharisees, and abolish the decrees they had imposed on the people, and to punish those that observed them. From this source arose that hatred which he and his sons met with from the multitude: 13.297. but of these matters we shall speak hereafter. What I would now explain is this, that the Pharisees have delivered to the people a great many observances by succession from their fathers, which are not written in the laws of Moses; and for that reason it is that the Sadducees reject them, and say that we are to esteem those observances to be obligatory which are in the written word, but are not to observe what are derived from the tradition of our forefathers. 13.298. And concerning these things it is that great disputes and differences have arisen among them, while the Sadducees are able to persuade none but the rich, and have not the populace obsequious to them, but the Pharisees have the multitude on their side. But about these two sects, and that of the Essenes, I have treated accurately in the second book of Jewish affairs. 13.408. 2. So she made Hyrcanus high priest, because he was the elder, but much more because he cared not to meddle with politics, and permitted the Pharisees to do every thing; to whom also she ordered the multitude to be obedient. She also restored again those practices which the Pharisees had introduced, according to the traditions of their forefathers, and which her father-in-law, Hyrcanus, had abrogated. 14.258. we have decreed, that as many men and women of the Jews as are willing so to do, may celebrate their Sabbaths, and perform their holy offices, according to the Jewish laws; and may make their proseuchae at the sea-side, according to the customs of their forefathers; and if any one, whether he be a magistrate or private person, hindereth them from so doing, he shall be liable to a fine, to be applied to the uses of the city.” 15.418. Now this inner enclosure had on its southern and northern quarters three gates [equally] distant one from another; but on the east quarter, towards the sun-rising, there was one large gate, through which such as were pure came in, together with their wives; 15.419. but the temple further inward in that gate was not allowed to the women; but still more inward was there a third [court of the] temple, whereinto it was not lawful for any but the priests alone to enter. The temple itself was within this; and before that temple was the altar, upon which we offer our sacrifices and burnt-offerings to God. 17.41. For there was a certain sect of men that were Jews, who valued themselves highly upon the exact skill they had in the law of their fathers, and made men believe they were highly favored by God, by whom this set of women were inveigled. These are those that are called the sect of the Pharisees, who were in a capacity of greatly opposing kings. A cunning sect they were, and soon elevated to a pitch of open fighting and doing mischief.
17. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.110, 2.119-2.162 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.119. 2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have. 2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.122. 3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there anyone to be found among them who hath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order,—insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one’s possessions are intermingled with every other’s possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren. 2.123. They think that oil is a defilement; and if anyone of them be anointed without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed to take care of their common affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the use of them all. 2.124. 4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own; and they go in to such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them. 2.125. For which reason they carry nothing at all with them when they travel into remote parts, though still they take their weapons with them, for fear of thieves. Accordingly, there is, in every city where they live, one appointed particularly to take care of strangers, and to provide garments and other necessaries for them. 2.126. But the habit and management of their bodies is such as children use who are in fear of their masters. Nor do they allow of the change of garments, or of shoes, till they be first entirely torn to pieces or worn out by time. 2.127. Nor do they either buy or sell anything to one another; but every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it, and receives from him again in lieu of it what may be convenient for himself; and although there be no requital made, they are fully allowed to take what they want of whomsoever they please. 2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple 2.131. but a priest says grace before meat; and it is unlawful for anyone to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their [white] garments, and betake themselves to their labors again till the evening; 2.132. then they return home to supper, after the same manner; and if there be any strangers there, they sit down with them. Nor is there ever any clamor or disturbance to pollute their house, but they give every one leave to speak in their turn; 2.133. which silence thus kept in their house appears to foreigners like some tremendous mystery; the cause of which is that perpetual sobriety they exercise, and the same settled measure of meat and drink that is allotted to them, and that such as is abundantly sufficient for them. 2.134. 6. And truly, as for other things, they do nothing but according to the injunctions of their curators; only these two things are done among them at everyone’s own free will, which are to assist those that want it, and to show mercy; for they are permitted of their own accord to afford succor to such as deserve it, when they stand in need of it, and to bestow food on those that are in distress; but they cannot give any thing to their kindred without the curators. 2.135. They dispense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without [swearing by] God is already condemned. 2.136. They also take great pains in studying the writings of the ancients, and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body; and they inquire after such roots and medicinal stones as may cure their distempers. 2.137. 7. But now, if anyone hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use, for a year, while he continues excluded; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the fore-mentioned girdle, and the white garment. 2.138. And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years; and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 2.141. that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though anyone should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. 2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves. 2.143. 8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; 2.144. for which reason they receive many of them again when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of. 2.145. 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator [Moses], whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally. 2.146. They also think it a good thing to obey their elders, and the major part. Accordingly, if ten of them be sitting together, no one of them will speak while the other nine are against it. 2.147. They also avoid spitting in the midst of them, or on the right side. Moreover, they are stricter than any other of the Jews in resting from their labors on the seventh day; for they not only get their food ready the day before, that they may not be obliged to kindle a fire on that day, but they will not remove any vessel out of its place, nor go to stool thereon. 2.148. Nay, on theother days they dig a small pit, a foot deep, with a paddle (which kind of hatchet is given them when they are first admitted among them); and covering themselves round with their garment, that they may not affront the Divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit 2.149. after which they put the earth that was dug out again into the pit; and even this they do only in the more lonely places, which they choose out for this purpose; and although this easement of the body be natural, yet it is a rule with them to wash themselves after it, as if it were a defilement to them. 2.151. They are long-lived also, insomuch that many of them live above a hundred years, by means of the simplicity of their diet; nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of life they observe also. They condemn the miseries of life, and are above pain, by the generosity of their mind. And as for death, if it will be for their glory, they esteem it better than living always; 2.152. and indeed our war with the Romans gave abundant evidence what great souls they had in their trials, wherein, although they were tortured and distorted, burnt and torn to pieces, and went through all kinds of instruments of torment, that they might be forced either to blaspheme their legislator, or to eat what was forbidden them, yet could they not be made to do either of them, no, nor once to flatter their tormentors, or to shed a tear; 2.153. but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to scorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned up their souls with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again. 2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 2.155. but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinions of the Greeks, that good souls have their habitations beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with storms of rain or snow, or with intense heat, but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a west wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean; while they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous den, full of never-ceasing punishments. 2.156. And indeed the Greeks seem to me to have followed the same notion, when they allot the islands of the blessed to their brave men, whom they call heroes and demigods; and to the souls of the wicked, the region of the ungodly, in Hades, where their fables relate that certain persons, such as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus, are punished; which is built on this first supposition, that souls are immortal; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, and dehortations from wickedness collected; 2.157. whereby good men are bettered in the conduct of their life by the hope they have of reward after their death; and whereby the vehement inclinations of bad men to vice are restrained, by the fear and expectation they are in, that although they should lie concealed in this life, they should suffer immortal punishment after their death. 2.158. These are the Divine doctrines of the Essenes about the soul, which lay an unavoidable bait for such as have once had a taste of their philosophy. 2.159. 12. There are also those among them who undertake to foretell things to come, by reading the holy books, and using several sorts of purifications, and being perpetually conversant in the discourses of the prophets; and it is but seldom that they miss in their predictions. 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes. 2.162. 14. But then as to the two other orders at first mentioned: the Pharisees are those who are esteemed most skillful in the exact explication of their laws, and introduce the first sect. These ascribe all to fate [or providence], and to God
18. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.103 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.103. for it had four several courts, encompassed with cloisters round about, every one of which had by our law a peculiar degree of separation from the rest. Into the first court every body was allowed to go, even foreigners; and none but women, during their courses, were prohibited to pass through it;
19. Josephus Flavius, Life, 191 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Mishnah, Avot, 1.1-1.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. Moses received the torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be patient in [the administration of] justice, raise many disciples and make a fence round the Torah." 1.2. Shimon the Righteous was one of the last of the men of the great assembly. He used to say: the world stands upon three things: the Torah, the Temple service, and the practice of acts of piety."
21. Mishnah, Eduyot, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. Hillel says: “A hin full of drawn water renders the mikweh unfit.” (However, man must speak in the language of his teacher.) And Shammai says: “Nine kavs.” But the Sages say: “Neither according to the opinion of this one nor according to the opinion of this one;” But when two weavers from the dung-gate which is in Jerusalem came and testified in the name of Shemaiah and Avtalion, “Three logs of drawn water render the mikweh unfit,” the Sages confirmed their statement."
22. Mishnah, Eruvin, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.2. Rabban Gamaliel said: A Sadducee once lived with us in the same alley in Jerusalem and father told us: “Hurry up and carry out all vessels into the alley before he carries out his and thereby restricts you”. Rabbi Judah said [the instruction was given] in different language: “Hurry up and perform all of your needs in the alley before he carries out his and thereby restricts you”."
23. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. They wash hands for [eating] unconsecrated [food], and [second] tithe, and for terumah [heave-offering]. But for sacred food they must immerse [their hands in a mikveh]. With regard to the [water of] purification, if one’s hands became impure, one’s [whole] body is impure."
24. Mishnah, Kelim, 1.8-1.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.8. The area within the wall [of Jerusalem] is holier, for it is there that lesser holy things and second tithe may be eaten. The Temple Mount is holier, for zavim, zavot, menstruants and women after childbirth may not enter it. The chel is holier, for neither non-Jews nor one who contracted corpse impurity may enter it. The court of women is holier, for a tevul yom may not enter it, though he is not obligated a hatat for doing so. The court of the Israelites is holier, for a man who has not yet offered his obligatory sacrifices may not enter it, and if he enters he is liable for a hatat. The court of the priests is holier, for Israelites may not enter it except when they are required to do so: for laying on of the hands, slaying or waving." 1.9. The area between the porch (ulam) and the altar is holier, for [priests] who have blemishes or unkempt hair may not enter it. The Hekhal is holier, for no one whose hands or feet are unwashed may enter it. The Holy of Holies is holier, for only the high priest, on Yom Kippur, at the time of the service, may enter it. Rabbi Yose said: in five respects the area between the porch and the altar is equal to the Hekhal, for those afflicted with blemishes or with a wild growth of hair, or who have drunk wine or whose hands or feet are unwashed may not enter there, and the people must keep away from the area between the porch and the altar when the incense is being burned."
25. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 2.10, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.10. A mikveh which contains forty seahs of water and mud [combined]: Rabbi Eliezer says: one may immerse objects in the water but one may not immerse them in the mud. But Rabbi Joshua says: in the water and also in the mud. In what kind of mud may objects be immersed? Mud over which water floats. If the water was on one side only, Rabbi Joshua agrees that objects may be immersed in the water but may not be immersed in the mud. of what kind of mud have they spoken? Mud into which a reed will sink of itself, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: [mud] in which a measuring-rod will not stand upright. Abba Elazar ben Dulai says: [mud] into which a plummet will sink. Rabbi Eliezer says: such as will go down into the mouth of a jar. Rabbi Shimon says: such as will enter into the tube of a water- skin. Rabbi Elazar bar Zadok says: such as can be measured in a log measure." 4.1. If one put vessels under a water-spout, whether they be large vessels or small vessels or even vessels of dung, vessels of stone or earthen vessels, they make the mikveh invalid. It is all alike whether they were put there [purposely] or were [merely] forgotten, the words of Bet Shammai. But Bet Hillel declare it clean in the case of one who forgets. Rabbi Meir said: they voted and Bet Shammai had a majority over Bet Hillel. Yet they agree in the case of one who forgets [and leaves vessels] in a courtyard that the mikveh remains clean. Rabbi Yose said: the controversy still remains as it was."
26. Mishnah, Oholot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. If [lying over the hatch] there were vessels made of dung, vessels of stone, or vessels of [unbaked] earth, everything [in the upper story] remains clean. If it was a vessel known to be clean for holy things or for [the water of] purification, everything remains clean, since everyone is trusted with [regard to matters of] purification. For clean vessels and earthenware vessels that are [known to be] clean protect with the walls of ‘tents'."
27. Mishnah, Shevuot, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.8. What is a vain oath?If he swore that which is contrary to the facts known to people, saying of a pillar of stone that it is of gold; or of a man that he is a woman; or of a woman that she is a man. If he swore concerning a thing which is impossible, [for instance if he said,] “If I have not seen a camel flying in the air”, or “If I have not seen a serpent as thick as the beam of the olive press”. If he said to witnesses, “Come and bear testimony for me”, [and they replied,] “We swear that we will not bear testimony for you”. If he swore to annul a commandment, [for example] not to make a sukkah, or not to take a lulav, or not to put on tefillin. These are vain oaths, for which one is liable, for intentional transgression, lashes, and for unintentional transgression one is exempt."
28. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving."
29. Mishnah, Toharot, 2.2, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. Rabbi Eliezer says: he who eats food with first degree uncleanness contracts first decree uncleanness; [He who eats food with] second [degree uncleanness contracts] second [degree uncleanness]; With third [degree uncleanness contracts] third [degree uncleanness]. Rabbi Joshua says: he who eats food with first [degree] or with second [degree uncleanness contracts] second [degree uncleanness]; With third [degree uncleanness, he contracts] second [degree uncleanness] in regard to holy things but not in regard to terumah. All this applies to common food that was prepared in condition of cleanness that is appropriate for terumah." 4.11. \"If there is doubt concerning the hands as to whether they have contracted uncleanness, have conveyed uncleanness or have attained cleanness, they are deemed clean.\" \"Any doubt that arose in a public domain is deemed clean. \"A condition of doubt concerning an ordice of the scribes\": [For instance, he is uncertain whether] he ate unclean food or drank unclean liquids, whether he immersed his head and the greater part of his body in drawn water, or whether there fell on his head and the greater part of his body three log of drawn water, such a condition of doubt is deemed clean. But if a condition of doubt arose concerning a father of uncleanness even though it was only rabbinical, it is deemed unclean."
30. Mishnah, Yadayim, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. If a person puts his hands inside a house with scale disease, his hands have first degree uncleanness, the words of Rabbi Akiba. But the sages say: his hands have second degree uncleanness. Whoever defiles garments: at the time when he touches [the uncleanness], he defiles hands so that they have first degree uncleanness, the words of Rabbi Akiba. But the sages say: such that they have second degree of uncleanness. They said to Rabbi Akiba: where do we find anywhere that hands have first degree uncleanness? He said to them: but how is it possible for them to become unclean with first degree uncleanness without his whole body becoming unclean? Only in these cases [can they have first degree uncleanness]. Foods and vessels which have been defiled by liquids convey second degree of uncleanness to the hands, the words of Rabbi Joshua. But the sages say: that which has been defiled by a father of uncleanness conveys uncleanness to the hands, but that which has been defiled by an offspring of uncleanness does not defiled the hands. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel said: it happened that a certain woman came before my father and said to him, \"My hands went into the air-space inside an earthenware vessel.\" He said to her: \"My daughter, what was the cause of its uncleanness?\" But I did not hear what she said to him. The sages said: the matter is clear that which has been defiled by a father of uncleanness conveys uncleanness to the hands, but that which has been rendered unclean by an offspring of uncleanness does not defiled the hands."
31. Mishnah, Zavim, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.12. The following disqualify terumah:One who eats foods with first degree uncleanness; Or one who eats food with second degree uncleanness; And who drinks unclean liquids. And the one who has immersed his head and the greater part of him in drawn water; And a clean person upon whose head and greater part of him there fell three logs of drawn water; And a scroll [of Holy Scriptures], And [unwashed] hands; And one that has had immersion that same day; And foods and vessels which have become defiled by liquids."
32. New Testament, 1 John, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

33. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband
34. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.2. the elder women as mothers; the younger as sisters, in all purity.
35. New Testament, 2 Peter, 1.13-1.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. I think it right, as long as I am in this tent, to stir you up by reminding you; 1.14. knowing that the putting off of my tent comes swiftly, even as our Lord Jesus Christ made clear to me. 1.15. Yes, I will make every effort that you may always be able to remember these things even after my departure.
36. New Testament, Acts, 4.22, 7.23, 11.3, 14.23, 15.2, 15.4-15.6, 15.21, 16.13, 20.18-20.35 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.22. For the man was more than forty years old, on whom this miracle of healing was performed. 7.23. But when he was forty years old, it came into his heart to visit his brothers, the children of Israel. 11.3. saying, "You went in to uncircumcised men, and ate with them! 14.23. When they had appointed elders for them in every assembly, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they had believed. 15.2. Therefore when Paul and Barnabas had no small discord and discussion with them, they appointed Paul and Barnabas, and some others of them, to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. 15.4. When they had come to Jerusalem, they were received by the assembly and the apostles and the elders, and they reported all things that God had done with them. 15.5. But some of the sect of the Pharisees who believed rose up, saying, "It is necessary to circumcise them, and to charge them to keep the law of Moses. 15.6. The apostles and the elders were gathered together to see about this matter. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath. 16.13. On the Sabbath day we went forth outside of the city by a riverside, where we supposed there was a place of prayer, and we sat down, and spoke to the women who had come together. 20.18. When they had come to him, he said to them, "You yourselves know, from the first day that I set foot in Asia, how I was with you all the time 20.19. serving the Lord with all humility, with many tears, and with trials which happened to me by the plots of the Jews; 20.20. how I didn't shrink from declaring to you anything that was profitable, teaching you publicly and from house to house 20.21. testifying both to Jews and to Greeks repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ. 20.22. Now, behold, I go bound by the Spirit to Jerusalem, not knowing what will happen to me there; 20.23. except that the Holy Spirit testifies in every city, saying that bonds and afflictions wait for me. 20.24. But these things don't count; nor do I hold my life dear to myself, so that I may finish my race with joy, and the ministry which I received from the Lord Jesus, to fully testify to the gospel of the grace of God. 20.25. Now, behold, I know that you all, among whom I went about preaching the Kingdom of God, will see my face no more. 20.26. Therefore I testify to you this day that I am clean from the blood of all men 20.27. for I didn't shrink from declaring to you the whole counsel of God. 20.28. Take heed, therefore, to yourselves, and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the assembly of the Lord and God which he purchased with his own blood. 20.29. For I know that after my departure, vicious wolves will enter in among you, not sparing the flock. 20.30. Men will arise from among your own selves, speaking perverse things, to draw away the disciples after them. 20.31. Therefore watch, remembering that for a period of three years I didn't cease to admonish everyone night and day with tears. 20.32. Now, brothers, I entrust you to God, and to the word of his grace, which is able to build up, and to give you the inheritance among all those who are sanctified. 20.33. I coveted no one's silver, or gold, or clothing. 20.34. You yourselves know that these hands ministered to my necessities, and to those who were with me. 20.35. In all things I gave you an example, that so laboring you ought to help the weak, and to remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that he himself said, 'It is more blessed to give than to receive.'
37. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. I know your works, oppression, and your poverty (but you are rich), and the blasphemy of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but are a synagogue of Satan.
38. New Testament, James, 5.1, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. Come now, you rich, weep and howl for your miseries that are coming on you. 5.14. Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the assembly, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord
39. New Testament, Philemon, 9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

40. New Testament, Galatians, 1.14, 2.12, 6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 6.15. For in Christ Jesus neitheris circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation.
41. New Testament, Romans, 14.14, 16.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.14. I know, and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean of itself; except that to him who considers anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean. 16.13. Greet Rufus, the chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine.
42. New Testament, Titus, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.3. and that older women likewise be reverent in behavior, not slanderers nor enslaved to much wine, teachers of that which is good;
43. New Testament, John, 1.17, 1.31, 1.38, 1.45, 1.48-1.50, 2.6, 2.13-2.16, 3.1-3.2, 3.4, 3.10, 3.12, 3.18, 3.25, 4.9, 4.22, 4.31, 4.48, 5.1, 5.38, 5.46-5.47, 6.4, 6.25, 6.41, 6.64, 7.1-7.2, 7.19, 7.22-7.23, 8.45-8.46, 8.57, 9.2, 9.22, 10.25-10.26, 11.8, 11.47, 11.55, 12.13, 12.39, 12.42, 14.10, 16.2, 16.9, 16.19, 18.3, 18.12, 18.14, 18.33, 18.39, 19.3, 19.19, 19.21, 19.40, 19.42, 20.25, 21.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.31. I didn't know him, but for this reason I came baptizing in water: that he would be revealed to Israel. 1.38. Jesus turned, and saw them following, and said to them, "What are you looking for?"They said to him, "Rabbi" (which is to say, being interpreted, Teacher), "where are you staying? 1.45. Philip found Nathanael, and said to him, "We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, wrote: Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. 1.48. Nathanael said to him, "How do you know me?"Jesus answered him, "Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you. 1.49. Nathanael answered him, "Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are King of Israel! 1.50. Jesus answered him, "Because I told you, 'I saw you underneath the fig tree,' do you believe? You will see greater things than these! 2.6. Now there were six water pots of stone set there after the Jews' manner of purifying, containing two or three metretes apiece. 2.13. The Passover of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 2.14. He found in the temple those who sold oxen, sheep, and doves, and the changers of money sitting. 2.15. He made a whip of cords, and threw all out of the temple, both the sheep and the oxen; and he poured out the changers' money, and overthrew their tables. 2.16. To those who sold the doves, he said, "Take these things out of here! Don't make my Father's house a marketplace! 3.1. Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. 3.2. The same came to him by night, and said to him, "Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him. 3.4. Nicodemus said to him, "How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother's womb, and be born? 3.10. Jesus answered him, "Are you the teacher of Israel, and don't understand these things? 3.12. If I told you earthly things and you don't believe, how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things? 3.18. He who believes in him is not judged. He who doesn't believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the only born Son of God. 3.25. There arose therefore a questioning on the part of John's disciples with some Jews about purification. 4.9. The Samaritan woman therefore said to him, "How is it that you, being a Jew, ask for a drink from me, a Samaritan woman?" (For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.) 4.22. You worship that which you don't know. We worship that which we know; for salvation is from the Jews. 4.31. In the meanwhile, the disciples urged him, saying, "Rabbi, eat. 4.48. Jesus therefore said to him, "Unless you see signs and wonders, you will in no way believe. 5.1. After these things, there was a feast of the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 5.38. You don't have his word living in you; because you don't believe him whom he sent. 5.46. For if you believed Moses, you would believe me; for he wrote about me. 5.47. But if you don't believe his writings, how will you believe my words? 6.4. Now the Passover, the feast of the Jews, was at hand. 6.25. When they found him on the other side of the sea, they asked him, "Rabbi, when did you come here? 6.41. The Jews therefore murmured concerning him, because he said, "I am the bread which came down out of heaven. 6.64. But there are some of you who don't believe." For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were who didn't believe, and who it was who would betray him. 7.1. After these things, Jesus was walking in Galilee, for he wouldn't walk in Judea, because the Jews sought to kill him. 7.2. Now the feast of the Jews, the Feast of Booths, was at hand. 7.19. Didn't Moses give you the law, and yet none of you keeps the law? Why do you seek to kill me? 7.22. Moses has given you circumcision (not that it is of Moses, but of the fathers), and on the Sabbath you circumcise a boy. 7.23. If a boy receives circumcision on the Sabbath, that the law of Moses may not be broken, are you angry with me, because I made a man every bit whole on the Sabbath? 8.45. But because I tell the truth, you don't believe me. 8.46. Which of you convicts me of sin? If I tell the truth, why do you not believe me? 8.57. The Jews therefore said to him, "You are not yet fifty years old, and have you seen Abraham? 9.2. His disciples asked him, "Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind? 9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 10.25. Jesus answered them, "I told you, and you don't believe. The works that I do in my Father's name, these testify about me. 10.26. But you don't believe, because you are not of my sheep, as I told you. 11.8. The disciples told him, "Rabbi, the Jews were just trying to stone you, and are you going there again? 11.47. The chief priests therefore and the Pharisees gathered a council, and said, "What are we doing? For this man does many signs. 11.55. Now the Passover of the Jews was at hand. Many went up from the country to Jerusalem before the Passover, to purify themselves. 12.13. they took the branches of the palm trees, and went out to meet him, and cried out, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord, the King of Israel! 12.39. For this cause they couldn't believe, for Isaiah said again 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue 14.10. Don't you believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I tell you, I speak not from myself; but the Father who lives in me does his works. 16.2. They will put you out of the synagogues. Yes, the time comes that whoever kills you will think that he offers service to God. 16.9. about sin, because they don't believe in me; 16.19. Therefore Jesus perceived that they wanted to ask him, and he said to them, "Do you inquire among yourselves concerning this, that I said, 'A little while, and you won't see me, and again a little while, and you will see me?' 18.3. Judas then, having taken a detachment of soldiers and officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, came there with lanterns, torches, and weapons. 18.12. So the detachment, the commanding officer, and the officers of the Jews, seized Jesus and bound him 18.14. Now it was Caiaphas who advised the Jews that it was expedient that one man should perish for the people. 18.33. Pilate therefore entered again into the Praetorium, called Jesus, and said to him, "Are you the King of the Jews? 18.39. But you have a custom, that I should release someone to you at the Passover. Therefore do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews? 19.3. They kept saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" and they kept slapping him. 19.19. Pilate wrote a title also, and put it on the cross. There was written, "JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS. 19.21. The chief priests of the Jews therefore said to Pilate, "Don't write, 'The King of the Jews,' but, 'he said, I am King of the Jews.' 19.40. So they took Jesus' body, and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, as the custom of the Jews is to bury. 19.42. Then because of the Jews' Preparation Day (for the tomb was near at hand) they laid Jesus there. 20.25. The other disciples therefore said to him, "We have seen the Lord!"But he said to them, "Unless I see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe. 21.18. Most assuredly I tell you, when you were young, you dressed yourself, and walked where you wanted to. But when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will dress you, and carry you where you don't want to go.
44. New Testament, Luke, 1.36, 1.39-1.52, 2.36, 3.1-3.6, 4.16-4.30, 5.17, 6.43-6.44, 7.1-7.10, 9.59-9.60, 10.12-10.15, 11.15, 11.17-11.23, 11.37-11.44, 12.10, 13.10-13.17, 16.29-16.30, 18.9-18.14, 20.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.36. Behold, Elizabeth, your relative, also has conceived a son in her old age; and this is the sixth month with her who was called barren. 1.39. Mary arose in those days and went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Judah 1.40. and entered into the house of Zacharias and greeted Elizabeth. 1.41. It happened, when Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, that the baby leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit. 1.42. She called out with a loud voice, and said, "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb! 1.43. Why am I so favored, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? 1.44. For behold, when the voice of your greeting came into my ears, the baby leaped in my womb for joy! 1.45. Blessed is she who believed, for there will be a fulfillment of the things which have been spoken to her from the Lord! 1.46. Mary said, "My soul magnifies the Lord. 1.47. My spirit has rejoiced in God my Savior 1.48. For he has looked at the humble state of his handmaid. For behold, from now on, all generations will call me blessed. 1.49. For he who is mighty has done great things for me. Holy is his name. 1.50. His mercy is for generations of generations on those who fear him. 1.51. He has shown strength with his arm. He has scattered the proud in the imagination of their heart. 1.52. He has put down princes from their thrones. And has exalted the lowly. 2.36. There was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was of a great age, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity 3.1. Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene 3.2. in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. 3.3. He came into all the region around the Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for remission of sins. 3.4. As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord. Make his paths straight. 3.5. Every valley will be filled. Every mountain and hill will be brought low. The crooked will become straight, And the rough ways smooth. 3.6. All flesh will see God's salvation.' 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian. 4.28. They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. 4.29. They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff. 4.30. But he, passing through the midst of them, went his way. 5.17. It happened on one of those days, that he was teaching; and there were Pharisees and teachers of the law sitting by, who had come out of every village of Galilee, Judea, and Jerusalem. The power of the Lord was with him to heal them. 6.43. For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. 6.44. For each tree is known by its own fruit. For people don't gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. 7.1. After he had finished speaking in the hearing of the people, he entered into Capernaum. 7.2. A certain centurion's servant, who was dear to him, was sick and at the point of death. 7.3. When he heard about Jesus, he sent to him elders of the Jews, asking him to come and save his servant. 7.4. When they came to Jesus, they begged him earnestly, saying, "He is worthy for you to do this for him 7.5. for he loves our nation, and he built our synagogue for us. 7.6. Jesus went with them. When he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying to him, "Lord, don't trouble yourself, for I am not worthy for you to come under my roof. 7.7. Therefore I didn't even think myself worthy to come to you; but say the word, and my servant will be healed. 7.8. For I also am a man placed under authority, having under myself soldiers. I tell this one, 'Go!' and he goes; and to another, 'Come!' and he comes; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it. 7.9. When Jesus heard these things, he marveled at him, and turned and said to the multitude who followed him, "I tell you, I have not found such great faith, no, not in Israel. 7.10. Those who were sent, returning to the house, found that the servant who had been sick was well. 9.59. He said to another, "Follow me!"But he said, "Lord, allow me first to go and bury my father. 9.60. But Jesus said to him, "Leave the dead to bury their own dead, but you go and announce the Kingdom of God. 10.12. I tell you, it will be more tolerable in that day for Sodom than for that city. 10.13. Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon which were done in you, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 10.14. But it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the judgment than for you. 10.15. You, Capernaum, who are exalted to heaven, will be brought down to Hades. 11.15. But some of them said, "He casts out demons by Beelzebul, the prince of the demons. 11.17. But he, knowing their thoughts, said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation. A house divided against itself falls. 11.18. If Satan also is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? For you say that I cast out demons by Beelzebul. 11.19. But if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons cast them out? Therefore will they be your judges. 11.20. But if I by the finger of God cast out demons, then the Kingdom of God has come to you. 11.21. When the strong man, fully armed, guards his own dwelling, his goods are safe. 11.22. But when someone stronger attacks him and overcomes him, he takes from him his whole armor in which he trusted, and divides his spoils. 11.23. He that is not with me is against me. He who doesn't gather with me scatters. 11.37. Now as he spoke, a certain Pharisee asked him to dine with him. He went in, and sat at the table. 11.38. When the Pharisee saw it, he marveled that he had not first washed himself before dinner. 11.39. The Lord said to him, "Now you Pharisees cleanse the outside of the cup and of the platter, but your inward part is full of extortion and wickedness. 11.40. You foolish ones, didn't he who made the outside make the inside also? 11.41. But give for gifts to the needy those things which are within, and behold, all things will be clean to you. 11.42. But woe to you Pharisees! For you tithe mint and rue and every herb, but you bypass justice and the love of God. You ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 11.43. Woe to you Pharisees! For you love the best seats in the synagogues, and the greetings in the marketplaces. 11.44. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like hidden graves, and the men who walk over them don't know it. 12.10. Everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but those who blaspheme against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven. 13.10. He was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath day. 13.11. Behold, there was a woman who had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and she was bent over, and could in no way straighten herself up. 13.12. When Jesus saw her, he called her, and said to her, "Woman, you are freed from your infirmity. 13.13. He laid his hands on her, and immediately she stood up straight, and glorified God. 13.14. The ruler of the synagogue, being indigt because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the multitude, "There are six days in which men ought to work. Therefore come on those days and be healed, and not on the Sabbath day! 13.15. Therefore the Lord answered him, "You hypocrites! Doesn't each one of you free his ox or his donkey from the stall on the Sabbath, and lead him away to water? 13.16. Ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan had bound eighteen long years, be freed from this bondage on the Sabbath day? 13.17. As he said these things, all his adversaries were put to shame, and all the multitude rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him. 16.29. But Abraham said to him, 'They have Moses and the prophets. Let them listen to them.' 16.30. He said, 'No, father Abraham, but if one goes to them from the dead, they will repent.' 18.9. He spoke also this parable to certain people who were convinced of their own righteousness, and who despised all others. 18.10. Two men went up into the temple to pray; one was a Pharisee, and the other was a tax collector. 18.11. The Pharisee stood and prayed to himself like this: 'God, I thank you, that I am not like the rest of men, extortioners, unrighteous, adulterers, or even like this tax collector. 18.12. I fast twice a week. I give tithes of all that I get.' 18.13. But the tax collector, standing far away, wouldn't even lift up his eyes to heaven, but beat his breast, saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!' 18.14. I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other; for everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but he who humbles himself will be exalted. 20.37. But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord 'The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.'
45. New Testament, Mark, 1.2-1.8, 1.15-1.16, 1.20, 1.24, 1.34, 1.44, 2.10, 2.13-2.18, 2.21, 2.23-2.28, 3.1-3.9, 3.11, 3.13-3.19, 3.22-3.30, 4.10-4.12, 4.38, 5.1-5.20, 5.23-5.24, 5.26, 5.35, 5.42, 6.2, 6.6, 6.8-6.9, 6.17, 6.21, 6.25, 6.27, 6.47, 6.56, 7.1-7.2, 7.4-7.31, 8.8, 8.11, 8.15, 8.24, 8.27, 8.29, 9.5-9.6, 9.11, 9.21-9.22, 9.35, 10.1-10.12, 10.17-10.19, 10.25, 10.33, 10.43-10.44, 10.49-10.50, 10.52, 11.13, 11.15-11.17, 11.19, 11.21, 11.25, 11.27, 11.31, 12.2, 12.4, 12.13, 12.24, 12.26, 12.44, 13.11, 13.19, 13.34, 14.2, 14.11, 14.15, 14.18, 14.31, 14.39, 14.43, 14.45, 14.47, 14.49, 14.60, 14.66, 15.1, 15.4, 15.10, 15.15-15.16, 15.21, 15.24, 15.32, 15.39, 15.41, 16.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you. 1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins. 1.6. John was clothed with camel's hair and a leather belt around his loins. He ate locusts and wild honey. 1.7. He preached, saying, "After me comes he who is mightier than I, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 1.15. and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand! Repent, and believe in the gospel. 1.16. Passing along by the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew the brother of Simon casting a net in the sea, for they were fishermen. 1.20. Immediately he called them, and they left their father, Zebedee, in the boat with the hired servants, and went after him. 1.24. saying, "Ha! What do we have to do with you, Jesus, you Nazarene? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 1.34. He healed many who were sick with various diseases, and cast out many demons. He didn't allow the demons to speak, because they knew him. 1.44. and said to him, "See you say nothing to anybody, but go show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing the things which Moses commanded, for a testimony to them. 2.10. But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins" -- he said to the paralytic -- 2.13. He went out again by the seaside. All the multitude came to him, and he taught them. 2.14. As he passed by, he saw Levi, the son of Alphaeus, sitting at the tax office, and he said to him, "Follow me." And he arose and followed him. 2.15. It happened, that he was reclining at the table in his house, and many tax collectors and sinners sat down with Jesus and his disciples, for there were many, and they followed him. 2.16. The scribes and the Pharisees, when they saw that he was eating with the sinners and tax collectors, said to his disciples, "Why is it that he eats and drinks with tax collectors and sinners? 2.17. When Jesus heard it, he said to them, "Those who are healthy have no need for a physician, but those who are sick. I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. 2.18. John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting, and they came and asked him, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples don't fast? 2.21. No one sews a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment, or else the patch shrinks and the new tears away from the old, and a worse hole is made. 2.23. It happened that he was going on the Sabbath day through the grain fields, and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of grain. 2.24. The Pharisees said to him, "Behold, why do they do that which is not lawful on the Sabbath day? 2.25. He said to them, "Did you never read what David did, when he had need, and was hungry -- he, and they who were with him? 2.26. How he entered into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the show bread, which it is not lawful to eat except for the priests, and gave also to those who were with him? 2.27. He said to them, "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. 2.28. Therefore the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath. 3.1. He entered again into the synagogue, and there was a man there who had his hand withered. 3.2. They watched him, whether he would heal him on the Sabbath day, that they might accuse him. 3.3. He said to the man who had his hand withered, "Stand up. 3.4. He said to them, "Is it lawful on the Sabbath day to do good, or to do harm? To save a life, or to kill?" But they were silent. 3.5. When he had looked around at them with anger, being grieved at the hardening of their hearts, he said to the man, "Stretch out your hand." He stretched it out, and his hand was restored as healthy as the other. 3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 3.7. Jesus withdrew to the sea with his disciples, and a great multitude followed him from Galilee, from Judea 3.8. from Jerusalem, from Idumaea, beyond the Jordan, and those from around Tyre and Sidon. A great multitude, hearing what great things he did, came to him. 3.9. He spoke to his disciples that a little boat should stay near him because of the crowd, so that they wouldn't press on him. 3.11. The unclean spirits, whenever they saw him, fell down before him, and cried, "You are the Son of God! 3.13. He went up into the mountain, and called to himself those whom he wanted, and they went to him. 3.14. He appointed twelve, that they might be with him, and that he might send them out to preach 3.15. and to have authority to heal sicknesses and to cast out demons: 3.16. Simon, to whom he gave the name Peter; 3.17. James the son of Zebedee; John, the brother of James, and he surnamed them Boanerges, which means, Sons of Thunder; 3.18. Andrew; Philip; Bartholomew; Matthew; Thomas; James, the son of Alphaeus; Thaddaeus; Simon the Zealot; 3.19. and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. He came into a house. 3.22. The scribes who came down from Jerusalem said, "He has Beelzebul," and, "By the prince of the demons he casts out the demons. 3.23. He summoned them, and said to them in parables, "How can Satan cast out Satan? 3.24. If a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand. 3.25. If a house is divided against itself, that house cannot stand. 3.26. If Satan has risen up against himself, and is divided, he can't stand, but has an end. 3.27. But no one can enter into the house of the strong man to plunder, unless he first binds the strong man; and then he will plunder his house. 3.28. Most assuredly I tell you, all of the sons of men's sins will be forgiven them, including their blasphemies with which they may blaspheme; 3.29. but whoever may blaspheme against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin 3.30. -- because they said, "He has an unclean spirit. 4.10. When he was alone, those who were around him with the twelve asked him about the parables. 4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.' 4.38. He himself was in the stern, asleep on the cushion, and they woke him up, and told him, "Teacher, don't you care that we are dying? 5.1. They came to the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gadarenes. 5.2. When he had come out of the boat, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit 5.3. who had his dwelling in the tombs. Nobody could bind him any more, not even with chains 5.4. because he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been torn apart by him, and the fetters broken in pieces. Nobody had the strength to tame him. 5.5. Always, night and day, in the tombs and in the mountains, he was crying out, and cutting himself with stones. 5.6. When he saw Jesus from afar, he ran and bowed down to him 5.7. and crying out with a loud voice, he said, "What have I to do with you, Jesus, you Son of the Most High God? I adjure you by God, don't torment me. 5.8. For he said to him, "Come out of the man, you unclean spirit! 5.9. He asked him, "What is your name?"He said to him, "My name is Legion, for we are many. 5.10. He begged him much that he would not send them away out of the country. 5.11. Now there was on the mountainside a great herd of pigs feeding. 5.12. All the demons begged him, saying, "Send us into the pigs, that we may enter into them. 5.13. At once Jesus gave them permission. The unclean spirits came out and entered into the pigs. The herd of about two thousand rushed down the steep bank into the sea, and they were drowned in the sea. 5.14. Those who fed them fled, and told it in the city and in the country. The people came to see what it was that had happened. 5.15. They came to Jesus, and saw him who had been possessed by demons sitting, clothed, and in his right mind, even him who had the legion; and they were afraid. 5.16. Those who saw it declared to them how it happened to him who was possessed by demons, and about the pigs. 5.17. They began to beg him to depart from their region. 5.18. As he was entering into the boat, he who had been possessed by demons begged him that he might be with him. 5.19. He didn't allow him, but said to him, "Go to your house, to your friends, and tell them what great things the Lord has done for you, and how he had mercy on you. 5.20. He went his way, and began to proclaim in Decapolis how Jesus had done great things for him, and everyone marveled. 5.23. and begged him much, saying, "My little daughter is at the point of death. Please come and lay your hands on her, that she may be made healthy, and live. 5.24. He went with him, and a great multitude followed him, and they pressed upon him on all sides. 5.26. and had suffered many things by many physicians, and had spent all that she had, and was no better, but rather grew worse 5.35. While he was still speaking, they came from the synagogue ruler's house saying, "Your daughter is dead. Why bother the Teacher any more? 5.42. Immediately the young lady rose up, and walked, for she was twelve years old. They were amazed with great amazement. 6.2. When the Sabbath had come, he began to teach in the synagogue, and many hearing him were astonished, saying, "Where did this man get these things?" and, "What is the wisdom that is given to this man, that such mighty works come about by his hands? 6.6. He marveled because of their unbelief. He went around the villages teaching. 6.8. He charged them that they should take nothing for their journey, except a staff only: no bread, no wallet, no money in their purse 6.9. but to wear sandals, and not put on two tunics. 6.17. For Herod himself had sent out and arrested John, and bound him in prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife, for he had married her. 6.21. Then a convenient day came, that Herod on his birthday made a supper for his nobles, the high officers, and the chief men of Galilee. 6.25. She came in immediately with haste to the king, and asked, "I want you to give me right now the head of John the Baptizer on a platter. 6.27. Immediately the king sent out a soldier of his guard, and commanded to bring John's head, and he went and beheaded him in the prison 6.47. When evening had come, the boat was in the midst of the sea, and he was alone on the land. 6.56. Wherever he entered, into villages, or into cities, or into the country, they laid the sick in the marketplaces, and begged him that they might touch just the fringe of his garment; and as many as touched him were made well. 7.1. Then the Pharisees, and some of the scribes gathered together to him, having come from Jerusalem. 7.2. Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is, unwashed, hands, they found fault. 7.4. They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.) 7.5. The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don't your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands? 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 7.7. But in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' 7.8. For you set aside the commandment of God, and hold tightly to the tradition of men -- the washing of pitchers and cups, and you do many other such things. 7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this. 7.14. He called all the multitude to himself, and said to them, "Hear me, all of you, and understand. 7.15. There is nothing from outside of the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. 7.16. If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear! 7.17. When he had entered into a house away from the multitude, his disciples asked him about the parable. 7.18. He said to them, "Are you thus without understanding also? Don't you perceive that whatever goes into the man from outside can't defile him 7.19. because it doesn't go into his heart, but into his stomach, then into the latrine, thus making all foods clean? 7.20. He said, "That which proceeds out of the man, that defiles the man. 7.21. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts 7.22. covetings, wickedness, deceit, lustful desires, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, and foolishness. 7.23. All these evil things come from within, and defile the man. 7.24. From there he arose, and went away into the borders of Tyre and Sidon. He entered into a house, and didn't want anyone to know it, but he couldn't escape notice. 7.25. For a woman, whose little daughter had an unclean spirit, having heard of him, came and fell down at his feet. 7.26. Now the woman was a Greek, a Syrophoenician by race. She begged him that he would cast the demon out of her daughter. 7.27. But Jesus said to her, "Let the children be filled first, for it is not appropriate to take the children's bread and throw it to the dogs. 7.28. But she answered him, "Yes, Lord. Yet even the dogs under the table eat the children's crumbs. 7.29. He said to her, "For this saying, go your way. The demon has gone out of your daughter. 7.30. She went away to her house, and found the child lying on the bed, with the demon gone out. 7.31. Again he departed from the borders of Tyre and Sidon, and came to the sea of Galilee, through the midst of the region of Decapolis. 8.8. They ate, and were filled. They took up seven baskets of broken pieces that were left over. 8.11. The Pharisees came out and began to question him, seeking from him a sign from heaven, and testing him. 8.15. He charged them, saying, "Take heed: beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod. 8.24. He looked up, and said, "I see men; for I see them like trees walking. 8.27. Jesus went out, with his disciples, into the villages of Caesarea Philippi. On the way he asked his disciples, "Who do men say that I am? 8.29. He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?"Peter answered, "You are the Christ. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 9.6. For he didn't know what to say, for they were very afraid. 9.11. They asked him, saying, "Why do the scribes say that Elijah must come first? 9.21. He asked his father, "How long has it been since this has come to him?"He said, "From childhood. 9.22. often it has cast him both into the fire and into the water, to destroy him. But if you can do anything, have compassion on us, and help us. 9.35. He sat down, and called the twelve; and he said to them, "If any man wants to be first, he shall be last of all, and servant of all. 10.1. He arose from there and came into the borders of Judea and beyond the Jordan. Multitudes came together to him again. As he usually did, he was again teaching them. 10.2. Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? 10.3. He answered, "What did Moses command you? 10.4. They said, "Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her. 10.5. But Jesus said to them, "For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. 10.6. But from the beginning of the creation, 'God made them male and female. 10.7. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will join to his wife 10.8. and the two will become one flesh,' so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. 10.9. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate. 10.10. In the house, his disciples asked him again about the same matter. 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery. 10.17. As he was going out into the way, one ran to him, knelt before him, and asked him, "Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? 10.18. Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good except one -- God. 10.19. You know the commandments: 'Do not murder,' 'Do not commit adultery,' 'Do not steal,' 'Do not give false testimony,' 'Do not defraud,' 'Honor your father and mother.' 10.25. It is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 10.33. Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem. The Son of Man will be delivered to the chief priests and the scribes. They will condemn him to death, and will deliver him to the Gentiles. 10.43. But it shall not be so among you, but whoever wants to become great among you shall be your servant. 10.44. Whoever of you wants to become first among you, shall be servant of all. 10.49. Jesus stood still, and said, "Call him."They called the blind man, saying to him, "Cheer up! Get up. He is calling you! 10.50. He, casting away his cloak, sprang up, and came to Jesus. 10.52. Jesus said to him, "Go your way. Your faith has made you well." Immediately he received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way. 11.13. Seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, he came to see if perhaps he might find anything on it. When he came to it, he found nothing but leaves, for it was not the season for figs. 11.15. They came to Jerusalem, and Jesus entered into the temple, and began to throw out those who sold and those who bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of those who sold the doves. 11.16. He would not allow anyone to carry a container through the temple. 11.17. He taught, saying to them, "Isn't it written, 'My house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations?' But you have made it a den of robbers! 11.19. When evening came, he went out of the city. 11.21. Peter, remembering, said to him, "Rabbi, look! The fig tree which you cursed has withered away. 11.25. Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone; so that your Father, who is in heaven, may also forgive you your transgressions. 11.27. They came again to Jerusalem, and as he was walking in the temple, the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders came to him 11.31. They reasoned with themselves, saying, "If we should say, 'From heaven;' he will say, 'Why then did you not believe him?' 12.2. When it was time, he sent a servant to the farmer to get from the farmer his share of the fruit of the vineyard. 12.4. Again, he sent another servant to them; and they threw stones at him, wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully treated. 12.13. They sent some of the Pharisees and of the Herodians to him, that they might trap him with words. 12.24. Jesus answered them, "Isn't this because you are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God? 12.26. But about the dead, that they are raised; haven't you read in the book of Moses, about the Bush, how God spoke to him, saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' 12.44. for they all gave out of their abundance, but she, out of her poverty, gave all that she had to live on. 13.11. When they lead you away and deliver you up, don't be anxious beforehand, or premeditate what you will say, but say whatever will be given you in that hour. For it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit. 13.19. For in those days there will be oppression, such as there has not been the like from the beginning of the creation which God created until now, and never will be. 13.34. It is like a man, traveling to another country, having left his house, and given authority to his servants, and to each one his work, and also commanded the doorkeeper to keep watch. 14.2. For they said, "Not during the feast, because there might be a riot of the people. 14.11. They, when they heard it, were glad, and promised to give him money. He sought how he might conveniently deliver him. 14.15. He will himself show you a large upper room furnished and ready. Make ready for us there. 14.18. As they sat and were eating, Jesus said, "Most assuredly I tell you, one of you will betray me -- he who eats with me. 14.31. But he spoke all the more, "If I must die with you, I will not deny you." They all said the same thing. 14.39. Again he went away, and prayed, saying the same words. 14.43. Immediately, while he was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, came -- and with him a multitude with swords and clubs, from the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders. 14.45. When he had come, immediately he came to him, and said, "Rabbi! Rabbi!" and kissed him. 14.47. But a certain one of those who stood by drew his sword, and struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear. 14.49. I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and you didn't arrest me. But this is so that the Scriptures might be fulfilled. 14.60. The high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer? What is it which these testify against you? 14.66. As Peter was in the courtyard below, one of the maids of the high priest came 15.1. Immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate. 15.4. Pilate again asked him, "Have you no answer? See how many things they testify against you! 15.10. For he perceived that for envy the chief priests had delivered him up. 15.15. Pilate, wishing to please the multitude, released Barabbas to them, and handed over Jesus, when he had flogged him, to be crucified. 15.16. The soldiers led him away within the court, which is the Praetorium; and they called together the whole cohort. 15.21. They compelled one passing by, coming from the country, Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to go with them, that he might bear his cross. 15.24. Crucifying him, they parted his garments among them, casting lots on them, what each should take. 15.32. Let the Christ, the King of Israel, now come down from the cross, that we may see and believe him." Those who were crucified with him insulted him. 15.39. When the centurion, who stood by opposite him, saw that he cried out like this and breathed his last, he said, "Truly this man was the Son of God! 15.41. who, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and served him; and many other women who came up with him to Jerusalem. 16.4. for it was very big. Looking up, they saw that the stone was rolled back.
46. New Testament, Matthew, 2.2, 3.1-3.6, 5.2, 5.17, 7.27, 9.22, 10.1-10.36, 11.18-11.19, 12.7, 12.14, 12.24-12.32, 15.1-15.21, 18.6-18.9, 19.3-19.9, 19.24, 21.23-21.27, 21.45, 22.15, 22.31, 22.34, 23.1-23.37, 26.25, 26.49, 27.1, 27.7, 27.42, 27.62, 28.12, 28.15, 28.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. Where is he who is born King of the Jews? For we saw his star in the east, and have come to worship him. 3.1. In those days, John the Baptizer came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying 3.2. Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand! 3.3. For this is he who was spoken of by Isaiah the prophet, saying, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make ready the way of the Lord, Make his paths straight. 3.4. Now John himself wore clothing made of camel's hair, with a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey. 3.5. Then people from Jerusalem, all of Judea, and all the region around the Jordan went out to him. 3.6. They were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins. 5.2. He opened his mouth and taught them, saying 5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 7.27. The rain came down, the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat on that house; and it fell -- and great was its fall. 9.22. But Jesus, turning around and seeing her, said, "Daughter, cheer up! Your faith has made you well." And the woman was made well from that hour. 10.1. He called to himself his twelve disciples, and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every sickness. 10.2. Now the names of the twelve apostles are these. The first, Simon, who is called Peter; Andrew, his brother; James the son of Zebedee; John, his brother; 10.3. Philip; Bartholomew; Thomas; Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus; and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; 10.4. Simon the Canaanite; and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. 10.5. Jesus sent these twelve out, and charged them, saying, "Don't go among the Gentiles, and don't enter into any city of the Samaritans. 10.6. Rather, go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 10.7. As you go, preach, saying, 'The Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!' 10.8. Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, and cast out demons. Freely you received, so freely give. 10.9. Don't take any gold, nor silver, nor brass in your money belts. 10.10. Take no bag for your journey, neither two coats, nor shoes, nor staff: for the laborer is worthy of his food. 10.11. Into whatever city or village you enter, find out who in it is worthy; and stay there until you go on. 10.12. As you enter into the household, greet it. 10.13. If the household is worthy, let your peace come on it, but if it isn't worthy, let your peace return to you. 10.14. Whoever doesn't receive you, nor hear your words, as you go out out of that house or that city, shake off the dust from your feet. 10.15. Most assuredly I tell you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for that city. 10.16. Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves. Therefore be wise as serpents, and harmless as doves. 10.17. But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to councils, and in their synagogues they will scourge you. 10.18. Yes, and you will be brought before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them and to the Gentiles. 10.19. But when they deliver you up, don't be anxious how or what you will say, for it will be given you in that hour what you will say. 10.20. For it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father who speaks in you. 10.21. Brother will deliver up brother to death, and the father his child. Children will rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death. 10.22. You will be hated by all men for my name's sake, but he who endures to the end will be saved. 10.23. But when they persecute you in this city, flee into the next, for most assuredly I tell you, you will not have gone through the cities of Israel, until the Son of Man has come. 10.24. A disciple is not above his teacher, nor a servant above his lord. 10.25. It is enough for the disciple that he be like his teacher, and the servant like his lord. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebul, how much more those of his household! 10.26. Therefore don't be afraid of them, for there is nothing covered that will not be revealed; and hidden that will not be known. 10.27. What I tell you in the darkness, speak in the light; and what you hear whispered in the ear, proclaim on the housetops. 10.28. Don't be afraid of those who kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul. Rather, fear him who is able to destroy both soul and body in Gehenna. 10.29. Aren't two sparrows sold for an assarion? Not one of them falls on the ground apart from your Father's will 10.30. but the very hairs of your head are all numbered. 10.31. Therefore don't be afraid. You are of more value than many sparrows. 10.32. Everyone therefore who confesses me before men, him I will also confess before my Father who is in heaven. 10.33. But whoever denies me before men, him I will also deny before my Father who is in heaven. 10.34. Don't think that I came to send peace on the earth. I didn't come to send peace, but a sword. 10.35. For I came to set a man at odds against his father, and a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. 10.36. A man's foes will be those of his own household. 11.18. For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, 'He has a demon.' 11.19. The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, 'Behold, a gluttonous man and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!' But wisdom is justified by her children. 12.7. But if you had known what this means, 'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' you would not have condemned the guiltless. 12.14. But the Pharisees went out, and conspired against him, how they might destroy him. 12.24. But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, "This man does not cast out demons, except by Beelzebul, the prince of the demons. 12.25. Knowing their thoughts, Jesus said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation, and every city or house divided against itself will not stand. 12.26. If Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself. How then will his kingdom stand? 12.27. If I by Beelzebul cast out demons, by whom do your sons cast them out? Therefore they will be your judges. 12.28. But if I by the Spirit of God cast out demons, then the Kingdom of God has come upon you. 12.29. Or how can one enter into the house of the strong man, and plunder his goods, unless he first bind the strong man? Then he will plunder his house. 12.30. He who is not with me is against me, and he who doesn't gather with me, scatters. 12.31. Therefore I tell you, every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven men, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven men. 12.32. Whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man, it will be forgiven him; but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit, it will not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in that which is to come. 15.1. Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem, saying 15.2. Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don't wash their hands when they eat bread. 15.3. He answered them, "Why do you also disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 15.4. For God commanded, 'Honor your father and your mother,' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 15.5. But you say, 'Whoever may tell his father or his mother, "Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God 15.6. he shall not honor his father or mother.' You have made the commandment of God void because of your tradition. 15.7. You hypocrites! Well did Isaiah prophesy of you, saying 15.8. 'These people draw near to me with their mouth, And honor me with their lips; But their heart is far from me. 15.9. And in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrine rules made by men.' 15.10. He summoned the multitude, and said to them, "Hear, and understand. 15.11. That which enters into the mouth doesn't defile the man; but that which proceeds out of the mouth, this defiles the man. 15.12. Then the disciples came, and said to him, "Do you know that the Pharisees were offended, when they heard this saying? 15.13. But he answered, "Every plant which my heavenly Father didn't plant will be uprooted. 15.14. Leave them alone. They are blind guides of the blind. If the blind guide the blind, both will fall into a pit. 15.15. Peter answered him, "Explain the parable to us. 15.16. So Jesus said, "Do you also still not understand? 15.17. Don't you understand that whatever goes into the mouth passes into the belly, and then out of the body? 15.18. But the things which proceed out of the mouth come out of the heart, and they defile the man. 15.19. For out of the heart come forth evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, sexual sins, thefts, false testimony, and blasphemies. 15.20. These are the things which defile the man; but to eat with unwashed hands doesn't defile the man. 15.21. Jesus went out from there, and withdrew into the region of Tyre and Sidon. 18.6. but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to stumble, it would be better for him that a huge millstone should be hung around his neck, and that he should be sunk in the depths of the sea. 18.7. Woe to the world because of occasions of stumbling! For it must be that the occasions come, but woe to that person through whom the occasion comes! 18.8. If your hand or your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off, and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life maimed or crippled, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into the eternal fire. 18.9. If your eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out, and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehenna of fire. 19.3. Pharisees came to him, testing him, and saying, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason? 19.4. He answered, "Haven't you read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female 19.5. and said, 'For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall join to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh?' 19.6. So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don't let man tear apart. 19.7. They asked him, "Why then did Moses command us to give her a bill of divorce, and divorce her? 19.8. He said to them, "Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it has not been so. 19.9. I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her when she is divorced commits adultery. 19.24. Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 21.23. When he had come into the temple, the chief priests and the elders of the people came to him as he was teaching, and said, "By what authority do you do these things? Who gave you this authority? 21.24. Jesus answered them, "I also will ask you one question, which if you tell me, I likewise will tell you by what authority I do these things. 21.25. The baptism of John, where was it from? From heaven or from men?"They reasoned with themselves, saying, "If we say, 'From heaven,' he will ask us, 'Why then did you not believe him?' 21.26. But if we say, 'From men,' we fear the multitude, for all hold John as a prophet. 21.27. They answered Jesus, and said, "We don't know."He also said to them, "Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things. 21.45. When the chief priests and the Pharisees heard his parables, they perceived that he spoke about them. 22.15. Then the Pharisees went and took counsel how they might entrap him in his talk. 22.31. But concerning the resurrection of the dead, haven't you read that which was spoken to you by God, saying 22.34. But the Pharisees, when they heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, gathered themselves together. 23.1. Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to his disciples 23.2. saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees sat on Moses' seat. 23.3. All things therefore whatever they tell you to observe, observe and do, but don't do their works; for they say, and don't do. 23.4. For they bind heavy burdens that are grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not lift a finger to help them. 23.5. But all their works they do to be seen by men. They make their phylacteries broad, enlarge the fringes of their garments 23.6. and love the place of honor at feasts, the best seats in the synagogues 23.7. the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called 'Rabbi, Rabbi' by men. 23.8. But don't you be called 'Rabbi,' for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers. 23.9. Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven. 23.10. Neither be called masters, for one is your master, the Christ. 23.11. But he who is greatest among you will be your servant. 23.12. Whoever will exalt himself will be humbled, and whoever will humble himself will be exalted. 23.13. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows' houses, and as a pretense you make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation. 23.14. But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because you shut up the Kingdom of Heaven against men; for you don't enter in yourselves, neither do you allow those who are entering in to enter. 23.15. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehenna as yourselves. 23.16. Woe to you, you blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.' 23.17. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifies the gold? 23.18. 'Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is a obligated.' 23.19. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifies the gift? 23.20. He therefore who swears by the altar, swears by it, and by everything on it. 23.21. He who swears by the temple, swears by it, and by him who is living in it. 23.22. He who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God, and by him who sits on it. 23.23. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint, dill, and cumin, and have left undone the weightier matters of the law: justice, mercy, and faith. But you ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 23.24. You blind guides, who strain out a gnat, and swallow a camel! 23.25. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and unrighteousness. 23.26. You blind Pharisee, first clean the inside of the cup and of the platter, that the outside of it may become clean also. 23.27. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitened tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly are full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. 23.28. Even so you also outwardly appear righteous to men, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 23.29. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and decorate the tombs of the righteous 23.30. and say, 'If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we wouldn't have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.' 23.31. Therefore you testify to yourselves that you are sons of those who killed the prophets. 23.32. Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers. 23.33. You serpents, you offspring of vipers, how will you escape the judgment of Gehenna? 23.34. Therefore, behold, I send to you prophets, wise men, and scribes. Some of them you will kill and crucify; and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city; 23.35. that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zachariah son of Barachiah, whom you killed between the sanctuary and the altar. 23.36. Most assuredly I tell you, all these things will come upon this generation. 23.37. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, who kills the prophets, and stones those who are sent to her! How often would I have gathered your children together, even as a hen gathers her chickens under her wings, and you would not! 26.25. Judas, who betrayed him, answered, "It isn't me, is it, Rabbi?"He said to him, "You said it. 26.49. Immediately he came to Jesus, and said, "Hail, Rabbi!" and kissed him. 27.1. Now when morning had come, all the chief priests and the elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: 27.7. They took counsel, and bought the potter's field with them, to bury strangers in. 27.42. He saved others, but he can't save himself. If he is the King of Israel, let him come down from the cross now, and we will believe in him. 27.62. Now on the next day, which was the day after the Preparation Day, the chief priests and the Pharisees were gathered together to Pilate 28.12. When they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave a large amount of silver to the soldiers 28.15. So they took the money and did as they were told. This saying was spread abroad among the Jews, and continues until this day. 28.19. Go, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit
47. Tosefta, Demai, 2.2-2.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

48. Tosefta, Sotah, 7.11-7.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.11. A person might think: 'since the Academy of Shammai declares unclean that which the Academy of Hillel declares clean, one prohibits that which the other permits, how, then, can I learn Torah?' This is way Torah repeats: \"words...the words...these are the words...\" All of the words have been given by a single Shepherd, one God fashioned them, one Provider gave them, Source of all deeds, blessed be God, has spoken them. So make for yourself a heart with many rooms, and bring into it the words of the Academy of Shammai and the words of the Academy of Hillel, the words of who declare unclean and those that declare clean. "
49. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 351 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

50. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 1 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

51. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 51.2, 76.7, 80.4, 103.2, 137.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

102. The prediction of the events which happened to Christ when He was born. Why God permitted it Justin: And what follows—'My hope from the breasts of my mother. On You have I been cast from the womb; from my mother's belly You are my God: for there is no helper. Many calves have compassed me; fat bulls have beset me round. They opened their mouth upon me, as a ravening and a roaring lion. All my bones are poured out and dispersed like water. My heart has become likes wax melting in the midst of my belly. My strength has become dry like a potsherd; and my tongue has cleaved to my throat'— foretold what would come to pass; for the statement, 'My hope from the breasts of my mother,' [is thus explained]. As soon as He was born in Bethlehem, as I previously remarked, king Herod, having learned from the Arabian Magi about Him, made a plot to put Him to death and by God's command Joseph took Him with Mary and departed into Egypt. For the Father had decreed that He whom He had begotten should be put to death, but not before He had grown to manhood, and proclaimed the word which proceeded from Him. But if any of you say to us, Could not God rather have put Herod to death? I return answer by anticipation: Could not God have cut off in the beginning the serpent, so that he exist not, rather than have said, 'And I will put enmity between him and the woman, and between his seed and her seed?' Genesis 3:15 Could He not have at once created a multitude of men? But yet, since He knew that it would be good, He created both angels and men free to do that which is righteous, and He appointed periods of time during which He knew it would be good for them to have the exercise of free-will; and because He likewise knew it would be good, He made general and particular judgments; each one's freedom of will, however, being guarded. Hence Scripture says the following, at the destruction of the tower, and division and alteration of tongues: 'And the Lord said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they have begun to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them of all which they have attempted to do.' Genesis 11:6 And the statement, 'My strength has become dry like a potsherd, and my tongue has cleaved to my throat,' was also a prophecy of what would be done by Him according to the Father's will. For the power of His strong word, by which He always confuted the Pharisees and Scribes, and, in short, all your nation's teachers that questioned Him, had a cessation like a plentiful and strong spring, the waters of which have been turned off, when He kept silence, and chose to return no answer to any one in the presence of Pilate; as has been declared in the memoirs of His apostles, in order that what is recorded by Isaiah might have efficacious fruit, where it is written, 'The Lord gives me a tongue, that I may know when I ought to speak.' Isaiah 50:4 Again, when He said, 'You are my God; be not far from me,' He taught that all men ought to hope in God who created all things, and seek salvation and help from Him alone; and not suppose, as the rest of men do, that salvation can be obtained by birth, or wealth, or strength, or wisdom. And such have ever been your practices: at one time you made a calf, and always you have shown yourselves ungrateful, murderers of the righteous, and proud of your descent. For if the Son of God evidently states that He can be saved, [neither] because He is a son, nor because He is strong or wise, but that without God He cannot be saved, even though He be sinless, as Isaiah declares in words to the effect that even in regard to His very language He committed no sin (for He committed no iniquity or guile with His mouth), how do you or others who expect to be saved without this hope, suppose that you are not deceiving yourselves?
52. Mishna, Tevulyom, 3.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.4. Dough that had been mixed [with dough of terumah] or that had been leavened with yeast of terumah, is not disqualified by tevul yom. Rabbi Yose and Rabbi Shimon declare it unfit. Dough that had become susceptible [to uncleanness] by a liquid, and it was kneaded with produce juice, and later touched by a tevul yom: Rabbi Elazar ben Judah of Barthotha says in the name of Rabbi Joshua: he disqualifies all of it. Rabbi Akiva says in his name: he disqualifies only the part that he touched."
53. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. ללדת עולה לראש ההר כדי שיפול ממנה וימות ואני מזמין לה נשר שמקבלו בכנפיו ומניחו לפניה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מתאחר רגע אחד מיד מת בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לט, א) חולל אילות תשמור אילה זו רחמה צר בשעה שכורעת ללדת אני מזמין לה דרקון שמכישה בבית הרחם ומתרפה ממולדה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מאחר רגע אחד מיד מתה בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לד, לה) [איוב] לא בדעת ידבר ודבריו לא בהשכל (וכתיב (איוב מב, ז) כי לא דברתם אלי נכונה כעבדי איוב) אמר רבא מכאן שאין אדם נתפס בשעת צערו,(איוב ב, יא) וישמעו שלשת רעי איוב את כל הרעה הזאת הבאה עליו ויבאו איש ממקומו אליפז התימני ובלדד השוחי וצופר הנעמתי ויועדו יחדו לבוא לנוד לו ולנחמו מאי ויועדו יחדו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מלמד שנכנסו כולן בשער אחד ותנא בין כל אחד ואחד שלש מאות פרסי,מנא הוו ידעי איכא דאמרי כלילא הוה להו ואיכא דאמרי אילני הוה להו וכיון דכמשי הוו ידעי אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי או חברא כחברי דאיוב או מיתותא,(בראשית ו, א) ויהי כי החל האדם לרוב על פני האדמה ובנות יולדו להם רבי יוחנן אמר רביה באה לעולם ריש לקיש אמר מריבה באה לעולם אמר ליה ריש לקיש לרבי יוחנן לדידך דאמרת רבייה באה לעולם מפני מה לא נכפלו בנותיו של איוב,אמר לו נהי דלא נכפלו בשמות אבל נכפלו ביופי דכתיב (איוב מב, יג) ויהי לו שבענה בנים ושלוש בנות ויקרא שם האחת ימימה ושם השנית קציעה ושם השלישית קרן הפוך,ימימה שהיתה דומה ליום קציעה שהיה ריחה נודף כקציעה קרן הפוך אמרי דבי רבי שילא שדומה לקרנא דקרש מחייכו עלה במערבא קרנא דקרש לקותא היא אלא אמר רב חסדא ככורכמא דרישקא במיניה שנאמר (ירמיהו ד, ל) כי תקרעי בפוך,רבי שמעון ברבי איתילידא ליה ברתא הוה קא חלש דעתיה אמר ליה אבוה רביה באה לעולם אמר ליה בר קפרא תנחומין של הבל ניחמך אבוך [דתניא] אי אפשר לעולם בלא זכרים ובלא נקבות אלא אשרי למי שבניו זכרים אוי לו למי שבניו נקבות אי אפשר לעולם בלא בסם ובלא בורסי אשרי מי שאומנותו בוסמי אוי למי שאומנותו בורסי,כתנאי (בראשית כד, א) וה' ברך את אברהם בכל מאי בכל רבי מאיר אומר שלא היתה לו בת רבי יהודה אומר שהיתה לו בת אחרים אומרים בת היתה לו לאברהם ובכל שמה רבי אלעזר המודעי אומר איצטגנינות היתה בלבו של אברהם אבינו שכל מלכי מזרח ומערב משכימין לפתחו רבי שמעון בן יוחי אומר אבן טובה היתה תלויה בצוארו של אברהם אבינו שכל חולה הרואה אותו מיד מתרפא ובשעה שנפטר אברהם אבינו מן העולם תלאה הקדוש ברוך הוא בגלגל חמה אמר אביי היינו דאמרי אינשי אידלי יומא אידלי קצירא,דבר אחר שלא מרד עשו בימיו דבר אחר שעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו שלא מרד עשו בימיו מנלן דכתיב (בראשית כה, כט) ויבא עשו מן השדה והוא עיף ותנא אותו היום נפטר אברהם אבינו ועשה יעקב אבינו תבשיל של עדשים לנחם את יצחק אביו,[ומ"ש של עדשים] אמרי במערבא משמיה דרבה בר מרי מה עדשה זו אין לה פה אף אבל אין לו פה דבר אחר מה עדשה זו מגולגלת אף אבילות מגלגלת ומחזרת על באי העולם מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו לנחומי בביעי,אמר רבי יוחנן חמש עבירות עבר אותו רשע באותו היום בא על נערה מאורסה והרג את הנפש וכפר בעיקר וכפר בתחיית המתים ושט את הבכורה,בא על נערה מאורסה כתיב הכא (בראשית כה, כט) ויבא עשו מן השדה וכתיב התם (דברים כב, כז) כי בשדה מצאה הרג את הנפש כתיב הכא עיף וכתיב התם (ירמיהו ד, לא) אוי נא לי כי עיפה נפשי להורגים וכפר בעיקר כתיב הכא (בראשית כה, לב) למה זה לי וכתיב התם (שמות טו, ב) זה אלי ואנוהו וכפר בתחיית המתים דכתיב (בראשית כה, לב) הנה אנכי הולך למות ושט את הבכורה דכתיב (בראשית כה, לד) ויבז עשו את הבכורה,ושעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו מנלן כי הא דרבינא ורב חמא בר בוזי הוו יתבי קמיה דרבא וקא מנמנם רבא א"ל רבינא לרב חמא בר בוזי ודאי דאמריתו כל מיתה שיש בה גויעה זו היא מיתתן של צדיקים אמר ליה אין והא דור המבול אמר ליה אנן גויעה ואסיפה קאמרינן,והא ישמעאל דכתיב ביה גויעה ואסיפה אדהכי איתער בהו רבא אמר להו דרדקי הכי א"ר יוחנן ישמעאל עשה תשובה בחיי אביו שנאמר (בראשית כה, ט) ויקברו אותו יצחק וישמעאל בניו,ודילמא דרך חכמתן קא חשיב להו אלא מעתה (בראשית לה, כט) ויקברו אותו עשו ויעקב בניו מאי טעמא לא חשיב להו דרך חכמתן אלא מדאקדמיה אדבורי אדבריה ומדאדבריה שמע מינה תשובה עבד בימיו,תנו רבנן שלשה הטעימן הקב"ה בעולם הזה 16b. bto give birth she ascends to the top of a mountain so thatthe kid bshould fall down from her and die. And I summon her an eagle that receives it with his wings and places it before her; and ifthe eagle breachedher bone moment early or was one moment late,the kid bwould immediately die.Now, if bI do not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,Similarly: b“Can you mark when the hinds do calve?”(Job 39:1). bThe womb of this hind is narrow,which makes for a difficult delivery. bWhen she squats to give birth, I summon her a snake [ iderakon /i] that bites her at the opening of the womb, whichthen bbecomes loose, and she gives birth, and ifthe snake breachedher bone moment early or was one moment late, she would immediately die.Now, if I bdo not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,The Gemara comments: On the one hand, the text states: b“Job has spoken without knowledge, and his words were without wisdom”(Job 34:35). bButon the other hand, bit is writtenwith regard to Job’s friends: b“You have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, like my servant Job”(Job 42:8). bRava said: From hereit may be inferred bthat a person is not held responsiblefor what he says bwhen he is in distress.Although Job uttered certain words that were wrong and inappropriate, he was not punished for them because he said them at a time of pain and hardship.,The verse states: b“And Job’s three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, they came every one from his own place, Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite; for they had made an appointment together to come to mourn with him and to comfort him”(Job 2:11). bWhatdoes b“they had made an appointment together”mean? bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Thisphrase bteaches that they all enteredthrough bone gateat the same time. bAnda Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: There were bthree hundred parasangs between each and every oneof them, i.e., each one lived three hundred parasangs away from the other.,The Gemara asks: bHow did theyall bknowat the same time what had happened to Job so that the three of them came together? bThere arethose bwho saythat btheyeach bhad a crownwhich displayed certain signs when something happened to one of the others. bAnd there arethose bwho say theyeach bhad trees and whenthe trees bwithered they knewthat sorrow had visited one of them. bRava saidthat bthiscloseness between Job and his friends explains the adage bthat people say: Either a friend like the friends of Job or death.If a person lacks close friends, he is better off dead.,The Gemara cites another place where Job is mentioned. b“And it came to pass, when men began to multiply [ ilarov /i] on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them”(Genesis 6:1). bRabbi Yoḥa says: iLarovmeans that bpropagation [ ireviyya /i] came to the worldthrough these daughters. bReish Lakish says: Strife [ imeriva /i] came to the world.Once daughters were born, the men began to fight among themselves over them. bReish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥa: According to you who saythat due to the daughters bpropagation came to the world, for whatreason bwerethe number of bJob’s daughters not doubled,when at the end of the story God doubled everything that Job had lost (see Job 1:3, 42:12)?,Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Granted,the numbers of Job’s daughters bwere not doubled in name,meaning they did not become twice as many, bbut they were doubled in beauty, as it is written: “He had also seven sons and three daughters. And he called the name of the first Jemimah, and the name of the second was Keziah, and the name of the third one was Keren-happuch”(Job 42:13–14). All three names relate to the daughters’ beauty., bJemimah [ iYemima /i];in her beauty bshe was similar to the day [ iyom /i]. Keziah; her scent wafted likethe bcassia [ iketzia /i]tree. bKeren-happuch; in the school of Rav Sheila they say: She was similar to the horn [ ikeren /i] of a ikeresh /i,an animal whose horns are particularly beautiful. bThey laughed at this in the West,Eretz Yisrael, since it is considered ba blemishwhen a person resembles bthe horn of a ikeresh /i. Rather, Rav Ḥisda said:She was blike garden saffron [ ikekurkema derishka /i],which is the best bof its kind. iKerenrefers to a garden, and ipukhmeans ornament, bas it is stated: “Though you enlargeyour eyes bwith paint [ ipukh /i],you beautify yourself in vain” (Jeremiah 4:30).,It is reported that ba daughter was born to Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, and bhe was upsetthat he did not have a son. bHis father said to him: Propagation has come to the worldthrough the birth of a daughter. bBar Kappara said toRabbi Shimon: bYour father has consoled you with meaningless consolation, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe world cannot endure without males and females,as both are needed for the perpetuation of humanity. bBut fortunate is he whose children are males and woe to him whose children are females.Similarly, bthe world cannot endure without either a spice dealerwhose wares are sweet-smelling, bor a tanner [ ibursi /i],who is engaged in a foul-smelling occupation. bFortunate is he whose occupation is a spice seller,and bwoe to him whose occupation is a tanner. /b,The Gemara comments that this disagreement is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i:The Torah states: b“And the Lord blessed Abraham with everything [ ibakkol /i]”(Genesis 24:1), and the Sages disagree about bwhat ibakkol /imeans. bRabbi Meir says:The blessing is bthat he did not have a daughter. Rabbi Yehuda says:On the contrary, the blessing was bthat he had a daughter. Others say: Abraham had a daughter and her name was Bakkol. Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i says: Abraham our forefather was so knowledgeable in astrology [ iitztagninut /i] that all the kings of the East and the West would come early to his doordue to his wisdom. This is the blessing of ibakkol /i, that he possessed knowledge that everybody needed. bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: A precious stone hung around the neck of Abraham our forefather; any sick person who looked at it would immediately be healed. When Abraham our forefather died, the Holy One, Blessed be He, hungthis stone bfrom the sphere of the sun,which from that point on brought healing to the sick. bAbaye said: Thisexplains the adage bthat people say: As the day progresses, sickness is lifted. /b, bAlternatively,what is the blessing of ibakkol /i? bThat Esau did not rebel inAbraham’s blifetime,that is to say, as long as Abraham lived Esau did not sin. bAlternatively,the blessing of ibakkolis bthat Ishmael repented inAbraham’s blifetime.The Gemara explains: bFrom where do wederive that bEsau did not rebel inAbraham’s blifetime? As it is written:“And Jacob was cooking a stew band Esau came in from the field and he was faint”(Genesis 25:29), banda ibaraita btaught: On that day Abraham our forefather passed away, and Jacob our forefather prepared a lentil stew to comfort Isaac, his father,as it was customary to serve mourners lentil stew.,The Gemara explains: bAnd what is different about lentilsthat they in particular are the fare customarily offered to mourners? bThey say in the West,Eretz Yisrael, bin the name of Rabba bar Mari: Just as this lentil has no mouth,i.e., it does not have a crack like other legumes, bso too a mourner has no mouth,that is, his anguish prevents him from speaking. bAlternatively, just as this lentil iscompletely bround, so too mourning comes around to the inhabitants of the world.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthe two explanations? The Gemara answers: bThere isa practical difference bbetween themwith regard to whether it is appropriate bto consolea mourner bwith eggs,which have no opening but are not completely round., bRabbi Yoḥa says: That wickedEsau bcommitted five transgressions on that daythat Abraham died: bHe engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden, he killed a person, he denied the principleof God’s existence, bhe denied resurrection of the dead, and he despised the birthright. /b,The Gemara cites proofs to support these charges. bHe engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden,as bit is written here: “And Esau came in from the field”; and it is written therewith regard to rape of a betrothed maiden: b“For he found her in a field”(Deuteronomy 22:27). bHe killed a person,as bit is written here:“And he was bfaint”; and it is written there: “Woe is me, for my soul faints before the slayers”(Jeremiah 4:31). bAnd he denied the principleof God’s existence, as bit is written here: “What profit is this to me”(Genesis 25:32); band it is written there: “This is my God and I will glorify Him”(Exodus 15:2). When he questioned the profit of “this,” he was challenging the assertion that “this is my God.” bAnd he denied resurrection of the dead, as it is written: “Behold, I am at the point of death”(Genesis 25:32), indicating that he did not believe in resurrection after death. bAnd he despised the birthright, as it is written: “And Esau despised the birthright”(Genesis 25:34)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat Ishmael repented inAbraham’s blifetime? Fromthe incident involving bRavina and Rav Ḥama bar Buzi,who bwere sitting before Rava, and Rava was dozingwhile they were talking. bRavina said to Rav Ḥama bar Buzi: Is it true that you saythat bany death with regard to whichthe word igevia /i,expire, is mentioned bis the death of the righteous?Rav Ḥama bar Buzi bsaid to him: Yes.For example: “And Isaac expired [ ivayyigva /i], and died” (Genesis 35:29). Ravina objected: bButwith regard to bthe generation of the floodit states: “And all flesh expired [ ivayyigva /i]” (Genesis 7:21), and there they died for their wickedness. Rav Ḥama bar Buzi bsaid to him: We saythis only when both igeviaand iasifa /i,gathering, are used; when these two terms are mentioned together they indicate the death of a righteous person.,Ravina asked: bBut isn’t there Ishmael, about whom igeviaand iasifaare written,as it is stated: “And these are the years of the life of Yishmael…and he expired and died [ ivayyigva vayyamot /i]; and was gathered to his people” (Genesis 25:17)? bMeanwhile Rava,who had heard the discussion in his dozed state, fully bawokeand bsaid to them: Children [ idardekei /i], this is what Rabbi Yoḥa says: Ishmael repented in the lifetime of his father, as it is stated: “And Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, buried him”(Genesis 25:9). The fact that Ishmael allowed Isaac to precede him demonstrates that he had repented and accepted his authority.,The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthe verse blisted them in the order of their wisdom;that is to say, perhaps in fact Ishmael preceded Isaac but the Torah did not list them in that order. The Gemara answers: bBut if that is so,consider that the verse states: b“And Esau and Jacob, his sons, buried him”(Genesis 35:29). bWhat is the reasonthat the verse there bdid not list them in the order of their wisdom? Rather, sinceIshmael ballowedIsaac bto precede him,it is clear that he bmadeIsaac bhis leader, and since he made him his leader, learn from it that he repented inAbraham’s blifetime. /b,Incidental to the discussion of the verse “And God blessed Abraham with everything” (Genesis 24:1), the Gemara states that bthe Sages taught:There were bthreepeople bto whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, gavealready bin this world /b
54. Babylonian Talmud, Bekhorot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. חשוד על המעשר ומאן חכמים ר' יהודה וחד אמר החשוד על המעשר חשוד על השביעית ומאן חכמים ר' מאיר,דתניא עם הארץ שקיבל עליו דברי חבירות ונחשד לדבר אחד נחשד לכל התורה כולה דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים אינו נחשד אלא לאותו דבר בלבד,הגר שקיבל עליו דברי תורה אפי' נחשד לדבר אחד הוי חשוד לכל התורה כולה והרי הוא כישראל משומד נפקא מינה דאי קדיש קידושיו קידושין,ת"ר הבא לקבל דברי חבירות חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו עובד כוכבים שבא לקבל דברי תורה חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר אפי' דקדוק אחד מדברי סופרים,וכן בן לוי שבא לקבל דברי לויה וכהן שבא לקבל דברי כהונה חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו שנאמר (ויקרא ז, לג) המקריב את דם השלמים וגו' העבודה המסורה לבני אהרן כל כהן שאינו מודה בה אין לו חלק בכהונה,ת"ר הבא לקבל דברי חבירות אם ראינוהו שנוהג בצינעה בתוך ביתו מקבלין אותו ואחר כך מלמדין אותו ואם לאו מלמדין אותו ואחר כך מקבלין אותו ר"ש בן יוחי אומר בין כך ובין כך מקבלין אותו והוא למד כדרכו והולך:,ת"ר מקבלין לכנפים ואח"כ מקבלין לטהרות ואם אמר איני מקבל אלא לכנפים מקבלין אותו קיבל לטהרות ולא קיבל לכנפים אף לטהרות לא קיבל:,ת"ר עד כמה מקבלין אותו בית שמאי אומרים למשקין שלשים יום לכסות שנים עשר חודש ובית הלל אומרים אחד זה ואחד זה לשנים עשר חודש,אם כן הוה ליה מקולי בית שמאי ומחומרי בית הלל אלא בית הלל אומרים אחד זה ואחד זה לשלשים:,(סימן חב"ר תלמי"ד תכל"ת מכ"ם חז"ר גבא"י בעצמ"ו),תנו רבנן הבא לקבל דברי חבירות צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים ובניו ובני ביתו אינן צריכין לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אף בניו ובני ביתו צריכין לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים לפי שאינו דומה חבר שקיבל לבן חבר שקיבל:,תנו רבנן הבא לקבל דברי חבירות צריך לקבל בפני ג' חבירים ואפילו תלמיד חכם צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים זקן ויושב בישיבה אינו צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים שכבר קיבל עליו משעה שישב אבא שאול אומר אף תלמיד חכם אינו צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים ולא עוד אלא שאחרים מקבלין לפניו,אמר רבי יוחנן בימי בנו של רבי חנינא בן אנטיגנוס נשנית משנה זו רבי יהודה ור' יוסי איסתפק להו מילתא בטהרות שדרו רבנן לגבי בנו של ר' חנינא בן אנטיגנוס אזילו אמרו ליה לעיין בה אשכחוה דקא טעין טהרות אותיב רבנן מדידיה לגבייהו וקאי איהו לעיוני בה,אתו אמרי ליה לר' יהודה ור' יוסי אמר להו ר' יהודה אביו של זה ביזה תלמידי חכמים אף הוא מבזה תלמידי חכמים,אמר לו ר' יוסי כבוד זקן יהא מונח במקומו אלא מיום שחרב בית המקדש נהגו כהנים סילסול בעצמן שאין מוסרין את הטהרות לכל אדם:,תנו רבנן חבר שמת אשתו ובניו ובני ביתו הרי הן בחזקתן עד שיחשדו וכן חצר שמוכרין בה תכלת הרי היא בחזקתה עד שתיפסל:,תנו רבנן אשת עם הארץ שנשאת לחבר וכן בתו של עם הארץ שנשאת לחבר וכן עבדו של עם הארץ שנמכר לחבר כולן צריכין לקבל דברי חבירות בתחלה אבל אשת חבר שנשאת לעם הארץ וכן בתו של חבר שנשאת לעם הארץ וכן עבדו של חבר שנמכר לעם הארץ אין צריכין לקבל דברי חבירות בתחלה,ר"מ אומר אף הן צריכין לקבל עליהן דברי חבירות לכתחלה ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר משום ר"מ מעשה באשה אחת שנשאת לחבר והיתה קומעת לו תפילין על ידו נשאת לעם הארץ והיתה קושרת לו קשרי מוכס על ידו: 30b. is bsuspect with regard to tithe. And whoare the Sages referred to here as bthe Rabbis?It is bRabbi Yehuda,as in his locale they treated the prohibition of produce of the Sabbatical Year stringently. bAndthe other bone says: One who is suspect with regard to tithe is suspect with regard toproduce of the bSabbaticalYear. bAnd whoare the Sages referred to here as bthe Rabbis?It is bRabbi Meir. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iDemai2:4): With regard to ban iam ha’aretz /i,i.e., one who is unreliable with regard to ritual impurity and tithes, bwho accepts upon himselfthe commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus,i.e., that he will be stringent in all matters observed by iḥaverim /i, including iteruma /i, tithes, and iḥalla /i, and also undertake to eat only food that is ritually pure, and the Sages accepted him as trustworthy bbutsubsequently he bwas suspected with regard to one matterin which others saw him act improperly, bhe is suspected with regard to the entire Torah.This is the bstatement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: He is suspected only with regard to that particular matter. /b,It is also taught in a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iDemai2:4): With regard to ba convert who accepted upon himselfupon his conversion bmatters of Torah,i.e., all of the mitzvot, beven if he is suspect with regard to one matteralone, bhe is suspect with regard to the entire Torah, and he isconsidered blike a Jewish transgressor [ imeshummad /i],who habitually transgresses the mitzvot. The Gemara explains that the practical bdifferenceresulting from the fact that he is considered like a Jewish transgressor is bthat if he betrothsa woman, bhis betrothal isa valid bbetrothal,and they are married. Although he is suspect with regard to the entire Torah, he does not return to his prior gentile status., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who comes to accept upon himselfthe commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus except for one matter,which he does not wish to observe, bhe is not accepted,and he is not trustworthy even with regard to those matters that he does wish to accept upon himself. Likewise, in the case of ba gentile who comes toconvert and takes upon himself to baccept the words of Torah except for one matter, he is not acceptedas a convert. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Evenif he refuses to accept bone detail of rabbinic law,he is not accepted.,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd similarly,in the case of ba Levite who comes to accept the matters of a Levite, or a priest who comes to accept the matters of priesthood, except for one matter, he is not accepted. As it is stated:“He among the sons of Aaron, bthat sacrifices the blood of the peace offerings,and the fat, shall have the right thigh for a portion” (Leviticus 7:33). This means that with regard to btheTemple bservice, which is handedover bto the sons of Aaron, any priest who does not admit to itin its entirety bhas no share in the priesthood. /b,The Gemara continues on a similar topic. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who comes to accept upon himselfa commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus, if we have seen that he practicessuch matters bin private, within his home, he is accepted, and afterward he is taughtthe precise details of being a iḥaver /i. bBut ifwe have bnotseen him act as a iḥaverin his home, bhe is taughtfirst band afterward accepted. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Whetherin bthiscase bor thatcase, bhe isfirst baccepted, and hethen bcontinues to learn inthe busual manner,i.e., as a iḥaverhe learns from others how to behave., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: An iam ha’aretzwho wishes to become a iḥaver bis acceptedfirst bwith regard to hands,i.e., he is presumed to be stringent concerning the ritual purity of his hands by making sure to wash his hands before handling pure items, band afterward he is acceptedas trustworthy bfor purityin general. bAnd if he says: Iwish to bacceptpurity bonly with regard to hands, he is acceptedfor this. If he wishes to bacceptupon himself the stringencies of a iḥaver bwith regard to ritual purity but he does not acceptupon himself the stringencies bwith regard to hands,i.e., to wash his hands, which is a simple act, bhe is not accepted even for purityin general., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bUntil when is he accepted,i.e., how much time must elapse before he is considered trustworthy as a iḥaver /i? bBeit Shammai say: With regard to liquids, thirty days. With regard toimpurity of bclothing,about which iḥaverimwould be careful as well, btwelve months. And Beit Hillel say: Bothwith regard to bthis,liquids, band that,clothing, he must maintain the practice bfor twelve monthsbefore he is fully accepted as a iḥaver /i.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bIf so, this isone bofthe rare cases of bthe leniencies of Beit Shammai and of the stringencies of Beit Hillel,and yet it is not included in tractate iEduyyot /i, which lists all of the cases where Beit Shammai are more lenient than Beit Hillel. bRather,the text of the ibaraitamust be emended so that it reads: bBeit Hillel say: Bothwith regard to bthis,liquids band that,clothing, he must maintain the practice bfor thirtydays before he is fully accepted as a iḥaver /i.,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicto remember the topics from here until the end of the chapter: iḤaver /i; student; sky-blue dye [ itekhelet /i]; tax; return;tax bcollector; by himself. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who comes to accept upon himselfa commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus must acceptit bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i. But his children andthe bmembers of his household are not required to acceptthe status of iḥaverseparately bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even his children andthe bmembers of his household must acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, because a iḥaver /i, who accepted ithimself in the presence of three others, bis not comparable to the son of a iḥaver /i,who bacceptedthat status only due to his father but did not accept it himself explicitly, and their accepting the status not in the presence of three people is insufficient., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who comes to accept upon himselfa commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus must acceptit bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, and even a Torah scholarwho wishes to become a iḥaver bmust acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i.But ban elder who sitsand studies Torah bin a yeshiva is not required to acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, as he already accepted it upon himself from the moment he satand dedicated himself to study Torah in yeshiva. bAbba Shaul says: Even a Torah scholar is not required to acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i; and not onlydoes he have the status of iḥaverwithout an explicit declaration in the presence of three iḥaverim /i, bbut otherscan bacceptthat they wish to become a iḥaver bin his presence. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says: This mishna,i.e., the ruling that a Torah scholar must declare his intent to become a iḥaverin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, bwas taught in the days of the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus.At that time, bRabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei were uncertain abouta certain bmatter of ritual purity. The Sages senta delegation of their students bto the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonusand told them to bgoand btell him to examinethis matter. The students bfound him while he was carryingitems that were ritually bpure.The son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus bseated Sages from his ownyeshiva bnext tothe students who came to ask the question, because he did not trust these students to keep his items pure. bAnd he stood and examinedthe matter.,The students returned and bcame and told Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yoseithat the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus had treated them as though they had the status of iamei ha’aretz /i. bRabbi Yehuda said to themin anger: bThis one’s father,i.e., Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus, bdegraded Torah scholarsby not trusting them with matters of ritual purity. And bhe too,the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus, bdegrades Torah scholars. /b, bRabbi Yosei said to him: Let the honor of the elder,i.e., both the father and son, bbe left in its place.He did not act in this manner to degrade Torah scholars. bRather, from the day the Temple was destroyed, the priests were accustomed to act with a higher standard for themselves,and they decided bthat they will not pass ritually pureitems bto anyother bperson.Therefore, the son of Rabbi Ḥanina, as a priest, acted appropriately., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of ba iḥaverthat died, his wife and children and members of his household retain their presumptivestatus buntil they are suspectedof engaging in inappropriate deeds. bAnd similarly,in the case of ba courtyard in which one sells sky-blue dye, it retains its presumptivestatus as a place in which fit sky-blue dye is sold buntil it is disqualifieddue to the merchant’s unscrupulous behavior., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bTheformer bwife an iam ha’aretzwholater bmarries a iḥaver /i, and likewise the daughter of an iam ha’aretzwho marries a iḥaver /i, and likewise the slave of an iam ha’aretzwho is sold to a iḥaver /i, must all acceptupon themselves a commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus. Butwith regard to btheformer bwife of a iḥaverwholater bmarries an iam ha’aretz /i, and likewise the daughter of a iḥaverwho marries an iam ha’aretz /i, and likewise the slave of a iḥaverwho was sold to an iam ha’aretz /i,these people bneed not acceptupon themselves a commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus iab initio /i,as each of them is already accustomed to behave as a iḥaver /i.,The ibaraitacontinues: bRabbi Meir says: They too must acceptupon themselves a commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus iab initio /i. And similarly, Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar wouldillustrate this point and bsay in the name of Rabbi Meir:There was ban incident involving a certain woman who married a iḥaverand would tie [ ikoma’at /i] for him phylacteries on his hand,and she later bmarried a tax collector and would tie for him tax seals on his hand,which shows that her new husband had a great influence on her level of piety.
55. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. כל פרשה שהיתה חביבה על דוד פתח בה באשרי וסיים בה באשרי פתח באשרי דכתיב (תהלים א, א) אשרי האיש וסיים באשרי דכתיב (תהלים ב, יב) אשרי כל חוסי בו:,הנהו בריוני דהוו בשבבותיה דר"מ והוו קא מצערו ליה טובא הוה קא בעי ר' מאיר רחמי עלויהו כי היכי דלימותו אמרה לי' ברוריא דביתהו מאי דעתך משום דכתיב (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מי כתיב חוטאים חטאים כתיב,ועוד שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ורשעים עוד אינם כיון דיתמו חטאים ורשעים עוד אינם אלא בעי רחמי עלויהו דלהדרו בתשובה ורשעים עוד אינם,בעא רחמי עלויהו והדרו בתשובה:,אמר לה ההוא צדוקי לברוריא כתיב (ישעיהו נד, א) רני עקרה לא ילדה משום דלא ילדה רני,אמרה ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב כי רבים בני שוממה מבני בעולה אמר ה',אלא מאי עקרה לא ילדה רני כנסת ישראל שדומה לאשה עקרה שלא ילדה בנים לגיהנם כותייכו:,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לר' אבהו כתיב (תהלים ג, א) מזמור לדוד בברחו מפני אבשלום בנו וכתיב (תהלים נז, א) לדוד מכתם בברחו מפני שאול במערה הי מעשה הוה ברישא מכדי מעשה שאול הוה ברישא לכתוב ברישא,אמר ליה אתון דלא דרשיתון סמוכין קשיא לכו אנן דדרשינן סמוכים לא קשיא לן,דא"ר יוחנן סמוכין מן התורה מנין שנא' (תהלים קיא, ח) סמוכים לעד לעולם עשוים באמת וישר,למה נסמכה פרשת אבשלום לפרשת גוג ומגוג שאם יאמר לך אדם כלום יש עבד שמורד ברבו אף אתה אמור לו כלום יש בן שמורד באביו אלא הוה הכא נמי הוה:,אמר ר' יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כו) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה כנגד מי אמר שלמה מקרא זה לא אמרו אלא כנגד דוד אביו שדר בחמשה עולמים ואמר שירה,דר במעי אמו ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו,יצא לאויר העולם ונסתכל בכוכבים ומזלות ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, כ) ברכו ה' מלאכיו גבורי כח עושי דברו לשמוע בקול דברו ברכו ה' כל צבאיו וגו',ינק משדי אמו ונסתכל בדדיה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, ב) ברכי נפשי את ה' ואל תשכחי כל גמוליו,מאי כל גמוליו אמר ר' אבהו שעשה לה דדים במקום בינה,טעמא מאי אמר (רבי) יהודה כדי שלא יסתכל במקום ערוה רב מתנא אמר כדי שלא יינק ממקום הטנופת,ראה במפלתן של רשעים ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מן הארץ ורשעים עוד אינם ברכי נפשי את ה' הללויה,נסתכל ביום המיתה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' ה' אלהי גדלת מאד הוד והדר לבשת,מאי משמע דעל יום המיתה נאמר אמר רבה בר רב שילא מסיפא דעניינא דכתיב (תהלים קד, כט) תסתיר פניך יבהלון תוסף רוחם יגועון וגו',רב שימי בר עוקבא ואמרי לה מר עוקבא הוה שכיח קמיה דר' שמעון בן פזי והוה מסדר אגדתא קמיה דר' יהושע בן לוי אמר ליה מאי דכתיב (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו אמר ליה בא וראה שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם צר צורה על גבי הכותל ואינו יכול להטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והקב"ה אינו כן צר צורה בתוך צורה ומטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והיינו דאמרה חנה (שמואל א ב, ב) אין קדוש כה' כי אין בלתך ואין צור כאלהינו.,מאי אין צור כאלהינו אין צייר כאלהינו,מאי כי אין בלתך אמר ר' יהודה בר מנסיא אל תקרי כי אין בלתך אלא אין לבלותך שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מעשה ידיו מבלין אותו והקב"ה מבלה מעשיו,א"ל אנא הכי קא אמינא לך הני חמשה ברכי נפשי כנגד מי אמרן דוד לא אמרן אלא כנגד הקב"ה וכנגד נשמה,מה הקב"ה מלא כל העולם אף נשמה מלאה את כל הגוף מה הקדוש ברוך הוא רואה ואינו נראה אף נשמה רואה ואינה נראית מה הקב"ה זן את כל העולם כלו אף נשמה זנה את כל הגוף מה הקב"ה טהור אף נשמה טהורה מה הקב"ה יושב בחדרי חדרים אף נשמה יושבת בחדרי חדרים יבא מי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו וישבח למי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו:,אמר רב המנונא מאי דכתיב (קהלת ח, א) מי כהחכם ומי יודע פשר דבר מי כהקדוש ברוך הוא שיודע לעשות פשרה בין שני צדיקים בין חזקיהו לישעיהו חזקיהו אמר ליתי ישעיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן באליהו דאזל לגבי אחאב (שנאמר (מלכים א יח, ב) וילך אליהו להראות אל אחאב) ישעיהו אמר ליתי חזקיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן ביהורם בן אחאב דאזל לגבי אלישע,מה עשה הקב"ה הביא יסורים על חזקיהו ואמר לו לישעיהו לך ובקר את החולה שנאמר (מלכים ב כ, א) בימים ההם חלה חזקיהו למות ויבא אליו ישעיהו בן אמוץ הנביא ויאמר אליו כה אמר ה' (צבאות) צו לביתך כי מת אתה ולא תחיה וגו' מאי כי מת אתה ולא תחיה מת אתה בעולם הזה ולא תחיה לעולם הבא,אמר ליה מאי כולי האי אמר ליה משום דלא עסקת בפריה ורביה א"ל משום דחזאי לי ברוח הקדש דנפקי מינאי בנין דלא מעלו,א"ל בהדי כבשי דרחמנא למה לך מאי דמפקדת איבעי לך למעבד ומה דניחא קמיה קודשא בריך הוא לעביד,אמר ליה השתא הב לי ברתך אפשר דגרמא זכותא דידי ודידך ונפקי מנאי בנין דמעלו א"ל כבר נגזרה עליך גזירה א"ל בן אמוץ כלה נבואתך וצא,כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא אפי' חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים,אתמר נמי רבי יוחנן ורבי (אליעזר) דאמרי תרוייהו אפילו חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים שנא' (איוב יג, טו) הן יקטלני לו איחל 10a. bEvery chapter that was dear to David, he began with “happy is” and concluded with “happy is.” He opened with “happy is,” as it is written: “Happy is the manwho has not walked in the counsel of the wicked or stood in the way of sinners or sat in the dwelling place of the scornful” (Psalms 1:1). bAnd he concluded with “happy,” as it is writtenat the end of the chapter: “Pay homage in purity, lest He be angry, and you perish on the way when His anger is kindled suddenly. bHappy are those who take refuge in Him”(Psalms 2:12). We see that these two chapters actually constitute a single chapter.,With regard to the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, that David did not say iHalleluyauntil he saw the downfall of the wicked, the Gemara relates: bThere were these hooligans in Rabbi Meir’s neighborhood who caused him a great deal of anguish. Rabbi Meir prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should die. Rabbi Meir’s wife, Berurya, said to him: What is your thinking?On what basis do you pray for the death of these hooligans? Do you base yourself on the verse, bas it is written: “Let sins cease from the land”(Psalms 104:35), which you interpret to mean that the world would be better if the wicked were destroyed? But bis it written,let bsinnerscease?” Let bsinscease, bis written.One should pray for an end to their transgressions, not for the demise of the transgressors themselves., bMoreover, go to the end of the verse,where it says: b“And the wicked will be no more.”If, as you suggest, btransgressions shall ceaserefers to the demise of the evildoers, how is it possible that bthe wicked will be no more,i.e., that they will no longer be evil? bRather, pray forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should repent,as if they repent, then the wicked will be no more, as they will have repented.,Rabbi Meir saw that Berurya was correct band he prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, and they repented. /b,The Gemara relates an additional example of Berurya’s incisive insight: bA certain heretic said to Berurya: It is written: “Sing, barren woman who has not given birth,open forth in song and cry, you did not travail, for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife, said the Lord” (Isaiah 54:1). bBecause she has not given birth,she should bsingand rejoice?,Berurya responded to this heretic’s mockery and bsaid: Fool! Go to the end of the verse, where it is written: “For the children of the desolate shall be more numerous than the children of the married wife, said the Lord.” /b, bRather, whatis the meaning of: b“Sing, barren woman who has not given birth”?It means: bSing congregation of Israel, which is like a barren woman who did not give birth to children who aredestined bfor Gehenna like you. /b,In explaining passages from Psalms, the Gemara relates another instance of a response to the question of a heretic: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu, it is written: “A Psalm of David, when he fled from his son, Absalom”(Psalms 3:1), bandsimilarly bit is said:“To the chief musician, ial tashḥet /i, ba imikhtamof David when fleeing from Saul into the cave”(Psalms 57:1). bWhich event was first? Since the event with Saul was first,it would have been appropriate bto write it first. /b,Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him:For byou, who donot employ the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is difficult.But for bus, whoemploy the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is not difficult,as the Sages commonly homiletically infer laws and moral lessons from the juxtaposition of two verses.,Regarding the juxtaposition of verses, bRabbi Yoḥa said: From wherein the Bible is it derived that one may draw homiletical inferences from the bjuxtapositionof verses? bAs it is said:“The works of His hands in truth and justice, all His commandments are sure. bAdjoined forever and ever, made in truth and uprightness”(Psalms 111:7–8). Conclude from here that it is appropriate to draw inferences from the juxtaposition of God’s commandments. Accordingly, David’s fleeing from Absalom is situated where it is in order to juxtapose it to the next chapter, which mentions the war of Gog and Magog; the second chapter of Psalms opens: “Why are the nations in an uproar?”, bWhy was the chapter of Absalom juxtaposed with the chapter of Gog and Magog?They are juxtaposed bsothat bif a person should say to you,expressing doubt with regard to the prophecy of the war of Gog and Magog “against the Lord and against His anointed”: bIs there a slave who rebels against his master?Is there someone capable of rebelling against God? bYou too say to him: Is there a son who rebels against his fatherand severs the relationship with the one who brought him into the world and raised him? bYet,nevertheless, bthere wassuch a son, Absalom, and bso too therecan bbea situation where people will seek to rebel against God., bRabbi Yoḥa saidexplanations of other verses bin the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and the teaching of loving-kindness is on her tongue”(Proverbs 31:26)? The Sages explain that this chapter discusses the wisdom of Torah and those who engage in its study, so bwith reference to whom did Solomon say this verse? He said thisverse babout none other than his father, David,who was the clearest example of one who opens his mouth in wisdom, and bwho resided in five worldsor stages of life bandhis soul bsaid a songof praise corresponding to each of them. Five times David said: “Bless the Lord, O my soul,” each corresponding to a different stage of life., bHe resided in his mother’s womb,his first world, band said a songof praise of the pregcy, bas it is stated:“of David. bBless the Lord, O my soul and all that is within me bless His holy name”(Psalms 103:1), in which he thanks God for creating all that is within his mother, i.e., her womb., bHe emerged into the atmosphere of the world,his second world, blooked upon the stars and constellations and said a songof praise of God for the entirety of creation, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, His angels, mighty in strength, that fulfill His word, listening to the voice of His word. Bless the Lord, all His hosts,His servants, that do His will. Bless the Lord, all His works, in all places of His kingship, bless my soul, Lord” (Psalms 103:20–23). David saw the grandeur of all creation and recognized that they are mere servants, carrying out the will of their Creator ( iMa’ayan HaBerakhot /i)., bHe nursed from his mother’s breast,his third world, band he looked upon her bosom and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all His benefits [ igemulav /i]”(Psalms 103:2). The etymological association is between igemulavand igemulei meḥalav /i, which means weaned from milk (Isaiah 28:9).,We still must understand, however, bwhat ismeant by ball His benefits?What in particular is praiseworthy in what God provided, beyond merely providing for the infant? bRabbi Abbahu said:In contrast with most other animals, God bplaced her breastsnear her heart, bthe placethat is the source bof understanding. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat God did this? bRav Yehuda said: So thatthe nursing child bwould not look upon the place ofhis mother’s bnakedness. Rav Mattana said: So thatthe child bwould not nurse from a place of uncleanliness. /b, bHe witnessedin both vision and reality bthe downfall of the wicked and he said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, O my soul, iHalleluya /i”(Psalms 104:35).,The fifth world was when David blooked upon the day of death and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul. Lord my God, You are very great; You are clothed in glory and majesty”(Psalms 104:1); for even death is a time of transcendence for the righteous.,The connection between this final praise and the day of death is unclear. The Gemara asks: bFrom where is it inferredthat bthisverse bwas stated with regard to the day of death?Rabba bar Rav Sheila says: We can derive this bfromthe verses at bthe end of the matter,where bit is written: “You hide Your face, they vanish; You gather Your breath, they perishand return to the dust” (Psalms 104:29).,Other interpretations of this verse exist. The Gemara relates how bRav Shimi bar Ukva, and some say Mar Ukva, would regularlystudy bbefore Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi,who was well versed in iaggadaand bwould arrange the iaggadabefore Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. brOnce, Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi bsaid to him: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Bless the Lord, my soul, and all that is within me bless His Holy name”? brRav Shimi bar Ukva bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bCome and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood,as this verse praises the formation of man in his mother’s womb. bThe attribute of flesh and blood issuch that he bshapes a form on the wallfor all to see, yet bhe cannot instill it with a spirit and soul, bowels and intestines.While bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, is not so,as God bshapes one form within another form,a child in its mother’s womb, band instills it with spirit and soul, bowels and intestines. And this isthe explanation of bwhat Hannah saidwith regard to the birth of Samuel: b“There is none holy like the Lord, for there is none like You, and there is no Rock like our God”(I Samuel 2:2)., bWhat isthe meaning of bthere is no rock [ itzur /i] like our God? There is no artist [ itzayyar /i] like our God. /b,The Gemara continues to interpret the rest of that verse homiletically: bWhat isthe meaning of b“there is none like You”? Rabbi Yehuda ben Menasya said: Do not readthe verse to mean b“there is none like You [ ibiltekha /i]”; rather, readit to mean b“none can outlast You [ ilevalotkha /i],” as the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood: The attribute of flesh and blood issuch bthat his creations outlast him,but bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, outlasts His actions. /b,This did not satisfy Rav Shimi bar Ukva, who bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bImeant to bsay to you as follows: Corresponding to whom did David say these fiveinstance of b“Blessthe Lord, bO my soul”?He answered him: bHe said them about none other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, and corresponding to the soul,as the verse refers to the relationship between man’s soul and God. The five instances of “Bless the Lord, O my soul” correspond to the five parallels between the soul in man’s body and God’s power in His world., bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, fills the entire world, so too the soul fills the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sees but is not seen, so too does the soul see, but is not seen. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sustains the entire world, so too the soul sustains the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, is pure, so too is the soul pure. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, resides in a chamber within a chamber,in His inner sanctum, bso too the soul resides in a chamber within a chamber,in the innermost recesses of the body. brTherefore, bthat which has these five characteristics,the soul, bshould come and praise He Who has these five characteristics. /b,With regard to redemption and prayer, the Gemara tells the story of Hezekiah’s illness, his prayer to God, and subsequent recuperation. bRav Hamnuna said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is writtenpraising the Holy One, Blessed be He: b“Who is like the wise man, and who knows the interpretation [ ipesher /i] of the matter”(Ecclesiastes 8:1)? This verse means: bWho is like the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who knows how to effect compromise [ ipeshara /i] between two righteous individuals, between Hezekiah,the king of Judea, band Isaiahthe prophet. They disagreed over which of them should visit the other. bHezekiah said: Let Isaiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Elijahthe prophet, bwho went to Ahab,the king of Israel, bas it is stated: “And Elijah went to appear to Ahab”(I Kings 18:2). This proves that it is the prophet who must seek out the king. bAnd Isaiah said: Let Hezekiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Yehoram ben Ahab,king of Israel, bwho went to Elishathe prophet, as it is stated: “So the king of Israel, Jehosaphat and the king of Edom went down to him” (II Kings 3:12)., bWhat did the Holy One, Blessed be He, doto effect compromise between Hezekiah and Isaiah? bHe brought the sufferingof illness bupon Hezekiah and told Isaiah: Go and visit the sick.Isaiah did as God instructed, bas it is stated: “In those days Hezekiah became deathly ill, and Isaiah ben Amoz the prophet came and said to him: Thus says the Lord of Hosts: Set your house in order, for you will die and you will not live”(Isaiah 38:1). This seems redundant; bwhat isthe meaning of byou will die and you will not live?This repetition means: bYou will die in this world, and you will not live,you will have no share, bin the World-to-Come. /b,Hezekiah bsaid to him: What is all of this?For what transgression am I being punished? brIsaiah bsaid to him: Because you did notmarry and bengage in procreation. brHezekiah apologized and bsaid:I had no children bbecause I envisaged through divine inspiration that the children that emerge from me will not be virtuous.Hezekiah meant that he had seen that his children were destined to be evil. In fact, his son Menashe sinned extensively, and he thought it preferable to have no children at all.,Isaiah bsaid to him: Why do youinvolve byourself with the secrets of the Holy One, Blessed be He? That which you have been commanded,the mitzva of procreation, byou are required to perform, and that which is acceptablein the eyes of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, let Him perform,as He has so decided.,Hezekiah bsaid toIsaiah: bNow give me your daughteras my wife; bperhaps my merit and your merit will cause virtuous children to emerge from me. brIsaiah bsaid to him: The decree has already been decreed against youand this judgment cannot be changed. brHezekiah bsaid to him: Son of Amoz, cease your prophecy and leave.As long as the prophet spoke as God’s emissary, Hezekiah was obligated to listen to him. He was not, however, obligated to accept Isaiah’s personal opinion that there was no possibility for mercy and healing.,Hezekiah continued: bI have received a tradition from the house of my father’s father,from King David, the founding father of the dynasty of kings of Judea: bEvenif ba sharp sword rests upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy.One may still hold out hope that his prayers will be answered, as was David himself when he saw the Angel of Destruction, but nonetheless prayed for mercy and his prayers were answered.,With regard to the fact that one should not despair of God’s mercy, the Gemara cites that bit was also saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Eliezer both said: Even if a sharp sword is resting upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy, as it is statedin the words of Job: b“Though He slay me, I will trust in Him”(Job 13:15). Even though God is about to take his life, he still prays for God’s mercy.
56. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

87a. הכי השתא התם משתא וברוכי בהדי הדדי לא אפשר הכא אפשר דשחיט בחדא ומכסי בחדא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big שחט ולא כסה וראהו אחר חייב לכסות כסהו ונתגלה פטור מלכסות כסהו הרוח חייב לכסות:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר (ויקרא יז, יג) ושפך וכסה מי ששפך יכסה שחט ולא כסה וראהו אחר מנין שחייב לכסות שנאמר (ויקרא יז, יד) ואומר לבני ישראל אזהרה לכל בני ישראל,תניא אידך ושפך וכסה במה ששפך בו יכסה שלא יכסנו ברגל שלא יהיו מצות בזויות עליו תניא אידך ושפך וכסה מי ששפך הוא יכסנו מעשה באחד ששחט וקדם חבירו וכסה וחייבו רבן גמליאל ליתן לו י' זהובים,איבעיא להו שכר מצוה או שכר ברכה למאי נפקא מינה לברכת המזון אי אמרת שכר מצוה אחת היא ואי אמרת שכר ברכה הויין ארבעים מאי,תא שמע דא"ל ההוא צדוקי לרבי מי שיצר הרים לא ברא רוח ומי שברא רוח לא יצר הרים דכתיב (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח אמר ליה שוטה שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ה' צבאות שמו,אמר ליה נקוט לי זימנא תלתא יומי ומהדרנא לך תיובתא יתיב רבי תלת תעניתא כי הוה קא בעי מיברך אמרו ליה צדוקי קאי אבבא אמר (תהלים סט, כב) ויתנו בברותי רוש וגו',א"ל רבי מבשר טובות אני לך לא מצא תשובה אויבך ונפל מן הגג ומת אמר לו רצונך שתסעוד אצלי אמר לו הן לאחר שאכלו ושתו א"ל כוס של ברכה אתה שותה או ארבעים זהובים אתה נוטל אמר לו כוס של ברכה אני שותה יצתה בת קול ואמרה כוס של ברכה ישוה ארבעים זהובים,אמר רבי יצחק עדיין שנה לאותה משפחה בין גדולי רומי וקוראין אותה משפחת בר לויאנוס:,כסהו ונתגלה: אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי מאי שנא מהשבת אבדה דאמר מר (דברים כב, א) השב אפילו מאה פעמים,אמר ליה התם לא כתיב מיעוטא הכא כתיב מיעוטא וכסהו:,כסהו הרוח: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן לא שנו אלא שחזר ונתגלה אבל לא חזר ונתגלה פטור מלכסות וכי חזר ונתגלה מאי הוי הא אידחי ליה אמר רב פפא זאת אומרת אין דיחוי אצל מצות,ומאי שנא מהא דתניא השוחט ונבלע דם בקרקע חייב לכסות התם כשרשומו ניכר:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big דם שנתערב במים אם יש בו מראית דם חייב לכסות נתערב ביין רואין אותו כאילו הוא מים נתערב בדם הבהמה 87a. The Gemara rejects this: bHow canthese cases bbe compared? There,in the incident involving the students of Rav, it is bimpossible to drink and recite a blessing simultaneously.Accordingly, by requesting a cup over which to recite the blessing of Grace after Meals, they demonstrated their desire to cease drinking. bHere,when one covers the blood of the undomesticated animal before slaughtering the bird, it is bpossible to slaughterthe bird bwith the onehand band coverthe blood of the undomesticated animal bwith theother bone.Accordingly, the act of covering the blood of the undomesticated animal is not considered an interruption of the acts of slaughter, since they could have been performed simultaneously., strongMISHNA: /strong If one bslaughteredan undomesticated animal or bird band did not coverthe blood, band anotherperson bsawthe uncovered blood, the second person is bobligated to coverthe blood. If one bcoveredthe blood band it wasthen buncovered,he is bexempt from covering itagain. If bthe windblew earth on the blood and bcovered it,and it was consequently uncovered, he is bobligated to coverthe blood., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And he shall pour outits blood band coverit with earth” (Leviticus 17:13), indicating that bthe one who poured outits blood, i.e., slaughtered the animal, bshall cover it.If one bslaughteredthe animal or bird band did not coverthe blood, band another person sawthe uncovered blood, bfrom whereis it derived bthatthe person who saw the blood bis obligated to coverit? It is derived from the following verse, bas it is stated: “Therefore I said to the children of Israel”(Leviticus 17:12), which is ba warning to all the children of Israelto fulfill the mitzva of covering the blood., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And he shall pour outits blood band coverit with earth,” indicating that bwith that which he poured outthe blood bhe shall cover it,i.e., he must use his hand, and bhemay bnot cover it withhis bfoot, so that mitzvot will not be contemptible to him. It is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And he shall pour outits blood band coverit with earth,” indicating that bthe one who poured outthe blood bshall cover it. An incidentoccurred binvolving one who slaughteredan undomesticated animal or bird band anotherindividual bpreemptedhim band coveredthe blood, band Rabban Gamliel deemed him obligated to give ten gold coins tothe one who performed the act of slaughter., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Are these ten gold coins bcompensationfor the stolen bmitzva orare they bcompensationfor the stolen bblessingrecited over the mitzva? The Gemara elaborates: bWhat is thepractical bdifference?The difference is bwith regard toa similar case involving bGrace after Meals. If you saythe coins are bcompensation for the mitzva,then with regard to Grace after Meals, since all its blessings constitute bonemitzva, one would be obligated to give only ten gold coins. bBut if you saythey are bcompensation for thelost bblessing,then with regard to Grace after Meals the compensation bis fortygold coins, since Grace after Meals comprises four blessings. bWhatis the conclusion?,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from an incident in bwhich a certain heretic said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bHe who created mountains did not create wind, and he who created wind did not create mountains;rather, each was created by a separate deity, bas it is written: “For behold, He Who forms the mountains and He Who creates the wind”(Amos 4:13), indicating that there are two deities: One who forms the mountains and one who creates the wind. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: Imbecile, go to the end of the verse,which states: b“The Lord, the God of hosts, is His name.”The verse emphasizes that God is the One Who both forms and creates.,The heretic bsaid toRabbi Yehuda HaNasi: bGive me three days’ time and I will respond to youwith ba rebuttalof your claim. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsatand fasted bthreedays of bfastingwhile awaiting the heretic, in order that he would not find a rebuttal. bWhenRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bwanted to have a mealat the conclusion of those three days, bthey said to him:That bheretic is standing at the doorway.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi brecitedthe following verse about himself: b“They put gall into my food,and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink” (Psalms 69:22), i.e., my meal is embittered with the presence of this heretic.,When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi came to the door he saw that it was in fact a different heretic, not the one who asked for three days to prepare a rebuttal. This heretic bsaid to him: Rabbi, I am a bearer of good tidings for you: Your enemy did not find a response, and he threw himself from the roof and died.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid tothe heretic: Since you have brought me good tidings, bwould you like to dine with me?The heretic bsaid to him: Yes. After they ate and drank,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid tothe heretic: Would byoulike to bdrink the cup of blessing,i.e., the cup of wine over which the Grace after Meals is recited, borwould byoulike to btake forty gold coinsinstead, and I will recite the Grace after Meals? The heretic bsaid to him: Iwill bdrink the cup of blessing. A Divine Voice emerged and said: The cup of blessing is worth forty gold coins.Evidently, each one of the blessings in the Grace after Meals is worth ten gold coins.,The Gemara adds: bRabbi Yitzḥak says: That familyof the heretic who dined with Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bstill exists among the prominentfamilies bof Rome, andthat family bis called: The family of bar Luyyanus. /b,§ The mishna teaches that if one bcoveredthe blood band it wasthen buncoveredhe is not obligated to cover it again. bRav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: What is differentabout this case from the mitzva of breturning a lost item, where the Master said:The verse states with regard to the obligation to return a lost item: b“You shall returnthem to your brother” (Deuteronomy 22:1), beven one hundred times? /b,Rav Ashi bsaid toRav Aḥa: bThere,in the verse discussing the obligation to return a lost item, ba restriction is not writtenin the verse to limit the obligation. bHere,in the verse discussing the obligation to cover the blood, ba restriction is written,as the verse states: b“And he shall cover it.”The usage of the term “it” indicates that one must cover the blood only one time.,§ The mishna teaches that if bthe windblew earth on the blood and bcovered itone is obligated to cover the blood. bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: They taughtthis ihalakha bonlyif the blood bwas again uncovered. Butif the blood bwas not again uncoveredone is bexempt fromthe obligation bto cover it.The Gemara asks: bAnd whenthe blood bwas again uncovered, what of it? Isn’t italready brejectedfrom the mitzva of covering since it was covered by the wind? bRav Pappa said: That is to saythat bthere is no permanentrejection bwith regard to mitzvot.Although the wind covered the blood, the mitzva to cover it was not rendered null; rather, the mitzva simply could not be performed. Consequently, once the blood is again uncovered, the mitzva to cover the blood remains in place.,The Gemara asks: bButeven if the wind covered the blood and it remained covered, why is one exempt from performing the mitzva of covering the blood? bWhat is differentabout this case bfrom that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: In a case where bone slaughtersan undomesticated animal or a bird bandits bblood is absorbed by the ground,one is bobligated to coverthe blood? The Gemara responds: bThere,the ibaraitais referring to a case bwhere the impressionof the blood bisstill brecognizable,i.e., it was not entirely absorbed in the ground., strongMISHNA: /strong In a case of the bbloodof an undomesticated animal or bird bthat was mixed with water, if there is inthe mixture bthe appearance of bloodone is bobligated to coverit. If the blood bwas mixed with wine one viewsthe wine bas though it is water,and if a mixture with that amount of water would have the appearance of blood one is obligated to cover it. Likewise, if the blood of an undomesticated animal or a bird bwas mixed with the blood of a domesticated animal,which one does not have to cover
57. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52b. והא מתניתין דגזל דידה וקאמר רב אינה מקודשת לא קשיא הא דשדיך הא דלא שדיך,ההיא איתתא דהוה קא משיא כרעא במשיכלא דמיא אתא ההוא גברא חטף זוזי מחבריה ושדא לה אמר לה מיקדשת לי אתא ההוא גברא לקמיה דרבא אמר לית דחש להא דר' שמעון דאמר סתם גזילה יאוש בעלים הוי,ההוא אריסא דקדיש במוזא דשמכי אתא לקמיה דרבא אמר ליה מאן אחלך והני מילי במוזא אבל כישא מצי אמר ליה אנא שקלי כישא שקיל את כישא כישא כי כישא,ההוא סרסיא דקדיש בפרומא דשיכרא אתא מריה דשיכרא אשכחיה אמר ליה אמאי לא תיתיב מהאי חריפא אתא לקמיה דרבא אמר לא אמרו כלך אצל יפות אלא לענין תרומה בלבד,דתניא כיצד אמרו תורם שלא מדעת תרומתו תרומה הרי שירד לתוך שדה חבירו וליקט ותרם שלא ברשות אם חושש משום גזל אין תרומתו תרומה ואם לאו תרומתו תרומה,ומנין היה יודע אם חושש משום גזל אם לאו הרי שבא בעל הבית ומצאו ואמר לו כלך אצל יפות אם נמצאו יפות מהם תרומתו תרומה ואם לאו אין תרומתו תרומה היו הבעלים מלקטים ומוסיפים בין כך ובין כך תרומתו תרומה,אבל הכא משום כיסופא הוא דעבד ואינה מקודשת, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המקדש בחלקו בין קדשי קדשים בין קדשים קלים אינה מקודשת במעשר שני בין שוגג בין מזיד לא קידש דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר בשוגג לא קידש במזיד קידש,ובהקדש במזיד קידש ובשוגג לא קידש דברי ר' מאיר רבי יהודה אומר בשוגג קידש במזיד לא קידש, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big נימא מתניתין דלא כרבי יוסי הגלילי דתניא (ויקרא ה, כא) ומעלה מעל בה' לרבות קדשים קלים שהן ממונו דברי ר' יוסי הגלילי,אפי' תימא ר' יוסי הגלילי כי קאמר ר' יוסי הגלילי מחיים אבל לאחר שחיטה לא מאי טעמא כי קא זכו משלחן גבוה קא זכו,דיקא נמי דקתני המקדש בחלקו בין קדשי קדשים ובין קדשים קלים לא קידש ש"מ,תנו רבנן לאחר פטירתו של ר' מאיר אמר להם רבי יהודה לתלמידיו אל יכנסו תלמידי רבי מאיר לכאן מפני שקנתרנים הם ולא ללמוד תורה הם באים אלא לקפחני בהלכות הם באים דחק סומכוס ונכנס אמר להם כך שנה לי ר' מאיר המקדש בחלקו בין קדשי קדשים ובין קדשים קלים לא קידש,כעס ר' יהודה עליהם אמר להם לא כך אמרתי לכם אל יכנסו מתלמידי ר"מ לכאן מפני שקנתרנים הם ולא ללמוד תורה הם באים אלא לקפחני בהלכות הם באים וכי אשה בעזרה מנין,אמר ר' יוסי יאמרו מאיר שכב יהודה כעס יוסי שתק דברי תורה מה תהא עליה וכי אין אדם עשוי לקבל קידושין לבתו בעזרה ואין אשה עשויה לעשות לה שליח לקבל קידושיה בעזרה ועוד דחקה ונכנסה מאי,תניא ר' יהודה אומר מקודשת ר' יוסי אומר אינה מקודשת אמר ר' יוחנן שניהם מקרא אחד דרשו (במדבר יח, ט) וזה יהיה לך מקדש הקדשים מן האש ר' יהודה סבר לך ולכל צרכיך ור' יוסי סבר כאש מה אש לאכילה אף הוא נמי לאכילה,אמר ר' יוחנן 52b. The Gemara questions this analysis: bButdoesn’t bthe mishnadeal bwitha case where the bstolen itemis bhers, andyet bRav says she is not betrothed.The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult; thiscase, in the ibaraita /i, is referring to a situation bwhere he had arrangedto betroth her beforehand, which indicates that she has released him from his obligation to return it, but bthatcase, in the mishna, is referring to a situation bwhere he had not arrangedhis marriage with her, so it is stolen property and she is not betrothed.,The Gemara relates: There was ba certain woman who was washing her feet in a vessel of water. A certain man camealong, bgrabbeda few bdinars from anotherperson, band threwthem bto her,and bsaid to her: You are betrothed to me. That mansubsequently bcame before Rava,to inquire as to the status of the woman. Rava bsaid: There is notanyone bwho is concerned for thisopinion bof Rabbi Shimon, who said:In ban ordinarycase of brobberythe bowner has despairedof recovering the stolen item, and it belongs to the robber. Rather, the assumption is that the owner has not despaired of recovering the stolen item. In this case, since the stolen dinars do not belong to the man, his betrothal is of no effect.,The Gemara relates another incident: The was ba certain sharecropper who betrotheda woman bwith a handful [ ibemoza /i] of onions [ ideshamkhei /i]taken from the field where he worked. bHe came before Ravato ask about the status of the woman. Rava bsaid to him: Who relinquishedthese onions bto you?Since the owner did not allow you to take them, they are stolen property, and the woman is not betrothed. The Gemara comments: bAnd this matter appliesonly bto a handful, butif he took ba bundleof onions and betrothed a woman with them, the sharecropper bcan say tothe owner: bI took a bundle, you take a bundle; one bundle foranother bbundle.Since in any case they divide the crop between them, it is not considered theft.,The Gemara relates another incident: There was ba certain brewer [ isarseya /i]who was making date beer for someone, bwho betrotheda woman bwith sediment [ ibifruma /i] from the beer. The owner of the beer cameand bfound him.The owner bsaid to him: Why don’t you giveher the betrothal bfrom this,the bsharpsediments that are of better quality than the kind you chose? The brewer bcame before Ravato ask whether the owner’s comment indicated that he had relinquished his rights to the sediment, which would mean the woman is betrothed. Rava bsaidto him: The Sages bsaidthat if the owner discovers that someone has taken something of his without permission and says: bGo toand take btheitem of bbetterquality, that it is a sign he agrees with the man’s action bonly with regard to iterumaalone,and you did not have the right to use the sediment.,The Gemara explains the previous statement: bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iTerumot1:5): bWhen did they saythat in the case where bone separates iterumawithoutthe owner’s bconsent, his iterumaisconsidered iteruma /i?The ibaraitaclarifies: In a case where bthere wassomeone bwho entered another’s field and gatheredproduce from it, band separated iterumawithoutthe owner’s bpermission, ifthe owner is bconcerned abouthis actions and view it bas robbery, his iterumais not iteruma /i, but ifhe is bnotconcerned, bhis iterumais iteruma /i. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd from where wouldthe gatherer bknow whetherhe should be bconcernedthat the owner objects and views it bas robbery or not?If bthe owner came and found himseparating iteruma band said to him: Go totake btheproduce of bbetterquality and separate iterumafrom that, then bifproduce of bbetterquality bthanthe produce he had separated bis found, his iterumaisconsidered iteruma /i,since the owner is assumed to have been sincere and pleased that the other has separated iterumafrom his produce. bBut if not, his iterumais not iteruma /i,as it may be assumed that the owner was angry at him and was speaking sarcastically. The ibaraitaadds: If bthe owners were gathering and addingto the iterumahe had separated, indicating that they agree to his act of separation, beither way,whether or not better-quality produce was found, bhis iterumaisconsidered iteruma /i. /b,Rava concludes the explanation of his ruling: This ihalakhaapplies only to iteruma /i, which is a mitzva that the owner must in any case perform. bBut here,in the case of the brewer who betrothed a woman with sediment from the beer, the owner bacts because of embarrassment,and while he does not feel comfortable protesting, he did not in fact relinquish his rights to the sediment, band she is not betrothed. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to a priest bwho betrothsa woman bwith his portionof offerings, bwhetherhe did so with bofferings of the most sacred orderor bwhetherhe did so with bofferings of lesser sanctity, she is not betrothed.One who betroths a woman bwith second tithe, whether unwittinglyor bintentionally, has not betrothedher; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says:If he did so bunwittingly he has not betrothedher, but if he did so bintentionally he has betrothedher., bAndwith regard to one who betroths a woman bwith consecratedproperty belonging to the Temple treasury, if he does so bintentionally he has betrothedher, bandif he does so bunwittingly he has not betrothedher; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda saysthe opposite: If he does so bunwittingly he has betrothedher, but if he does so bintentionally he has not betrothedher., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara suggests: bShall we saythat bthe mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei HaGelili? As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat the verse states with regard to the obligation to bring an offering for taking a false oath concerning unlawful possession of the property of another: “If any one sin, band he commits a trespass against the Lord,and deal falsely with his neighbor in a matter of deposit, or of pledge, or of robbery, or have oppressed his neighbor” (Leviticus 5:21). As the verse is discussing property belonging to another, the phrase “a trespass against the Lord” serves bto includein the obligation of an offering a false oath with regard to possession of bofferings of lesser sanctityof another person, bwhich are the propertyof the owner; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili.According to Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, the portion of an offering of lesser sanctity that the priest receives belongs to him, so he should be able to betroth a woman with it.,The Gemara rejects this: bYoucan beven saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yosei HaGelili, as Rabbi Yosei HaGelili saysthat an offering of lesser sanctity belongs to its owner only bwhilethe animal is still balive, but afterits bslaughterit does bnotbelong to the priest who receives portions from it. bWhat is the reasonfor this? bWhenthe priests breceivetheir portion after the animal has been slaughtered bthey receivetheir portion bfrom the table of the Most High,and do not own the portion itself.,The Gemara adds: The language of the mishna bis also precise, as it teaches:With regard to a priest bwho betrothsa woman bwith his portionof offerings, bwhetherhe did so with bofferings of the most sacred order or whetherhe used bofferings of lesser sanctity, has not betrothedher. The mishna does not speak of a priest who betroths a woman with a living offering of lesser sanctity but of one who betroths with the portion of the slaughtered animal he has received. The Gemara concludes: bLearn from itthat it is only in this case that she is not betrothed., bThe Sages taught: After the death of Rabbi Meir, Rabbi Yehuda said to his students: Do not let the students of Rabbi Meir enter hereinto our house of study, bbecause they are vexatious [ ikanteranim /i]. And they do not come to study Torah,but brather they come to overwhelm me with ihalakhot /i. Sumakhos,a student of Rabbi Meir, bpushed and enteredanyway. bHe said to them: Thisis what bRabbi Meir taught me:With regard to a priest bwho betrothsa woman bwith his portionof the offerings, bwhetherhe did so with bofferings of the most sacred order or whetherhe used bofferings of lesser sanctity, he has not betrothedher.,Upon hearing this, bRabbi Yehuda became angry withhis students. bHe said to them: Didn’t I say this to you: Do not let the students of Rabbi Meir enter hereinto our house of study, bbecause they are vexatious? And they do not come to study Torah,but brather they come to overwhelm me with ihalakhot /i.Rabbi Yehuda explained his objection to the statement of Rabbi Meir: This ihalakhais not relevant, bas from wherewould ba womanappear bin theTemple bcourtyard?Women may not enter the area of the Temple courtyard where the priests eat the offerings of the most sacred order, so there is no reason to address an impossible scenario., bRabbi Yosei,who was present, bsaid: They will say: Meir died, Yehuda grew angry,and bYosei remained silent; what will become of the words of Torah?He said: In fact, this ihalakhais relevant; bbut isn’t it commonfor ba man to accept betrothal for his daughter in theTemple bcourtyard?There is no need to give the betrothal item directly to the woman; it can be given to her father. bAndadditionally, bisn’t it commonfor ba woman to designate an agent for herself to accept her betrothal in the courtyard? And furthermore: Whatwould be the ihalakhaif the woman bpushed and entered?Since it is possible for her to do so, the ihalakhain such a case must be determined., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat the Sages discussed the issue of a priest who betroths a woman with his portion of offerings of the most sacred order: bRabbi Yehuda says she is betrothed,and bRabbi Yosei says she is not betrothed. Rabbi Yoḥa says: Both of them derivedtheir opinions from bone verse,which states that the priests have a right to a portion of offerings of the most sacred order, but they explained it in different ways. The verse states: b“This shall be yours of the most holy things, reserved from the fire”(Numbers 18:9). bRabbi Yehuda holdsthat the term b“yours”indicates that the portion the priest receives is intended for you, i.e., a priest, band for all your needs,including betrothing a woman. bAnd Rabbi Yosei holdsthat the verse compares the priest’s portion bto the fireon the altar: bJust asthe portion burned on the bfireis bforthe fire’s bconsumption, so too,the priest’s portion bis also for consumptionalone, and not for any other purpose., bRabbi Yoḥa says: /b
58. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

109a. מאן נשדר נשדר בהדי נחום איש גם זו דמלומד בנסים הוא,כי מטא לההוא דיורא בעא למיבת אמרי ליה מאי איכא בהדך אמר להו קא מובילנא כרגא לקיסר קמו בליליא שרינהו לסיפטיה ושקלו כל דהוה גביה ומלנהו עפרא כי מטא להתם אישתכח עפרא אמר אחוכי קא מחייכי בי יהודאי אפקוהו למקטליה אמר גם זו לטובה אתא אליהו ואידמי להו כחד מינייהו אמר להו דילמא האי עפרא מעפרא דאברהם אבינו הוא דהוה שדי עפרא הוו חרבי גילי הוו גירי בדוק ואשכחו הכי,הוה מחוזא דלא הוו קא יכלי ליה למיכבשיה שדו מההוא עפרא עליה וכבשוה עיילוהו לבי גנזא אמרי שקול דניחא לך מלייה לסיפטא דהבא כי הדר אתא אמרו ליה הנך דיורי מאי אמטית לבי מלכא אמר להו מאי דשקלי מהכא אמטאי להתם שקלי אינהו אמטו להתם קטלינהו להנך דיורי:,דור הפלגה אין להם חלק לעולם הבא וכו': מאי עבוד אמרי דבי רבי שילא נבנה מגדל ונעלה לרקיע ונכה אותו בקרדומות כדי שיזובו מימיו מחכו עלה במערבא א"כ ליבנו אחד בטורא,(אלא) א"ר ירמיה בר אלעזר נחלקו לג' כיתות אחת אומרת נעלה ונשב שם ואחת אומרת נעלה ונעבוד עבודת כוכבים ואחת אומרת נעלה ונעשה מלחמה זו שאומרת נעלה ונשב שם הפיצם ה' וזו שאומרת נעלה ונעשה מלחמה נעשו קופים ורוחות ושידים ולילין וזו שאומרת נעלה ונעבוד עבודת כוכבים (בראשית יא, ט) כי שם בלל ה' שפת כל הארץ,תניא רבי נתן אומר כולם לשם עבודת כוכבים נתכוונו כתיב הכא (בראשית יא, ד) נעשה לנו שם וכתיב התם (שמות כג, יג) ושם אלהים אחרים לא תזכירו מה להלן עבודת כוכבים אף כאן עבודת כוכבים,אמר רבי יוחנן מגדל שליש נשרף שליש נבלע שליש קיים אמר רב אויר מגדל משכח אמר רב יוסף בבל ובורסיף סימן רע לתורה מאי בורסיף אמר ר' אסי בור שאפי:,אנשי סדום אין להם חלק לעולם הבא וכו': ת"ר אנשי סדום אין להן חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר (בראשית יג, יג) ואנשי סדום רעים וחטאים לה' מאד רעים בעוה"ז וחטאים לעולם הבא,אמר רב יהודה רעים בגופן וחטאים בממונם רעים בגופן דכתיב (בראשית לט, ט) ואיך אעשה הרעה הגדולה הזאת וחטאתי לאלהים וחטאים בממונם דכתיב (דברים טו, ט) והיה בך חטא לה' זו ברכת השם מאד שמתכוונים וחוטאים,במתניתא תנא רעים בממונם וחטאים בגופן רעים בממונם דכתיב (דברים טו, ט) ורעה עינך באחיך האביון וחטאים בגופן דכתיב (בראשית לט, ט) וחטאתי לאלהים לה' זו ברכת השם מאד זו שפיכות דמים שנאמר (מלכים ב כא, טז) גם דם נקי שפך מנשה (בירושלים) הרבה מאד [וגו'],ת"ר אנשי סדום לא נתגאו אלא בשביל טובה שהשפיע להם הקב"ה ומה כתיב בהם (איוב כח, ה) ארץ ממנה יצא לחם ותחתיה נהפך כמו אש מקום ספיר אבניה ועפרות זהב לו נתיב לא ידעו עיט ולא שזפתו עין איה לא הדריכוהו בני שחץ לא עדה עליו שחל,אמרו וכי מאחר שארץ ממנה יצא לחם ועפרות זהב לו למה לנו עוברי דרכים שאין באים אלינו אלא לחסרינו [מממוננו] בואו ונשכח תורת רגל מארצנו שנאמר (איוב כח, ד) פרץ נחל מעם גר הנשכחים מני רגל דלו מאנוש נעו,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים סב, ד) עד אנה תהותתו על איש תרצחו כולכם כקיר נטוי גדר הדחויה מלמד שהיו נותנין עיניהן בבעלי ממון ומושיבין אותו אצל קיר נטוי ודוחין אותו עליו ובאים ונוטלין את ממונו,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (איוב כד, טז) חתר בחשך בתים יומם חתמו למו לא (ראו) [ידעו] אור מלמד שהיו נותנים עיניהם בבעלי ממון ומפקידים אצלו אפרסמון ומניחים אותו בבית גנזיהם לערב באים ומריחין אותו ככלב שנא' (תהלים נט, ז) ישובו לערב יהמו ככלב ויסובבו עיר ובאים וחותרים שם ונוטלין אותו ממון,(איוב כד, י) ערום הלכו מבלי לבוש ואין כסות בקרה חמור יתומים ינהגו יחבלו שור אלמנה גבולות ישיגו עדר גזלו וירעו (איוב כא, לב) והוא לקברות יובל ועל גדיש ישקוד,דרש ר' יוסי בציפורי אחתרין ההיא ליליא תלת מאה מחתרתא בציפורי אתו וקא מצערי ליה אמרו ליה יהבית אורחיה לגנבי אמר להו מי הוה ידענא דאתו גנבי כי קא נח נפשיה דרבי יוסי שפעי מרזבי דציפורי דמא,אמרי דאית ליה חד תורא מרעי חד יומא דלית ליה לירעי תרי יומי ההוא יתמא בר ארמלתא הבו ליה תורי למרעיה אזל שקלינהו וקטלינהו אמר להו 109a. bwhom shall we sendthe gift? They decided: bWe will sendit bwith Naḥum of Gam Zo, as he is experienced in miracles. /b, bWhen he reached a certain lodging, he sought to sleepthere. The residents of that lodging bsaid to him: Whatdo you bhave with you?Naḥum bsaid to them: I am taking the head tax to the emperor. They rose in the night, opened his chest and took everything that was in it, andthen bfilledthe chest bwith dirt. When he arrived there,in Rome, bearth was discoveredin the chest. The emperor bsaid: The Jews are mocking meby giving me this gift. bThey tookNaḥum bout to kill him.Naḥum bsaid: This too is for the best. Elijahthe prophet bcame and appeared to them as one ofNaḥum’s traveling party. Elijah bsaid to them: Perhaps this earth is from the earth of Abraham our forefather, who would throw dustand bit became swords,and who would throw bstrawand bit became arrows. They examinedthe dust band discoveredthat it was indeed the dust of Abraham., bThere was a province thatthe Romans bwere unable to conquer. They threwsome bof this earth uponthat province band they conquered it.In appreciation for the gift that Naḥum of Gam Zo had brought on behalf of the Jewish people, bthey brought him into the treasuryand bsaid: Takethat bwhich is preferable to you. He filled his chestwith bgold. When he returnedto that lodging, bthose residents said to him: What did you bring to the king’s palace?Naḥum bsaid to them: What I took from here, I brought to there.The residents concluded that the earth with which they had filled the chest had miraculous properties. bThey tookearth and bbrought it tothe emperor. Once the Romans discovered that the earth was ineffective in battle, bthey executed those residents. /b,§ The mishna teaches that the members of bthe generation of the dispersion have no share in the World-to-Come.The Gemara asks: bWhatsin bdid they perform?Their sin is not explicitly delineated in the Torah. bThe school of Rabbi Sheila saythat the builders of the Tower of Babel said: bWe will build a tower and ascend to heaven, and we will strike it with axes so that its waters will flow. They laughed atthis explanation bin the West,Eretz Yisrael, and asked: bIfthat was their objective, blet them builda tower bon a mountain;why did they build it specifically in a valley (see Genesis 11:2)?, bRather, Rabbi Yirmeya bar Elazar says: They divided into three factions; one said: Let us ascendto the top of the tower band dwell there. And one said: Let us ascendto the top of the tower band engage in idol worship. And one said: Let us ascendto the top of the tower band wage war.With regard to bthatfaction bthat said: Let us ascendto the top of the tower band dwell there, God dispersed them. And thatfaction bthat said: Let us ascendto the top of the tower band wage war, became apes, and spirits, and demons, and female demons. Andwith regard to bthatfaction bthat said: Let us ascendto the top of the tower band engage in idol wor-ship,it is written: b“Because there the Lord confounded the language of all the earth”(Genesis 11:9)., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Natan says: All ofthose factions bintendedto build the tower bfor the sake of idol worship. It is written here: “And let us make a name for us”(Genesis 11:4), band it is written there: “And make no mention of the name of the other gods”(Exodus 23:13). bJust as there,the connotation of “name” bis idol worship, so too here,the connotation of “name” bis idol worship. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says: Theuppermost bthirdof the btower was burned,the lowermost bthirdof the tower bwas swallowedinto the earth, and the middle bthird remainedintact. bRav says: The atmosphere of the tower causes forgetfulness;anyone who goes there forgets what he has learned. As a result of the building of the tower, forgetting was introduced into the world. bRav Yosef says: Babylonia andthe adjacent place, bBursif, areeach ba bad omen for Torah,i.e., they cause one to forget his knowledge. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of bBursif? Rabbi Asi says:It is an abbreviation of bempty pit [ ibor shafi /i]. /b,§ The mishna teaches: bThe people of Sodom have no share in the World-to-Come. The Sages taught: The people of Sodom have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly”(Genesis 13:13). b“Wicked”indicates bin this world; “and sinners”indicates bfor the World-to-Come. /b, bRav Yehuda says: “Wicked”is referring to sins they committed bwith their bodies; “and sinners”is referring to sins they committed bwith their money. “Wicked”is referring to sins they committed bwith their bodies, as it is writtenwith regard to Joseph and the wife of Potiphar: b“And how can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God”(Genesis 39:9). b“And sinners”is referring to sins they committed bwith their money, as it is written:“And your eye is wicked against your poor brother, and you give him nothing… bfor it shall be reckoned to you as a sin”(Deuteronomy 15:9). b“Before the Lord”; thisis referring to bblessing,a euphemism for cursing, bGod. “Exceedingly”means bthat they had intent and sinnedand did not sin unwittingly or driven by lust., bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i: “Wicked”is referring to sins they committed bwith their money; “and sinners”is referring to sins they committed bwith their bodies. “Wicked”is referring to sins they committed bwith their money, as it is written: “And your eye is wicked against your poor brotherand you give him nothing” (Deuteronomy 15:9). b“And sinners”is referring to sins they committed bwith their bodies, as it is writtenwith regard to Joseph and the wife of Potiphar: b“And sin against God”(Genesis 39:9). b“Before the Lord”; thisis referring to bblessing,a euphemism for cursing, bGod. “Exceedingly [ imeod]”is referring to bbloodshed, as it is stated: “Moreover Manasseh shed very [ imeod] much blood”(II Kings 21:16)., bThe Sages taught: The people of Sodom became haughtyand sinned bdue only to theexcessive bgoodness that the Holy One, Blessed be He, bestowed upon them. And what is written concerning them,indicating that goodness? b“As for the earth, out of it comes bread, and underneath it is turned up as it were by fire. Its stones are the place of sapphires, and it has dust of gold. That path no bird of prey knows, neither has the falcon’s eye seen it. The proud beasts have not trodden it, nor has the lion passed thereby”(Job 28:5–8). The reference is to the city of Sodom, which was later overturned, as it is stated thereafter: “He puts forth His hand upon the flinty rock; He overturns the mountains by the roots” (Job 28:9).,The people of Sodom bsaid: Sincewe live in ba land from which bread comes and has the dust of gold,we have everything that we need. bWhy do we need travelers, as they come only to divest us of our property? Come, let us cause theproper btreatment of travelers to be forgotten from our land, as it is stated: “He breaks open a watercourse in a place far from inhabitants, forgotten by pedestrians, they are dried up, they have moved away from men”(Job 28:4)., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “How long will you seek to overwhelm a man? You will all be murdered like a leaning wall or a tottering fence”(Psalms 62:4)? This bteaches thatthe people of Sodom bset their sights on property owners.They would take one band place him alongside an inclined,flimsy bwallthat was about to fall, band push it upon himto kill him, bandthen btheywould bcome and take his property. /b, bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “In the dark they dig through houses; by day they shut themselves up; they know not the light”(Job 24:16)? This bteaches that they would set their sights on property owners.They would take one bandthey would bgive him balsam,whose smell diffuses, bandthe property owner would bplace it in his treasury. In the evening,the people of Sodom bwould come and sniff itout blike a dogand discover the location of the property owner’s treasury, bas it is stated: “They return at evening; they howl like a dog, and go round about the city”(Psalms 59:7). bAndafter discovering the location bthey would come and dig there, and they would take that property. /b,The Gemara cites verses that allude to the practices of the people of Sodom: b“They lie at night naked without clothing, and they have no covering in the cold”(Job 24:7). And likewise: b“They drive away the donkey of the fatherless; they take the widow’s ox as a pledge”(Job 24:3). And likewise: b“They trespass; they violently steal flocks and graze them”(Job 24:2). And likewise: b“For he is brought to the grave, and watch is kept over his tomb”(Job 21:32)., bRabbi Yosei taught in Tzipporithe methods of theft employed in Sodom. bThat night three hundred tunnels were excavated in Tzipporiin order to employ those methods. Homeowners bcame and harassed him; they said to him: You have given a way for thievesto steal. Rabbi Yosei bsaid to them: Did I know that thieves would comeas a result of my lecture? The Gemara relates: bWhen Rabbi Yosei died, the gutters of Tzipporimiraculously boverflowedwith bbloodas a sign of his death.,The people of Sodom bwould say:Anyone bwho has one ox shall herdthe city’s oxen bfor one day.Anyone bwho does not haveany oxen bshall herdthe city’s oxen bfor two days.The Gemara relates: bThey gave oxen to a certain orphan, son of a widow, to herd. He wentand btook them and killed them.The orphan bsaidto the people of Sodom:
59. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. כיון דהך גזור ברישא הא תו למה לי אלא הך גזור ברישא והדר גזור בכולהו ידים,וטבול יום טבול יום דאורייתא הוא דכתיב (ויקרא כב, ז) ובא השמש וטהר סמי מכאן טבול יום,והאוכלין שנטמאו במשקין במשקין דמאי אילימא במשקין הבאין מחמת שרץ דאוריי' נינהו דכתיב (ויקרא יא, לד) וכל משקה אשר ישתה אלא במשקין הבאין מחמת ידים וגזירה משום משקין הבאין מחמת שרץ,והכלים שנטמאו במשקין כלים דאיטמאו במשקין דמאי אילימא במשקין דזב דאוריי' נינהו דכתיב (ויקרא טו, ח) וכי ירוק הזב בטהור מה שביד טהור טמאתי לך אלא במשקין הבאין מחמת שרץ וגזירה משום משקין דזב,וידים תלמידי שמאי והלל גזור שמאי והלל גזור דתניא יוסי בן יועזר איש צרידה ויוסי בן יוחנן איש ירושלים גזרו טומאה על ארץ העמים ועל כלי זכוכית שמעון בן שטח תיקן כתובה לאשה וגזר טומאה על כלי מתכות שמאי והלל גזרו טומאה על הידים,וכ"ת שמאי וסיעתו והלל וסיעתו והאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל י"ח דבר גזרו ובי"ח נחלקו ואילו הלל ושמאי לא נחלקו אלא בג' מקומות דא"ר הונא בג' מקומות נחלקו ותו לא וכ"ת אתו אינהו גזור לתלות ואתו תלמידייהו וגזרו לשרוף והאמר אילפא ידים תחלת גזירתן לשריפה אלא אתו אינהו גזור ולא קבלו מינייהו ואתו תלמידייהו גזרו וקבלו מינייהו,ואכתי שלמה גזר דא"ר יהודה אמר שמואל בשעה שתיקן שלמה עירובין ונטילת ידים יצתה בת קול ואמרה (משלי כג, טו) בני אם חכם לבך ישמח לבי גם אני (משלי כז, יא) חכם בני ושמח לבי ואשיבה חורפי דבר אתא 14b. bonce they decreed that first, why do I need thatdecree of impurity on hands that touch a sacred scroll bas well?Once the Sages decreed impurity on hands in general, there is no longer a necessity to decree impurity on hands that touched a Torah scroll, as hands are impure in any case. bRather,certainly the Sages bdecreedimpurity on bthis,hands that touched a Torah scroll, bfirst. And then they decreedimpurity bon all hands. /b,Among the decrees listed in the mishna, there is the decree that contact with one who bimmersed himself during the daydisqualifies iteruma /i. The Gemara asks: bOne who immersed himself during the daytransmits impurity by bTorahlaw, as it is written: “One who touches it remains impure until evening. He should not eat of the consecrated items and he must wash his flesh with water. bAnd the sun sets and it is purified.Afterward, he may eat from the teruma, for it is his bread” (Leviticus 22:6–7). Consequently, until sunset he is prohibited by Torah law from touching consecrated items, and the same is true for iteruma /i. The Gemara answers: bDelete from here,from the list of decrees in the mishna, bone who immersed himself during the day. /b, bAndamong the decrees that were listed, there is also the decree concerning the impurity of bthe foods that became impurethrough contact bwith liquids.The Gemara asks: bWith liquids thatbecame impure due to contact with bwhatsource of impurity? bIf you saythat the mishna is referring to bliquids that cometo be impure bdue tocontact with ba creeping animal, they areimpure bby Torah law, as it is writtenwith regard to the impurity of creeping animals: b“And every liquid that is drunkin any vessel, will be impure” (Leviticus 11:34). bRather,the mishna is referring to bliquids that cometo be impure bdue tocontact with impure bhands.The Sages issued this bdecree due to liquids that cometo be impure bthroughcontact with ba creeping animal. /b, bAndamong the decrees that were listed, there is also the decree concerning bthe vessels that became impurethrough contact bwith liquids.The Gemara asks: bVessels that became impuredue to contact bwith liquids thatbecame impure due to contact with bwhatsource of impurity? bIf you saythat they become impure due to contact bwith liquidssecreted by ba izav /i,e.g., spittle, urine, etc., bthey areimpure bby Torah law, as it is written: “And if a izavspits on a pure personand he should wash his clothes and wash in water and he is impure until the evening” (Leviticus 15:8). The Sages interpreted homiletically: bWhatever is in the hand of the pure person I made impure for you.Not only did the person who came into contact with the liquids of the izavbecome impure, but the objects in his hand did as well. bRather,here it is referring bto liquids that cometo be impure bdue tocontact with ba creeping animal,which by Torah law do not transmit impurity to vessels. bAndthe Sages issued ba decreewith regard to those liquids bdue totheir similarity to the bliquids of a izav /i. /b,Among the list of items in the mishna with regard to which the disciples of Shammai and Hillel instituted decrees, were the hands of any person who did not purify himself for the sake of purity of iteruma /i. If he came into contact with iteruma /i, the Sages decreed it impure. The Gemara asks: bAndwith regard to bhands,was it bthe disciples of Shammai and Hillelwho bissued the decreeof impurity? bShammai and Hillelthemselves bissued the decree. As it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bYosei ben Yo’ezer of Tzereida and Yosei ben Yoḥa of Jerusalem decreed impurity on the land of the nations,that the land outside Eretz Yisrael transmits impurity; bandthey decreed impurity bon glass vessels,even though glass is not listed in the Torah among the vessels that can become impure. bShimon ben Shataḥ institutedthe formula of ba woman’s marriage contract andalso bdecreedspecial bimpurity on metal vessels. Shammai and Hillel decreed impurity on the hands. /b, bAnd if you saythat the ibaraitais referring to bShammai and his faction and Hillel and his faction, didn’t Rav Yehuda saythat bShmuel said: With regard to eighteen matters they issued decreesthat day, band with regard tothose beighteenmatters bthey disagreedprior to that? The eighteen disputes were only between the disciples of Shammai and Hillel, bwhereas Hillel and Shammaithemselves bargued only in three places.Clearly, they were neither party to the disputes nor the decrees. bAs Rav Huna said:Shammai and Hillel bdisagreed inonly bthree places and no more. And if you saythat Hillel and Shammai bcameand bdecreedthat iterumathat came into contact with hands bwould be in abeyance, and their students came and decreed to burn iterumathat came into contact with hands, then the following difficulty arises. bDidn’t Ilfa,one of the Sages, bsay:With regard to bhands,from bthe beginning their decreewas that iterumathat comes into contact with them is bto be burned?According to Ilfa, there is no uncertainty. iTerumathat came into contact with definite impurity is burned. iTerumathat is in abeyance may not be destroyed. One must wait until it becomes definitely impure or decomposes on its own. bRather,the explanation is that bthey came and issued a decree andthe people bdid not acceptthe decree bfrom them, and their disciples came and issued a decree and they acceptedit bfrom them. /b,The Gemara asks further: bStill,the matter is not clear, as the decree of hands was bissuedby King bSolomon. As Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: At the time that Solomon institutedthe ordices of ieiruvandof bwashing handsto purify them from their impurity, ba Divine Voice emerged and saidin his praise: b“My son, if your heart is wise my heart will be glad, even mine”(Proverbs 23:15), and so too: b“My son, be wise and make my heart glad, that I may respond to those who taunt me”(Proverbs 27: 11). The Gemara responds: bCame /b
60. Babylonian Talmud, Shevuot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

34b. ועדים רואין אותו מבחוץ מאי,א"ל רב המנונא והלה מה טוען אי אמר לא היו דברים מעולם הוחזק כפרן אי אמר אין שקלי ודידי שקלי כי אתו עדים מאי הוי א"ל המנונא את עול תא,ההוא דא"ל לחבריה מנה מניתי לך בצד עמוד זה א"ל לא עברתי בצד עמוד זה אתו תרי סהדי אסהידו ביה דהשתין מים בצד עמוד זה אמר ר"ל הוחזק כפרן,מתקיף לה ר"נ האי דינא פרסאה הוא מי קאמר מעולם בעסק זה קא"ל,איכא דאמרי ההוא דא"ל לחבריה מנה מניתי לך בצד עמוד זה א"ל לא עברתי בצד עמוד זה מעולם נפקו ביה סהדי דהשתין מים בצד עמוד זה אמר ר"נ הוחזק כפרן,א"ל רבא לר"נ כל מילתא דלא רמיא עליה דאיניש עביד לה ולאו אדעתיה:,ר"ש אומר חייב כאן וחייב בפקדון כו':,מחכו עלה במערבא מאי חוכא,דקתני מה לפקדון שכן לא עשה בו מושבע כנשבע מזיד כשוגג,מכדי מושבע מפי עצמו בעדות לר"ש מנא ליה דגמר מפקדון פקדון נמי מושבע מפי אחרים נגמר מעדות,ומאי חוכא דלמא ר"ש בק"ו מייתי לה מפי אחרים חייב מפי עצמו לא כל שכן,אלא חוכא אמזיד כשוגג דקתני מה לפקדון שכן לא עשה בו מושבע כנשבע מזיד כשוגג,מכדי מזיד גבי עדות מנא ליה דלא כתיב ביה ונעלם ה"נ לא כתיב ביה ונעלם,אמר להו רב הונא ומאי חוכא דלמא מזיד דלאו כשוגג בפקדון ממעילה ר"ש גמר לה,והיינו חוכא אדגמר לה ממעילה נגמר לה מעדות,מסתברא ממעילה הוה ליה למילף שכן מעילה ממעילה,אדרבה מעדות הוה ליה למילף שכן תחטא מתחטא,מסתברא ממעילה הוה ליה למילף שכן מעילה בכל נהנה בקבוע חומש ואשם,אדרבה מעדות ה"ל למילף שכן חטא הדיוט בשבועה תבעיה וכפריה ואואין הנך נפישין,אלא מאי חוכא,כי אתא רב פפא ורב הונא בריה דרב יהושע מבי רב אמרי היינו חוכא מכדי ר"ש ג"ש גמיר למה ליה דפריך מה לפקדון שכן לא עשה בו מושבע כנשבע מזיד כשוגג,ומאי חוכא דלמא כי פריך מקמי דתיקום ליה ג"ש בתר דקמא ליה ג"ש לא פריך,ולא והאמר להו רבא בר איתי לרבנן מאן תנא שבועת הפקדון לא ניתן זדונה לכפרה ר"ש היא,דלמא מזיד כשוגג פריך דגמר לה ממעילה דהנך נפישין אבל מושבע כנשבע לא פריך,ותהדר עדות ותגמר לה מפקדון מזיד דלאו כשוגג מה פקדון שוגג אין מזיד לא אף עדות שוגג אין מזיד לא כי היכי דיליף פקדון ממעילה 34b. band witnesses see himcounting the money bfrom outside, whatis the ihalakha /i? Is their testimony accepted?, bRav Hamnuna said toRav Yehuda: bAnd what does the otherperson bclaimin response to the demand for repayment? bIf he says:These bmatters never happened, he assumes the presumptive status of a denierof the truth, as the witnesses testify that they saw the claimant counting the money and giving it to him. bIf he says: Yes, I tookmoney from him, bbutit is bmymoney that bI took,then bwhenthe bwitnesses comeand testify that they saw the claimant counting the money and giving it to him, bwhat of it?The testimony of the witnesses does not contradict his claim, as the witnesses do not know the circumstances under which the money changed hands. Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: Are you Hamnuna? Enterand bcomeinto the study hall, as you make your teacher wiser.,The Gemara relates a similar incident: There was ba certainindividual bwho said to another: I counted for youand gave you bone hundred dinarsas a loan balongside this column.The other person bsaid to himin response: bI did not pass alongside this column. Two witnesses came and testified about himthat they saw bthat he urinated alongside this column. Reish Lakish said: He assumes the presumptive status of a denierof the truth, as the testimony of witnesses proves that he passed alongside the column., bRav Naḥman objects to this: That is a rulingcharacteristic of ba Persiancourt, not a reasonable ruling characteristic of a Jewish court. bDidthe respondent bsaythat he bneverpassed alongside the column? It was that he did not pass alongside the column binthe context of bthis matterthat bhe said to himthat he did not pass the column; therefore, the testimony of the witnesses does not contradict his statement., bThere arethose bwho saythat the incident transpired a bit differently. There was ba certainindividual bwho said to another: I counted for youand gave you bone hundred dinarsas a loan balongside this column.The other person bsaid to himin response: bI never passed alongside this column. Witnesses emergedand testified bconcerning him that he urinated alongside this column. Rav Naḥman said: He assumes the presumptive status of a denierof the truth, as the witnesses contradicted his claim., bRava said to Rav Naḥman:There is no proof from here that he assumes the presumptive status of a denier, as bany matter that is not incumbent upon a personto remember, bhe performs it and it is not on his mind.Therefore, when he denied ever passing alongside the column, it was because there was never any reason for him to remember that he had been there.,§ The Gemara proceeds to cite the opinion cited last in the ibaraitaexplaining the source of the ihalakhathat one is liable for taking a false oath of testimony only for a case involving monetary matters. bRabbi Shimon says:The Torah brenderedone bliableif he takes a false oath bhere,with regard to an oath of testimony, bandthe Torah brenderedone bliableif he takes a false oath bwith regard toan oath on ba deposit;just as there, the verse is speaking of liability only in cases involving monetary claims, so too here, the verse is speaking of liability only in cases involving monetary claims., bThey mockedthis proof bin the West,i.e., Eretz Yisrael. The Gemara asked: bWhatis worthy of bmockeryin the statement of Rabbi Shimon?,The Gemara explains that they mocked bthatwhich the ibaraita bteachesin the continuation, rejecting the ia fortioriinference suggested by Rabbi Shimon: bWhatis notable baboutthe case of ba deposit?It is notable in bthat with regard toa deposit the Torah bdid not renderthe halakhic status of bone to whom an oath was administeredby others blikethat of bone whohimself btook an oath,as one to whom an oath was administered by others is exempt; and the Torah did not render the halakhic status of one who takes ban intentionalfalse oath blikethat of one who takes ban unwittingfalse oath.,This rejection is difficult: bNow,with regard to the fact that bone who administered an oath to himselfis liable binthe case of an oath of btestimony, from whereis it derived baccording to Rabbi Shimon?Rabbi Shimon bderivesit by means of a verbal analogy bfroman oath on ba deposit.If so, based on the same verbal analogy, in the case of an oath on ba deposit too, let us derive fromthe case of an oath of btestimonythe fact that one is liable for a false boaththat bwas administered by others. /b,The Gemara rejects this: bAnd whatis worthy of bmockeryin that statement? bPerhaps Rabbi Shimondoes not derive that one who takes a false oath of testimony on his own is liable by means of a verbal analogy from an oath on a deposit; rather, bhe derives it by means of an ia fortiori /iinference: If bone is liablefor a false oath of testimony badministered by others, is it not all the more sothat he is liable for an oath that he takes bon his own? /b,The Gemara answers: bRather, the mockery is with regard tothe distinction between an oath on a deposit and an oath of testimony in the matter of whether the halakhic status of one who takes ban intentionalfalse oath is blikethat of one who takes ban unwittingfalse oath, bas it teachesin the ibaraita /i: bWhatis notable baboutthe case of ba deposit?It is notable in bthat with regard toa deposit the Torah bdid not renderthe halakhic status of bone to whom an oath was administeredby others blikethat of bone whohimself btook an oath,as one to whom an oath was administered by others is exempt; and the Torah did not render the halakhic status of one who takes ban intentionalfalse oath blikethat of one who takes ban unwittingfalse oath., bNow, from where does hederive that one who takes ban intentionalfalse oath of btestimonyis liable? He derives it bas it is not written inthe context of an oath of testimony: bAnd it is hidden. Here too, it is not written inthe context of an oath on a deposit: bAnd it is hidden.Therefore, there should be no distinction between intentional and unwitting with regard to an oath on a deposit either., bRav Huna said tothe Sages: bAnd whatis worthy of bmockeryin that statement? bPerhapsthe fact bthatthe halakhic status of one who takes ban intentionalfalse oath bis not likethat of one who takes ban unwittingfalse oath binthe case of ba deposit,and it is bfromthe ihalakhotof bmisuseof consecrated property that bRabbi Shimon derived it.Just as one is liable to bring a guilt-offering for the misuse of consecrated property only if he did so unwittingly, one is liable to bring a guilt-offering for a false oath on a deposit only if he unwittingly took the false oath.,The Gemara answers: bAnd that iswhat is worthy of bmockery. Instead of derivingthe lack of liability for an intentional false oath of deposit bfromthe case of bmisuseof consecrated property, blet him deriveliability for an intentional false oath on a deposit bfromthe case of an oath of btestimony. /b,The Gemara rejects this: bIt stands to reasonthat bhe should have derivedit bfromthe case of bmisuseof consecrated property, basthat is a derivation of bmisusewritten with regard to an oath on a deposit: “If any one shall sin and commits an act of misuse and dealt falsely with his colleague in a matter of deposit” (Leviticus 5:21), which is derived bfrom misusewritten with regard to misuse of consecrated property: “If any one commits an act of misuse and sinned unwittingly from items consecrated to the Lord” (Leviticus 5:15).,The Gemara asks: bOn the contrary, he should have derivedit bfromthe case of an oath of btestimony, asthat is a derivation of b“shall sin”written with regard to an oath on a deposit which is derived bfrom “shall sin”written with regard to an oath of testimony: “And if any one shall sin and he hears the voice of an oath, and he is a witness” (Leviticus 5:1).,The Gemara rejects this: bIt stands to reasonthat it is bfromthe case of bmisuseof consecrated property that bhe should have derivedit, basthere are many elements common to an oath on a deposit and misuse of consecrated property represented by the mnemonic: bMisuse, with regard to all, derive benefit, with fixed, one-fifth, and guilt-offering.The term misuse is employed in both cases. Both cases are relevant with regard to all individuals and not only those fit to testify. Both involve one deriving benefit from property that is not his. In both cases, one is liable to bring a fixed guilt-offering, as opposed to one who takes a false oath of testimony, who is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering. In both cases, one adds one-fifth to the payment of the principal. In both cases, that is the offering with which one gains atonement.,The Gemara rejects this: bOn the contrary, he should have derivedthe ihalakhawith regard to an oath on a deposit bfromthe ihalakhaof an oath of btestimony, asthere are many elements common to both oaths represented by the mnemonic: bSin, ordinary[ihedyot/b], bwith an oath, claimedfrom bhim, denied hisclaim, bandmultiple instances of the term b“or.”The term “shall sin” is written in both contexts. Both oaths relate to the property of ordinary individuals, not to consecrated property. In both cases there is a claim presented by one of the parties and denial of that claim by the one taking the oath. Multiple instances of the term “or” appear in both passages in the Torah. The Gemara responds: bTheseelements common to an oath on a deposit and misuse of consecrated property are more bnumerousthan the elements common to an oath on a deposit and an oath of testimony., bRather,after resolving all the difficulties that were raised against the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, the question remains: bWhatdid the Sages of Eretz Yisrael find that is worthy of bmockeryin that ibaraita /i?, bWhen Rav Pappa and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, came from the study hall oftheir bteacher, they said: This iswhat is worthy of bmockery: Now,since ultimately bRabbi Shimon derivesthe ihalakhaby means of ba verbal analogybetween the term “shall sin” written with regard to an oath on a deposit and the term “shall sin” written with regard to an oath of testimony, bwhyis it bthat he refutesthe parallel between them by saying: bWhatis notable baboutthe case of ba deposit?It is notable in bthat with regard toa deposit the Torah bdid not renderthe halakhic status of bone to whom an oath was administeredby others blikethat of bone whohimself btook an oath,as one to whom an oath was administered by others is exempt; and the Torah did not render the halakhic status of one who takes ban intentionalfalse oath blikethat of one who takes ban unwittingfalse oath. Rabbi Shimon should have derived by means of the verbal analogy that all the ihalakhotof an oath of testimony and all the ihalakhotof an oath on a deposit are identical.,The Gemara rejects this: bAnd whatis worthy of bmockeryin that statement? bPerhaps whenRabbi Shimon brefutedthe parallel between the two oaths, it was bprior to the verbal analogy being established for him,and the derivation was by means of a paradigm. bAfter the verbal analogy was established for him, he does not refutethe parallel and holds that in the case of an oath on a deposit one is liable to bring a guilt-offering for false oaths administered by others as well as for intentional false oaths.,The Gemara asks: bAnddoes Rabbi Shimon bnotrefute the parallel between the two oaths? bBut didn’t Rava bar Ittai say to the Sages: Whois the itannawho btaughtwith regard to ban oath on a depositthat batonementby means of an offering bis not possiblefor one who takes ban intentionalfalse oath? bIt is Rabbi Shimon.Apparently, Rabbi Shimon concludes that there remains a distinction between intentional and unwitting in the case of an oath on a deposit.,The Gemara suggests: bPerhapswith regard to the halakhic status of one who takes ban intentionalfalse oath being blikethat of one who takes ban unwittingfalse oath, Rabbi Shimon brefutesthe parallel between the two oaths even after the verbal analogy is established for him, bas he derivesthe ihalakhaof an oath on a deposit bfromthe ihalakhaof bmisuseof consecrated property, where there is a distinction between intentional and unwitting, bas thoseelements common to an oath on a deposit and the misuse of consecrated property are more bnumerousthan the elements common to an oath on a deposit and an oath of testimony. bBut he does not refutethe parallel between the two oaths with the claim that there is a distinction between them with regard to whether the halakhic status of bone to whom an oath was administeredby others is blikethat of bone whohimself btook an oath.Once the verbal analogy was established for him, there is no longer a distinction between the two oaths in that regard.,The Gemara asks: If, according to Rabbi Shimon, based on the derivation from the misuse of consecrated property, one who intentionally takes a false oath on a deposit does not bring a guilt-offering like one who took the false oath unwittingly, bletthe discussion of the case of an oath of btestimony returnto the verbal analogy band derive it fromthe case of an oath on ba deposit thatthe halakhic status of one who takes ban intentionalfalse oath bis not likethat of one who takes ban unwittingfalse oath. bJust asin the case of an oath on ba deposit,one who takes ban unwittingfalse oath, byes,he is liable to bring a guilt-offering, and one who takes ban intentionalfalse oath, bno,he is not liable, bso too,in the case of an oath of btestimony,one who takes ban unwittingfalse oath, byes,he is liable to bring a sin-offering, and one who takes ban intentionalfalse oath, bno,he is not liable, bjust as he derivesthe case of an oath on ba deposit fromthe case of bmisuseof consecrated property.
61. John Chrysostom, Against The Jews, 1.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

62. Theodosius Ii Emperor of Rome, Theodosian Code, 7.8.2 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

63. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 15 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

64. Procopius, On Buildings, 6.2 (6th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

65. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 304-306, 176

176. When they entered with the gifts which had been sent with them and the valuable parchments, on which the law was inscribed in gold in Jewish characters, for the parchment was wonderfully prepared and the connexion between the pages had been so effected as to be invisible, the king as soon


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acts, synagogues, synagogues, near water Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 302
adultery Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 96
adversus ioudaios writings Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 83
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
ancient synagogue, out-of-the-sunagôgê Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 276
ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in john Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 276
ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in justin martyr Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 276
apistein Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
apistia, apistos Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
apostates/apostasy Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
apostles decree Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
archaeology, arch(a)eological Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
aristion and the elder john, papias as direct witness to Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
arkhisunagôgeus Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 276
atonement Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 74
augustus worship of Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 88
authority, christian sources, early, role of non-intellectual authority in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority, jewish/rabbinic sources, role of oral-traditional authority in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority, of elders Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority, of hearers Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority, oral-traditional Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
authority Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
babylonia Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
baptism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
bauckham, r. Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
baumgarten, joseph Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 31
benovitz, moshe Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 228
biblical purity laws, derivation of rabbinic purity system from Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 57
blessings, purification Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 302
body, fluidity of boundaries and modularity of Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 57
body Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 57
body (human), xv Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
cerinthus Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 61
chain of transmission Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 31
christianity, adversus ioudaios writings of Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 83
clement of alexandria Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
codex tchacos, designation of jesus as rabbi, Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 89
cohen, shaye j. d. Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 229
collins, adela yarbro Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 228, 229
commandment/commandments Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
communication Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
conflict, of jews and christians (parting of the ways) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 176
corpse impurity Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 31
covenant Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 74
critical spatiality Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
cultural clues/codes Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 162
damascus document Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 210
dead sea scrolls Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 210, 213
death, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 278
decalogue, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
devotional purity Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
diaspora Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 285
divorce, law/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 96
divorce bill Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 96
editing (process) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 178, 285
editions, weisse, c.h. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 537
ejaculants/baal qeri Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 404
elders, authority of Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
elite and non-elite, retainers in mark Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 205
elite and non-elite, urban non-elite in mark Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 205
empire Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
epistle, pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 278
eruv as legal fiction Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 228
essenes Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 74; Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 392; Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169; Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 257; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 210, 213
exorcism, violence of Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 127
family Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
fluid Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
food, im/purity of Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 31, 57
food (dietary) laws, kashrut Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133, 519
food laws Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 74
fraade, steven Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 229
furstenberg, yair Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 57
galilee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
gentile/gentiles Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133, 285
gentiles Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 74
gnosticism, valentinian gnosticism, jewish thought in Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 89
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
graeco-roman medical discourse Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 57
great assembly Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 31
great tradition Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 205
greco-roman world Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
greek syntax, anacoluthon Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 143
greek syntax, direct discourse Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 142
greek syntax, participles Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 142
greek vocables and phrases, αὐτός Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 143
greek vocables and phrases, γάρ Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 142
greek vocables and phrases, ἵνα Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 143
halakah Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 208, 212, 213
halakha, discourse Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 90
halakha, in the new testament Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 96
halakhah, as modality of tradition Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 48
hands, impurity of, washing of Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 31, 57
hands, impurity of Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 31
hands, purity of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17, 133
handwashing Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
health, of urban non-elite Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 205
hearers, authority of Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
heretics as mocking realists Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 228, 229
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
herodian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 519
high (chief) priest Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 178, 519
high conte Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
high priesthood Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17, 519
hillel Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 48
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17, 285
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
historical ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 96
houses, im/purity of Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 31
idols, food offered to Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
interpretation of the torah Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 120
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374
intertextuality Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 27
irenaeus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 285
irrationality of torah, rabbinic responses to Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 264
jerome Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
jerusalem temple, rejection in gnostic thought of Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 89
jerusalemite Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 178
jesus, and torah observance Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 392
jesus, designation of rabbi for Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 89
jesus Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 31, 57; Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 120; Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 83; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17, 519
jesus of nazareth Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 47
jesus on the irrationality of the law, as mocking realist Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 228, 229, 264
jesus—see also christianity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374, 495
jewish-christian group, commmunity Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 176
jewish-christian tradition, custom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 178, 285
jews and judaism, on oral-traditional authority Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
john Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 83
john (the baptist) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 178
john the baptist Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 281
josephus Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 120; Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
judaism, rabbinic judaism Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 211
judas, designation of jesus as rabbi by Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 89
judea (region) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
judeans Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 205
kashrut Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 31
kosher laws Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 392
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374
law\n, jewish law Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 209
levitical/ritual purity Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
liquids, transmission and duplication of impurity by Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 31
low conte Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
luke Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 83
mack, b. Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 128
mark, gospel of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 205
mark, linguistic usage Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 142, 143
mark Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 83; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 285
martin, dale Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 57
mary magdalene (also, gospel of) Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 61
matthew, gospel of Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 392
matthew Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 83
meir, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
menstruants/niddah, and the sacred Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 404
menstruants/niddah, social isolation Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 404
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374, 495
mikva, mikvaot (ritual bathhouse) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
mishnah, the Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 392
mishnah Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 211
mockery, in rabbinic literature Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 228, 229, 264
model, pauline Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 278
moral purity Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
moses Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495; Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 392; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 96; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 213
munck, johannes Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
nan, assumptions Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
nan, audience Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
nan, author Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
nathanael Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 178
nero persecution of christians Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 88
new testament, and adversus ioudaios Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 83
new testament—see also, christianity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
nicodemus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 178
nominalism, legal, mockery of Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 228, 229
oath Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 210, 211
old age Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 278
ophites Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 61
oral-traditional authority, use in early christian sources Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
orality Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374
pagan, paganism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
palestinian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 176
papias of hieropolis, aristion and the elder john, as direct witness to Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
papias of hieropolis, oral-traditional authority in work of Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
papias of hieropolis, tannaim and rabbinic parallels Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
patriarchs, texts Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374
paul Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 83
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 96, 133
peter's vision, abolitionist reading" Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 27
peter's vision, halakhic perspectives" Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 90
peter, designation of jesus as rabbi by Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 89
peter-cornelius narrative and visions, intertextual approaches, nt Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 27
peter-cornelius narrative and visions, intertextual approaches, ot Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 27
peter Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 88
peter (cephas, simon –) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 285
pharisaic-rabbinic (tradition) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 176
pharisaic tradition/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
pharisees, in christian literature Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 47, 48
pharisees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374, 495
pharisees Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169; Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 31, 57; Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 74; Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 120; Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 392; Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 47, 48; Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 257, 281, 282, 283; Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 31; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213
philo Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 211, 213
phylacteries Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 392
physical description, senex Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 278
place Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 278
pluralism Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
poirer, john Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 57
pontius pilate Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 176, 178
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374, 495
priestly code Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 31
private Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
prophecy, prophetic dreams and visions Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 27
pseudepigrapha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 176
public Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
purification ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133, 176
purity, impurity, defilement, cleansing Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 90
purity, ritual Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 211, 212, 213
purity/impurity Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 74
purity (see also food laws) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17, 133, 285, 519
purity laws Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17, 133
purity system Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
q source Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 47
qumran Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 212, 213
qumran and qumranic texts Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 31
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 96
qumran halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 96
qumran jews, exclusion of women from jerusalem Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 404
rabbinic, halakhic discourse Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 90
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 96
rabbis / rabbinic judaism Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 211
rationality of torah, in rabbinic sources Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 264
realism, legal, and heretics Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 228, 229
realism, legal, and jesus Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 228, 229, 264
realism, legal, and sadducees Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 228
realism, legal, in rabbinic sources' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 229
redaction/writing of mishna Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
reliance, on unreliable people Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
revelation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374
revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
ritual baths (miqvaot) Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
ritual purity, maintained beyond the temple Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
roman empire Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
rome connecting mark to Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 88
sabbath, law Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 90
sabbath Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133, 519; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 208, 209
sacrifice Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 27
sadducees, as mocking realists Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 228
sadducees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374, 495
sadducees Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 120; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 178
samaritan Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 178
samaritans Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
sanctity, synagogue/proseuche Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 302
sanctity, torah, torah shrine Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 302
sanctity of, courtyard Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 302
sanctity of, fountains Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 302
scale Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
schweitzer, a. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 537
schweitzer, quest, holtzmann, h.j. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 537
schweitzer, quest, mission of the twelve Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 537
scriptures, interpretation of, as basis for pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
self-trust, negative Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
service to god or christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17, 519
shammai Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 48
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
sin Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 212
sinai, mount Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374, 495
social location, marks gospel Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 205
social stratification Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 205
space Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
spirit, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 264
spiritual purity Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 133
stone vessels Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
style Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
synagogue Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 278; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 176
synagogues Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
synoptic, gospels Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 176, 178, 519
synoptic, tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 96, 176, 519
syria Peppard, The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context (2011) 88
talmud, babylonian Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 392
talmud, jerusalem Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 392
tannaic halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
tannaim, oral-traditional authority in Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
tannaim, papias, parallels to Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 169
target Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 207
temple scroll Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 31
theft Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 176
therapaeutae Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
thomas Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 83
thought, stages in galilean ministry Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 537
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 96
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 374, 495
torah (law) Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 392
tradition, of the fathers/ancestors Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 47, 48
tradition, pharisaic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 47, 48
traditions of the fathers/elders Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 31
transmission and contraction of impurity Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 31
washing of hand Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 17
water, location of synagogues near Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 302