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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8257
New Testament, Mark, 12.29-12.30


ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι Πρώτη ἐστίν Ἄκουε, Ἰσραήλ, Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν κύριος εἷς ἐστίνJesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one:


καὶ ἀγαπήσεις Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς διανοίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος σου.you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

51 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.2, 4.35, 6.4-6.9, 24.1-24.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. וְאֶתְכֶם לָקַח יְהוָה וַיּוֹצִא אֶתְכֶם מִכּוּר הַבַּרְזֶל מִמִּצְרָיִם לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְעַם נַחֲלָה כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 4.2. לֹא תֹסִפוּ עַל־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם וְלֹא תִגְרְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם׃ 4.35. אַתָּה הָרְאֵתָ לָדַעַת כִּי יְהוָה הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים אֵין עוֹד מִלְבַדּוֹ׃ 6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.6. וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־לְבָבֶךָ׃ 6.7. וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 6.8. וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃ 6.9. וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 24.1. כִּי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵעֲךָ מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה לֹא־תָבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲבֹט עֲבֹטוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינָיו כִּי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ׃ 24.2. וְיָצְאָה מִבֵּיתוֹ וְהָלְכָה וְהָיְתָה לְאִישׁ־אַחֵר׃ 24.2. כִּי תַחְבֹּט זֵיתְךָ לֹא תְפָאֵר אַחֲרֶיךָ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה׃ 24.3. וּשְׂנֵאָהּ הָאִישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ אוֹ כִי יָמוּת הָאִישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן אֲשֶׁר־לְקָחָהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 24.4. לֹא־יוּכַל בַּעְלָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר־שִׁלְּחָהּ לָשׁוּב לְקַחְתָּהּ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר הֻטַּמָּאָה כִּי־תוֹעֵבָה הִוא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְלֹא תַחֲטִיא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃ 4.2. Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you." 4.35. Unto thee it was shown, that thou mightiest know that the LORD, He is God; there is none else beside Him." 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 6.6. And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart;" 6.7. and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 6.8. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes." 6.9. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates." 24.1. When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house," 24.2. and she departeth out of his house, and goeth and becometh another man’s wife," 24.3. and the latter husband hateth her, and writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house; or if the latter husband die, who took her to be his wife;" 24.4. her former husband, who sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled; for that is abomination before the LORD; and thou shalt not cause the land to sin, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.6, 12.3, 20.12, 21.23-21.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וַיַּסְתֵּר מֹשֶׁה פָּנָיו כִּי יָרֵא מֵהַבִּיט אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 12.3. וַיָּקָם פַּרְעֹה לַיְלָה הוּא וְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וְכָל־מִצְרַיִם וַתְּהִי צְעָקָה גְדֹלָה בְּמִצְרָיִם כִּי־אֵין בַּיִת אֲשֶׁר אֵין־שָׁם מֵת׃ 12.3. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בֶּעָשֹׂר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְיִקְחוּ לָהֶם אִישׁ שֶׂה לְבֵית־אָבֹת שֶׂה לַבָּיִת׃ 20.12. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 21.23. וְאִם־אָסוֹן יִהְיֶה וְנָתַתָּה נֶפֶשׁ תַּחַת נָפֶשׁ׃ 21.24. עַיִן תַּחַת עַיִן שֵׁן תַּחַת שֵׁן יָד תַּחַת יָד רֶגֶל תַּחַת רָגֶל׃ 21.25. כְּוִיָּה תַּחַת כְּוִיָּה פֶּצַע תַּחַת פָּצַע חַבּוּרָה תַּחַת חַבּוּרָה׃ 3.6. Moreover He said: ‘I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God." 12.3. Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying: In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to their fathers’houses, a lamb for a household;" 20.12. Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 21.23. But if any harm follow, then thou shalt give life for life," 21.24. eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot," 21.25. burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 5.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.1. זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֹתוֹ׃ 5.1. וַיְחִי אֱנוֹשׁ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־קֵינָן חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.1. This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 4.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. אָלֹה וְכַחֵשׁ וְרָצֹחַ וְגָנֹב וְנָאֹף פָּרָצוּ וְדָמִים בְּדָמִים נָגָעוּ׃ 4.2. Swearing and lying, and killing, and stealing, and committing adultery! They break all bounds, and blood toucheth blood."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD."
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 27.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.18. נֹצֵר תְּאֵנָה יֹאכַל פִּרְיָהּ וְשֹׁמֵר אֲדֹנָיו יְכֻבָּד׃ 27.18. Whoso keepeth the fig-tree shall eat the fruit thereof; And he that waiteth on his master shall be honoured."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 110.1, 110.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 110.4. נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה וְלֹא יִנָּחֵם אַתָּה־כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם עַל־דִּבְרָתִי מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק׃ 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'" 110.4. The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent: 'Thou art a priest for ever After the manner of Melchizedek.'"
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 56.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

56.7. וַהֲבִיאוֹתִים אֶל־הַר קָדְשִׁי וְשִׂמַּחְתִּים בְּבֵית תְּפִלָּתִי עוֹלֹתֵיהֶם וְזִבְחֵיהֶם לְרָצוֹן עַל־מִזְבְּחִי כִּי בֵיתִי בֵּית־תְּפִלָּה יִקָּרֵא לְכָל־הָעַמִּים׃ 56.7. Even them will I bring to My holy mountain, And make them joyful in My house of prayer; Their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices Shall be acceptable upon Mine altar; For My house shall be called A house of prayer for all peoples."
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.9, 7.11, 31.31-31.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.9. הֲגָנֹב רָצֹחַ וְנָאֹף וְהִשָּׁבֵעַ לַשֶּׁקֶר וְקַטֵּר לַבָּעַל וְהָלֹךְ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְדַעְתֶּם׃ 7.11. הַמְעָרַת פָּרִצִים הָיָה הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא־שְׁמִי עָלָיו בְּעֵינֵיכֶם גַּם אָנֹכִי הִנֵּה רָאִיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 31.32. לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.34. וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃ 7.9. Will ye steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear falsely, and offer unto Baal, and walk after other gods whom ye have not known," 7.11. Is this house, whereupon My name is called, become a den of robbers in your eyes? Behold, I, even I, have seen it, saith the LORD." 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;" 31.32. not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD." 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;" 31.34. and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more."
10. Anon., Testament of Benjamin, 8.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.3. For as the sun is not defiled by shining on dung and mire, but rather drieth up both and driveth away the evil smell; so also the pure mind, though encompassed by the defilements of earth, rather cleanseth (them) and is not itself defiled.
11. Anon., Testament of Dan, 5.1-5.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.1. Observe, therefore, my children, the commandments of the Lord, And keep His law; Depart from wrath, And hate lying, That the Lord may dwell among you, And Beliar may flee from you. 5.2. Speak truth each one with his neighbour. So shall ye not fall into wrath and confusion; But ye shall be in peace, having the God of peace, So shall no war prevail over you.
12. Anon., Testament of Gad, 6.1-6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. AND now, my children, I exhort you, love ye each one his brother, and put away hatred from your hearts, love one another in deed, and in word, and in the inclination of the soul. 6.2. For in the presence of my father I spake peaceably to Joseph; and when I had gone out, the spirit of hatred darkened my mind, and stirred up my soul to slay him. 6.3. Love ye one another from the heart; and if a man sin against thee, speak peaceably to him, and in thy soul hold not guile; and if he repent and confess, forgive him. 6.4. But if he deny it, do not get into a passion with him, lest catching the poison from thee he take to swearing and so thou sin doubly. 6.5. Let not another man hear thy secrets when engaged in legal strife, lest he come to hate thee and become thy enemy, and commit a great sin against thee; for ofttimes he addresseth thee guilefully or busieth himself about thee with wicked intent. 6.6. And though he deny it and yet have a sense of shame when reproved, give over reproving him. For be who denieth may repent so as not again to wrong thee; yea, he may also honour thee, and fear and be at peace with thee. 6.7. And if he be shameless and persist in his wrong-doing, even so forgive him from the heart, and leave to God the avenging.
13. Anon., Testament of Issachar, 5.2, 7.6-7.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 10.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 6.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.11. וְדָנִיֵּאל כְּדִי יְדַע דִּי־רְשִׁים כְּתָבָא עַל לְבַיְתֵהּ וְכַוִּין פְּתִיחָן לֵהּ בְּעִלִּיתֵהּ נֶגֶד יְרוּשְׁלֶם וְזִמְנִין תְּלָתָה בְיוֹמָא הוּא בָּרֵךְ עַל־בִּרְכוֹהִי וּמְצַלֵּא וּמוֹדֵא קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־הֲוָא עָבֵד מִן־קַדְמַת דְּנָה׃ 6.11. And when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house—now his windows were open in his upper chamber toward Jerusalem—and he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime."
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.63 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.63. And there are, as we may say, two most especially important heads of all the innumerable particular lessons and doctrines; the regulating of one's conduct towards God by the rules of piety and holiness, and of one's conduct towards men by the rules of humanity and justice; each of which is subdivided into a great number of subordinate ideas, all praiseworthy.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 103-104, 106-115, 117, 119, 130, 141, 144, 147, 152, 154-155, 161, 164-169, 171, 51, 57, 66, 80, 90, 95, 102 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

102. Moreover, after the lawgiver has established commandments respecting one's fellow countrymen, he proceeds to show that he looks upon strangers also as worthy of having their interests attended to by his laws, since they have forsaken their natural relations by blood, and their native land and their national customs, and the sacred temples of their gods, and the worship and honour which they had been wont to pay to them, and have migrated with a holy migration, changing their abode of fabulous inventions for that of the certainty and clearness of truth, and of the worship of the one true and living God.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.31 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.31. He, then, being a sovereign of this character, and having conceived a great admiration for and love of the legislation of Moses, conceived the idea of having our laws translated into the Greek language; and immediately he sent out ambassadors to the high-priest and king of Judea, for they were the same person.
19. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.31-1.43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker. 1.32. And we must consider that the man who was formed of earth, means the mind which is to be infused into the body, but which has not yet been so infused. And this mind would be really earthly and corruptible, if it were not that God had breathed into it the spirit of genuine life; for then it "exists," and is no longer made into a soul; and its soul is not inactive, and incapable of proper formation, but a really intellectual and living one. "For man," says Moses, "became a living soul." XIII. 1.33. But some one may ask, why God thought an earth-born mind, which was wholly devoted to the body, worthy of divine inspiration, and yet did not treat the one made after his own idea and image in the same manner. In the second place he may ask, what is the meaning of the expression "breathed into." And thirdly, why he breathed into his face: fourthly also, why, since he knew the name of the Spirit when he says, "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the Waters," he now speaks of breath, and not of the Spirit. 1.34. Now in reply to the first question we must say this one thing; God being very munificent gives his good things to all men, even to those who are not perfect; inviting them to a participation and rivalry in virtue, and at the same time displaying his abundant riches, and showing that it is sufficient for those also who will not be greatly benefited by it; and he also shows this in the most evident manner possible in other cases; for when he rains on the sea, and when he raises up fountains in desert places, and waters shallow and rough and unproductive land, making the rivers to overflow with floods, what else is he doing but displaying the great abundance of his riches and of his goodness? This is the cause why he has created no soul in such a condition as to be wholly barren of good, even if the employment of that good be beyond the reach of some people. 1.35. We must also give a second reason, which is this: Moses wished to represent all the actions of the Deity as just--therefore a man who had not had a real life breathed into him, but who was ignorant of virtue, when he was chastised for the sins which he had committed would say that he was punished unjustly, in that it was only through ignorance of what was good that he had erred respecting it; and that he was to blame who had not breathed any proper wisdom into him; and perhaps he will even say, that he has absolutely committed no offence whatever; since some people affirm that actions done involuntarily and in ignorance have not the nature of offences. 1.36. Now the expression "breathed into" is equivalent to "inspired," or "gave life to" things iimate: for let us take care that we are never filled with such absurdity as to think that God employs the organs of the mouth or nostrils for the purpose of breathing into anything; for God is not only devoid of peculiar qualities, but he is likewise not of the form of man, and the use of these words shows some more secret mystery of nature; 1.37. for there must be three things, that which breathes in, that which receives what is breathed in, and that which is breathed in. Now that which breathes in is God, that which receives what is breathed in is the mind, and that which is breathed in is the spirit. What then is collected from these three things? A union of the three takes place, through God extending the power, which proceeds from himself through the spirit, which is the middle term, as far as the subject. Why does he do this, except that we may thus derive a proper notion of him? 1.38. Since how could the soul have perceived God if he had not inspired it, and touched it according to his power? For human intellect would not have dared to mount up to such a height as to lay claim to the nature of God, if God himself had not drawn it up to himself, as far as it was possible for the mind of man to be drawn up, and if he had not formed it according to those powers which can be comprehended. 1.39. And God breathed into man's face both physically and morally. Physically, when he placed the senses in the face: and this portion of the body above all others is vivified and inspired; and morally, in this manner, as the face is the domit portion of the body, so also is the mind the domit portion of the soul. It is into this alone that God breathes; but the other parts, the sensations, the power of speech, and the power of generation, he does not think worthy of his breath, for they are inferior in power. 1.40. By what then were these subordinate parts inspired? beyond all question by the mind; for of the qualities which the mind has received form God, it gives a share to the irrational portion of the soul, so that the mind is vivified by God, and the irrational part of the soul by the mind; for the mind is as it were a god to the irrational part of the soul, for which reason Moses did not hesitate to call it "the god of Pharaoh. 1.41. For of all created things some are created by God, and through him: some not indeed by God, but yet through him: and the rest have their existence both by him and through him. At all events Moses as he proceeds says, that God planted a paradise, and among the best things as made both by God and through God, is the mind. But the irrational part of the soul was made indeed by God but not through God, but through the reasoning power which bears rule and sovereignty in the soul; 1.42. and Moses has used the word "breath," not "spirit," as there is a difference between the two words; for spirit is conceived of according to strength, and intensity, and power; but breath is a gentle and moderate kind of breeze and exhalation; therefore the mind, which was created in accordance with the image and idea of God, may be justly said to partake in his spirit, for its reasoning has strength: but that which is derived from matter is only a partaker in a thin and very light air, being as it were a sort of exhalation, such as arises from spices; for they, although they be preserved intact, and are not exposed to fire or fumigation, do nevertheless emit a certain fragrance. XIV. 1.43. And God planted a paradise in Eden, in the east: and there he placed the man whom he had Formed:" for he called that divine and heavenly wisdom by many names; and he made it manifest that it had many appellations; for he called it the beginning, and the image, and the sight of God. And now he exhibits the wisdom which is conversant about the things of the earth (as being an imitation of this archetypal wisdom), in the plantation of this Paradise. For let not such impiety ever occupy our thoughts as for us to suppose that God cultivates the land and plants paradises, since if we were to do so, we should be presently raising the question of why he does so: for it could not be that he might provide himself with pleasant places of recreation and pastime, or with amusement.
20. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 172, 171 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

171. The fifth commandment is about the honour due to parents. For this also is a sacred command; having reference not to men, but to him who is the cause of birth and existence of the universe, in accordance with whom it is that fathers and mothers appear to generate children; not generating them themselves, but only being the instruments of generation in his hands.
21. Anon., Didache, 1.2, 4.10, 7.4, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Clement of Rome, 2 Clement, 5.5, 6.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.5. καὶ γινώσκετε, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι ἡ ἐπιδημία ἡ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ τούτῳ τῆς σαρκὸς ταύτης μικρά ἐστιν καὶ ὀλιγοχρόνιος, ἡ δὲ ἐπαγγελία τοῦ Χριστοῦ μεγάλη καὶ θαυμαστή ἐστιν, καὶ ἀνάπαυσις τῆς μελλούσης βασιλείας καὶ ζωῆς αἰωνίου. 6.9. εἰ δὲ καὶ οἱ τοιοῦτοι δίκαιοι οὐ δύνανται ταῖς ἑαυτῶν δικαιοσύναις ῥύσασθαι τὰ τέκνα αὐτῶν, ἡμεῖς, ἐὰν μὴ τηρήσωμεν τὸ βάπτισμα ἁγνὸν καὶ ἀμίαντον, Cf. Mt. 22. 11 ff. ποίᾳ πεποιθήσει εἰσελευσόμεθα εἰς τὸ βασίλειον τοῦ θεοῦ; ἣ τίς ἡμῶν παράκλητος ἔσται, ἐὰν μὴ εὑρεθῶμεν ἔργα ἔχοντες ὅσια καὶ δίκαια;
23. Epictetus, Discourses, 3.22.54-3.22.55 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.212, 10.255 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.212. 13. Let every one commemorate before God the benefits which he bestowed upon them at their deliverance out of the land of Egypt, and this twice every day, both when the day begins and when the hour of sleep comes on, gratitude being in its own nature a just thing, and serving not only by way of return for past, but also by way of invitation of future favors. 10.255. Accordingly, all the rest took care not to transgress those injunctions, and rested in quiet; but Daniel had no regard to them, but, as he was wont, he stood and prayed to God in the sight of them all;
26. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.139, 6.423 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 6.423. So these high priests, upon the coming of that feast which is called the Passover, when they slay their sacrifices, from the ninth hour till the eleventh, but so that a company not less than ten belong to every sacrifice (for it is not lawful for them to feast singly by themselves), and many of us are twenty in a company
27. Mishnah, Berachot, 1.1-1.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. From what time may one recite the Shema in the evening? From the time that the priests enter [their houses] in order to eat their terumah until the end of the first watch, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say: until midnight. Rabban Gamaliel says: until dawn. Once it happened that his sons came home [late] from a wedding feast and they said to him: we have not yet recited the [evening] Shema. He said to them: if it is not yet dawn you are still obligated to recite. And not in respect to this alone did they so decide, but wherever the sages say “until midnight,” the mitzvah may be performed until dawn. The burning of the fat and the pieces may be performed till dawn. Similarly, all [the offerings] that are to be eaten within one day may be eaten till dawn. Why then did the sages say “until midnight”? In order to keep a man far from transgression." 1.2. From what time may one recite the Shema in the morning?From the time that one can distinguish between blue and white. Rabbi Eliezer says: between blue and green. And he must finish it by sunrise. Rabbi Joshua says: until the third hour of the day, for such is the custom of the children of kings, to rise at the third hour. If one recites the Shema later he loses nothing, like one who reads in the Torah." 1.3. Bet Shammai say: in the evening every man should recline and recite [the Shema], and in the morning he should stand, as it says, “And when you lie down and when you get up” (Deuteronomy 6:7). Bet Hillel say that every man should recite in his own way, as it says, “And when you walk by the way” (ibid). Why then is it said, “And when you lies down and when you get up?” At the time when people lie down and at the time when people rise up. Rabbi Tarfon said: I was once walking by the way and I reclined to recite the Shema according to the words of Bet Shammai, and I incurred danger from robbers. They said to him: you deserved to come to harm, because you acted against the words of Bet Hillel."
28. Mishnah, Shekalim, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. On the fifteenth of [Adar] they would set up tables [of money changers] in the provinces. On the twenty-fifth they set them up in the Temple. When [the tables] were set up in the Temple, they began to exact pledges [from those who had not paid]. From whom did they exact pledges? From Levites and Israelites, converts and freed slaves, but not women or slaves or minors. Any minor on whose behalf his father has begun to pay the shekel, may not discontinue it again. But they did not exact pledges from the priests, because of the ways of peace."
29. New Testament, 1 John, 3.10-3.18, 4.7-4.11, 4.19-4.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. In this the children of God are revealed, and the children of the devil. Whoever doesn't do righteousness is not of God, neither is he who doesn't love his brother. 3.11. For this is the message which you heard from the beginning, that we should love one another; 3.12. unlike Cain, who was of the evil one, and killed his brother. Why did he kill him? Because his works were evil, and his brother's righteous. 3.13. Don't be surprised, my brothers, if the world hates you. 3.14. We know that we have passed out of death into life, because we love the brothers. He who doesn't love his brother remains in death. 3.15. Whoever hates his brother is a murderer, and you know that no murderer has eternal life remaining in him. 3.16. By this we know love, because he laid down his life for us. And we ought to lay down our lives for the brothers. 3.17. But whoever has the world's goods, and sees his brother in need, and closes his heart of compassion against him, how does the love of God remain in him? 3.18. My little children, let's not love in word only, neither with the tongue only, but in deed and truth. 4.7. Beloved, let us love one another, for love is of God; and everyone who loves is born of God, and knows God. 4.8. He who doesn't love doesn't know God, for God is love. 4.9. By this was God's love revealed in us, that God has sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him. 4.10. In this is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son as the atoning sacrifice for our sins. 4.11. Beloved, if God loved us in this way, we also ought to love one another. 4.19. We love Him, because he first loved us. 4.20. If a man says, "I love God," and hates his brother, he is a liar; for he who doesn't love his brother whom he has seen, how can he love God whom he has not seen? 4.21. This commandment we have from him, that he who loves God should also love his brother.
30. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.10-7.16, 8.3, 8.6, 11.23, 13.1-13.13, 14.1-14.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.11. (but if she departs, let her remain unmarried, or else be reconciled toher husband), and that the husband not leave his wife. 7.12. But to the rest I -- not the Lord -- say, if any brother hasan unbelieving wife, and she is content to live with him, let him notleave her. 7.13. The woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he iscontent to live with her, let her not leave her husband. 7.14. For theunbelieving husband is sanctified in the wife, and the unbelieving wifeis sanctified in the husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean,but now are they holy. 7.15. Yet if the unbeliever departs, let therebe separation. The brother or the sister is not under bondage in suchcases, but God has called us in peace. 7.16. For how do you know,wife, whether you will save your husband? Or how do you know, husband,whether you will save your wife? 8.3. But if anyone loves God, the same is known by him. 8.6. yet to us there is one God, the Father, of whom are allthings, and we for him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom areall things, and we live through him. 11.23. For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered toyou, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed tookbread. 13.1. If I speak with the languages of men and of angels, but don'thave love, I have become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal. 13.2. If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and allknowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, butdon't have love, I am nothing. 13.3. If I dole out all my goods tofeed the poor, and if I give my body to be burned, but don't have love,it profits me nothing. 13.4. Love is patient and is kind; love doesn't envy. Love doesn'tbrag, is not proud 13.5. doesn't behave itself inappropriately,doesn't seek its own way, is not provoked, takes no account of evil; 13.6. doesn't rejoice in unrighteousness, but rejoices with the truth; 13.7. bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, enduresall things. 13.8. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies,they will be done away with. Where there are various languages, theywill cease. Where there is knowledge, it will be done away with. 13.9. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part; 13.10. but when thatwhich is complete has come, then that which is partial will be doneaway with. 13.11. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I felt as achild, I thought as a child. Now that I have become a man, I have putaway childish things. 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known. 13.13. But now faith, hope, and love remain-- these three. The greatest of these is love. 14.1. Follow after love, and earnestly desire spiritual gifts, butespecially that you may prophesy. 14.2. For he who speaks in anotherlanguage speaks not to men, but to God; for no one understands; but inthe Spirit he speaks mysteries.
31. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.12, 3.1, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. And I thank him who enabled me, Christ Jesus our Lord, because he counted me faithful, appointing me to service; 3.1. This is a faithful saying: if a man seeks the office of an overseer, he desires a good work. 4.9. This saying is faithful and worthy of all acceptance.
32. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 11.13-11.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

33. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. This saying is faithful: For if we died with him, We will also live with him.
34. New Testament, Acts, 3.1, 6.1-6.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.1. Peter and John were going up into the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth hour. 6.1. Now in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplying, there arose a grumbling of the Grecian Jews against the Hebrews because their widows were neglected in the daily service. 6.2. The twelve summoned the multitude of the disciples and said, "It is not appropriate for us to forsake the word of God and serve tables. 6.3. Therefore select from among you, brothers, seven men of good report, full of the Holy Spirit and of wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business. 6.4. But we will continue steadfastly in prayer and in the ministry of the word. 6.5. These words pleased the whole multitude. They chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, and Nicolaus, a proselyte of Antioch; 6.6. whom they set before the apostles. When they had prayed, they laid their hands on them.
35. New Testament, James, 2.8-2.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. However, if you fulfill the royal law, according to the Scripture, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself," you do well. 2.9. But if you show partiality, you commit sin, being convicted by the law as transgressors. 2.10. For whoever shall keep the whole law, and yet stumble in one point, he has become guilty of all.
36. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.5, 2.19, 5.1-5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 5.1. Be therefore imitators of God, as beloved children. 5.2. Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling fragrance. 5.3. But sexual immorality, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not even be mentioned among you, as becomes saints; 5.4. nor filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not appropriate; but rather giving of thanks. 5.5. Know this for sure, that no sexually immoral person, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the Kingdom of Christ and God. 5.6. Let no one deceive you with empty words. For because of these things, the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 5.7. Therefore don't be partakers with them. 5.8. For you were once darkness, but are now light in the Lord. Walk as children of light 5.9. for the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth 5.10. proving what is well-pleasing to the Lord. 5.11. Have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather even reprove them. 5.12. For the things which are done by them in secret, it is a shame even to speak of. 5.13. But all things, when they are reproved, are revealed by the light, for everything that is revealed is light. 5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you.
37. New Testament, Galatians, 1.6-1.9, 5.6, 5.13-5.15, 5.22-5.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. I marvel that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ to a different gospel; 1.7. and there isn'tanother gospel. Only there are some who trouble you, and want topervert the gospel of Christ. 1.8. But even though we, or an angelfrom heaven, should preach to you any gospel other than that which wepreached to you, let him be cursed. 1.9. As we have said before, so Inow say again: if any man preaches to you any gospel other than thatwhich you received, let him be cursed. 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother. 5.14. For the whole law is fulfilled in one word, in this:"You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 5.15. But if you bite anddevour one another, be careful that you don't consume one another. 5.22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience,kindness, goodness, faithfulness 5.23. gentleness, and self-control.Against such things there is no law. 5.24. Those who belong to Christhave crucified the flesh with its passions and lusts. 5.25. If we liveby the Spirit, let's also walk by the Spirit. 5.26. Let's not becomeconceited, provoking one another, and envying one another.
38. New Testament, Philippians, 3.10-3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead.
39. New Testament, Romans, 1.3-1.4, 8.28-8.29, 12.2, 12.17-12.21, 13.8-13.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 8.28. We know that all things work together for good for those who love God, to those who are called according to his purpose. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 12.2. Don't be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what is the good and acceptable and perfect will of God. 12.17. Repay no one evil for evil. Respect what is honorable in the sight of all men. 12.18. If it is possible, as much as it is up to you, be at peace with all men. 12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 12.20. Therefore "If your enemy is hungry, feed him. If he is thirsty, give him a drink. For in doing so, you will heap coals of fire on his head. 12.21. Don't be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. 13.8. Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. 13.9. For the commandments, "You shall not commit adultery," "You shall not murder," "You shall not steal," "You shall not give false testimony," "You shall not covet," and whatever other commandments there are, are all summed up in this saying, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 13.10. Love doesn't harm a neighbor. Love therefore is the fulfillment of the law.
40. New Testament, Titus, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.8. This saying is faithful, and concerning these things I desire that you affirm confidently, so that those who have believed God may be careful to maintain good works. These things are good and profitable to men;
41. New Testament, John, 1.50, 2.11, 3.1-3.21, 3.34, 4.13-4.15, 4.29, 4.39, 5.31, 6.68, 7.14-7.24, 7.26-7.43, 7.50-7.51, 8.12, 8.14, 10.24-10.26, 12.43, 13.33-13.35, 15.12-15.17, 19.1-19.3, 19.21, 19.39 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.50. Jesus answered him, "Because I told you, 'I saw you underneath the fig tree,' do you believe? You will see greater things than these! 2.11. This beginning of his signs Jesus did in Cana of Galilee, and revealed his glory; and his disciples believed in him. 3.1. Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. 3.2. The same came to him by night, and said to him, "Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him. 3.3. Jesus answered him, "Most assuredly, I tell you, unless one is born anew, he can't see the Kingdom of God. 3.4. Nicodemus said to him, "How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother's womb, and be born? 3.5. Jesus answered, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless one is born of water and spirit, he can't enter into the Kingdom of God! 3.6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh. That which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 3.7. Don't marvel that I said to you, 'You must be born anew.' 3.8. The wind blows where it wants to, and you hear its sound, but don't know where it comes from and where it is going. So is everyone who is born of the Spirit. 3.9. Nicodemus answered him, "How can these things be? 3.10. Jesus answered him, "Are you the teacher of Israel, and don't understand these things? 3.11. Most assuredly I tell you, we speak that which we know, and testify of that which we have seen, and you don't receive our witness. 3.12. If I told you earthly things and you don't believe, how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things? 3.13. No one has ascended into heaven, but he who descended out of heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven. 3.14. As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up 3.15. that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. 3.16. For God so loved the world, that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. 3.17. For God didn't send his Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world should be saved through him. 3.18. He who believes in him is not judged. He who doesn't believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the only born Son of God. 3.19. This is the judgment, that the light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light; for their works were evil. 3.20. For everyone who does evil hates the light, and doesn't come to the light, lest his works would be exposed. 3.21. But he who does the truth comes to the light, that his works may be revealed, that they have been done in God. 3.34. For he whom God has sent speaks the words of God; for God gives the Spirit without measure. 4.13. Jesus answered her, "Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again 4.14. but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst again; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life. 4.15. The woman said to him, "Sir, give me this water, so that I don't get thirsty, neither come all the way here to draw. 4.29. Come, see a man who told me everything that I did. Can this be the Christ? 4.39. From that city many of the Samaritans believed in him because of the word of the woman, who testified, 'He told me everything that I did. 5.31. If I testify about myself, my witness is not valid. 6.68. Simon Peter answered him, "Lord, to whom would we go? You have the words of eternal life. 7.14. But when it was now the midst of the feast, Jesus went up into the temple and taught. 7.15. The Jews therefore marveled, saying, "How does this man know letters, having never been educated? 7.16. Jesus therefore answered them, "My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me. 7.17. If anyone desires to do his will, he will know about the teaching, whether it is from God, or if I am speaking from myself. 7.18. He who speaks from himself seeks his own glory, but he who seeks the glory of him who sent him, the same is true, and no unrighteousness is in him. 7.19. Didn't Moses give you the law, and yet none of you keeps the law? Why do you seek to kill me? 7.20. The multitude answered, "You have a demon! Who seeks to kill you? 7.21. Jesus answered them, "I did one work, and you all marvel because of it. 7.22. Moses has given you circumcision (not that it is of Moses, but of the fathers), and on the Sabbath you circumcise a boy. 7.23. If a boy receives circumcision on the Sabbath, that the law of Moses may not be broken, are you angry with me, because I made a man every bit whole on the Sabbath? 7.24. Don't judge according to appearance, but judge righteous judgment. 7.26. Behold, he speaks openly, and they say nothing to him. Can it be that the rulers indeed know that this is truly the Christ? 7.27. However we know where this man comes from, but when the Christ comes, no one will know where he comes from. 7.28. Jesus therefore cried out in the temple, teaching and saying, "You both know me, and know where I am from. I have not come of myself, but he who sent me is true, whom you don't know. 7.29. I know him, because I am from him, and he sent me. 7.30. They sought therefore to take him; but no one laid a hand on him, because his hour had not yet come. 7.31. But of the multitude, many believed in him. They said, "When the Christ comes, he won't do more signs than those which this man has done, will he? 7.32. The Pharisees heard the multitude murmuring these things concerning him, and the chief priests and the Pharisees sent officers to arrest him. 7.33. Then Jesus said, "I will be with you a little while longer, then I go to him who sent me. 7.34. You will seek me, and won't find me; and where I am, you can't come. 7.35. The Jews therefore said among themselves, "Where will this man go that we won't find him? Will he go to the Dispersion among the Greeks, and teach the Greeks? 7.36. What is this word that he said, 'You will seek me, and won't find me; and where I am, you can't come?' 7.37. Now on the last and greatest day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried out, "If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me and drink! 7.38. He who believes in me, as the Scripture has said, from within him will flow rivers of living water. 7.39. But he said this about the Spirit, which those believing in him were to receive. For the Holy Spirit was not yet given, because Jesus wasn't yet glorified. 7.40. Many of the multitude therefore, when they heard these words, said, "This is truly the prophet. 7.41. Others said, "This is the Christ." But some said, "What, does the Christ come out of Galilee? 7.42. Hasn't the Scripture said that the Christ comes of the seed of David, and from Bethlehem, the village where David was? 7.43. So there arose a division in the multitude because of him. 7.50. Nicodemus (he who came to him by night, being one of them) said to them 7.51. Does our law judge a man, unless it first hears from him personally and knows what he does? 8.12. Again, therefore, Jesus spoke to them, saying, "I am the light of the world. He who follows me will not walk in the darkness, but will have the light of life. 8.14. Jesus answered them, "Even if I testify about myself, my testimony is true, for I know where I came from, and where I am going; but you don't know where I came from, or where I am going. 10.24. The Jews therefore came around him and said to him, "How long will you hold us in suspense? If you are the Christ, tell us plainly. 10.25. Jesus answered them, "I told you, and you don't believe. The works that I do in my Father's name, these testify about me. 10.26. But you don't believe, because you are not of my sheep, as I told you. 12.43. for they loved men's praise more than God's praise. 13.33. Little children, I will be with you a little while longer. You will seek me, and as I said to the Jews, 'Where I am going, you can't come,' so now I tell you. 13.34. A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, just like I have loved you; that you also love one another. 13.35. By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another. 15.12. This is my commandment, that you love one another, even as I have loved you. 15.13. Greater love has no one than this, that someone lay down his life for his friends. 15.14. You are my friends, if you do whatever I command you. 15.15. No longer do I call you servants, for the servant doesn't know what his lord does. But I have called you friends, for everything that I heard from my Father, I have made known to you. 15.16. You didn't choose me, but I chose you, and appointed you, that you should go and bear fruit, and that your fruit should remain; that whatever you will ask of the Father in my name, he may give it to you. 15.17. I command these things to you, that you may love one another. 19.1. So Pilate then took Jesus, and flogged him. 19.2. The soldiers twisted thorns into a crown, and put it on his head, and dressed him in a purple garment. 19.3. They kept saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" and they kept slapping him. 19.21. The chief priests of the Jews therefore said to Pilate, "Don't write, 'The King of the Jews,' but, 'he said, I am King of the Jews.' 19.39. Nicodemus, who at first came to Jesus by night, also came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred Roman pounds.
42. New Testament, Luke, 6.27-6.35, 7.27-7.28, 10.25-10.28, 11.37-11.52, 12.27, 16.8-16.13, 18.30, 20.34-20.35, 20.41-20.44, 22.7-22.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.27. But I tell you who hear: love your enemies, do good to those who hate you 6.28. bless those who curse you, and pray for those who insult you. 6.29. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak, don't withhold your coat also. 6.30. Give to everyone who asks you, and don't ask him who takes away your goods to give them back again. 6.31. As you would like people to do to you, do exactly so to them. 6.32. If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 6.33. If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 6.34. If you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners, to receive back as much. 6.35. But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind toward the unthankful and evil. 7.27. This is he of whom it is written, 'Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you.' 7.28. For I tell you, among those who are born of women there is not a greater prophet than John the Baptizer, yet he who is least in the Kingdom of God is greater than he. 10.25. Behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested him, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? 10.26. He said to him, "What is written in the law? How do you read it? 10.27. He answered, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself. 10.28. He said to him, "You have answered correctly. Do this, and you will live. 11.37. Now as he spoke, a certain Pharisee asked him to dine with him. He went in, and sat at the table. 11.38. When the Pharisee saw it, he marveled that he had not first washed himself before dinner. 11.39. The Lord said to him, "Now you Pharisees cleanse the outside of the cup and of the platter, but your inward part is full of extortion and wickedness. 11.40. You foolish ones, didn't he who made the outside make the inside also? 11.41. But give for gifts to the needy those things which are within, and behold, all things will be clean to you. 11.42. But woe to you Pharisees! For you tithe mint and rue and every herb, but you bypass justice and the love of God. You ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 11.43. Woe to you Pharisees! For you love the best seats in the synagogues, and the greetings in the marketplaces. 11.44. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like hidden graves, and the men who walk over them don't know it. 11.45. One of the lawyers answered him, "Teacher, in saying this you insult us also. 11.46. He said, "Woe to you lawyers also! For you load men with burdens that are difficult to carry, and you yourselves won't even lift one finger to help carry those burdens. 11.47. Woe to you! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and your fathers killed them. 11.48. So you testify and consent to the works of your fathers. For they killed them, and you build their tombs. 11.49. Therefore also the wisdom of God said, 'I will send to them prophets and apostles; and some of them they will kill and persecute 11.50. that the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation; 11.51. from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah, who perished between the altar and the sanctuary.' Yes, I tell you, it will be required of this generation. 11.52. Woe to you lawyers! For you took away the key of knowledge. You didn't enter in yourselves, and those who were entering in, you hindered. 12.27. Consider the lilies, how they grow. They don't toil, neither do they spin; yet I tell you, even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. 16.8. His lord commended the dishonest manager because he had done wisely, for the sons of this world are, in their own generation, wiser than the sons of the light. 16.9. I tell you, make for yourselves friends by means of unrighteous mammon, so that when you fail, they may receive you into the eternal tents. 16.10. He who is faithful in a very little is faithful also in much. He who is dishonest in a very little is also dishonest in much. 16.11. If therefore you have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches? 16.12. If you have not been faithful in that which is another's, who will give you that which is your own? 16.13. No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to one, and despise the other. You aren't able to serve God and mammon. 18.30. who will not receive many times more in this time, and in the world to come, eternal life. 20.34. Jesus said to them, "The sons of this age marry, and are given in marriage. 20.35. But those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage. 20.41. He said to them, "Why do they say that the Christ is David's son? 20.42. David himself says in the book of Psalms, 'The Lord said to my Lord,"Sit at my right hand 20.43. Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet."' 20.44. David therefore calls him Lord, so how is he his son? 22.7. The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed. 22.8. He sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat. 22.9. They said to him, "Where do you want us to prepare? 22.10. He said to them, "Behold, when you have entered into the city, a man carrying a pitcher of water will meet you. Follow him into the house which he enters. 22.11. Tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"' 22.12. He will show you a large, furnished upper room. Make preparations there. 22.13. They went, found things as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover.
43. New Testament, Mark, 1.2-1.3, 1.16-1.20, 2.23-2.28, 3.6-3.19, 4.12-4.13, 4.19, 6.7-6.11, 7.9-7.15, 7.37, 8.15, 8.29-8.31, 8.34-8.38, 9.11, 9.14, 9.31, 9.33-9.35, 10.1-10.45, 10.48, 11.12-11.22, 11.27-11.33, 12.1, 12.6, 12.10, 12.13-12.28, 12.30-12.37, 12.43, 13.1-13.2, 13.20, 13.22, 13.27, 14.2, 14.12-14.16, 14.18-14.21, 14.24, 14.26-14.31, 14.43-14.47, 14.53-14.65, 15.1-15.39 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you. 1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 1.16. Passing along by the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew the brother of Simon casting a net in the sea, for they were fishermen. 1.17. Jesus said to them, "Come after me, and I will make you into fishers for men. 1.18. Immediately they left their nets, and followed him. 1.19. Going on a little further from there, he saw James the son of Zebedee, and John, his brother, who were also in the boat mending the nets. 1.20. Immediately he called them, and they left their father, Zebedee, in the boat with the hired servants, and went after him. 2.23. It happened that he was going on the Sabbath day through the grain fields, and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of grain. 2.24. The Pharisees said to him, "Behold, why do they do that which is not lawful on the Sabbath day? 2.25. He said to them, "Did you never read what David did, when he had need, and was hungry -- he, and they who were with him? 2.26. How he entered into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the show bread, which it is not lawful to eat except for the priests, and gave also to those who were with him? 2.27. He said to them, "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. 2.28. Therefore the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath. 3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 3.7. Jesus withdrew to the sea with his disciples, and a great multitude followed him from Galilee, from Judea 3.8. from Jerusalem, from Idumaea, beyond the Jordan, and those from around Tyre and Sidon. A great multitude, hearing what great things he did, came to him. 3.9. He spoke to his disciples that a little boat should stay near him because of the crowd, so that they wouldn't press on him. 3.10. For he had healed many, so that as many as had diseases pressed on him that they might touch him. 3.11. The unclean spirits, whenever they saw him, fell down before him, and cried, "You are the Son of God! 3.12. He sternly warned them that they should not make him known. 3.13. He went up into the mountain, and called to himself those whom he wanted, and they went to him. 3.14. He appointed twelve, that they might be with him, and that he might send them out to preach 3.15. and to have authority to heal sicknesses and to cast out demons: 3.16. Simon, to whom he gave the name Peter; 3.17. James the son of Zebedee; John, the brother of James, and he surnamed them Boanerges, which means, Sons of Thunder; 3.18. Andrew; Philip; Bartholomew; Matthew; Thomas; James, the son of Alphaeus; Thaddaeus; Simon the Zealot; 3.19. and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. He came into a house. 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.' 4.13. He said to them, "Don't you understand this parable? How will you understand all of the parables? 4.19. and the cares of this age, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful. 6.7. He called to himself the twelve, and began to send them out two by two; and he gave them authority over the unclean spirits. 6.8. He charged them that they should take nothing for their journey, except a staff only: no bread, no wallet, no money in their purse 6.9. but to wear sandals, and not put on two tunics. 6.10. He said to them, "Wherever you enter into a house, stay there until you depart from there. 6.11. Whoever will not receive you nor hear you, as you depart from there, shake off the dust that is under your feet for a testimony against them. Assuredly, I tell you, it will be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for that city! 7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this. 7.14. He called all the multitude to himself, and said to them, "Hear me, all of you, and understand. 7.15. There is nothing from outside of the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. 7.37. They were astonished beyond measure, saying, "He has done all things well. He makes even the deaf hear, and the mute speak! 8.15. He charged them, saying, "Take heed: beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod. 8.29. He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?"Peter answered, "You are the Christ. 8.30. He charged them that they should tell no one about him. 8.31. He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. 8.34. He called the multitude to himself with his disciples, and said to them, "Whoever wants to come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. 8.35. For whoever wants to save his life will lose it; and whoever will lose his life for my sake and the gospel's will save it. 8.36. For what does it profit a man, to gain the whole world, and forfeit his life? 8.37. For what will a man give in exchange for his life? 8.38. For whoever will be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man also will be ashamed of him, when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels. 9.11. They asked him, saying, "Why do the scribes say that Elijah must come first? 9.14. Coming to the disciples, he saw a great multitude around them, and scribes questioning them. 9.31. For he was teaching his disciples, and said to them, "The Son of Man is being handed over to the hands of men, and they will kill him; and when he is killed, on the third day he will rise again. 9.33. He came to Capernaum, and when he was in the house he asked them, "What were you arguing among yourselves on the way? 9.34. But they were silent, for they had disputed one with another on the way about who was the greatest. 9.35. He sat down, and called the twelve; and he said to them, "If any man wants to be first, he shall be last of all, and servant of all. 10.1. He arose from there and came into the borders of Judea and beyond the Jordan. Multitudes came together to him again. As he usually did, he was again teaching them. 10.2. Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? 10.3. He answered, "What did Moses command you? 10.4. They said, "Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her. 10.5. But Jesus said to them, "For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. 10.6. But from the beginning of the creation, 'God made them male and female. 10.7. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will join to his wife 10.8. and the two will become one flesh,' so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. 10.9. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate. 10.10. In the house, his disciples asked him again about the same matter. 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery. 10.13. They were bringing to him little children, that he should touch them, but the disciples rebuked those who were bringing them. 10.14. But when Jesus saw it, he was moved with indignation, and said to them, "Allow the little children to come to me! Don't forbid them, for the Kingdom of God belongs to such as these. 10.15. Most assuredly I tell you, whoever will not receive the Kingdom of God like a little child, he will in no way enter into it. 10.16. He took them in his arms, and blessed them, laying his hands on them. 10.17. As he was going out into the way, one ran to him, knelt before him, and asked him, "Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? 10.18. Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good except one -- God. 10.19. You know the commandments: 'Do not murder,' 'Do not commit adultery,' 'Do not steal,' 'Do not give false testimony,' 'Do not defraud,' 'Honor your father and mother.' 10.20. He said to him, "Teacher, I have observed all these things from my youth. 10.21. Jesus looking at him loved him, and said to him, "One thing you lack. Go, sell whatever you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me, taking up the cross. 10.22. But his face fell at that saying, and he went away sorrowful, for he was one who had great possessions. 10.23. Jesus looked around, and said to his disciples, "How difficult it is for those who have riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 10.24. The disciples were amazed at his words. But Jesus answered again, "Children, how hard is it for those who trust in riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 10.25. It is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 10.26. They were exceedingly astonished, saying to him, "Then who can be saved? 10.27. Jesus, looking at them, said, "With men it is impossible, but not with God, for all things are possible with God. 10.28. Peter began to tell him, "Behold, we have left all, and have followed you. 10.29. Jesus said, "Most assuredly I tell you, there is no one who has left house, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or land, for my sake, and for the gospel's sake 10.30. but he will receive one hundred times more now in this time, houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, and land, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life. 10.31. But many who are first will be last; and the last first. 10.32. They were on the way, going up to Jerusalem; and Jesus was going in front of them, and they were amazed; and those who followed were afraid. He again took the twelve, and began to tell them the things that were going to happen to him. 10.33. Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem. The Son of Man will be delivered to the chief priests and the scribes. They will condemn him to death, and will deliver him to the Gentiles. 10.34. They will mock him, spit on him, scourge him, and kill him. On the third day he will rise again. 10.35. James and John, the sons of Zebedee, came near to him, saying, "Teacher, we want you to do for us whatever we will ask. 10.36. He said to them, "What do you want me to do for you? 10.37. They said to him, "Grant to us that we may sit, one at your right hand, and one at your left hand, in your glory. 10.38. But Jesus said to them, "You don't know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? 10.39. They said to him, "We are able."Jesus said to them, "You shall indeed drink the cup that I drink, and you shall be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with; 10.40. but to sit at my right hand and at my left hand is not mine to give, but for whom it has been prepared. 10.41. When the ten heard it, they began to be indigt towards James and John. 10.42. Jesus summoned them, and said to them, "You know that they who are recognized as rulers over the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them. 10.43. But it shall not be so among you, but whoever wants to become great among you shall be your servant. 10.44. Whoever of you wants to become first among you, shall be servant of all. 10.45. For the Son of Man also came not to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. 10.48. Many rebuked him, that he should be quiet, but he cried out much more, "You son of David, have mercy on me! 11.12. The next day, when they had come out from Bethany, he was hungry. 11.13. Seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, he came to see if perhaps he might find anything on it. When he came to it, he found nothing but leaves, for it was not the season for figs. 11.14. Jesus told it, "May no one ever eat fruit from you again!" and his disciples heard it. 11.15. They came to Jerusalem, and Jesus entered into the temple, and began to throw out those who sold and those who bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of those who sold the doves. 11.16. He would not allow anyone to carry a container through the temple. 11.17. He taught, saying to them, "Isn't it written, 'My house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations?' But you have made it a den of robbers! 11.18. The chief priests and the scribes heard it, and sought how they might destroy him. For they feared him, for all the multitude was astonished at his teaching. 11.19. When evening came, he went out of the city. 11.20. As they passed by in the morning, they saw the fig tree withered away from the roots. 11.21. Peter, remembering, said to him, "Rabbi, look! The fig tree which you cursed has withered away. 11.22. Jesus answering said to them, "Have faith in God. 11.27. They came again to Jerusalem, and as he was walking in the temple, the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders came to him 11.28. and they began saying to him, "By what authority do you do these things? Or who gave you this authority to do these things? 11.29. Jesus said to them, "I will ask you one question. Answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I do these things. 11.30. The baptism of John -- was it from heaven, or from men? Answer me. 11.31. They reasoned with themselves, saying, "If we should say, 'From heaven;' he will say, 'Why then did you not believe him?' 11.32. If we should say, 'From men'"--they feared the people, for all held John to really be a prophet. 11.33. They answered Jesus, "We don't know."Jesus said to them, "Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things. 12.1. He began to speak to them in parables. "A man planted a vineyard, put a hedge around it, dug a pit for the winepress, built a tower, rented it out to a farmer, and went into another country. 12.6. Therefore still having one, his beloved son, he sent him last to them, saying, 'They will respect my son.' 12.10. Haven't you even read this Scripture: 'The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the head of the corner. 12.13. They sent some of the Pharisees and of the Herodians to him, that they might trap him with words. 12.14. When they had come, they asked him, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and don't defer to anyone; for you aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 12.15. Shall we give, or shall we not give?"But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said to them, "Why do you test me? Bring me a denarius, that I may see it. 12.16. They brought it. He said to them, "Whose is this image and inscription?"They said to him, "Caesar's. 12.17. Jesus answered them, "Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's."They marveled greatly at him. 12.18. There came to him Sadducees, who say that there is no resurrection. They asked him, saying 12.19. Teacher, Moses wrote to us, 'If a man's brother dies, and leaves a wife behind him, and leaves no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up offspring for his brother.' 12.20. There were seven brothers. The first took a wife, and dying left no offspring. 12.21. The second took her, and died, leaving no children behind him. The third likewise; 12.22. and the seven took her and left no children. Last of all the woman also died. 12.23. In the resurrection, when they rise, whose wife will she be of them? For the seven had her as a wife. 12.24. Jesus answered them, "Isn't this because you are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God? 12.25. For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 12.26. But about the dead, that they are raised; haven't you read in the book of Moses, about the Bush, how God spoke to him, saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' 12.27. He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You are therefore badly mistaken. 12.28. One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all? 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these. 12.32. The scribe said to him, "Truly, teacher, you have said well that he is one, and there is none other but he 12.33. and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbor as himself, is more important than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. 12.34. When Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, "You are not far from the Kingdom of God."No one dared ask him any question after that. 12.35. Jesus responded, as he taught in the temple, "How is it that the scribes say that the Christ is the son of David? 12.36. For David himself said in the Holy Spirit, 'The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand, Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet.' 12.37. Therefore David himself calls him Lord, so how can he be his son?"The common people heard him gladly. 12.43. He called his disciples to himself, and said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, this poor widow gave more than all those who are giving into the treasury 13.1. As he went out out of the temple, one of his disciples said to him, "Teacher, see what kind of stones and what kind of buildings! 13.2. Jesus said to him, "Do you see these great buildings? There will not be left here one stone on another, which will not be thrown down. 13.20. Unless the Lord had shortened the days, no flesh would have been saved; but for the elect's sake, whom he chose, he shortened the days. 13.22. For there will arise false christs and false prophets, and will show signs and wonders, that they may lead astray, if possible, even the chosen ones. 13.27. Then he will send out his angels, and will gather together his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of the sky. 14.2. For they said, "Not during the feast, because there might be a riot of the people. 14.12. On the first day of unleavened bread, when they sacrificed the Passover, his disciples asked him, "Where do you want us to go and make ready that you may eat the Passover? 14.13. He sent two of his disciples, and said to them, "Go into the city, and there you will meet a man carrying a pitcher of water. Follow him 14.14. and wherever he enters in, tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"' 14.15. He will himself show you a large upper room furnished and ready. Make ready for us there. 14.16. His disciples went out, and came into the city, and found things as he had said to them, and they prepared the Passover. 14.18. As they sat and were eating, Jesus said, "Most assuredly I tell you, one of you will betray me -- he who eats with me. 14.19. They began to be sorrowful, and to ask him one by one, "Surely not I?" And another said, "Surely not I? 14.20. He answered them, "It is one of the twelve, he who dips with me in the dish. 14.21. For the Son of Man goes, even as it is written about him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for that man if he had not been born. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.26. When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. 14.27. Jesus said to them, "All of you will be made to stumble because of me tonight, for it is written, 'I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered.' 14.28. However, after I am raised up, I will go before you to Galilee. 14.29. But Peter said to him, "Although all will be offended, yet I will not. 14.30. Jesus said to him, "Most assuredly I tell you, that you today, even this night, before the cock crows twice, you will deny me three times. 14.31. But he spoke all the more, "If I must die with you, I will not deny you." They all said the same thing. 14.43. Immediately, while he was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, came -- and with him a multitude with swords and clubs, from the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders. 14.44. Now he who betrayed him had given them a sign, saying, "Whoever I will kiss, that is he. Seize him, and lead him away safely. 14.45. When he had come, immediately he came to him, and said, "Rabbi! Rabbi!" and kissed him. 14.46. They laid their hands on him, and seized him. 14.47. But a certain one of those who stood by drew his sword, and struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear. 14.53. They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him. 14.54. Peter had followed him from a distance, until he came into the court of the high priest. He was sitting with the officers, and warming himself in the light of the fire. 14.55. Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none. 14.56. For many gave false testimony against him, and their testimony didn't agree with each other. 14.57. Some stood up, and gave false testimony against him, saying 14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.' 14.59. Even so, their testimony did not agree. 14.60. The high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer? What is it which these testify against you? 14.61. But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky. 14.63. The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses? 14.64. You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?" They all condemned him to be worthy of death. 14.65. Some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to beat him with fists, and to tell him, "Prophesy!" The officers struck him with the palms of their hands. 15.1. Immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate. 15.2. Pilate asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?"He answered, "So you say. 15.3. The chief priests accused him of many things. 15.4. Pilate again asked him, "Have you no answer? See how many things they testify against you! 15.5. But Jesus made no further answer, so that Pilate marveled. 15.6. Now at the feast he used to release to them one prisoner, whom they asked of him. 15.7. There was one called Barabbas, bound with those who had made insurrection, men who in the insurrection had committed murder. 15.8. The multitude, crying aloud, began to ask him to do as he always did for them. 15.9. Pilate answered them, saying, "Do you you want me to release to you the King of the Jews? 15.10. For he perceived that for envy the chief priests had delivered him up. 15.11. But the chief priests stirred up the multitude, that he should release Barabbas to them instead. 15.12. Pilate again asked them, "What then should I do to him whom you call the King of the Jews? 15.13. They cried out again, "Crucify him! 15.14. Pilate said to them, "Why, what evil has he done?"But they cried out exceedingly, "Crucify him! 15.15. Pilate, wishing to please the multitude, released Barabbas to them, and handed over Jesus, when he had flogged him, to be crucified. 15.16. The soldiers led him away within the court, which is the Praetorium; and they called together the whole cohort. 15.17. They clothed him with purple, and weaving a crown of thorns, they put it on him. 15.18. They began to salute him, "Hail, King of the Jews! 15.19. They struck his head with a reed, and spat on him, and bowing their knees, did homage to him. 15.20. When they had mocked him, they took the purple off of him, and put his own garments on him. They led him out to crucify him. 15.21. They compelled one passing by, coming from the country, Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to go with them, that he might bear his cross. 15.22. They brought him to the place called Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, "The place of a skull. 15.23. They offered him wine mixed with myrrh to drink, but he didn't take it. 15.24. Crucifying him, they parted his garments among them, casting lots on them, what each should take. 15.25. It was the third hour, and they crucified him. 15.26. The superscription of his accusation was written over him, "THE KING OF THE JEWS. 15.27. With him they crucified two robbers; one on his right hand, and one on his left. 15.28. The Scripture was fulfilled, which says, "He was numbered with transgressors. 15.29. Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying, "Ha! You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days 15.30. save yourself, and come down from the cross! 15.31. Likewise, also the chief priests mocking among themselves with the scribes said, "He saved others. He can't save himself. 15.32. Let the Christ, the King of Israel, now come down from the cross, that we may see and believe him." Those who were crucified with him insulted him. 15.33. When the sixth hour had come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour. 15.34. At the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?" which is, being interpreted, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? 15.35. Some of those who stood by, when they heard it, said, "Behold, he is calling Elijah. 15.36. One ran, and filling a sponge full of vinegar, put it on a reed, and gave it to him to drink, saying, "Let him be. Let's see whether Elijah comes to take him down. 15.37. Jesus cried out with a loud voice, and gave up the spirit. 15.38. The veil of the temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom. 15.39. When the centurion, who stood by opposite him, saw that he cried out like this and breathed his last, he said, "Truly this man was the Son of God!
44. New Testament, Matthew, 5.17-5.21, 5.31-5.32, 5.38-5.48, 6.2-6.5, 6.16, 6.18, 7.12, 7.28-7.29, 11.10-11.11, 12.32, 13.22, 15.1-15.20, 19.7, 19.9, 19.16-19.19, 19.21, 22.23-22.46, 23.1-23.36, 26.17-26.19, 27.26-27.31, 28.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 5.18. For most assuredly, I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not even one smallest letter or one tiny pen stroke shall in any way pass away from the law, until all things are accomplished. 5.19. Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments, and teach others to do so, shall be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven; but whoever shall do and teach them shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.20. For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.21. You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' 5.31. It was also said, 'Whoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce,' 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 5.38. You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' 5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.40. If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. 5.41. Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 5.42. Give to him who asks you, and don't turn away him who desires to borrow from you. 5.43. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 6.2. Therefore when you do merciful deeds, don't sound a trumpet before yourself, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may get glory from men. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.3. But when you do merciful deeds, don't let your left hand know what your right hand does 6.4. so that your merciful deeds may be in secret, then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.16. Moreover when you fast, don't be like the hypocrites, with sad faces. For they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen by men to be fasting. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.18. so that you are not seen by men to be fasting, but by your Father who is in secret, and your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 7.12. Therefore whatever you desire for men to do to you, you shall also do to them; for this is the law and the prophets. 7.28. It happened, when Jesus had finished saying these things, that the multitudes were astonished at his teaching 7.29. for he taught them with authority, and not like the scribes. 11.10. For this is he, of whom it is written, 'Behold, I send my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way before you.' 11.11. Most assuredly I tell you, among those who are born of women there has not arisen anyone greater than John the Baptizer; yet he who is least in the Kingdom of Heaven is greater than he. 12.32. Whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man, it will be forgiven him; but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit, it will not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in that which is to come. 13.22. What was sown among the thorns, this is he who hears the word, but the cares of this world and the deceitfulness of riches choke the word, and he becomes unfruitful. 15.1. Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem, saying 15.2. Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don't wash their hands when they eat bread. 15.3. He answered them, "Why do you also disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 15.4. For God commanded, 'Honor your father and your mother,' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 15.5. But you say, 'Whoever may tell his father or his mother, "Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God 15.6. he shall not honor his father or mother.' You have made the commandment of God void because of your tradition. 15.7. You hypocrites! Well did Isaiah prophesy of you, saying 15.8. 'These people draw near to me with their mouth, And honor me with their lips; But their heart is far from me. 15.9. And in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrine rules made by men.' 15.10. He summoned the multitude, and said to them, "Hear, and understand. 15.11. That which enters into the mouth doesn't defile the man; but that which proceeds out of the mouth, this defiles the man. 15.12. Then the disciples came, and said to him, "Do you know that the Pharisees were offended, when they heard this saying? 15.13. But he answered, "Every plant which my heavenly Father didn't plant will be uprooted. 15.14. Leave them alone. They are blind guides of the blind. If the blind guide the blind, both will fall into a pit. 15.15. Peter answered him, "Explain the parable to us. 15.16. So Jesus said, "Do you also still not understand? 15.17. Don't you understand that whatever goes into the mouth passes into the belly, and then out of the body? 15.18. But the things which proceed out of the mouth come out of the heart, and they defile the man. 15.19. For out of the heart come forth evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, sexual sins, thefts, false testimony, and blasphemies. 15.20. These are the things which defile the man; but to eat with unwashed hands doesn't defile the man. 19.7. They asked him, "Why then did Moses command us to give her a bill of divorce, and divorce her? 19.9. I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her when she is divorced commits adultery. 19.16. Behold, one came to him and said, "Good teacher, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? 19.17. He said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good but one, that is, God. But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments. 19.18. He said to him, "Which ones?"Jesus said, "'You shall not murder.' 'You shall not commit adultery.' 'You shall not steal.' 'You shall not offer false testimony.' 19.19. 'Honor your father and mother.' And, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 19.21. Jesus said to him, "If you want to be perfect, go, sell what you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me. 22.23. On that day Sadducees (those who say that there is no resurrection) came to him. They asked him 22.24. saying, "Teacher, Moses said, 'If a man dies, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife, and raise up seed for his brother.' 22.25. Now there were with us seven brothers. The first married and died, and having no seed left his wife to his brother. 22.26. In like manner the second also, and the third, to the seventh. 22.27. After them all, the woman died. 22.28. In the resurrection therefore, whose wife will she be of the seven? For they all had her. 22.29. But Jesus answered them, "You are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God. 22.30. For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like God's angels in heaven. 22.31. But concerning the resurrection of the dead, haven't you read that which was spoken to you by God, saying 22.32. 'I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' God is not the God of the dead, but of the living. 22.33. When the multitudes heard it, they were astonished at his teaching. 22.34. But the Pharisees, when they heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, gathered themselves together. 22.35. One of them, a lawyer, asked him a question, testing him. 22.36. Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the law? 22.37. Jesus said to him, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.' 22.38. This is the first and great commandment. 22.39. A second likewise is this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 22.40. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments. 22.41. Now while the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them a question 22.42. saying, "What do you think of the Christ? Whose son is he?"They said to him, "of David. 22.43. He said to them, "How then does David in the Spirit call him Lord, saying 22.44. 'The Lord said to my Lord, Sit on my right hand, Until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet?' 22.45. If then David calls him Lord, how is he his son? 22.46. No one was able to answer him a word, neither dared any man from that day forth ask him any more questions. 23.1. Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to his disciples 23.2. saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees sat on Moses' seat. 23.3. All things therefore whatever they tell you to observe, observe and do, but don't do their works; for they say, and don't do. 23.4. For they bind heavy burdens that are grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not lift a finger to help them. 23.5. But all their works they do to be seen by men. They make their phylacteries broad, enlarge the fringes of their garments 23.6. and love the place of honor at feasts, the best seats in the synagogues 23.7. the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called 'Rabbi, Rabbi' by men. 23.8. But don't you be called 'Rabbi,' for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers. 23.9. Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven. 23.10. Neither be called masters, for one is your master, the Christ. 23.11. But he who is greatest among you will be your servant. 23.12. Whoever will exalt himself will be humbled, and whoever will humble himself will be exalted. 23.13. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows' houses, and as a pretense you make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation. 23.14. But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because you shut up the Kingdom of Heaven against men; for you don't enter in yourselves, neither do you allow those who are entering in to enter. 23.15. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehenna as yourselves. 23.16. Woe to you, you blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.' 23.17. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifies the gold? 23.18. 'Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is a obligated.' 23.19. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifies the gift? 23.20. He therefore who swears by the altar, swears by it, and by everything on it. 23.21. He who swears by the temple, swears by it, and by him who is living in it. 23.22. He who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God, and by him who sits on it. 23.23. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint, dill, and cumin, and have left undone the weightier matters of the law: justice, mercy, and faith. But you ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 23.24. You blind guides, who strain out a gnat, and swallow a camel! 23.25. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and unrighteousness. 23.26. You blind Pharisee, first clean the inside of the cup and of the platter, that the outside of it may become clean also. 23.27. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitened tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly are full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. 23.28. Even so you also outwardly appear righteous to men, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 23.29. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and decorate the tombs of the righteous 23.30. and say, 'If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we wouldn't have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.' 23.31. Therefore you testify to yourselves that you are sons of those who killed the prophets. 23.32. Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers. 23.33. You serpents, you offspring of vipers, how will you escape the judgment of Gehenna? 23.34. Therefore, behold, I send to you prophets, wise men, and scribes. Some of them you will kill and crucify; and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city; 23.35. that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zachariah son of Barachiah, whom you killed between the sanctuary and the altar. 23.36. Most assuredly I tell you, all these things will come upon this generation. 26.17. Now on the first day of unleavened bread, the disciples came to Jesus, saying to him, "Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover? 26.18. He said, "Go into the city to a certain person, and tell him, 'The Teacher says, "My time is at hand. I will keep the Passover at your house with my disciples."' 26.19. The disciples did as Jesus commanded them, and they prepared the Passover. 27.26. Then he released to them Barabbas, but Jesus he flogged and delivered to be crucified. 27.27. Then the governor's soldiers took Jesus into the Praetorium, and gathered the whole garrison together against him. 27.28. They stripped him, and put a scarlet robe on him. 27.29. They braided a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and a reed in his right hand; and they kneeled down before him, and mocked him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews! 27.30. They spat on him, and took the reed and struck him on the head. 27.31. When they had mocked him, they took the robe off of him, and put his clothes on him, and led him away to crucify him. 28.19. Go, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit
45. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 24.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

24.7. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי מְנַחֵם בְּשֵׁם רַב אָמַר כָּל הָאֻמָנִיּוֹת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לְמָדָם, מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ (ישעיה מד, יא): וְחָרָשִׁים הֵמָּה מֵאָדָם, מֵאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. רַבָּנָן אָמְרִין אֲפִלּוּ סִרְגּוּלוֹ שֶׁל סֵפֶר, אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לְמָדוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ה, א): זֶה סֵפֶר, הוּא וְסִרְגּוּלוֹ. (בראשית ה, א): בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם, הָדָא מְסַיְּעָא לְהַהִיא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה שָׁלשׁ פְּלָאִים נַעֲשׂוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם נִבְרְאוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שִׁמְשׁוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הוֹצִיאוּ תּוֹלָדוֹת. בֶּן עֲזַאי אוֹמֵר זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם, זֶה כְּלַל גָּדוֹל בַּתּוֹרָה, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא יט, יח): וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ, זֶה כְּלַל גָּדוֹל בַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁלֹא תֹאמַר הוֹאִיל וְנִתְבַּזֵּיתִי יִתְבַּזֶה חֲבֵרִי עִמִּי, הוֹאִיל וְנִתְקַלַּלְתִּי יִתְקַלֵּל חֲבֵרִי עִמִּי. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אִם עָשִׂיתָ כֵּן דַּע לְמִי אַתָּה מְבַזֶּה בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אוֹתוֹ. 24.7. Rabbi Tanchuma said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Menachem in the name of Rav said... Ben Azzai said: “These are the generations of Adam\" is a great principle in the Torah. Rabbi Akiva said: This is a great principle of the Torah: \"You shall love your neighbor as yourself\" (Lev. 19:18). Thus, one should not say, “Since I am scorned, I should scorn my fellow as well; since I have been cursed, I will curse my fellow as well.” Rabbi Tanchumah said, if you act thus, realize who it is that you are willing to have humiliated - \"the one who was made in the likeness of God.\" Rabbi Tanchuma says, “If you do so, you should know who are you scorning — ‘in the likeness of God He created him.’”"
46. Justin, First Apology, 16.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. But we have received by tradition that God does not need the material offerings which men can give, seeing, indeed, that He Himself is the provider of all things. And we have been taught, and are convinced, and do believe, that He accepts those only who imitate the excellences which reside in Him, temperance, and justice, and philanthropy, and as many virtues as are peculiar to a God who is called by no proper name. And we have been taught that He in the beginning did of His goodness, for man's sake, create all things out of unformed matter; and if men by their works show themselves worthy of this His design, they are deemed worthy, and so we have received - of reigning in company with Him, being delivered from corruption and suffering. For as in the beginning He created us when we were not, so do we consider that, in like manner, those who choose what is pleasing to Him are, on account of their choice, deemed worthy of incorruption and of fellowship with Him. For the coming into being at first was not in our own power; and in order that we may follow those things which please Him, choosing them by means of the rational faculties He has Himself endowed us with, He both persuades us and leads us to faith. And we think it for the advantage of all men that they are not restrained from learning these things, but are even urged thereto. For the restraint which human laws could not effect, the Word, inasmuch as He is divine, would have effected, had not the wicked demons, taking as their ally the lust of wickedness which is in every man, and which draws variously to all manner of vice, scattered many false and profane accusations, none of which attach to us.
47. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 3, 58, 1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1. While I was going about one morning in the walks of the Xystus, a certain man [Trypho], with others in his company, met me. Trypho: Hail, O philosopher! And immediately after saying this, he turned round and walked along with me; his friends likewise followed him. Justin: What is there important? Trypho: I was instructed by Corinthus the Socratic in Argos, that I ought not to despise or treat with indifference those who array themselves in this dress but to show them all kindness, and to associate with them, as perhaps some advantage would spring from the intercourse either to some such man or to myself. It is good, moreover, for both, if either the one or the other be benefited. On this account, therefore, whenever I see any one in such costume, I gladly approach him, and now, for the same reason, have I willingly accosted you; and these accompany me, in the expectation of hearing for themselves something profitable from you. Justin: (In jest.) But who are you, most excellent man? Then he told me frankly both his name and his family. Trypho: Trypho, I am called; and I am a Hebrew of the circumcision, and having escaped from the war lately carried on there I am spending my days in Greece, and chiefly at Corinth. Justin: And in what would you be profited by philosophy so much as by your own lawgiver and the prophets? Trypho: Why not? Do not the philosophers turn every discourse on God? And do not questions continually arise to them about His unity and providence? Is not this truly the duty of philosophy, to investigate the Deity? Justin: Assuredly, so we too have believed. But the most have not taken thought of this whether there be one or more gods, and whether they have a regard for each one of us or no, as if this knowledge contributed nothing to our happiness; nay, they moreover attempt to persuade us that God takes care of the universe with its genera and species, but not of me and you, and each individually, since otherwise we would surely not need to pray to Him night and day. But it is not difficult to understand the upshot of this; for fearlessness and license in speaking result to such as maintain these opinions, doing and saying whatever they choose, neither dreading punishment nor hoping for any benefit from God. For how could they? They affirm that the same things shall always happen; and, further, that I and you shall again live in like manner, having become neither better men nor worse. But there are some others, who, having supposed the soul to be immortal and immaterial, believe that though they have committed evil they will not suffer punishment (for that which is immaterial is insensible), and that the soul, in consequence of its immortality, needs nothing from God. Trypho: (Smiling gently.) Tell us your opinion of these matters, and what idea you entertain respecting God, and what your philosophy is.
48. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

26b. תנו רבנן טעה ולא התפלל מנחה בערב שבת מתפלל בליל שבת שתים טעה ולא התפלל מנחה בשבת מתפלל במוצאי שבת שתים של חול מבדיל בראשונה ואינו מבדיל בשניה ואם הבדיל בשניה ולא הבדיל בראשונה שניה עלתה לו ראשונה לא עלתה לו,למימרא דכיון דלא אבדיל בקמייתא כמאן דלא צלי דמי ומהדרינן ליה,ורמינהו טעה ולא הזכיר גבורות גשמים בתחיית המתים ושאלה בברכת השנים מחזירין אותו הבדלה בחונן הדעת אין מחזירין אותו מפני שיכול לאומרה על הכוס קשיא,איתמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא אמר תפלות אבות תקנום רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר תפלות כנגד תמידין תקנום,תניא כוותיה דר' יוסי ברבי חנינא ותניא כוותיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי תניא כוותיה דרבי יוסי בר' חנינא אברהם תקן תפלת שחרית שנא' (בראשית יט, כז) וישכם אברהם בבקר אל המקום אשר עמד שם ואין עמידה אלא תפלה שנאמר (תהלים קו, ל) ויעמד פינחס ויפלל,יצחק תקן תפלת מנחה שנאמר (בראשית כד, סג) ויצא יצחק לשוח בשדה לפנות ערב ואין שיחה אלא תפלה שנאמר (תהלים קב, א) תפלה לעני כי יעטף ולפני ה' ישפוך שיחו,יעקב תקן תפלת ערבית שנאמר (בראשית כח, יא) ויפגע במקום וילן שם ואין פגיעה אלא תפלה שנאמר (ירמיהו ז, טז) ואתה אל תתפלל בעד העם הזה ואל תשא בעדם רנה ותפלה ואל תפגע בי,ותניא כוותיה דר' יהושע בן לוי מפני מה אמרו תפלת השחר עד חצות שהרי תמיד של שחר קרב והולך עד חצות ורבי יהודה אומר עד ארבע שעות שהרי תמיד של שחר קרב והולך עד ארבע שעות,ומפני מה אמרו תפלת המנחה עד הערב שהרי תמיד של בין הערבים קרב והולך עד הערב רבי יהודה אומר עד פלג המנחה שהרי תמיד של בין הערבים קרב והולך עד פלג המנחה,ומפני מה אמרו תפלת הערב אין לה קבע שהרי אברים ופדרים שלא נתעכלו מבערב קרבים והולכים כל הלילה,ומפני מה אמרו של מוספין כל היום שהרי קרבן של מוספין קרב כל היום רבי יהודה אומר עד שבע שעות שהרי קרבן מוסף קרב והולך עד שבע שעות,ואיזו היא מנחה גדולה משש שעות ומחצה ולמעלה ואיזו היא מנחה קטנה מתשע שעות ומחצה ולמעלה,איבעיא להו רבי יהודה פלג מנחה קמא קאמר או פלג מנחה אחרונה קאמר תא שמע דתניא ר' יהודה אומר פלג המנחה אחרונה אמרו והיא י"א שעות חסר רביע,נימא תיהוי תיובתיה דר' יוסי בר' חנינא אמר לך ר' יוסי בר' חנינא לעולם אימא לך תפלות אבות תקנום ואסמכינהו רבנן אקרבנות דאי לא תימא הכי תפלת מוסף לר' יוסי בר' חנינא מאן תקנה אלא תפלות אבות תקנום ואסמכינהו רבנן אקרבנות:,רבי יהודה אומר עד ארבע שעות: איבעיא להו עד ועד בכלל או דלמא עד ולא עד בכלל תא שמע ר' יהודה אומר עד פלג המנחה אי אמרת בשלמא עד ולא עד בכלל היינו דאיכא בין ר' יהודה לרבנן אלא אי אמרת עד ועד בכלל ר' יהודה 26b. On a similar note, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on the eve of Shabbat, prays inthe evening prayer btwo iAmidaprayers bon Shabbat evening. One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on Shabbat, recites two weekday iAmidaprayers in the evening prayer bat the conclusion of Shabbat. He recites ihavdala[ /bthe prayer of bdistinction]between the sanctity of Shabbat and the profanity of the week by reciting: You have graced us, etc., in the fourth blessing of the iAmida,which is: Who graciously grants knowledge, bin the firstprayer, as it is the actual evening prayer, bbut he does not recite ihavdalain the secondprayer, which is in place of the afternoon prayer. Moreover, bif he recited ihavdalain the secondprayer band did not recite ihavdalain the first, the second prayer fulfilled hisobligation, the bfirst one did not fulfill hisobligation.,The Gemara comments: bIs that to saythat bsince he did not recite ihavdalain the firstprayer, he is bas one who did not pray and we require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it? If so, the conclusion is that one who fails to recite ihavdalain the prayer must repeat that prayer.,The Gemara braises a contradictionto the above conclusion from the iTosefta /i: bOne who erred and did not mention the might of the rains:He makes the wind blow and rain fall binthe second blessing of the iAmida /i, the blessing on bthe revival of the dead, andone who erred and failed to recite bthe requestfor rain binthe ninth blessing of the iAmida /i, bthe blessing of the years, we require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. However, one who erred and failed to recite ihavdalainthe blessing: bWho graciously grants knowledge, we do not require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it, bas he can recite ihavdala bover the cupof wine, independent of his prayer. This contradiction was not resolved and remains bdifficult. /b,The dispute between the Rabbis and Rabbi Yehuda with regard to the times beyond which the different prayers may not be recited is rooted in a profound disagreement, also manifest in a later amoraic dispute. bIt was stated: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said:The practice of praying three times daily is ancient, albeit not in its present form; bprayers were instituted by the Patriarchs.However, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidthat the bprayers were instituted based on the daily offeringssacrificed in the Holy Temple, and the prayers parallel the offerings, in terms of both time and characteristics.,The Gemara comments: bIt was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, and it was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi.The Gemara elaborates: bIt was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina: Abraham instituted the morning prayer, as it is statedwhen Abraham came to look out over Sodom the day after he had prayed on its behalf: b“And Abraham rose early in the morning to the place where he had stoodbefore the Lord” (Genesis 19:27), bandfrom the context as well as the language utilized in the verse, the verb bstandingmeans bnothing other than prayer,as this language is used to describe Pinehas’ prayer after the plague, bas it is stated: “And Pinehas stood up and prayedand the plague ended” (Psalms 106:30). Clearly, Abraham was accustomed to stand in prayer in the morning., bIsaac instituted the afternoon prayer, as it is stated: “And Isaac went out to converse [ ilasuaḥ /i] in the field toward evening”(Genesis 24:63), band conversationmeans bnothing other than prayer, as it is stated: “A prayer of the afflicted when he is faint and pours out his complaint [ isiḥo /i] before the Lord”(Psalms 102:1). Obviously, Isaac was the first to pray as evening approached, at the time of the afternoon prayer., bJacob instituted the evening prayer, as it is stated: “And he encountered [ ivayifga /i] the place and he slept therefor the sun had set” (Genesis 28:11). The word bencountermeans bnothing other than prayer, as it is statedwhen God spoke to Jeremiah: b“And you, do not pray on behalf of this nation and do not raise on their behalf song and prayer, and do not encounter [ itifga /i] Mefor I do not hear you” (Jeremiah 7:16). Jacob prayed during the evening, after the sun had set., bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levithat the laws of prayer are based on the laws of the daily offerings: bWhy didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe morning prayermay be recited buntil noon? Because,although the bdaily morning offeringis typically brought early in the morning, it may be bsacrificed until noon. And Rabbi Yehuda says:My opinion, that the morning prayer may be recited buntil four hoursinto the day, is bbecause the daily morning offering is sacrificed until four hours. /b, bAnd why didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe afternoon prayermay be recited buntil the evening? Because the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the evening. Rabbi Yehuda saysthat bthe afternoon prayermay be recited only buntil the midpoint of the afternoon because,according to his opinion, bthe daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the midpoint of the afternoon. /b, bAnd why did they saythat bthe evening prayer is not fixed? Becausethe burning of the blimbs and fatsof the offerings that were bnot consumedby the fire on the altar buntil the evening.They remained on the altar and were boffered continuouslythroughout bthe entire night. /b, bAnd why didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe additional prayermay be recited ball day? Because the additional offering is broughtthroughout bthe entire day.However, bRabbi Yehuda saysthat bthe additional prayermay be recited buntil the seventh hourof the day, bbecause the additional offering is sacrificed until the seventh hour. /b,The ibaraitacontinues and states that there are two times for the afternoon prayer. Greater, earlier iminḥa[ iminḥa gedola /i] and lesser, later iminḥa[ iminḥa ketana /i]. The Gemara clarifies the difference between them: bWhich is iminḥa gedola /i? From six-and-a-half hoursafter sunrise band on,which is a half an hour after noon and on. It is the earliest time that the daily afternoon offering may be sacrificed, as in the case on the eve of Passover that occurs on Shabbat. bWhich is iminḥa ketana /i? From nine-and-a-half hours and on,which is the standard time that the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed.,On that note, ba dilemma was raised before them: Rabbi Yehuda,who holds that the afternoon prayer may be recited only until the midpoint of the afternoon, does bhe say the midpoint of the first iminḥa /i, iminḥa gedola /i? bOr,does bhe say the midpoint of the last iminḥa /i? Come and hearan explicit resolution to this dilemma: bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i, bRabbi Yehuda says: They said the midpoint of the last iminḥa /i, and that is eleven hours minus a quarterof an hour after sunrise, i.e., an hour-and-a-quarter hours before sunset.,In any case, it is clear that according to this ibaraitathe ihalakhotof prayer are based on the Temple offerings. The Gemara suggests: bLet us say that this is a conclusive refutation ofthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina,who held that the forefathers instituted the prayers. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina,could have bsaid to you: Actually, I will say to youthat bthe Patriarchs instituted the prayers and the Sages basedthe times and characteristics of prayer bon the Temple offerings,even though they do not stem from the same source. bAs, if you do not say so,that even Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, would agree that the laws of offerings and those of prayers are related, bthen, according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, who instituted the additional prayer?It is not one of the prayers instituted by the forefathers. bRather,even according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, bthe prayers were instituted by the Patriarchs and the Sages based themon the laws of the bofferings. /b,We learned in the mishna that bRabbi Yehuda says:The morning prayer may be recited buntil four hoursof the day. bA dilemma was raised beforethe yeshiva students: When Rabbi Yehuda says buntil,does he mean buntil and includingthe fourth hour, bor, perhapswhen he says b“until”he means buntil and not including,in which case one may not pray during the fourth hour? bCome and heara resolution to this dilemma based on the mishna. bRabbi Yehuda says:The afternoon prayer may be recited only buntil the midpoint of the afternoon.Now, bgranted, if you saythat buntilmeans buntil and not including, then there isa difference bbetweenthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda andthe opinion of bthe Rabbis. However, if you saythat buntilmeans buntil and including,then the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda /b
49. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

54a. בטשה ביה אמרה ליה לא כך כתוב (שמואל ב כג, ה) ערוכה בכל ושמורה אם ערוכה ברמ"ח אברים שלך משתמרת ואם לאו אינה משתמרת תנא תלמיד אחד היה לרבי אליעזר שהיה שונה בלחש לאחר ג' שנים שכח תלמודו,תנא תלמיד אחד היה לו לרבי אליעזר שנתחייב בשריפה למקום אמרו הניחו לו אדם גדול שמש,א"ל שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא פתח פומיך קרי פתח פומיך תני כי היכי דתתקיים ביך ותוריך חיי שנאמר (משלי ד, כב) כי חיים הם למצאיהם ולכל בשרו מרפא אל תקרי למצאיהם אלא למוציאיהם בפה,א"ל שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא חטוף ואכול חטוף ואישתי דעלמא דאזלינן מיניה כהלולא דמי,א"ל רב לרב המנונא בני אם יש לך היטב לך שאין בשאול תענוג ואין למות התמהמה ואם תאמר אניח לבני חוק בשאול מי יגיד לך בני האדם דומים לעשבי השדה הללו נוצצין והללו נובלין,א"ר יהושע בן לוי המהלך בדרך ואין עמו לוייה יעסוק בתורה שנאמר (משלי א, ט) כי לוית חן הם,חש בראשו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר כי לוית חן הם לראשך חש בגרונו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר וענקים לגרגרותיך חש במעיו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר רפאות תהי לשרך חש בעצמותיו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר ושקוי לעצמותיך חש בכל גופו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר ולכל בשרו מרפא,אמר רב יהודה בר' חייא בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן סם לחבירו לזה יפה ולזה קשה אבל הקב"ה אינו כן נתן תורה לישראל סם חיים לכל גופו שנאמר ולכל בשרו מרפא,א"ר אמי מ"ד (משלי כב, יח) כי נעים כי תשמרם בבטנך יכונו יחדיו על שפתיך אימתי ד"ת נעי' בזמן שתשמרם בבטנך ואימתי תשמרם בבטנך בזמן שיכונו יחדיו על שפתיך,ר' זירא אמר מהכא (משלי טו, כג) שמחה לאיש במענה פיו ודבר בעתו מה טוב אימתי שמחה לאיש בזמן שמענה בפיו ל"א אימתי שמחה לאיש במענה פיו בזמן שדבר בעתו מה טוב,ר' יצחק אמר מהכא (דברים ל, יד) כי קרוב אליך הדבר מאד בפיך ובלבבך לעשותו אימתי קרוב אליך בזמן שבפיך ובלבבך לעשותו,רבא אמר מהכא (תהלים כא, ג) תאות לבו נתתה לו וארשת שפתיו בל מנעת סלה אימתי תאות לבו נתתה לו בזמן שארשת שפתיו בל מנעת סלה,רבא רמי כתיב תאות לבו נתתה לו וכתיב וארשת שפתיו בל מנעת סלה זכה תאות לבו נתתה לו לא זכה וארשת שפתיו בל מנעת סלה,תנא דבי ר"א בן יעקב כל מקום שנאמר נצח סלה ועד אין לו הפסק עולמית נצח דכתיב (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי לא לעולם אריב ולא לנצח אקצוף,סלה דכתיב (תהלים מח, ט) כאשר שמענו כן ראינו בעיר ה' צבאות בעיר אלהינו אלהים יכוננה עד עולם סלה ועד דכתיב (שמות טו, יח) ה' ימלוך לעולם ועד:,(סימן ענקים לחייו לוחות חרות): א"ר (אליעזר) מאי דכתיב (משלי א, ט) וענקים לגרגרותיך אם משים אדם עצמו כענק זה שרף על הצואר ונראה ואינו נראה תלמודו מתקיים בידו ואם לאו אין תלמודו מתקיים בידו,ואמר ר"א מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ה, יג) לחיו כערוגת הבשם אם משים אדם עצמו כערוגה זו שהכל דשין בה וכבושם זה שהכל מתבשמין בה תלמודו מתקיים ואם לאו אין תלמודו מתקיים,וא"ר מ"ד (שמות לא, יח) לוחות אבן אם אדם משים עצמו את לחייו כאבן זו שאינה נמחית תלמודו מתקיים בידו ואם לאו אין תלמודו מתקיים בידו,וא"ר (אליעזר) מאי דכתיב (שמות לב, טז) חרות על הלוחות אלמלי לא נשתברו לוחות הראשונות לא נשתכחה תורה מישראל,רב אחא בר יעקב אמר אין כל אומה ולשון שולטת בהן שנאמר חרות אל תיקרי חרות אלא חירות,אמר רב מתנה מאי דכתיב (במדבר כא, יח) וממדבר מתנה אם משים אדם עצמו כמדבר זה שהכל דשין בו תלמודו מתקיים בידו ואם לאו אין תלמודו מתקיים בידו,רבא בריה דרב יוסף בר חמא הוה ליה מלתא לרב יוסף בהדיה כי מטא מעלי יומא דכיפורי אמר איזיל ואפייסיה אזל אשכחיה לשמעיה דקא מזיג ליה כסא אמר ליה הב לי ואימזגיה אנא יהב ליה מזגיה כדטעמיה אמר דמי האי מזיגא למזיגא דרבא בריה דרב יוסף בר חמא א"ל אנא הוא,א"ל לא תתיב אכרעיך עד דמפרשת לי הני קראי מאי דכתיב וממדבר מתנה וממתנה נחליאל ומנחליאל במות ומבמות הגיא,א"ל אם אדם משים עצמו כמדבר זה שהכל דשין בו תורה ניתנה לו במתנה וכיון שניתנה לו במתנה נחלו אל שנאמר וממתנה נחליאל וכיון שנחלו אל עולה לגדולה שנאמר ומנחליאל במות,ואם מגיס לבו הקדוש ברוך הוא משפילו שנאמר ומבמות הגיא ואם חוזר בו הקב"ה מגביהו שנאמר (ישעיהו מ, ד) כל גיא ינשא,אמר רב הונא מ"ד (תהלים סח, יא) חיתך ישבו בה תכין בטובתך לעני אלהים אם אדם משים עצמו כחיה זו שדורסת ואוכלת ואיכא דאמרי שמסרחת ואוכלת תלמודו מתקיים בידו ואם לאו אין תלמודו מתקיים בידו ואם עושה כן הקדוש ברוך הוא עושה לו סעודה בעצמו שנאמר תכין בטובתך לעני אלהים,א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (משלי כז, יח) נוצר תאנה יאכל פריה למה נמשלו דברי תורה כתאנה מה תאנה זו 54a. bShe kicked himand bsaid to him: Isn’t it written as follows: “Ordered in all things and secure”(ii Samuel 23:5), which indicates that bifthe Torah bis ordered in your 248 limbs,i.e., if you exert your entire body in studying it, bit will be secure, and if not, it will not be secure.The Gemara relates that bit wassimilarly btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer had a student who would study quietly,and bafter three years he forgot his studies. /b,Incidental to the story cited above involving a student of Rabbi Eliezer, the Gemara cites the following episode: bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer had a student who was liable forthe punishment of death by bburning,for his sins bagainst God,but the Rabbis bsaid: Let himalone and do not punish him as he deserves, because bhe served a great person. /b,The Gemara cites instructions issued by Shmuel that are similar to those of Berurya. bShmuel said to Rav Yehuda: Keen scholar [ ishina /i], open your mouth and readfrom the Torah, bopen your mouth and studythe Talmud, bin order thatyour studies bshould endure in you andthat byou should live a long life, as it is stated: “For they are life to those who find them, and health to all their flesh”(Proverbs 4:22). bDo not read: “To those who find them [ ilemotzeihem /i],” butrather b“to those who express them [ ilemotzi’eihem /i],” withtheir bmouth. /b,The Gemara cites additional instructions issued by Shmuel: bShmuel said to Rav Yehuda,his beloved student: bKeen scholar, grab and eat, grab and drink, as the world from which we are departing is like a wedding feast,whose joy is only temporary, and one who does not take pleasure in it now will not be able to do so in the future.,Similarly, bRav said to Rav Hamnuna: My son, if you havemoney, bdo well for yourself.There is no point waiting, bas there is no pleasure in the netherworld, and death does not tarry. And if you say: I willsave up in order to bleave for my children, who told you the law of the netherworld,i.e., how do you know which of you will die first ( iArukh /i)? bPeople are similar to grass of the field,in that bthese blossom,i.e., grow, and their actions are blessed, band these witherand die.,Having expounded the verse “For they are life to those who find them” as referring to the Torah, the Gemara cites another teaching related to this verse that praises the Torah. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who is walking along the way without a companionand is afraid bshould engage in Torahstudy, bas it is statedwith regard to the words of Torah: b“For they shall be a graceful wreath [ ilivyat ḥen /i]for your head, and chains about your neck” (Proverbs 1:9). The word ilivyatis understood here as a reference to ilevaya /i, accompaniment, so that the verse is interpreted to mean that Torah is a graceful accompaniment to one who is traveling., bOne who feelspain bin his head should engage in Torahstudy, bas it is stated: “For they shall be a graceful wreath for your head.” One who feelspain bin his throat should engage in Torahstudy, bas it is stated: “And chains about your neck.” One who feelspain bin his intestines should engage in Torahstudy, bas it is stated: “It shall be health to your navel”(Proverbs 3:8). bOne who feelspain bin his bones should engage in Torahstudy, bas it is stated: “And marrow to your bones”(Proverbs 3:8). bOne who feelspain bin his entire body should engage in Torahstudy, bas it is stated: “And health to all their flesh”(Proverbs 4:22)., bRav Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, said: Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that when ba person gives a drug to his fellow, it is good for thispart of his body band it is harmful to thatother part of his body. bButthe attribute of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, is not so; He gave the Torah to the Jewish people,and bit is a drug of life for one’s entire body, as it is stated: “And health to all their flesh.” /b,The Gemara continues with praise for Torah study and knowledge. bRav Ami said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “For it is a pleasant thing if you keep them within you; let them be firmly attached together to your lips”(Proverbs 22:18)? bWhen are words of Torah pleasant? When you keep them within youand know them. bAnd when will you keep them within you? When they will be attached together to your lips,i.e., when you articulate them audibly and expound them., bRabbi Zeira saidthat this idea is derived bfrom here: “A man has joy in the answer of his mouth; and a word in due season, how good it is”(Proverbs 15:23). bWhen does a man have joy? When an answerrelated to Torah study bis in his mouth. Another version: When does a man have joy in the answer of his mouth? Whenhe experiences the fulfillment of: bA word in due season, how good it is,i.e., when he knows when and how to address each issue., bRabbi Yitzḥak saidthat this idea is derived bfrom here: “But the matter is very near to you, in your mouth and in your heart, that you may do it”(Deuteronomy 30:14). bWhenis it bvery near to you? When it is in your mouth and in your heart, that you may do it,i.e., when you articulate your Torah study., bRava saidthat this idea is actually derived bfrom here: “You have given him his heart’s desire, and have not withheld the request of his lips, Selah”(Psalms 21:3). bWhen have You given him his heart’s desire? When You have not withheld the request of his lips, Selah,i.e., when he converses in words of Torah., bRava raised aninternal bcontradictionin that very verse: In the beginning of the verse bit is written: “You have given him his heart’s desire,”implying that it is enough for one to request in his heart, whereas in the end of the verse bit is written: “And You have not withheld the request of his lips, Selah,”indicating that one must express his prayers verbally. Rava himself resolved the contradiction: If one bis fortunate, “You have given him his heart’s desire,”even if he does not give verbal expression to his wants. But if he bis not fortunate,at least b“You have not withheld the request of his lips, Selah.” /b,With regard to the end of this verse, a Sage bof the school of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov taughtthe following ibaraita /i: bWherever it states inetzaḥ/b, bSelah,or iva’ed/b, the matter bwill never cease. iNetzaḥ /i, as it is written: “For I will not contend forever; neither will I be eternally [ ilanetzaḥ /i] angry”(Isaiah 57:16), which demonstrates that inetzaḥbears a similar meaning to forever., bSelah, as it is written: “As we have heard, so have we seen in the city of the Lord of Hosts, in the city of our God; may God establish it forever, Selah”(Psalms 48:9), which demonstrates that Selah means forever. iVa’ed /i, as it is written: “The Lord shall reign forever and ever [ iva’ed /i]”(Exodus 15:18).,In light of the previous discussion, the Gemara cites several expositions of verses proposed by Rabbi Eliezer, while first providing them with a bmnemonic: Chains, cheeks, tablets, engraved. Rabbi Eliezer said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “And chains about your neck”(Proverbs 1:9)? bIf a person makes himself like a chain that hangs loosely on the neck,i.e., if a scholar is not pushy and disruptive to others, bandhe is also bseen but not seen,i.e., just as a chain is covered by clothes and hair, so too, the scholar does not let himself be seen, bhisTorah bstudy will endure. But if not,if he acts in a rude and arrogant manner, bhisTorah bstudy will not endure. /b, bAnd Rabbi Eliezeralso bsaid: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “His cheeks are like a bed of spices”(Song of Songs 5:13)? bIf a person makes himselfhumble blike thisgarden bbed upon which everyone treads, and like this spice with which everyone perfumes himself,i.e., which benefits not only the one who wears it, bhisTorah bstudy will endure. But if not, hisTorah bstudy will not endure. /b, bAnd Rabbi Eliezerfurther bsaid: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Tablets [ iluḥot /i] of stone”(Exodus 31:18)? bIf a person makes his cheeks [ ileḥayav /i] like this stone that does not wear away, hisTorah bstudy will endure. But if not,i.e., if he is not diligent in his studies, bhisTorah bstudy will not endure. /b, bAnd,lastly, bRabbi Eliezer said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written:“And the tablets were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, bengraved upon the tablets”(Exodus 32:16)? This teaches that bhad the first tablets,the subject of this verse, bnot been broken, the Torah would never have been forgotten from the Jewish people,as the Torah would have been engraved upon their hearts., bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said:Had the tablets not been broken, bno nation or tongue wouldever bhave ruled over them, as it is stated: “Engraved /b”; bdo not readit bengraved[iḥarut]butrather bfreedom [ iḥeirut /i]. /b,Similarly, bRav Mattana said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written:“The well that the princes dug out, that the nobles of the people delved, with the scepter, with their staves. bAnd from the wilderness they went to Mattanah”(Numbers 21:18)? bIf a person makes himselfhumble blike this wilderness,which is open to all and bupon which everyone treads, hisTorah bstudy will endureand be given to him as a gift [ imattana /i]. bAnd if not, hisTorah bstudy will not endure. /b,The Gemara relates that bRav Yosef had a grievance against Rava, son of Rav Yosef bar Ḥama,who is usually referred to in the Gemara simply as Rava, and as a result of the grievance the two would never meet. bWhen the eve of Yom Kippur arrived,Rava bsaid: I will go and appease him. He went and foundRav Yosef’s battendant mixing him a cupof wine. bHe said tothe attendant: bGiveit bto me, and I will mixit. bHe gave it toRava, and Rava bmixed it.Rav Yosef was blind and could not see his visitor, but bwhen he tastedthe wine bhe said: This mixture is similar to the mixtureof bRava, son of Rav Yosef bar Ḥama,who would add extra water to the wine. Rava bsaid to him: It is I. /b,Rav Yosef bsaid to him: Do not sit on your knees until you have explained these verses to me: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “And from the wilderness to Mattanah; and from Mattanah to Nahaliel; and from Nahaliel to Bamoth; and from Bamoth to the valleyin the field of Moab, to the top of Pisgah, which looks out toward the desert” (Numbers 21:19–20)?,Rava bsaid to him: If a person makes himselfhumble blike this wilderness,which is open to all and bupon which everyone treads, the Torah will be given to him as a gift [ imattana /i]. And once it is given to him as a gift, he inherits it [ ineḥalo /i]and bGod [ iEl /i]makes it His inheritance, bas it is stated: “And from Mattanah to Nahaliel.” And once God has made it His inheritance, he rises to greatness, as it is stated: “And from Nahaliel to Bamoth,”which means heights., bAnd if he becomes haughty, the Holy One, Blessed be He, lowers him, as it is stated: “And from Bamoth to the valley.” And if he repents, the Holy One, Blessed be He, raises himback bup, as it is stated: “Every valley shall be exalted”(Isaiah 40:4)., bRav Huna said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Your flock found a dwelling in it; You, O God, prepare of Your goodness for the poor”(Psalms 68:11)? bIf a person makes himself like an animal that tramplesits prey band eatsit immediately, without being particular about its food, i.e., if a scholar immediately reviews what he has heard from his teacher; band some say,like an animal bthat soils and eats,i.e., if a scholar is not particular about maintaining his honor during his Torah study, just as an animal is not particular about the quality of its food, bhisTorah bstudy will endure. And if not, hisTorah bstudy will not endure. And if he does so, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will Himself prepare him a feast, as it is stated: “You, O God, prepare of Your goodness for the poor,”indicating that God in His goodness will Himself prepare a feast for that pauper., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “He who guards the fig tree shall eat its fruit”(Proverbs 27:18)? bWhy were matters of Torah compared to a fig tree? Just as this fig tree, /b
50. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. שהמרו זה את זה אמרו כל מי שילך ויקניט את הלל יטול ד' מאות זוז אמר אחד מהם אני אקניטנו אותו היום ע"ש היה והלל חפף את ראשו הלך ועבר על פתח ביתו אמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו אמר לו בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה ראשיהן של בבליים סגלגלות א"ל בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שאין להם חיות פקחות,הלך והמתין שעה אחת חזר ואמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו אמר לו בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה עיניהן של תרמודיין תרוטות אמר לו בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שדרין בין החולות,הלך והמתין שעה אחת חזר ואמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו א"ל בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה רגליהם של אפרקיים רחבות א"ל בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שדרין בין בצעי המים,אמר לו שאלות הרבה יש לי לשאול ומתירא אני שמא תכעוס נתעטף וישב לפניו א"ל כל שאלות שיש לך לשאול שאל א"ל אתה הוא הלל שקורין אותך נשיא ישראל א"ל הן א"ל אם אתה הוא לא ירבו כמותך בישראל א"ל בני מפני מה א"ל מפני שאבדתי על ידך ד' מאות זוז א"ל הוי זהיר ברוחך כדי הוא הלל שתאבד על ידו ד' מאות זוז וד' מאות זוז והלל לא יקפיד:,ת"ר מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי אמר לו כמה תורות יש לכם אמר לו שתים תורה שבכתב ותורה שבעל פה א"ל שבכתב אני מאמינך ושבעל פה איני מאמינך גיירני ע"מ שתלמדני תורה שבכתב גער בו והוציאו בנזיפה בא לפני הלל גייריה יומא קמא א"ל א"ב ג"ד למחר אפיך ליה א"ל והא אתמול לא אמרת לי הכי א"ל לאו עלי דידי קא סמכת דעל פה נמי סמוך עלי:,שוב מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי א"ל גיירני ע"מ שתלמדני כל התורה כולה כשאני עומד על רגל אחת דחפו באמת הבנין שבידו בא לפני הלל גייריה אמר לו דעלך סני לחברך לא תעביד זו היא כל התורה כולה ואידך פירושה הוא זיל גמור.,שוב מעשה בנכרי אחד שהיה עובר אחורי בית המדרש ושמע קול סופר שהיה אומר (שמות כח, ד) ואלה הבגדים אשר יעשו חושן ואפוד אמר הללו למי אמרו לו לכהן גדול אמר אותו נכרי בעצמו אלך ואתגייר בשביל שישימוני כהן גדול בא לפני שמאי אמר ליה גיירני על מנת שתשימני כהן גדול דחפו באמת הבנין שבידו בא לפני הלל גייריה,א"ל כלום מעמידין מלך אלא מי שיודע טכסיסי מלכות לך למוד טכסיסי מלכות הלך וקרא כיון שהגיע (במדבר א, נא) והזר הקרב יומת אמר ליה מקרא זה על מי נאמר א"ל אפי' על דוד מלך ישראל נשא אותו גר קל וחומר בעצמו ומה ישראל שנקראו בנים למקום ומתוך אהבה שאהבם קרא להם (שמות ד, כב) בני בכורי ישראל כתיב עליהם והזר הקרב יומת גר הקל שבא במקלו ובתרמילו על אחת כמה וכמה,בא לפני שמאי א"ל כלום ראוי אני להיות כהן גדול והלא כתיב בתורה והזר הקרב יומת בא לפני הלל א"ל ענוותן הלל ינוחו לך ברכות על ראשך שהקרבתני תחת כנפי השכינה לימים נזדווגו שלשתן למקום אחד אמרו קפדנותו של שמאי בקשה לטורדנו מן העולם ענוותנותו של הלל קרבנו תחת כנפי השכינה:,אמר ר"ל מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו לג, ו) והיה אמונת עתיך חוסן ישועות חכמת ודעת וגו' אמונת זה סדר זרעים עתיך זה סדר מועד חוסן זה סדר נשים ישועות זה סדר נזיקין חכמת זה סדר קדשים ודעת זה סדר טהרות ואפ"ה (ישעיהו לג, ו) יראת ה' היא אוצרו,אמר רבא בשעה שמכניסין אדם לדין אומרים לו נשאת ונתת באמונה קבעת עתים לתורה עסקת בפו"ר צפית לישועה פלפלת בחכמה הבנת דבר מתוך דבר ואפ"ה אי יראת ה' היא אוצרו אין אי לא לא משל לאדם שאמר לשלוחו העלה לי כור חיטין לעלייה הלך והעלה לו א"ל עירבת לי בהן קב חומטון א"ל לאו א"ל מוטב אם לא העליתה,תנא דבי ר"י מערב אדם קב חומטון בכור של תבואה ואינו חושש:,אמר רבה בר רב הונא כל אדם שיש בו תורה ואין בו 31a. bwho wagered with each otherand bsaid: Anyone who will go and aggravate Hillelto the point that he reprimands him, bwill take four-hundred izuz /i. bOne of them said: I will aggravate him. That daythat he chose to bother Hillel bwas Shabbat eve, and Hillel was washingthe hair on bhis head. He went and passed the entrance toHillel’s bhouseand in a demeaning manner bsaid: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel?Hillel bwrapped himselfin a dignified garment band went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask.Hillel bsaid to him: Ask, my son, ask.The man asked him: bWhy are the heads of Babylonians oval?He was alluding to and attempting to insult Hillel, who was Babylonian. bHe said to him: My son, you have asked a significant question.The reason is bbecause they do not have clever midwives.They do not know how to shape the child’s head at birth.,That man bwent and waited one hour,a short while, breturnedto look for Hillel, band said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel?Again, Hillel bwrapped himself and went out to greet him.Hillel bsaid to him: My son, what do you seek?The man bsaid to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask.The man asked: bWhy are the eyes of the residents of Tadmor bleary [ iterutot /i]?Hillel bsaid to him: My son, you have asked a significant question.The reason is bbecause they live among the sandsand the sand gets into their eyes.,Once again the man bwent, waited one hour, returned, and said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel?Again, bhe,Hillel, bwrapped himself and went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask.The man asked: bWhy do Africans have wide feet?Hillel bsaid to him: You have asked a significant question.The reason is bbecause they live in marshlandsand their feet widened to enable them to walk through those swampy areas.,That man bsaid to him: I have manymore bquestions to ask, but I am afraid lest you get angry.Hillel bwrapped himself and sat before him,and bhe said to him: All ofthe bquestions that you have to ask, askthem. The man got angry and bsaid to him: Are you Hillel whom they callthe iNasiof Israel? He said to him: Yes. He said to him: Ifit bis you,then bmay there not be many like you in Israel.Hillel bsaid to him: My son, for whatreason do you say this? The man bsaid to him: Because I lost four hundred izuzbecause of you.Hillel bsaid to him: Be vigilant of your spiritand avoid situations of this sort. bHillel is worthy of having you lose four hundred izuzandanother bfour hundred izuzon his account, and Hillel will not get upset. /b, bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai.The gentile bsaid to Shammai: How many Torahs do you have? He said to him: Two, the Written Torah and the Oral Torah.The gentile bsaid to him:With regard to bthe WrittenTorah, bI believe you, butwith regard to bthe OralTorah, bI do not believe you. Convert me on condition that you will teach meonly the bWritten Torah.Shammai bscolded him and cast him out with reprimand.The same gentile bcame before Hillel,who bconverted himand began teaching him Torah. bOn the first day, heshowed him the letters of the alphabet and bsaid to him: iAlef /i, ibet /i, igimmel /i, idalet /i. The next day he reversedthe order of the letters and told him that an ialefis a itavand so on. The convert bsaid to him: But yesterday you did not tell me that.Hillel bsaid to him:You see that it is impossible to learn what is written without relying on an oral tradition. bDidn’t you rely on me?Therefore, you should balso rely on mewith regard to the matter bof the OralTorah, and accept the interpretations that it contains.,There was banother incident involving one gentile who came before Shammaiand bsaid toShammai: bConvert me on condition that you teach me the entire Torah while I am standing on one foot.Shammai bpushed himaway bwith the builder’s cubit in his hand.This was a common measuring stick and Shammai was a builder by trade. The same gentile bcame before Hillel. He converted himand bsaid to him:That bwhich is hateful to you do not do to another; that is the entire Torah, and the rest is its interpretation. Go study. /b,There was banother incident involving one gentile who was passing behind the study halland bheard the voice of a teacher who wasteaching Torah to his students and bsayingthe verse: b“And these are the garments which they shall make: A breastplate, and an iefod, /iand a robe, and a tunic of checkered work, a mitre, and a girdle” (Exodus 28:4). bThe gentile said: Thesegarments, bfor whom are theydesignated? The students bsaid to him: For the High Priest. The gentile said to himself: I will go and convert so that they will install me as High Priest. He came before Shammaiand bsaid to him: Convert me on condition that you install meas High Priest. Shammai bpushed him with the builder’s cubit in his hand. He came before Hillel; he converted him. /b,Hillel bsaid to him,to the convert: bIs it notthe way of the world that bonly one who knows the protocols [ itakhsisei /i]of royalty bis appointed king? Goand blearn the royal protocolsby engaging in Torah study. bHe went and readthe Bible. bWhen he reachedthe verse which says: b“And the common man that draws near shall be put to death”(Numbers 1:51), the convert bsaid toHillel: bWith regard to whom is the verse speaking?Hillel bsaid to him: Even with regard to David, king of Israel. The convert reasoned an ia fortioriinference himself: If the Jewish people are called God’s children, and due to the love that God loved them he called them: “Israel is My son, My firstborn”(Exodus 4:22), and nevertheless bit is written about them: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death; a mere convert who camewithout merit, bwithnothing more than bhis staff and traveling bag, all the more sothat this applies to him, as well.,The convert bcame before Shammaiand btold himthat he retracts his demand to appoint him High Priest, saying: bAm I at all worthy to be High Priest? Is it not written in the Torah: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death? He came before Hilleland bsaid to him: Hillel the patient, may blessings rest upon your head as you brought me under the wings of the Divine Presence.The Gemara relates: bEventually, the threeconverts bgathered togetherin bone place,and bthey said: Shammai’s impatience sought to drive us from the world; Hillel’s patience brought us beneath the wings of the Divine Presence. /b,The Gemara continues discussing the conduct of the Sages, citing that bReish Lakish said: Whatis the meaning of bthat which is written: “And the faith of your times shall be a strength of salvation, wisdom, and knowledge,the fear of the Lord is his treasure” (Isaiah 33:6)? bFaith; that is the order of iZera /i’ iim /i, Seeds,in the Mishna, because a person has faith in God and plants his seeds (Jerusalem Talmud). bYour times; that is the order of iMoed /i, Festival,which deals with the various occasions and Festivals that occur throughout the year. bStrength; that is the order of iNashim /i, Women. Salvations; that is the order of iNezikin /i, Damages,as one who is being pursued is rescued from the hands of his pursuer. bWisdom; that is the order of iKodashim /i, Consecrated Items. And knowledge; that is the order of iTeharot /i, Purity,which is particularly difficult to master. bAnd evenif a person studies and masters all of these, b“the fear of the Lord is his treasure,”it is preeminent.,With regard to the same verse, bRava said:After departing from this world, bwhen a person is brought to judgmentfor the life he lived in this world, bthey say to himin the order of that verse: Did byou conduct business faithfully?Did byou designate times for Torahstudy? Did byou engage in procreation? Did you await salvation? Did you engagein the dialectics of bwisdomor understand bone matter from another? And, nevertheless,beyond all these, bif the fear of the Lord is his treasure, yes,he is worthy, and bif not, no,none of these accomplishments have any value. There is ba parablethat illustrates this. bA person who said to his emissary: Bring a ikorof wheat up to the attic for meto store there. The messenger bwent and brought it up for him. He said to the emissary:Did byou mix a ikavof iḥomton /i,a preservative to keep away worms, binto it for me? He said to him: No. He said to him:If so, it would have been bpreferable had you not brought it up.of what use is worm-infested wheat? Likewise, Torah and mitzvot without the fear of God are of no value.,On a related note, the Gemara cites a ihalakhathat was btaughtin bthe schoolof bRabbi Yishmael: A personwho sells wheat bmay, iab initio /i, bmix a ikavof iḥomtoninto a ikorof grain and need not be concernedthat by selling it all at the price of grain he will be guilty of theft, as the ikavof iḥomtonis essential for the preservation of the wheat., bRabba bar Rav Huna said: Any person who has Torah in him but does not have /b
51. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 229

229. The king spoke kindly to him and then asked the next, What is it that resembles beauty in value? And he said, 'Piety, for it is the pre-eminent form of beauty, and its power lies in love, which is the gift of God. This you have already acquired and with it all the blessings of life.'


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
adoption deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 247
adultery/fornication Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 114
akiva Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 126
akiva (rabbi) Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 127
anthropology Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 154
antitheses Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 114
apologists, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 528
aramaic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 111, 112, 113
arithmology, five Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
baptism, baptismal formula Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 241
baptism Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 241; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 66
barnaban source Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
barnabas Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
betz, hans dieter Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 131
bible Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 117
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
blood Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
book Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
christianity Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 117
christians Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 23
classical world Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 117
codex vaticanus (b) Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 113
commandments, love your neighbor Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 149
commandments Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 111, 112, 113; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
community Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 66
covenant Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 181
creation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 66
creator Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
cross, of jesus Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 111, 113
cross Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
daily prayer Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
damascus document Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 21
daniel Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
davila, james r. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 154
de jonge, marinus Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 131, 154, 155, 156
diaspora Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
didache Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 154, 155, 156; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 241
dio cassius Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 299
disciple Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
divorce Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 114
easter Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 111, 112, 113
elijah Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 121
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
enoch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
epictetus Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 154; Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 33
eschatology Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 66
essenes, oaths Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 154, 155, 156
eusebius Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 300
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 114
eye-for-an-eye precept Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 114
fasting Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 241
fellowship Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
flaccus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 299
flusser, david Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 154, 155, 156
forgery Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 156
forgiveness, among believers deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 247
forgiveness, gods deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 247
gaius caligula Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 299
general Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 119
gentiles Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
god, as father deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 247
god, justin martyr Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 528
god, son of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 210
greek syntax, word order Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 152
greek versions Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 113
göttingen edition Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 112
halakha, halakhic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 114
halakhah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
half-shekel Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
hellenistic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 113
herod agrippa i Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 299
herod antipas (antipater) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 121, 122
herod the great, menahems prediction Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 122
herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 122
herodians Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
hexameter Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
hoehner, h. w. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 121
holiness deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 247
hollander, h. w. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 155
holy spirit Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 241; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 181
hope Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 66
hypocrites Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 241
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 241
immortality Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 66
incarnation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 66
incorruptibility Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 66
isaac Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
jacob Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
jacobean source Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
james, law in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 177, 178
jerusalem Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
jerusalem temple Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 54, 114
jesus Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 154; Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 126; Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 136; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 54, 114
jesus christ Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 198
jesus of nazareth Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 149; Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 117; Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 121, 122
jesus tradition Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 111, 112, 113
jewish other, messianic exegesis Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 54
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 54
jews Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
john, gospel of Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 154
john, love in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 181
john the baptist, and herod antipas Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 121
john the baptist Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 121
josephus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 299, 300
judah the patriarch, judaic traditions, law in Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 177
judaism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
justin martyr, theology Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 528
justin martyr, works Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 528
karabas Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 299
kingdom Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 66
kinship language/terms Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 154
kloppenborg, john s. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 155, 156
knowledge, divine Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 210
konradt, matthias Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 155
kraft, robert a. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 154
law-giving, law-givers Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 136
law Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
logos Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
love, double-love precept Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 114
love Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 114; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 247
luke, gospel of, and the herodians Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 121
mareotis, lake, and the scribes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 121
mareotis, lake, characterization of the herodians Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 121, 122
mareotis, lake, herod antipas, presentation of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 121
mareotis, lake, mark, gospel of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 121, 122
mareotis, lake, pharisees in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 121
mareotis, lake, three legal authorities in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 122
mark, linguistic usage Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 152
mark, literary greek in Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 152
mark (gospel writer and gospel) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
markan tradition Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 111, 112, 113
marriage Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
material goods, divestment of, in mark Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 186
matthew, gospel of Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 126
meier, john p. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 130, 131, 154
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic, davidic, kingly Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 54
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic, heavenly messiah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 54
messiah, gods anointed, of aaron Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 54
messiah, gods anointed, prophetic messiahship Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 54
messiah Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38
misiwi/commands/precepts Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 117
monarchianism Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38
monotheism Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38
moses, law of Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 178
moses Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 300; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
murder Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 114
neighbor Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 127
new person deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 247
niederwimmer, kurt Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 154, 155, 156
offerings Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38
old greek Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 112
old testament Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 154, 155
passion week Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
passover Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
paul, apostle Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 198
paul Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
pentateuch Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 112
periodisation of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 119
persecution Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 66
peter Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 62; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
pharisaism Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 117
pharisees, torah-sages, pharisaic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 54, 114
pharisees Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257; Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 299; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38
philo of alexandria Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 119; Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 33, 299, 300
piety Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
pilate, pontius Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 122
pistos ho logos (the saying is trustworthy) Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 210
plutarch Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 299
pontius pilate Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 299
poverty, in tanakh Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 186
power Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
prayer times, ninth hour Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
prayer times Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
prophecy, of jesus, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 210
prophetic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 113
prophets Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
ps.-phocylides Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
psalms Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 54
purity/impurity Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
q Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
qumran, qumranic, anti-qumranic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 114
quotations in markan tradition Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 111, 112, 113
quotations in q Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 111
rabbinic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 54
rabbis Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
reinhartz, adele Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 130, 131
reliability Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 210
resurrection Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 54
rhetoric and trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 210
rome Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 66
sacrifice Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
sadducees Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38
sadducees (tsedukim/tseduqim), in the new testament gospels Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 122
saducees Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 117
salvation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
scriptures, interpretation of, as basis for pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 210
second temple period, shema verses in Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 149
seder Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
septuagint Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 111, 112, 113; Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 119
septuaginta gottingensis Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 112
sermon on the mount Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 198; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 114
shema, in synoptic gospels Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 149
shema, linked to decalogue Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 149
shema Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 181
shema israel Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
sons of god, sons of heaven Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 54
stewart (-sykes), alistair Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 154, 155, 156
sunday Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 66
synagogue Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 117
synoptic gospels, tradition, pre-synoptic v-vi Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 114
synoptic gospels Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 149
teaching, relation to trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 210
temple, the, destruction of (66 ce) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 122
temple Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38
temporal terminology\n, αἰών Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 119
temporal terminology\n, καιρός Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 119
temporal terminology\n, χρόνος Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 119
ten commandments (decalogue) Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 117
testaments of the twelve patriarchs Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 131, 154, 155, 156
tetragrammaton Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 112
textual variants deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 247
thanksgiving Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 47
theology Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 111, 112, 113
thiselton, anthony c. Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 149
tiberius Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 299
titulus crucis Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 136
torah Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 113
torah and prophets, great principle of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 54, 114
transmission Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 111, 112, 113
twelve, the Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
twelve Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
two-age framework Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 119
two ways, teaching of Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 241
two ways Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 154
tzedakah, and care for the poor Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 186
valentinians Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38, 66
van de sandt, huub Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 154, 155, 156
vitellius Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 299
walking (idiom) deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 247
wealth Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 257
welch, john w. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 156
widows mite, traditional reading of Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 186
wisdom Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 193
women' Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 66
women, self-sacrifice of Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 186
women Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 38
words, as basis of trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 210
ἀγάπη Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 154