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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8256
New Testament, Luke, 5.37


καὶ οὐδεὶς βάλλει οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς παλαιούς· εἰ δὲ μήγε, ῥήξει ὁ οἶνος ὁ νέος τοὺς ἀσκούς, καὶ αὐτὸς ἐκχυθήσεται καὶ οἱ ἀσκοὶ ἀπολοῦνται·No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins, and it will be spilled, and the skins will be destroyed.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 21.1-21.9, 22.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

21.1. וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלַךְ וִיהוֹנָתָן בָּא הָעִיר׃ 21.1. וַיֹּאמֶר הַכֹּהֵן חֶרֶב גָּלְיָת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אֲשֶׁר־הִכִּיתָ בְּעֵמֶק הָאֵלָה הִנֵּה־הִיא לוּטָה בַשִּׂמְלָה אַחֲרֵי הָאֵפוֹד אִם־אֹתָהּ תִּקַּח־לְךָ קָח כִּי אֵין אַחֶרֶת זוּלָתָהּ בָּזֶה וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֵין כָּמוֹהָ תְּנֶנָּה לִּי׃ 21.2. וַיָּבֹא דָוִד נֹבֶה אֶל־אֲחִימֶלֶךְ הַכֹּהֵן וַיֶּחֱרַד אֲחִימֶלֶךְ לִקְרַאת דָּוִד וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מַדּוּעַ אַתָּה לְבַדֶּךָ וְאִישׁ אֵין אִתָּךְ׃ 21.3. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לַאֲחִימֶלֶךְ הַכֹּהֵן הַמֶּלֶךְ צִוַּנִי דָבָר וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי אִישׁ אַל־יֵדַע מְאוּמָה אֶת־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחֲךָ וַאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִךָ וְאֶת־הַנְּעָרִים יוֹדַעְתִּי אֶל־מְקוֹם פְּלֹנִי אַלְמוֹנִי׃ 21.4. וְעַתָּה מַה־יֵּשׁ תַּחַת־יָדְךָ חֲמִשָּׁה־לֶחֶם תְּנָה בְיָדִי אוֹ הַנִּמְצָא׃ 21.5. וַיַּעַן הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־דָּוִד וַיֹּאמֶר אֵין־לֶחֶם חֹל אֶל־תַּחַת יָדִי כִּי־אִם־לֶחֶם קֹדֶשׁ יֵשׁ אִם־נִשְׁמְרוּ הַנְּעָרִים אַךְ מֵאִשָּׁה׃ 21.6. וַיַּעַן דָּוִד אֶת־הַכֹּהֵן וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כִּי אִם־אִשָּׁה עֲצֻרָה־לָנוּ כִּתְמוֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם בְּצֵאתִי וַיִּהְיוּ כְלֵי־הַנְּעָרִים קֹדֶשׁ וְהוּא דֶּרֶךְ חֹל וְאַף כִּי הַיּוֹם יִקְדַּשׁ בַּכֶּלִי׃ 21.7. וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ הַכֹּהֵן קֹדֶשׁ כִּי לֹא־הָיָה שָׁם לֶחֶם כִּי־אִם־לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים הַמּוּסָרִים מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה לָשׂוּם לֶחֶם חֹם בְּיוֹם הִלָּקְחוֹ׃ 21.8. וְשָׁם אִישׁ מֵעַבְדֵי שָׁאוּל בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נֶעְצָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וּשְׁמוֹ דֹּאֵג הָאֲדֹמִי אַבִּיר הָרֹעִים אֲשֶׁר לְשָׁאוּל׃ 21.9. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לַאֲחִימֶלֶךְ וְאִין יֶשׁ־פֹּה תַחַת־יָדְךָ חֲנִית אוֹ־חָרֶב כִּי גַם־חַרְבִּי וְגַם־כֵּלַי לֹא־לָקַחְתִּי בְיָדִי כִּי־הָיָה דְבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ נָחוּץ׃ 22.23. שְׁבָה אִתִּי אַל־תִּירָא כִּי אֲשֶׁר־יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־נַפְשִׁי יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־נַפְשֶׁךָ כִּי־מִשְׁמֶרֶת אַתָּה עִמָּדִי׃ 21.1. And he arose and departed: and Yehonatan went into the city." 21.2. Then David came to Nov to Aĥimelekh the priest: and Aĥimelekh was afraid at meeting David, and said to him, Why art thou alone, and no man with thee?" 21.3. And David said to Aĥimelekh the priest, The king has commanded me a business, and has said to me, Let no man know anything of the business about which I am sending thee, and what I have commanded thee: and I have despatched my servants to such and such a place." 21.4. Now therefore what is under thy hand? give me five loaves of bread in my hand, or whatever there is." 21.5. And the priest answered David, and said, There is no common bread in my hand, but there is hallowed bread; if the young men have kept themselves at least from women." 21.6. And David answered the priest, and said to him, of a truth women have been kept from us as always when I am on a journey, and the vessels of the young men are holy, (although it is a common journey,) how much more today when there will be hallowed bread in their vessel." 21.7. So the priest gave him hallowed bread: for there was no bread there but the showbread, that was taken from before the Lord, to put hot bread in its place on the day when it was taken away." 21.8. Now a certain man of the servants of Sha᾽ul was there that day, detained before the Lord; and his name was Do᾽eg the Edomite, the chiefest of the herdmen that belonged to Sha᾽ul." 21.9. And David said to Aĥimelekh, And is there not here under thy hand a spear or a sword? for I have neither brought my sword nor my weapons with me, because the king’s business was urgent." 22.23. Remain with me, fear not: for he that seeks my life seeks thy life: but with me thou shalt be in safeguard."
2. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, a b c d\n0 - None\n1 . . \n2 1 1 1 None\n3 3 3 3 None\n4 31.31 31.31 31 31 \n5 31.32 31.32 31 32 \n6 31.33 31.33 31 33 \n7 31.34 31.34 31 34 \n8 4 4 4 None\n9 8 8 8 None\n10 9 9 9 None (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 6.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.19. וְגִדְעוֹן בָּא וַיַּעַשׂ גְּדִי־עִזִּים וְאֵיפַת־קֶמַח מַצּוֹת הַבָּשָׂר שָׂם בַּסַּל וְהַמָּרַק שָׂם בַּפָּרוּר וַיּוֹצֵא אֵלָיו אֶל־תַּחַת הָאֵלָה וַיַּגַּשׁ׃ 6.19. And Gid῾on went in, and made ready a kid, and unleavened cakes of an efa of flour: the meat he put in a basket, and he put the broth in a pot, and brought it out to him under the terebinth, and presented it."
4. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 3.165-3.172 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 80-82, 79 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

79. But the divine army is the body of virtues, the champions of the souls that love God, whom it becomes, when they see the adversary defeated, to sing a most beautiful and becoming hymn to the God who giveth the victory and the glorious triumph; and two choruses, the one proceeding from the conclave of the men, and the other from the company of the women, will stand up and sing in alternate songs a melody responsive to one another's voices.
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Then, because of their anxious desire for an immortal and blessed existence, thinking that their mortal life has already come to an end, they leave their possessions to their sons or daughters, or perhaps to other relations, giving them up their inheritance with willing cheerfulness; and those who know no relations give their property to their companions or friends, for it followed of necessity that those who have acquired the wealth which sees, as if ready prepared for them, should be willing to surrender that wealth which is blind to those who themselves also are still blind in their minds.
7. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 15.8-15.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15.8. Finally He saith to them; Your new moons and your Sabbaths I cannot away with. Ye see what is His meaning ; it is not your present Sabbaths that are acceptable [unto Me], but the Sabbath which I have made, in the which, when I have set all things at rest, I will make the beginning of the eighth day which is the beginning of another world. 15.9. Wherefore also we keep the eighth day for rejoicing, in the which also Jesus rose from the dead, and having been manifested ascended into the heavens.
8. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.255 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.255. Hereupon Caius was angry at her, and sent her with Herod into banishment, and gave her estate to Agrippa. And thus did God punish Herodias for her envy at her brother, and Herod also for giving ear to the vain discourses of a woman.
9. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 11.23-11.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.23. For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered toyou, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed tookbread. 11.24. When he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "Take,eat. This is my body, which is broken for you. Do this in memory ofme. 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me.
10. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.6-3.11, 3.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11. New Testament, Acts, 1.5-1.6, 1.14, 2.1-2.4, 4.24-4.31, 8.14-8.25, 10.1-10.46, 15.2, 15.29, 19.1-19.7, 20.7, 24.15, 25.25, 28.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.5. For John indeed baptized in water, but you will be baptized in the Holy Spirit not many days from now. 1.6. Therefore, when they had come together, they asked him, "Lord, are you now restoring the kingdom to Israel? 1.14. All these with one accord continued steadfastly in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers. 2.1. Now when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all with one accord in one place. 2.2. Suddenly there came from the sky a sound like the rushing of a mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. 2.3. Tongues like fire appeared and were distributed to them, and it sat on each one of them. 2.4. They were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other languages, as the Spirit gave them the ability to speak. 4.24. They, when they heard it, lifted up their voice to God with one accord, and said, "O Lord, you are God, who made the heaven, the earth, the sea, and all that is in them; 4.25. who by the mouth of your servant, David, said, 'Why do the nations rage, And the peoples plot a vain thing? 4.26. The kings of the earth take a stand, And the rulers take council together, Against the Lord, and against his Christ.' 4.27. For truly, in this city against your holy servant, Jesus, whom you anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of Israel, were gathered together 4.28. to do whatever your hand and your council foreordained to happen. 4.29. Now, Lord, look at their threats, and grant to your servants to speak your word with all boldness 4.30. while you stretch out your hand to heal; and that signs and wonders may be done through the name of your holy Servant Jesus. 4.31. When they had prayed, the place was shaken where they were gathered together. They were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and they spoke the word of God with boldness. 8.14. Now when the apostles who were at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent Peter and John to them 8.15. who, when they had come down, prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Spirit; 8.16. for as yet he had fallen on none of them. They had only been baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. 8.17. Then they laid their hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit. 8.18. Now when Simon saw that the Holy Spirit was given through the laying on of the apostles' hands, he offered them money 8.19. saying, "Give me also this power, that whoever I lay my hands on may receive the Holy Spirit. 8.20. But Peter said to him, "May your silver perish with you, because you thought you could obtain the gift of God with money! 8.21. You have neither part nor lot in this matter, for your heart isn't right before God. 8.22. Repent therefore of this, your wickedness, and ask God if perhaps the thought of your heart may be forgiven you. 8.23. For I see that you are in the gall of bitterness and in the bondage of iniquity. 8.24. Simon answered, "Pray for me to the Lord, that none of the things which you have spoken come on me. 8.25. They therefore, when they had testified and spoken the word of the Lord, returned to Jerusalem, and preached the gospel to many villages of the Samaritans. 10.1. Now there was a certain man in Caesarea, Cornelius by name, a centurion of what was called the Italian Regiment 10.2. a devout man, and one who feared God with all his house, who gave gifts for the needy generously to the people, and always prayed to God. 10.3. At about the ninth hour of the day, he clearly saw in a vision an angel of God coming to him, and saying to him, "Cornelius! 10.4. He, fastening his eyes on him, and being frightened, said, "What is it, Lord?"He said to him, "Your prayers and your gifts to the needy have gone up for a memorial before God. 10.5. Now send men to Joppa, and get Simon, who is surnamed Peter. 10.6. He lodges with one Simon, a tanner, whose house is by the seaside. 10.7. When the angel who spoke to him had departed, Cornelius called two of his household servants and a devout soldier of those who waited on him continually. 10.8. Having explained everything to them, he sent them to Joppa. 10.9. Now on the next day as they were on their journey, and got close to the city, Peter went up on the housetop to pray at about noon. 10.10. He became hungry and desired to eat, but while they were preparing, he fell into a trance. 10.11. He saw heaven opened and a certain container descending to him, like a great sheet let down by four corners on the earth 10.12. in which were all kinds of four-footed animals of the earth, wild animals, reptiles, and birds of the sky. 10.13. A voice came to him, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat! 10.14. But Peter said, "Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean. 10.15. A voice came to him again the second time, "What God has cleansed, you must not make unholy. 10.16. This was done three times, and immediately the vessel was received up into heaven. 10.17. Now while Peter was very perplexed in himself what the vision which he had seen might mean, behold, the men who were sent by Cornelius, having made inquiry for Simon's house, stood before the gate 10.18. and called and asked whether Simon, who was surnamed Peter, was lodging there. 10.19. While Peter thought about the vision, the Spirit said to him, "Behold, three men seek you. 10.20. But arise, get down, and go with them, doubting nothing; for I have sent them. 10.21. Peter went down to the men, and said, "Behold, I am he whom you seek. Why have you come? 10.22. They said, "Cornelius, a centurion, a righteous man and one who fears God, and well spoken of by all the nation of the Jews, was directed by a holy angel to invite you to his house, and to listen to what you say. 10.23. So he called them in and lodged them. On the next day Peter arose and went out with them, and some of the brothers from Joppa accompanied him. 10.24. On the next day they entered into Caesarea. Cornelius was waiting for them, having called together his relatives and his near friends. 10.25. When it happened that Peter entered, Cornelius met him, fell down at his feet, and worshiped him. 10.26. But Peter raised him up, saying, "Stand up! I myself am also a man. 10.27. As he talked with him, he went in and found many gathered together. 10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean. 10.29. Therefore also I came without complaint when I was sent for. I ask therefore, why did you send for me? 10.30. Cornelius said, "Four days ago, I was fasting until this hour, and at the ninth hour, I prayed in my house, and behold, a man stood before me in bright clothing 10.31. and said, 'Cornelius, your prayer is heard, and your gifts to the needy are remembered in the sight of God. 10.32. Send therefore to Joppa, and summon Simon, who is surnamed Peter. He lodges in the house of Simon a tanner, by the seaside. When he comes, he will speak to you.' 10.33. Therefore I sent to you at once, and it was good of you to come. Now therefore we are all here present in the sight of God to hear all things that have been commanded you by God. 10.34. Peter opened his mouth and said, "Truly I perceive that God doesn't show favoritism; 10.35. but in every nation he who fears him and works righteousness is acceptable to him. 10.36. The word which he sent to the children of Israel, preaching good news of peace by Jesus Christ -- he is Lord of all -- 10.37. that spoken word you yourselves know, which was proclaimed throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee, after the baptism which John preached; 10.38. even Jesus of Nazareth, how God anointed him with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him. 10.39. We are witnesses of all things which he did both in the country of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they also killed, hanging him on a tree. 10.40. God raised him up the third day, and gave him to be revealed 10.41. not to all the people, but to witnesses who were chosen before by God, to us, who ate and drank with him after he rose from the dead. 10.42. He charged us to preach to the people and to testify that this is he who is appointed by God as the Judge of the living and the dead. 10.43. All the prophets testify about him, that through his name everyone who believes in him will receive remission of sins. 10.44. While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell on all those who heard the word. 10.45. They of the circumcision who believed were amazed, as many as came with Peter, because the gift of the Holy Spirit was also poured out on the Gentiles. 10.46. For they heard them speak with other languages and magnify God. Then Peter answered 15.2. Therefore when Paul and Barnabas had no small discord and discussion with them, they appointed Paul and Barnabas, and some others of them, to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 19.1. It happened that, while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul, having passed through the upper country, came to Ephesus, and found certain disciples. 19.2. He said to them, "Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?"They said to him, "No, we haven't even heard that there is a Holy Spirit. 19.3. He said, "Into what then were you baptized?"They said, "Into John's baptism. 19.4. Paul said, "John indeed baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying to the people that they should believe in the one who would come after him, that is, on Jesus. 19.5. When they heard this, they were baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. 19.6. When Paul had laid his hands on them, the Holy Spirit came on them, and they spoke with other languages, and prophesied. 19.7. They were about twelve men in all. 20.7. On the first day of the week, when the disciples were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the next day, and continued his speech until midnight. 24.15. having hope toward God, which these also themselves look for, that there will be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust. 25.25. But when I found that he had committed nothing worthy of death, and as he himself appealed to the emperor I determined to send him. 28.20. For this cause therefore I asked you to see and to speak with me. For because of the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain.
12. New Testament, Apocalypse, 12.15-12.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.15. The serpent spewed water out of his mouth after the woman like a river, that he might cause her to be carried away by the stream. 12.16. The earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed up the river which the dragon spewed out of his mouth.
13. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace;
14. New Testament, Hebrews, 9.20, 11.4, 12.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.20. saying, "This is the blood of the covet which God has commanded you. 11.4. By faith, Abel offered to God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, through which he had testimony given to him that he was righteous, God bearing witness with respect to his gifts; and through it he, being dead, still speaks. 12.24. to Jesus, the mediator of a new covet, and to the blood of sprinkling that speaks better than that of Abel.
15. New Testament, John, 4.46-4.54, 11.1-11.44, 13.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.46. Jesus came therefore again to Cana of Galilee, where he made the water into wine. There was a certain nobleman whose son was sick at Capernaum. 4.47. When he heard that Jesus had come out of Judea into Galilee, he went to him, and begged him that he would come down and heal his son, for he was at the point of death. 4.48. Jesus therefore said to him, "Unless you see signs and wonders, you will in no way believe. 4.49. The nobleman said to him, "Sir, come down before my child dies. 4.50. Jesus said to him, "Go your way. Your son lives." The man believed the word that Jesus spoke to him, and he went his way. 4.51. As he was now going down, his servants met him and reported, saying "Your child lives! 4.52. So he inquired of them the hour when he began to get better. They said therefore to him, "Yesterday at the seventh hour, the fever left him. 4.53. So the father knew that it was at that hour in which Jesus said to him, "Your son lives." He believed, as did his whole house. 4.54. This is again the second sign that Jesus did, having come out of Judea into Galilee. 11.1. Now a certain man was sick, Lazarus from Bethany, of the village of Mary and her sister, Martha. 11.2. It was that Mary who had anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother, Lazarus, was sick. 11.3. The sisters therefore sent to him, saying, "Lord, behold, he for whom you have great affection is sick. 11.4. But when Jesus heard it, he said, "This sickness is not to death, but for the glory of God, that God's Son may be glorified by it. 11.5. Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus. 11.6. When therefore he heard that he was sick, he stayed two days in the place where he was. 11.7. Then after this he said to the disciples, "Let's go into Judea again. 11.8. The disciples told him, "Rabbi, the Jews were just trying to stone you, and are you going there again? 11.9. Jesus answered, "Aren't there twelve hours of daylight? If a man walks in the day, he doesn't stumble, because he sees the light of this world. 11.10. But if a man walks in the night, he stumbles, because the light isn't in him. 11.11. He said these things, and after that, he said to them, "Our friend, Lazarus, has fallen asleep, but I am going so that I may awake him out of sleep. 11.12. The disciples therefore said, "Lord, if he has fallen asleep, he will recover. 11.13. Now Jesus had spoken of his death, but they thought that he spoke of taking rest in sleep. 11.14. So Jesus said to them plainly then, "Lazarus is dead. 11.15. I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, so that you may believe. Nevertheless, let's go to him. 11.16. Thomas therefore, who is called Didymus, said to his fellow disciples, "Let's go also, that we may die with him. 11.17. So when Jesus came, he found that he had been in the tomb four days already. 11.18. Now Bethany was near Jerusalem, about fifteen stadia away. 11.19. Many of the Jews had joined the women around Martha and Mary, to console them concerning their brother. 11.20. Then when Martha heard that Jesus was coming, she went and met him, but Mary stayed in the house. 11.21. Therefore Martha said to Jesus, "Lord, if you would have been here, my brother wouldn't have died. 11.22. Even now I know that, whatever you ask of God, God will give you. 11.23. Jesus said to her, "Your brother will rise again. 11.24. Martha said to him, "I know that he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day. 11.25. Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me, though he die, yet will he live. 11.26. Whoever lives and believes in me will never die. Do you believe this? 11.27. She said to him, "Yes, Lord. I have come to believe that you are the Christ, God's Son, he who comes into the world. 11.28. When she had said this, she went away, and called Mary, her sister, secretly, saying, "The Teacher is here, and is calling you. 11.29. When she heard this, she arose quickly, and went to him. 11.30. Now Jesus had not yet come into the village, but was in the place where Martha met him. 11.31. Then the Jews who were with her in the house, and were consoling her, when they saw Mary, that she rose up quickly and went out, followed her, saying, "She is going to the tomb to weep there. 11.32. Therefore when Mary came to where Jesus was, and saw him, she fell down at his feet, saying to him, "Lord, if you would have been here, my brother wouldn't have died. 11.33. When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews weeping who came with her, he groaned in the spirit, and was troubled 11.34. and said, "Where have you laid him?"They told him, "Lord, come and see. 11.35. Jesus wept. 11.36. The Jews therefore said, "See how much affection he had for him! 11.37. Some of them said, "Couldn't this man, who opened the eyes of him who was blind, have also kept this man from dying? 11.38. Jesus therefore, again groaning in himself, came to the tomb. Now it was a cave, and a stone lay against it. 11.39. Jesus said, "Take away the stone."Martha, the sister of him who was dead, said to him, "Lord, by this time there is a stench, for he has been dead four days. 11.40. Jesus said to her, "Didn't I tell you that if you believed, you would see God's glory? 11.41. So they took away the stone from the place where the dead man was lying. Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, "Father, I thank you that you listened to me. 11.42. I know that you always listen to me, but because of the multitude that stands around I said this, that they may believe that you sent me. 11.43. When he had said this, he cried with a loud voice, "Lazarus, come out! 11.44. He who was dead came out, bound hand and foot with wrappings, and his face was wrapped around with a cloth. Jesus said to them, "Free him, and let him go. 13.5. Then he poured water into the basin, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel that was wrapped around him.
16. New Testament, Luke, 1.15, 2.25, 2.37-2.38, 3.16, 5.24, 5.27-5.28, 5.30-5.36, 5.38-5.39, 6.43, 7.1-7.10, 7.28, 7.34, 9.37-9.43, 11.1-11.13, 12.38, 12.50, 16.16, 22.17-22.20, 23.36, 24.21, 24.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. For he will be great in the sight of the Lord, and he will drink no wine nor strong drink. He will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. 2.25. Behold, there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon; and this man was righteous and devout, looking for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was on him. 2.37. and she had been a widow for about eighty-four years), who didn't depart from the temple, worshipping with fastings and petitions night and day. 2.38. Coming up at that very hour, she gave thanks to the Lord, and spoke of him to all those who were looking for redemption in Jerusalem. 3.16. John answered them all, "I indeed baptize you with water, but he comes who is mightier than I, the latchet of whose sandals I am not worthy to loosen. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit and fire 5.24. But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins" (he said to the paralyzed man), "I tell you, arise, and take up your cot, and go to your house. 5.27. After these things he went out, and saw a tax collector named Levi sitting at the tax office, and said to him, "Follow me! 5.28. He left everything, and rose up and followed him. 5.30. Their scribes and the Pharisees murmured against his disciples, saying, "Why do you eat and drink with the tax collectors and sinners? 5.31. Jesus answered them, "Those who are healthy have no need for a physician, but those who are sick do. 5.32. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. 5.33. They said to him, "Why do John's disciples often fast and pray, likewise also the disciples of the Pharisees, but yours eat and drink? 5.34. He said to them, "Can you make the friends of the bridegroom fast, while the bridegroom is with them? 5.35. But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them. Then they will fast in those days. 5.36. He also told a parable to them. "No one puts a piece from a new garment on an old garment, or else he will tear the new, and also the piece from the new will not match the old. 5.38. But new wine must be put into fresh wineskins, and both are preserved. 5.39. No man having drunk old wine immediately desires new, for he says, 'The old is better.' 6.43. For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. 7.1. After he had finished speaking in the hearing of the people, he entered into Capernaum. 7.2. A certain centurion's servant, who was dear to him, was sick and at the point of death. 7.3. When he heard about Jesus, he sent to him elders of the Jews, asking him to come and save his servant. 7.4. When they came to Jesus, they begged him earnestly, saying, "He is worthy for you to do this for him 7.5. for he loves our nation, and he built our synagogue for us. 7.6. Jesus went with them. When he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying to him, "Lord, don't trouble yourself, for I am not worthy for you to come under my roof. 7.7. Therefore I didn't even think myself worthy to come to you; but say the word, and my servant will be healed. 7.8. For I also am a man placed under authority, having under myself soldiers. I tell this one, 'Go!' and he goes; and to another, 'Come!' and he comes; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it. 7.9. When Jesus heard these things, he marveled at him, and turned and said to the multitude who followed him, "I tell you, I have not found such great faith, no, not in Israel. 7.10. Those who were sent, returning to the house, found that the servant who had been sick was well. 7.28. For I tell you, among those who are born of women there is not a greater prophet than John the Baptizer, yet he who is least in the Kingdom of God is greater than he. 7.34. The Son of Man has come eating and drinking, and you say, 'Behold, a gluttonous man, and a drunkard; a friend of tax collectors and sinners!' 9.37. It happened on the next day, when they had come down from the mountain, that a great multitude met him. 9.38. Behold, a man from the crowd called out, saying, "Teacher, I beg you to look at my son, for he is my only child. 9.39. Behold, a spirit takes him, he suddenly cries out, and it convulses him so that he foams, and it hardly departs from him, bruising him severely. 9.40. I begged your disciples to cast it out, and they couldn't. 9.41. Jesus answered, "Faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you and bear with you? Bring your son here. 9.42. While he was still coming, the demon threw him down and convulsed him violently. But Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit, and healed the boy, and gave him back to his father. 9.43. They were all astonished at the majesty of God. But while all were marveling at all the things which Jesus did, he said to his disciples 11.1. It happened, that when he finished praying in a certain place, one of his disciples said to him, "Lord, teach us to pray, just as John also taught his disciples. 11.2. He said to them, "When you pray, say, 'Our Father in heaven, May your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come. May your will be done on Earth, as it is in heaven. 11.3. Give us day by day our daily bread. 11.4. Forgive us our sins, For we ourselves also forgive everyone who is indebted to us. Bring us not into temptation, But deliver us from the evil one.' 11.5. He said to them, "Which of you, if you go to a friend at midnight, and tell him, 'Friend, lend me three loaves of bread 11.6. for a friend of mine has come to me from a journey, and I have nothing to set before him,' 11.7. and he from within will answer and say, 'Don't bother me. The door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed. I can't get up and give it to you'? 11.8. I tell you, although he will not rise and give it to him because he is his friend, yet because of his persistence, he will get up and give him as many as he needs. 11.9. I tell you, keep asking, and it will be given you. Keep seeking, and you will find. Keep knocking, and it will be opened to you. 11.10. For everyone who asks receives. He who seeks finds. To him who knocks it will be opened. 11.11. Which of you fathers, if your son asks for bread, will give him a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, he won't give him a snake instead of a fish, will he? 11.12. Or if he asks for an egg, he won't give him a scorpion, will he? 11.13. If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him? 12.38. They will be blessed if he comes in the second or third watch, and finds them so. 12.50. But I have a baptism to be baptized with, and how distressed I am until it is accomplished! 16.16. The law and the prophets were until John. From that time the gospel of the Kingdom of God is preached, and everyone is forcing his way into it. 22.17. He received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, "Take this, and share it among yourselves 22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you. 23.36. The soldiers also mocked him, coming to him and offering him vinegar 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.49. Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high.
17. New Testament, Mark, 1.1, 2.1-2.12, 2.15-2.28, 7.24-7.30, 9.14-9.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 2.1. When he entered again into Capernaum after some days, it was heard that he was in the house. 2.2. Immediately many were gathered together, so that there was no more room, not even around the door; and he spoke the word to them. 2.3. Four people came, carrying a paralytic to him. 2.4. When they could not come near to him for the crowd, they removed the roof where he was. When they had broken it up, they let down the mat that the paralytic was lying on. 2.5. Jesus, seeing their faith, said to the paralytic, "Son, your sins are forgiven you. 2.6. But there were some of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts 2.7. Why does this man speak blasphemies like that? Who can forgive sins but God alone? 2.8. Immediately Jesus, perceiving in his spirit that they so reasoned within themselves, said to them, "Why do you reason these things in your hearts? 2.9. Which is easier, to tell the paralytic, 'Your sins are forgiven;' or to say, 'Arise, and take up your bed, and walk?' 2.10. But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins" -- he said to the paralytic -- 2.11. I tell you, arise, take up your mat, and go to your house. 2.12. He arose, and immediately took up the mat, and went out in front of them all; so that they were all amazed, and glorified God, saying, "We never saw anything like this! 2.15. It happened, that he was reclining at the table in his house, and many tax collectors and sinners sat down with Jesus and his disciples, for there were many, and they followed him. 2.16. The scribes and the Pharisees, when they saw that he was eating with the sinners and tax collectors, said to his disciples, "Why is it that he eats and drinks with tax collectors and sinners? 2.17. When Jesus heard it, he said to them, "Those who are healthy have no need for a physician, but those who are sick. I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. 2.18. John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting, and they came and asked him, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples don't fast? 2.19. Jesus said to them, "Can the groomsmen fast while the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they can't fast. 2.20. But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then will they fast in that day. 2.21. No one sews a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment, or else the patch shrinks and the new tears away from the old, and a worse hole is made. 2.22. No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins, and the wine pours out, and the skins will be destroyed; but they put new wine into fresh wineskins. 2.23. It happened that he was going on the Sabbath day through the grain fields, and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of grain. 2.24. The Pharisees said to him, "Behold, why do they do that which is not lawful on the Sabbath day? 2.25. He said to them, "Did you never read what David did, when he had need, and was hungry -- he, and they who were with him? 2.26. How he entered into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the show bread, which it is not lawful to eat except for the priests, and gave also to those who were with him? 2.27. He said to them, "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. 2.28. Therefore the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath. 7.24. From there he arose, and went away into the borders of Tyre and Sidon. He entered into a house, and didn't want anyone to know it, but he couldn't escape notice. 7.25. For a woman, whose little daughter had an unclean spirit, having heard of him, came and fell down at his feet. 7.26. Now the woman was a Greek, a Syrophoenician by race. She begged him that he would cast the demon out of her daughter. 7.27. But Jesus said to her, "Let the children be filled first, for it is not appropriate to take the children's bread and throw it to the dogs. 7.28. But she answered him, "Yes, Lord. Yet even the dogs under the table eat the children's crumbs. 7.29. He said to her, "For this saying, go your way. The demon has gone out of your daughter. 7.30. She went away to her house, and found the child lying on the bed, with the demon gone out. 9.14. Coming to the disciples, he saw a great multitude around them, and scribes questioning them. 9.15. Immediately all the multitude, when they saw him, were greatly amazed, and running to him greeted him. 9.16. He asked the scribes, "What are you asking them? 9.17. One of the multitude answered, "Teacher, I brought to you my son, who has a mute spirit; 9.18. and wherever it seizes him, it throws him down, and he foams at the mouth, and grinds his teeth, and wastes away. I asked your disciples to cast it out, and they weren't able. 9.19. He answered him, "Unbelieving generation, how long shall I be with you? How long shall I bear with you? Bring him to me. 9.20. They brought him to him, and when he saw him, immediately the spirit convulsed him, and he fell on the ground, wallowing and foaming at the mouth. 9.21. He asked his father, "How long has it been since this has come to him?"He said, "From childhood. 9.22. often it has cast him both into the fire and into the water, to destroy him. But if you can do anything, have compassion on us, and help us. 9.23. Jesus said to him, "If you can believe, all things are possible to him who believes. 9.24. Immediately the father of the child cried out with tears, "I believe. Help my unbelief! 9.25. When Jesus saw that a multitude came running together, he rebuked the unclean spirit, saying to him, "You mute and deaf spirit, I command you, come out of him, and never enter him again! 9.26. Having cried out, and convulsed greatly, it came out of him. The boy became like one dead; so much that most of them said, "He is dead. 9.27. But Jesus took him by the hand, and raised him up; and he arose. 9.28. When he had come into the house, his disciples asked him privately, "Why couldn't we cast it out? 9.29. He said to them, "This kind can come out by nothing, except by prayer and fasting.
18. New Testament, Matthew, 8.5, 9.2-9.8, 9.15-9.17, 15.21-15.28, 17.14-17.21, 26.9-26.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.5. When he came into Capernaum, a centurion came to him, asking him 9.2. Behold, they brought to him a man who was paralyzed, lying on a bed. Jesus, seeing their faith, said to the paralytic, "Son, cheer up! Your sins are forgiven you. 9.3. Behold, some of the scribes said to themselves, "This man blasphemes. 9.4. Jesus, knowing their thoughts, said, "Why do you think evil in your hearts? 9.5. For which is easier, to say, 'Your sins are forgiven;' or to say, 'Get up, and walk?' 9.6. But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins..." (then he said to the paralytic), "Get up, and take up your mat, and go up to your house. 9.7. He arose and departed to his house. 9.8. But when the multitudes saw it, they marveled and glorified God, who had given such authority to men. 9.15. Jesus said to them, "Can the friends of the bridegroom mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them? But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then they will fast. 9.16. No one puts a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment; for the patch would tear away from the garment, and a worse hole is made. 9.17. Neither do people put new wine into old wineskins, or else the skins would burst, and the wine be spilled, and the skins ruined. No, they put new wine into fresh wineskins, and both are preserved. 15.21. Jesus went out from there, and withdrew into the region of Tyre and Sidon. 15.22. Behold, a Canaanite woman came out from those borders, and cried, saying, "Have mercy on me, Lord, you son of David! My daughter is severely demonized! 15.23. But he answered her not a word. His disciples came and begged him, saying, "Send her away; for she cries after us. 15.24. But he answered, "I wasn't sent to anyone but the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 15.25. But she came and worshiped him, saying, "Lord, help me. 15.26. But he answered, "It is not appropriate to take the children's bread and throw it to the dogs. 15.27. But she said, "Yes, Lord, but even the dogs eat the crumbs which fall from their masters' table. 15.28. Then Jesus answered her, "Woman, great is your faith! Be it done to you even as you desire." And her daughter was healed from that hour. 17.14. When they came to the multitude, a man came to him, kneeling down to him, saying 17.15. Lord, have mercy on my son, for he is epileptic, and suffers grievously; for he often falls into the fire, and often into the water. 17.16. So I brought him to your disciples, and they could not cure him. 17.17. Jesus answered, "Faithless and perverse generation! How long will I be with you? How long will I bear with you? Bring him here to me. 17.18. Jesus rebuked him, the demon went out of him, and the boy was cured from that hour. 17.19. Then the disciples came to Jesus privately, and said, "Why weren't we able to cast it out? 17.20. He said to them, "Because of your unbelief. For most assuredly I tell you, if you have faith as a grain of mustard seed, you will tell this mountain, 'Move from here to there,' and it will move; and nothing will be impossible for you. 17.21. But this kind doesn't go out except by prayer and fasting. 26.9. For this ointment might have been sold for much, and given to the poor. 26.10. But Jesus, knowing this, said to them, "Why do you trouble the woman? Because she has done a good work for me. 26.11. For you always have the poor with you; but you don't always have me. 26.12. For in pouring this ointment on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial.
19. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 4.1.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

20. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ו) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מאי משמע דהאי גוזי לישנא דאשתבועי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו ז, כט) גזי נזרך והשליכי,ואמר רבי אלעזר למה ולד דומה במעי אמו לאגוז מונח בספל של מים אדם נותן אצבעו עליו שוקע לכאן ולכאן,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים ולד דר במדור התחתון אמצעיים ולד דר במדור האמצעי אחרונים ולד דר במדור העליון וכיון שהגיע זמנו לצאת מתהפך ויוצא וזהו חבלי אשה,והיינו דתנן חבלי של נקבה מרובין משל זכר,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי קרא (תהלים קלט, טו) אשר עשיתי בסתר רקמתי בתחתיות ארץ דרתי לא נאמר אלא רקמתי,מאי שנא חבלי נקבה מרובין משל זכר זה בא כדרך תשמישו וזה בא כדרך תשמישו זו הופכת פניה וזה אין הופך פניו,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים תשמיש קשה לאשה וגם קשה לולד אמצעיים קשה לאשה ויפה לולד אחרונים יפה לאשה ויפה לולד שמתוך כך נמצא הולד מלובן ומזורז,תנא המשמש מטתו ליום תשעים כאילו שופך דמים מנא ידע אלא אמר אביי משמש והולך (תהלים קטז, ו) ושומר פתאים ה',תנו רבנן שלשה שותפין יש באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו אביו מזריע הלובן שממנו עצמות וגידים וצפרנים ומוח שבראשו ולובן שבעין אמו מזרעת אודם שממנו עור ובשר ושערות ושחור שבעין והקב"ה נותן בו רוח ונשמה וקלסתר פנים וראיית העין ושמיעת האוזן ודבור פה והלוך רגלים ובינה והשכל,וכיון שהגיע זמנו להפטר מן העולם הקב"ה נוטל חלקו וחלק אביו ואמו מניח לפניהם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי פוץ מלחא ושדי בשרא לכלבא,דרש רב חיננא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם נותן חפץ בחמת צרורה ופיה למעלה ספק משתמר ספק אין משתמר ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה פתוחה ופיה למטה ומשתמר,דבר אחר אדם נותן חפציו לכף מאזנים כל זמן שמכביד יורד למטה ואילו הקב"ה כל זמן שמכביד הולד עולה למעלה,דרש רבי יוסי הגלילי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קל״ט:י״ד } אודך (ה') על כי נוראות נפליתי נפלאים מעשיך ונפשי יודעת מאד בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן זרעונים בערוגה כל אחת ואחת עולה במינו ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה וכולם עולין למין אחד,דבר אחר צבע נותן סמנין ליורה כולן עולין לצבע אחד ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה כל אחת ואחת עולה למינו,דרש רב יוסף מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו יב, א) אודך ה' כי אנפת בי ישוב אפך ותנחמני במה הכתוב מדבר,בשני בני אדם שיצאו לסחורה ישב לו קוץ לאחד מהן התחיל מחרף ומגדף לימים שמע שטבעה ספינתו של חבירו בים התחיל מודה ומשבח לכך נאמר ישוב אפך ותנחמני,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים עב, יח) עושה נפלאות (גדולות) לבדו וברוך שם כבודו לעולם אפילו בעל הנס אינו מכיר בנסו,דריש רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלט, ג) ארחי ורבעי זרית וכל דרכי הסכנת מלמד שלא נוצר אדם מן כל הטפה אלא מן הברור שבה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל משל לאדם שזורה בבית הגרנות נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,כדרבי אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב (שמואל ב כב, מ) ותזרני חיל וכתיב (תהלים יח, לג) האל המאזרני חיל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זיריתני וזרזתני,דרש רבי אבהו מאי דכתיב (במדבר כג, י) מי מנה עפר יעקב ומספר את רובע ישראל מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וסופר את רביעיותיהם של ישראל מתי תבא טיפה שהצדיק נוצר הימנה,ועל דבר זה נסמית עינו של בלעם הרשע אמר מי שהוא טהור וקדוש ומשרתיו טהורים וקדושים יציץ בדבר זה מיד נסמית עינו דכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) נאם הגבר שתום העין,והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (בראשית ל, טז) וישכב עמה בלילה הוא מלמד שהקב"ה סייע באותו מעשה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יד) יששכר חמור גרם חמור גרם לו ליששכר,אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה שנאמר (ויקרא יג, כט) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו אומרים אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחלה יולדת נקבה ולא פירשו חכמים את הדבר עד שבא רבי צדוק ופירשו (בראשית מו, טו) אלה בני לאה אשר ילדה ליעקב בפדן ארם ואת דינה בתו תלה הזכרים בנקבות ונקבות בזכרים,(דברי הימים א ח, מ) ויהיו בני אולם אנשים גבורי חיל דורכי קשת ומרבים בנים ובני בנים וכי בידו של אדם להרבות בנים ובני בנים אלא מתוך 31a. bWhat is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? “Upon You I have relied from birth; bYou are He Who took me out [ igozi /i] of my mother’s womb”(Psalms 71:6). bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that thisword: b“ iGozi /i,” is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: “Cut off [ igozi /i] your hair and cast it away”(Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother’s womb comparable?It is comparable bto a nut placed in a basinfull bof water,floating on top of the water. If ba person puts his finger on top ofthe nut, bit sinkseither bin this direction or in that direction. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, the bfetus resides in the lower compartmentof the womb; in the bmiddlethree months, the bfetus resides in the middle compartment;and during the blastthree months of pregcy the bfetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this iswhat causes blabor pains. /b,With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: bAnd this isthe explanation for bthat which we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bThe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female are greater thanthose bexperienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male.The Gemara will explain this below., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: What is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? b“When I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth”(Psalms 139:15). Since it bis not stated: I residedin the lowest parts of the earth, bbut rather: “I was woven togetherin the lowest parts of the earth,” this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus’s development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bthe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female,that they bare greater than those experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male?The Gemara answers: bThisone, a male fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse.Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. bAnd thatone, a female fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse,i.e., facing upward. Consequently, bthatone, a female fetus, bturns its face aroundbefore it is born, bbut thisone, a male fetus, bdoes not turn its face aroundbefore it is born.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, bsexual intercourse is difficultand harmful bfor the woman and is also difficult for the offspring.During the bmiddlethree months, intercourse is bdifficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring.During the blastthree months, sexual intercourse is bbeneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned. /b,The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who engages in intercoursewith his wife bon the ninetieth dayof her pregcy, bit is as though he spillsher bblood.The Gemara asks: bHow does one knowthat it is the ninetieth day of her pregcy? bRather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercoursewith his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, bandrely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: b“The Lord preserves the simple”(Psalms 116:6).,§ bThe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe creation of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from whichthe following body parts are formed: The bbones,the bsinews,the bnails,the bbrain that is in its head, andthe bwhite of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from whichare formed the bskin,the bflesh,the bhair, andthe bblack of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul,his bcountece [ iukelaster /i], eyesight, hearing of the ear,the capability of bspeechof bthe mouth,the capability of bwalkingwith bthe legs, understanding, and wisdom. /b, bAnd whena person’s btime to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part ofthe person’s bfather and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: Thisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: Remove the saltfrom a piece of meat, bandyou may then btoss the meat to a dog,as it has become worthless.,§ bRav Ḥina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number”(Job 9:10)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that if one bputs an article in a flask,even if the flask is btied and its openingfaces bupward, it is uncertain whetherthe item bis preservedfrom getting lost, band it is uncertain whether it is not preservedfrom being lost. bBut the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s open womb, and its openingfaces bdownward, andyet the fetus bis preserved. /b, bAnother matterthat demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when ba person places his articles on a scaleto be measured, bthe heavierthe item bis,the more bit descends. Butwhen bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,forms a fetus, bthe heavier the offspring gets,the more bit ascends upwardin the womb., bRabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well”(Psalms 139:14)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that when ba person plants seedsof different species binone bgarden bed, each and every oneof the seeds bemergesas a grown plant baccording to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and all ofthe seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, bemergewhen the offspring is formed bas onesex., bAlternatively,when ba dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [ ileyora /i], they all emerge as one colorof dye, bwhereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb,and beach and every oneof the seeds bemerges as its own type.In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above., bRav Yosef taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And on that day you shall say: bI will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me”(Isaiah 12:1)? bWith regard to whatmatter bis the verse speaking? /b,It is referring, for example, bto two people who lefttheir homes to go bon a businesstrip. bA thorn penetratedthe body bof one of them,and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. bHe started blaspheming and cursingin frustration. bAfter a period of time, he heard that the ship of the otherperson bhad sunk in the sea,and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then bstarted thankingGod band praisingHim for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. bTherefore, it is statedat the end of the verse: b“Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me.” /b, bAnd thisstatement bisidentical to bthat which Rabbi Elazar said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, bWho does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever”(Psalms 72:18–19)? What does it mean that God “does wondrous things alone”? It means that beven the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miraclethat was performed for bhim. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “You measure [ izerita /i] my going about [ iorḥi /i] and my lying down [ iriv’i /i], and are acquainted with all my ways”(Psalms 139:3)? This verse bteaches that a person is not created from the entire dropof semen, bbut from its clearpart. iZeritacan mean to winnow, while iorḥiand iriv’ican both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable:This matter is comparable bto a person who winnowsgrain bin the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste. /b,This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one of King David’s psalms: b“For You have girded me [ ivatazreni /i] with strength for battle”(II Samuel 22:40), without the letter ialefin ivatazreni /i; band it is writtenin another psalm: b“Who girds me [ ihame’azreni /i] with strength”(Psalms 18:33), with an ialefin ihame’azreini /i. What is the difference between these two expressions? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [ izeiritani /i],i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, band You have girded me [ izeraztani /i] with strength. /b, bRabbi Abbahu taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenin Balaam’s blessing: b“Who has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [ irova /i] of Israel”(Numbers 23:10)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [ irevi’iyyoteihem /i],anticipating the time bwhen the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive. /b, bAndit was bdue to this matterthat bthe eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: ShouldGod, bwho is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blindedas a divine punishment, bas it is written: “The saying of the man whose eye is shut”(Numbers 24:3)., bAnd thisstatement bisthe same as that bwhich Rabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written,with regard to Leah’s conceiving Issachar: b“And he lay with her that night”(Genesis 30:16)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act.The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, bas it is stated: “Issachar is a large-boned [ igarem /i] donkey”(Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob’s bdonkeytoward Leah’s tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby bcausing [ igaram /i]Leah’s conceiving bIssachar. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says:The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the bwoman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male”(Leviticus 12:2)., bThe Sages taught: At first,people bwould saythat if the bwoman emits seed first she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explainfrom which verse this bmatteris derived, buntil Rabbi Tzadok came and explainedthat bitis derived from the following verse: b“These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah”(Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse battributes the males to the females,as the males are called: The sons of Leah, bandit attributes bthe females to the males, /bin that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.,This statement is also derived from the following verse: b“And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons’ sons”(I Chronicles 8:40). bIs it in a person’s power to have many sons and sons’ sons? Rather, because /b
21. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 47 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

22. Epiphanius, Panarion, 42.3.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 230
abiathar Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
abuse, trust following Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 191
acts of the apostles Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 105
angel Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 195
anna, prophet(ess) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 105
apistia, apistos Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 191
aramaic Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
barnaban source Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
barnabas Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
blood of abel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 230
bradbury, s. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 170
brakke, david Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 122
breaking of the bread' McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 234
cain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 230
cooper, k. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 170
covenant Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 230
daphne and delius Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 191
davidic, jesus as Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
death, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 230
dunn, james d. g. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 124
ehrman, bart d. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 123
eucharist, of bread alone McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 234
eucharist, of bread and water McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 234
fasting Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 105
fitzmyer, joseph a. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 122, 123, 124
flood Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 230
foot/feet Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 230
god as father Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 105
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 191
hahn, scott w. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 123, 124
harnack, adolf Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 123, 124
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 230
hippolytus of rome McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 234
holy spirit Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 105
imitation, of christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 191
israel/israelites Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 105
jeremias, joachim Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 122, 123, 124
jesus, mediator of a new covet, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 230
jesus, vow of abstinence from wine McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 234
jesus Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 230
jews Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
john the baptist Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 105
jones, h. s. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 170
kee, alistair Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 123, 124
kingdom of god/gods kingdom Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 105
koester, craig r. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 124
last supper McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 234
law, biblical Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 231, 406
law and prophets Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 123, 406
lazarus, raising of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 191
letter on the conversion of the jews, (severus of minorca), conversion accounts of jewish women Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 170
little apocalypse Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
luke, gospel of; luke-acts McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 234
luke, gospel of Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 105
luke (gospel writer and gospel) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
marcion Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 123, 124
mark (gospel writer and gospel) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
matthew (gospel writer and gospel) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
matthews, s. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 170
mcdonald, lee martin Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 122
mcknight, scot Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 123
mediator, others, in imitation of christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 191
meier, john p. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 123, 124
mekhilta Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
men, severuss representation Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 170
metzger, bruce m. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 122, 123, 124
minorcan jewish women, artemisia, conversion to christianity Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 170
minorcan jewish women, theodoruss wife, conversion to christianity Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 170
moses Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 124
mouth, cain, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 230
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
murphy-oconnor, jerome Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 124
myth Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 231
new covenant, and new testament Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 122
new covenant, and old covenant Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 124
new covenant, in eucharist Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 122, 123, 124
new testament Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 122
newness Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 406
noetus Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 105
old testament Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 122; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 406
parable, of patch Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 105, 231
parable, of prodigal son Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 195
parable, of two trees Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 105, 123
parable, of wineskins Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 105, 195, 231, 406
paul Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 123, 406
porter, stanley e. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 124
priesthood Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
principles Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 123
principles third Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 123
prophets/prophetic Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 105
revelation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 191
righteous Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
rome marcion at Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 105, 106
sabbath, lamp Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
sabbath Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
sanders, e. p. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 124
scholia Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 195
self-trust, negative Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 191
son Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
soul Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 123
spirit, evil or unclean Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 191
spirit Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 123
teachers Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 105
temple (in jerusalem) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 105
testament Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 406
thomas, gospel of Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 122
tiberius Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 123
torah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254
type Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 406
unknown, god Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 123, 406
van unnik, w. c. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 122
washing Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 230
wine Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 254; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 230
women, severuss accounts of Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 170