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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8256
New Testament, Luke, 4.18-4.19


Πνεῦμα Κυρίου ἐπʼ ἐμέ, οὗ εἵνεκεν ἔχρισέν με εὐαγγελίσασθαι πτωχοῖς, ἀπέσταλκέν με κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώτοις ἄφεσιν καὶ τυφλοῖς ἀνάβλεψιν, ἀποστεῖλαι τεθραυσμένους ἐν ἀφέσειThe Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed


κηρύξαι ἐνιαυτὸν Κυρίου δεκτόν.And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

88 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.3, 18.15, 30.16, 30.19-30.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.3. וַיְעַנְּךָ וַיַּרְעִבֶךָ וַיַּאֲכִלְךָ אֶת הַמָּן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדַעְתָּ וְלֹא יָדְעוּן אֲבֹתֶיךָ לְמַעַן הוֹדִעֲךָ כִּי לֹא עַל־הַלֶּחֶם לְבַדּוֹ יִחְיֶה הָאָדָם כִּי עַל־כָּל־מוֹצָא פִי־יְהוָה יִחְיֶה הָאָדָם׃ 18.15. נָבִיא מִקִּרְבְּךָ מֵאַחֶיךָ כָּמֹנִי יָקִים לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵלָיו תִּשְׁמָעוּן׃ 30.16. אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בִּדְרָכָיו וְלִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וְחָיִיתָ וְרָבִיתָ וּבֵרַכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בָא־שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 30.19. הַעִידֹתִי בָכֶם הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַחַיִּים וְהַמָּוֶת נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה וּבָחַרְתָּ בַּחַיִּים לְמַעַן תִּחְיֶה אַתָּה וְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 8.3. And He afflicted thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that He might make thee know that man doth not live by bread only, but by every thing that proceedeth out of the mouth of the LORD doth man live." 18.15. A prophet will the LORD thy God raise up unto thee, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;" 30.16. in that I command thee this day to love the LORD thy God, to walk in His ways, and to keep His commandments and His statutes and His ordices; then thou shalt live and multiply, and the LORD thy God shall bless thee in the land whither thou goest in to possess it." 30.19. I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that I have set before thee life and death, the blessing and the curse; therefore choose life, that thou mayest live, thou and thy seed;" 30.20. to love the LORD thy God, to hearken to His voice, and to cleave unto Him; for that is thy life, and the length of thy days; that thou mayest dwell in the land which the LORD swore unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.14, 8.19, 23.11, 34.29-34.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.14. וַיֹּאמֶר מִי שָׂמְךָ לְאִישׁ שַׂר וְשֹׁפֵט עָלֵינוּ הַלְהָרְגֵנִי אַתָּה אֹמֵר כַּאֲשֶׁר הָרַגְתָּ אֶת־הַמִּצְרִי וַיִּירָא מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמַר אָכֵן נוֹדַע הַדָּבָר׃ 8.19. וְשַׂמְתִּי פְדֻת בֵּין עַמִּי וּבֵין עַמֶּךָ לְמָחָר יִהְיֶה הָאֹת הַזֶּה׃ 23.11. וְהַשְּׁבִיעִת תִּשְׁמְטֶנָּה וּנְטַשְׁתָּהּ וְאָכְלוּ אֶבְיֹנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְיִתְרָם תֹּאכַל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה כֵּן־תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכַרְמְךָ לְזֵיתֶךָ׃ 34.29. וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן־הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא־יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ׃ 2.14. And he said: ‘Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us? thinkest thou to kill me, as thou didst kill the Egyptian?’ And Moses feared, and said: ‘Surely the thing is known.’" 8.19. And I will put a division between My people and thy people—by to-morrow shall this sign be.’" 23.11. but the seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie fallow, that the poor of thy people may eat; and what they leave the beast of the field shall eat. In like manner thou shalt deal with thy vineyard, and with thy oliveyard." 34.29. And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses’hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth abeams while He talked with him." 34.30. And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face sent forth beams; and they were afraid to come nigh him."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26, 18.4, 19.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 18.4. יֻקַּח־נָא מְעַט־מַיִם וְרַחֲצוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם וְהִשָּׁעֲנוּ תַּחַת הָעֵץ׃ 19.2. וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֶּה נָּא־אֲדֹנַי סוּרוּ נָא אֶל־בֵּית עַבְדְּכֶם וְלִינוּ וְרַחֲצוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם וְהִשְׁכַּמְתֶּם וַהֲלַכְתֶּם לְדַרְכְּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹּא כִּי בָרְחוֹב נָלִין׃ 19.2. הִנֵּה־נָא הָעִיר הַזֹּאת קְרֹבָה לָנוּס שָׁמָּה וְהִיא מִצְעָר אִמָּלְטָה נָּא שָׁמָּה הֲלֹא מִצְעָר הִוא וּתְחִי נַפְשִׁי׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 18.4. Let now a little water be fetched, and wash your feet, and recline yourselves under the tree." 19.2. and he said: ‘Behold now, my lords, turn aside, I pray you, into your servant’s house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on your way.’ And they said: ‘Nay; but we will abide in the broad place all night.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 1.5, 2.28-2.32, 3.1-3.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. וְהָיָה אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֶשְׁפּוֹךְ אֶת־רוּחִי עַל־כָּל־בָּשָׂר וְנִבְּאוּ בְּנֵיכֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיכֶם זִקְנֵיכֶם חֲלֹמוֹת יַחֲלֹמוּן בַּחוּרֵיכֶם חֶזְיֹנוֹת יִרְאוּ׃ 3.2. וְגַם עַל־הָעֲבָדִים וְעַל־הַשְּׁפָחוֹת בַּיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה אֶשְׁפּוֹךְ אֶת־רוּחִי׃ 3.3. וְנָתַתִּי מוֹפְתִים בַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ דָּם וָאֵשׁ וְתִימֲרוֹת עָשָׁן׃ 3.4. הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יֵהָפֵךְ לְחֹשֶׁךְ וְהַיָּרֵחַ לְדָם לִפְנֵי בּוֹא יוֹם יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא׃ 3.5. וְהָיָה כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה יִמָּלֵט כִּי בְּהַר־צִיּוֹן וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם תִּהְיֶה פְלֵיטָה כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה וּבַשְּׂרִידִים אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה קֹרֵא׃ 3.1. And it shall come to pass afterward, That I will pour out My spirit upon all flesh; And your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, Your old men shall dream dreams, Your young men shall see visions;" 3.2. And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids In those days will I pour out My spirit." 3.3. And I will shew wonders in the heavens and in the earth, Blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke." 3.4. The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and terrible day of the LORD come. 3.5. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD shall be delivered; For in mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be those that escape, As the LORD hath said, And among the remt those whom the LORD shall call."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.18, 25.4, 25.10-25.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 25.4. כְּשָׂכִיר כְּתוֹשָׁב יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ עַד־שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל יַעֲבֹד עִמָּךְ׃ 25.4. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה שָׂדְךָ לֹא תִזְרָע וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תִזְמֹר׃ 25.11. יוֹבֵל הִוא שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם לֹא תִזְרָעוּ וְלֹא תִקְצְרוּ אֶת־סְפִיחֶיהָ וְלֹא תִבְצְרוּ אֶת־נְזִרֶיהָ׃ 25.12. כִּי יוֹבֵל הִוא קֹדֶשׁ תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם מִן־הַשָּׂדֶה תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־תְּבוּאָתָהּ׃ 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 25.4. But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath unto the LORD; thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard." 25.10. And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout the land unto all the inhabitants thereof; it shall be a jubilee unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family." 25.11. A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto you; ye shall not sow, neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of the undressed vines." 25.12. For it is a jubilee; it shall be holy unto you; ye shall eat the increase thereof out of the field."
6. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. הָבִיאוּ אֶת־כָּל־הַמַּעֲשֵׂר אֶל־בֵּית הָאוֹצָר וִיהִי טֶרֶף בְּבֵיתִי וּבְחָנוּנִי נָא בָּזֹאת אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אִם־לֹא אֶפְתַּח לָכֶם אֵת אֲרֻבּוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וַהֲרִיקֹתִי לָכֶם בְּרָכָה עַד־בְּלִי־דָי׃ 3.1. הִנְנִי שֹׁלֵחַ מַלְאָכִי וּפִנָּה־דֶרֶךְ לְפָנָי וּפִתְאֹם יָבוֹא אֶל־הֵיכָלוֹ הָאָדוֹן אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם מְבַקְשִׁים וּמַלְאַךְ הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם חֲפֵצִים הִנֵּה־בָא אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 3.1. Behold, I send My messenger, and he shall clear the way before Me; and the Lord, whom ye seek, will suddenly come to His temple, and the messenger of the covet, Whom ye delight in, Behold, he cometh, Saith the LORD of hosts."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.2, 2.7, 16.8-16.11, 37.11, 77.11, 94.2, 107.5, 110.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.2. יִתְיַצְּבוּ מַלְכֵי־אֶרֶץ וְרוֹזְנִים נוֹסְדוּ־יָחַד עַל־יְהוָה וְעַל־מְשִׁיחוֹ׃ 2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 16.8. שִׁוִּיתִי יְהוָה לְנֶגְדִּי תָמִיד כִּי מִימִינִי בַּל־אֶמּוֹט׃ 16.9. לָכֵן שָׂמַח לִבִּי וַיָּגֶל כְּבוֹדִי אַף־בְּשָׂרִי יִשְׁכֹּן לָבֶטַח׃ 16.11. תּוֹדִיעֵנִי אֹרַח חַיִּים שֹׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת אֶת־פָּנֶיךָ נְעִמוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶצַח׃ 37.11. וַעֲנָוִים יִירְשׁוּ־אָרֶץ וְהִתְעַנְּגוּ עַל־רֹב שָׁלוֹם׃ 77.11. וָאֹמַר חַלּוֹתִי הִיא שְׁנוֹת יְמִין עֶלְיוֹן׃ 94.2. הַיְחָבְרְךָ כִּסֵּא הַוּוֹת יֹצֵר עָמָל עֲלֵי־חֹק׃ 94.2. הִנָּשֵׂא שֹׁפֵט הָאָרֶץ הָשֵׁב גְּמוּל עַל־גֵּאִים׃ 107.5. רְעֵבִים גַּם־צְמֵאִים נַפְשָׁם בָּהֶם תִּתְעַטָּף׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 2.2. The kings of the earth stand up, And the rulers take counsel together, Against the LORD, and against His anointed:" 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 16.8. I have set the LORD always before me; Surely He is at my right hand, I shall not be moved." 16.9. Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoiceth; my flesh also dwelleth in safety;" 16.10. For Thou wilt not abandon my soul to the nether-world; Neither wilt Thou suffer Thy godly one to see the pit." 16.11. Thou makest me to know the path of life; In Thy presence is fulness of joy, In Thy right hand bliss for evermore." 37.11. But the humble shall inherit the land, and delight themselves in the abundance of peace." 77.11. And I say 'This is my weakness, That the right hand of the Most High could change." 94.2. Lift up Thyself, Thou Judge of the earth; Render to the proud their recompense." 107.5. Hungry and thirsty, Their soul fainted in them." 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'"
8. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 3.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.3. וְרָחַצְתְּ וָסַכְתְּ וְשַׂמְתְּ שמלתך [שִׂמְלֹתַיִךְ] עָלַיִךְ וירדתי [וְיָרַדְתְּ] הַגֹּרֶן אַל־תִּוָּדְעִי לָאִישׁ עַד כַּלֹּתוֹ לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת׃ 3.3. Wash thyself therefore, and anoint thee, and put thy raiment upon thee, and get thee down to the threshing-floor; but make not thyself known unto the man, until he shall have done eating and drinking."
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 17.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.18. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־אֵלִיָּהוּ מַה־לִּי וָלָךְ אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים בָּאתָ אֵלַי לְהַזְכִּיר אֶת־עֲוֺנִי וּלְהָמִית אֶת־בְּנִי׃ 17.18. And she said unto Elijah: ‘What have I to do with thee, O thou man of God? art thou come unto me to bring my sin to remembrance, and to slay my son?’"
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 10.1, 25.41 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.1. וַיָּבֹאוּ שָׁם הַגִּבְעָתָה וְהִנֵּה חֶבֶל־נְבִאִים לִקְרָאתוֹ וַתִּצְלַח עָלָיו רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים וַיִּתְנַבֵּא בְּתוֹכָם׃ 10.1. וַיִּקַּח שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת־פַּךְ הַשֶּׁמֶן וַיִּצֹק עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּשָּׁקֵהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר הֲלוֹא כִּי־מְשָׁחֲךָ יְהוָה עַל־נַחֲלָתוֹ לְנָגִיד׃ 25.41. וַתָּקָם וַתִּשְׁתַּחוּ אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה וַתֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה אֲמָתְךָ לְשִׁפְחָה לִרְחֹץ רַגְלֵי עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנִי׃ 10.1. Then Shemu᾽el took a flask of oil, and poured it upon his head, and kissed him, and said, Has not the Lord anointed thee to be a prince over his inheritance?" 25.41. And she arose, and bowed herself on her face to the earth, and said, Behold, let thy handmaid be a servant to wash the feet of the servants of my lord."
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 17.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.12. וַיַּעַבְדוּ הַגִּלֻּלִים אֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה לָהֶם לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 17.12. and they served idols, whereof the LORD had said unto them: ‘Ye shall not do this thing’;"
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 14.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.2. לְבַעֲבוּר סַבֵּב אֶת־פְּנֵי הַדָּבָר עָשָׂה עַבְדְּךָ יוֹאָב אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַאדֹנִי חָכָם כְּחָכְמַת מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים לָדַעַת אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ׃ 14.2. וַיִּשְׁלַח יוֹאָב תְּקוֹעָה וַיִּקַּח מִשָּׁם אִשָּׁה חֲכָמָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ הִתְאַבְּלִי־נָא וְלִבְשִׁי־נָא בִגְדֵי־אֵבֶל וְאַל־תָּסוּכִי שֶׁמֶן וְהָיִית כְּאִשָּׁה זֶה יָמִים רַבִּים מִתְאַבֶּלֶת עַל־מֵת׃ 14.2. And Yo᾽av sent to Teqo῾a, and fetched from there a wise woman, and said to her, I pray thee, feign thyself to be a mourner, and put on now mourning apparel, and do not anoint thyself with oil, but be as a woman that had a long time mourned for the dead:"
13. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.25-5.27 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5.25. הַזְּבָחִים וּמִנְחָה הִגַּשְׁתֶּם־לִי בַמִּדְבָּר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.26. וּנְשָׂאתֶם אֵת סִכּוּת מַלְכְּכֶם וְאֵת כִּיּוּן צַלְמֵיכֶם כּוֹכַב אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר עֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם׃ 5.27. וְהִגְלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵהָלְאָה לְדַמָּשֶׂק אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 5.25. Did ye bring unto Me sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness forty years, O house of Israel?" 5.26. So shall ye take up Siccuth your king and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves." 5.27. Therefore will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus, saith He, whose name is the LORD God of hosts."
14. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.2, 2.4, 3.9-3.12, 4.4, 6.9-6.10, 8.2, 11.1-11.2, 40.3-40.5, 42.1, 53.12, 54.1-54.2, 58.6-58.7, 60.21, 61.1-61.3, 61.6, 66.1-66.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.2. וְהָיָה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים נָכוֹן יִהְיֶה הַר בֵּית־יְהוָה בְּרֹאשׁ הֶהָרִים וְנִשָּׂא מִגְּבָעוֹת וְנָהֲרוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם׃ 2.2. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יַשְׁלִיךְ הָאָדָם אֵת אֱלִילֵי כַסְפּוֹ וְאֵת אֱלִילֵי זְהָבוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ־לוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לַחְפֹּר פֵּרוֹת וְלָעֲטַלֵּפִים׃ 2.4. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 3.9. הַכָּרַת פְּנֵיהֶם עָנְתָה בָּם וְחַטָּאתָם כִּסְדֹם הִגִּידוּ לֹא כִחֵדוּ אוֹי לְנַפְשָׁם כִּי־גָמְלוּ לָהֶם רָעָה׃ 3.11. אוֹי לְרָשָׁע רָע כִּי־גְמוּל יָדָיו יֵעָשֶׂה לּוֹ׃ 3.12. עַמִּי נֹגְשָׂיו מְעוֹלֵל וְנָשִׁים מָשְׁלוּ בוֹ עַמִּי מְאַשְּׁרֶיךָ מַתְעִים וְדֶרֶךְ אֹרְחֹתֶיךָ בִּלֵּעוּ׃ 4.4. אִם רָחַץ אֲדֹנָי אֵת צֹאַת בְּנוֹת־צִיּוֹן וְאֶת־דְּמֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם יָדִיחַ מִקִּרְבָּהּ בְּרוּחַ מִשְׁפָּט וּבְרוּחַ בָּעֵר׃ 6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 8.2. לְתוֹרָה וְלִתְעוּדָה אִם־לֹא יֹאמְרוּ כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ שָׁחַר׃ 8.2. וְאָעִידָה לִּי עֵדִים נֶאֱמָנִים אֵת אוּרִיָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְאֶת־זְכַרְיָהוּ בֶּן יְבֶרֶכְיָהוּ׃ 11.1. וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֵּזַע יִשָׁי וְנֵצֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו יִפְרֶה׃ 11.1. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שֹׁרֶשׁ יִשַׁי אֲשֶׁר עֹמֵד לְנֵס עַמִּים אֵלָיו גּוֹיִם יִדְרֹשׁוּ וְהָיְתָה מְנֻחָתוֹ כָּבוֹד׃ 11.2. וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃ 40.3. קוֹל קוֹרֵא בַּמִּדְבָּר פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה יַשְּׁרוּ בָּעֲרָבָה מְסִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 40.3. וְיִעֲפוּ נְעָרִים וְיִגָעוּ וּבַחוּרִים כָּשׁוֹל יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃ 40.4. כָּל־גֶּיא יִנָּשֵׂא וְכָל־הַר וְגִבְעָה יִשְׁפָּלוּ וְהָיָה הֶעָקֹב לְמִישׁוֹר וְהָרְכָסִים לְבִקְעָה׃ 40.5. וְנִגְלָה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה וְרָאוּ כָל־בָּשָׂר יַחְדָּו כִּי פִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃ 42.1. הֵן עַבְדִּי אֶתְמָךְ־בּוֹ בְּחִירִי רָצְתָה נַפְשִׁי נָתַתִּי רוּחִי עָלָיו מִשְׁפָּט לַגּוֹיִם יוֹצִיא׃ 42.1. שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה שִׁיר חָדָשׁ תְּהִלָּתוֹ מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ יוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם וּמְלֹאוֹ אִיִּים וְיֹשְׁבֵיהֶם׃ 53.12. לָכֵן אֲחַלֶּק־לוֹ בָרַבִּים וְאֶת־עֲצוּמִים יְחַלֵּק שָׁלָל תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱרָה לַמָּוֶת נַפְשׁוֹ וְאֶת־פֹּשְׁעִים נִמְנָה וְהוּא חֵטְא־רַבִּים נָשָׂא וְלַפֹּשְׁעִים יַפְגִּיעַ׃ 54.1. רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 54.1. כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃ 54.2. הַרְחִיבִי מְקוֹם אָהֳלֵךְ וִירִיעוֹת מִשְׁכְּנוֹתַיִךְ יַטּוּ אַל־תַּחְשֹׂכִי הַאֲרִיכִי מֵיתָרַיִךְ וִיתֵדֹתַיִךְ חַזֵּקִי׃ 58.6. הֲלוֹא זֶה צוֹם אֶבְחָרֵהוּ פַּתֵּחַ חַרְצֻבּוֹת רֶשַׁע הַתֵּר אֲגֻדּוֹת מוֹטָה וְשַׁלַּח רְצוּצִים חָפְשִׁים וְכָל־מוֹטָה תְּנַתֵּקוּ׃ 58.7. הֲלוֹא פָרֹס לָרָעֵב לַחְמֶךָ וַעֲנִיִּים מְרוּדִים תָּבִיא בָיִת כִּי־תִרְאֶה עָרֹם וְכִסִּיתוֹ וּמִבְּשָׂרְךָ לֹא תִתְעַלָּם׃ 60.21. וְעַמֵּךְ כֻּלָּם צַדִּיקִים לְעוֹלָם יִירְשׁוּ אָרֶץ נֵצֶר מטעו [מַטָּעַי] מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַי לְהִתְפָּאֵר׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 61.3. לָשׂוּם לַאֲבֵלֵי צִיּוֹן לָתֵת לָהֶם פְּאֵר תַּחַת אֵפֶר שֶׁמֶן שָׂשׂוֹן תַּחַת אֵבֶל מַעֲטֵה תְהִלָּה תַּחַת רוּחַ כֵּהָה וְקֹרָא לָהֶם אֵילֵי הַצֶּדֶק מַטַּע יְהוָה לְהִתְפָּאֵר׃ 61.6. וְאַתֶּם כֹּהֲנֵי יְהוָה תִּקָּרֵאוּ מְשָׁרְתֵי אֱלֹהֵינוּ יֵאָמֵר לָכֶם חֵיל גּוֹיִם תֹּאכֵלוּ וּבִכְבוֹדָם תִּתְיַמָּרוּ׃ 66.1. שִׂמְחוּ אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְגִילוּ בָהּ כָּל־אֹהֲבֶיהָ שִׂישׂוּ אִתָּהּ מָשׂוֹשׂ כָּל־הַמִּתְאַבְּלִים עָלֶיהָ׃ 66.1. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הַשָּׁמַיִם כִּסְאִי וְהָאָרֶץ הֲדֹם רַגְלָי אֵי־זֶה בַיִת אֲשֶׁר תִּבְנוּ־לִי וְאֵי־זֶה מָקוֹם מְנוּחָתִי׃ 66.2. וְהֵבִיאוּ אֶת־כָּל־אֲחֵיכֶם מִכָּל־הַגּוֹיִם מִנְחָה לַיהוָה בַּסּוּסִים וּבָרֶכֶב וּבַצַּבִּים וּבַפְּרָדִים וּבַכִּרְכָּרוֹת עַל הַר קָדְשִׁי יְרוּשָׁלִַם אָמַר יְהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר יָבִיאוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה בִּכְלִי טָהוֹר בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 66.2. וְאֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה יָדִי עָשָׂתָה וַיִּהְיוּ כָל־אֵלֶּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְאֶל־זֶה אַבִּיט אֶל־עָנִי וּנְכֵה־רוּחַ וְחָרֵד עַל־דְּבָרִי׃ 2.2. And it shall come to pass in the end of days, That the mountain of the LORD’S house Shall be established as the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And all nations shall flow unto it." 2.4. And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more." 3.9. The show of their countece doth witness against them; And they declare their sin as Sodom, they hide it not. Woe unto their soul! For they have wrought evil unto themselves." 3.10. Say ye of the righteous, that it shall be well with him; For they shall eat the fruit of their doings." 3.11. Woe unto the wicked! it shall be ill with him; For the work of his hands shall be done to him." 3.12. As for My people, a babe is their master, And women rule over them. O My people, they that lead thee cause thee to err, And destroy the way of thy paths." 4.4. when the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof, by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of destruction." 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’" 8.2. and I will take unto Me faithful witnesses to record, Uriah the priest, and Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah.’" 11.1. And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, And a twig shall grow forth out of his roots." 11.2. And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD." 40.3. Hark! one calleth: ‘Clear ye in the wilderness the way of the LORD, make plain in the desert a highway for our God." 40.4. Every valley shall be lifted up, and every mountain and hill shall be made low; and the rugged shall be made level, and the rough places a plain;" 40.5. And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together; for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.’" 42.1. Behold My servant, whom I uphold; Mine elect, in whom My soul delighteth; I have put My spirit upon him, He shall make the right to go forth to the nations." 53.12. Therefore will I divide him a portion among the great, And he shall divide the spoil with the mighty; Because he bared his soul unto death, And was numbered with the transgressors; Yet he bore the sin of many, And made intercession for the transgressors." 54.1. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD." 54.2. Enlarge the place of thy tent, And let them stretch forth the curtains of thy habitations, spare not; Lengthen thy cords, and strengthen thy stakes." 58.6. Is not this the fast that I have chosen? To loose the fetters of wickedness, To undo the bands of the yoke, And to let the oppressed go free, And that ye break every yoke?" 58.7. Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, And that thou bring the poor that are cast out to thy house? When thou seest the naked, that thou cover him, And that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh?" 60.21. Thy people also shall be all righteous, They shall inherit the land for ever; The branch of My planting, the work of My hands, Wherein I glory." 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;" 61.3. To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, To give unto them a garland for ashes, The oil of joy for mourning, The mantle of praise for the spirit of heaviness; That they might be called terebinths of righteousness, The planting of the LORD, wherein He might glory." 61.6. But ye shall be named the priests of the LORD, Men shall call you the ministers of our God; Ye shall eat the wealth of the nations, And in their splendour shall ye revel." 66.1. Thus saith the LORD: The heaven is My throne, and the earth is My footstool; where is the house that ye may build unto Me? And where is the place that may be My resting-place?" 66.2. For all these things hath My hand made, and so all these things came to be, saith the LORD; but on this man will I look, even on him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at My word."
15. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 6.13, 17.7, 25.31, 26.18, 31.31 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.13. כִּי מִקְּטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בּוֹצֵעַ בָּצַע וּמִנָּבִיא וְעַד־כֹּהֵן כֻּלּוֹ עֹשֶׂה שָּׁקֶר׃ 17.7. בָּרוּךְ הַגֶּבֶר אֲשֶׁר יִבְטַח בַּיהוָה וְהָיָה יְהוָה מִבְטַחוֹ׃ 25.31. בָּא שָׁאוֹן עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ כִּי רִיב לַיהוָה בַּגּוֹיִם נִשְׁפָּט הוּא לְכָל־בָּשָׂר הָרְשָׁעִים נְתָנָם לַחֶרֶב נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 26.18. מיכיה [מִיכָה] הַמּוֹרַשְׁתִּי הָיָה נִבָּא בִּימֵי חִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־כָּל־עַם יְהוּדָה לֵאמֹר כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת צִיּוֹן שָׂדֶה תֵחָרֵשׁ וִירוּשָׁלַיִם עִיִּים תִּהְיֶה וְהַר הַבַּיִת לְבָמוֹת יָעַר׃ 31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 6.13. For from the least of them even unto the greatest of them Every one is greedy for gain; And from the prophet even unto the priest Every one dealeth falsely." 17.7. Blessed is the man that trusteth in the LORD, And whose trust the LORD is." 25.31. A noise is come even to the end of the earth; For the LORD hath a controversy with the nations, He doth plead with all flesh; As for the wicked, He hath given them to the sword, Saith the LORD." 26.18. ’Micah the Morashtite prophesied in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah; and he spoke to all the people of Judah, saying: Thus saith the LORD of hosts: Zion shall be plowed as a field, And Jerusalem shall become heaps, And the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest." 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;"
16. Aesop, Fables, 314 (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

17. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.17-34.31 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.17. וְאַתֵּנָה צֹאנִי כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי שֹׁפֵט בֵּין־שֶׂה לָשֶׂה לָאֵילִים וְלָעַתּוּדִים׃ 34.18. הַמְעַט מִכֶּם הַמִּרְעֶה הַטּוֹב תִּרְעוּ וְיֶתֶר מִרְעֵיכֶם תִּרְמְסוּ בְּרַגְלֵיכֶם וּמִשְׁקַע־מַיִם תִּשְׁתּוּ וְאֵת הַנּוֹתָרִים בְּרַגְלֵיכֶם תִּרְפֹּשׂוּן׃ 34.19. וְצֹאנִי מִרְמַס רַגְלֵיכֶם תִּרְעֶינָה וּמִרְפַּשׂ רַגְלֵיכֶם תִּשְׁתֶּינָה׃ 34.21. יַעַן בְּצַד וּבְכָתֵף תֶּהְדֹּפוּ וּבְקַרְנֵיכֶם תְּנַגְּחוּ כָּל־הַנַּחְלוֹת עַד אֲשֶׁר הֲפִיצוֹתֶם אוֹתָנָה אֶל־הַחוּצָה׃ 34.22. וְהוֹשַׁעְתִּי לְצֹאנִי וְלֹא־תִהְיֶינָה עוֹד לָבַז וְשָׁפַטְתִּי בֵּין שֶׂה לָשֶׂה׃ 34.23. וַהֲקִמֹתִי עֲלֵיהֶם רֹעֶה אֶחָד וְרָעָה אֶתְהֶן אֵת עַבְדִּי דָוִיד הוּא יִרְעֶה אֹתָם וְהוּא־יִהְיֶה לָהֶן לְרֹעֶה׃ 34.24. וַאֲנִי יְהוָה אֶהְיֶה לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְעַבְדִּי דָוִד נָשִׂיא בְתוֹכָם אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי׃ 34.25. וְכָרַתִּי לָהֶם בְּרִית שָׁלוֹם וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי חַיָּה־רָעָה מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְיָשְׁבוּ בַמִּדְבָּר לָבֶטַח וְיָשְׁנוּ בַּיְּעָרִים׃ 34.26. וְנָתַתִּי אוֹתָם וּסְבִיבוֹת גִּבְעָתִי בְּרָכָה וְהוֹרַדְתִּי הַגֶּשֶׁם בְּעִתּוֹ גִּשְׁמֵי בְרָכָה יִהְיוּ׃ 34.27. וְנָתַן עֵץ הַשָּׂדֶה אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּתֵּן יְבוּלָהּ וְהָיוּ עַל־אַדְמָתָם לָבֶטַח וְיָדְעוּ כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּשִׁבְרִי אֶת־מֹטוֹת עֻלָּם וְהִצַּלְתִּים מִיַּד הָעֹבְדִים בָּהֶם׃ 34.28. וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ עוֹד בַּז לַגּוֹיִם וְחַיַּת הָאָרֶץ לֹא תֹאכְלֵם וְיָשְׁבוּ לָבֶטַח וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃ 34.29. וַהֲקִמֹתִי לָהֶם מַטָּע לְשֵׁם וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ עוֹד אֲסֻפֵי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עוֹד כְּלִמַּת הַגּוֹיִם׃ 34.31. וְאַתֵּן צֹאנִי צֹאן מַרְעִיתִי אָדָם אַתֶּם אֲנִי אֱלֹהֵיכֶם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 34.17. And as for you, O My flock, thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I judge between cattle and cattle, even the rams and the he-goats." 34.18. Seemeth it a small thing unto you to have fed upon the good pasture, but ye must tread down with your feet the residue of your pasture? and to have drunk of the settled waters, but ye must foul the residue with your feet?" 34.19. And as for My sheep, they eat that which ye have trodden with your feet, and they drink that which ye have fouled with your feet." 34.20. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD unto them: Behold, I, even I, will judge between the fat cattle and the lean cattle." 34.21. Because ye thrust with side and with shoulder, and push all the weak with your horns, till ye have scattered them abroad;" 34.22. therefore will I save My flock, and they shall no more be a prey; and I will judge between cattle and cattle." 34.23. And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even My servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd." 34.24. And I the LORD will be their God, and My servant David prince among them; I the LORD have spoken." 34.25. And I will make with them a covet of peace, and will cause evil beasts to cease out of the land; and they shall dwell safely in the wilderness, and sleep in the woods." 34.26. And I will make them and the places round about My hill a blessing; and I will cause the shower to come down in its season; there shall be showers of blessing." 34.27. And the tree of the field shall yield its fruit, and the earth shall yield her produce, and they shall be safe in their land; and they shall know that I am the LORD, when I have broken the bars of their yoke, and have delivered them out of the hand of those that made bondmen of them." 34.28. And they shall no more be a prey to the nations, neither shall the beast of the earth devour them; but they shall dwell safely, and none shall make them afraid." 34.29. And I will raise up unto them a plantation for renown, and they shall be no more consumed with hunger in the land, neither bear the shame of the nations any more." 34.30. And they shall know that I the LORD their God am with them, and that they, the house of Israel, are My people, saith the Lord GOD." 34.31. And ye My sheep, the sheep of My pasture, are men, and I am your God, saith the Lord GOD.’"
18. Euripides, Bacchae, 795 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

795. πρὸς κέντρα λακτίζοιμι θνητὸς ὢν θεῷ. Πενθεύς 795. than kick against his spurs in anger, a mortal against a god. Pentheu
19. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 12.14 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.14. כִּי אֶת־כָּל־מַעֲשֶׂה הָאֱלֹהִים יָבִא בְמִשְׁפָּט עַל כָּל־נֶעְלָם אִם־טוֹב וְאִם־רָע׃ br small[סוף דבר הכל נשמע את־האלהים ירא ואת־מצותיו שמור כי־זה כל־האדם] /small 12.14. For God shall bring every work into the judgment concerning every hidden thing, whether it be good or whether it be evil. br small[The end of the matter, all having been heard: fear God, and keep His Commandments; for this is the whole man.] /small"
20. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.5-8.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.5. וַיִּפְתַּח עֶזְרָא הַסֵּפֶר לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם כִּי־מֵעַל כָּל־הָעָם הָיָה וּכְפִתְחוֹ עָמְדוּ כָל־הָעָם׃ 8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.7. וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי וְשֵׁרֵבְיָה יָמִין עַקּוּב שַׁבְּתַי הוֹדִיָּה מַעֲשֵׂיָה קְלִיטָא עֲזַרְיָה יוֹזָבָד חָנָן פְּלָאיָה וְהַלְוִיִּם מְבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לַתּוֹרָה וְהָעָם עַל־עָמְדָם׃ 8.8. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃ 8.5. And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people—for he was above all the people—and when he opened it, all the people stood up." 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground." 8.7. Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Ha, Pelaiah, even the Levites, caused the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place." 8.8. And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading."
21. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 8.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.4. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת עֹד יֵשְׁבוּ זְקֵנִים וּזְקֵנוֹת בִּרְחֹבוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְאִישׁ מִשְׁעַנְתּוֹ בְּיָדוֹ מֵרֹב יָמִים׃ 8.4. Thus saith the LORD of hosts: There shall yet old men and old women sit in the broad places of Jerusalem, every man with his staff in his hand for very age."
22. Anon., 1 Enoch, 9.8-9.9, 89.51-89.52, 89.54-89.56 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.9. women, and have defiled themselves, and revealed to them all kinds of sins. And the women have 89.51. And again I saw those sheep that they again erred and went many ways, and forsook that their house, and the Lord of the sheep called some from amongst the sheep and sent them to the sheep 89.52. but the sheep began to slay them. And one of them was saved and was not slain, and it sped away and cried aloud over the sheep; and they sought to slay it, but the Lord of the sheep saved it from 89.55. those sheep invited that slaughter and betrayed His place. And He gave them over into the hands of the lions and tigers, and wolves and hyenas, and into the hand of the foxes, and to all the wild 89.56. beasts, and those wild beasts began to tear in pieces those sheep. And I saw that He forsook that their house and their tower and gave them all into the hand of the lions, to tear and devour them
23. Dead Sea Scrolls, 11Qmelchizedek, 2.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q251, 1.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.1-1.11, 6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 6.13-6.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 6.13-6.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 10.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.3. לֶחֶם חֲמֻדוֹת לֹא אָכַלְתִּי וּבָשָׂר וָיַיִן לֹא־בָא אֶל־פִּי וְסוֹךְ לֹא־סָכְתִּי עַד־מְלֹאת שְׁלֹשֶׁת שָׁבֻעִים יָמִים׃ 10.3. I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled."
29. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 6.49, 6.53-6.54 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.49. He made peace with the men of Beth-zur, and they evacuated the city, because they had no provisions there to withstand a siege, since it was a sabbatical year for the land. 6.53. But they had no food in storage, because it was the seventh year; those who found safety in Judea from the Gentiles had consumed the last of the stores. 6.54. Few men were left in the sanctuary, because famine had prevailed over the rest and they had been scattered, each to his own place.
30. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 2.13, 7.10-7.14, 15.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.13. The same things are reported in the records and in the memoirs of Nehemiah, and also that he founded a library and collected the books about the kings and prophets, and the writings of David, and letters of kings about votive offerings.' 7.10. After him, the third was the victim of their sport. When it was demanded, he quickly put out his tongue and courageously stretched forth his hands,' 7.11. and said nobly, 'I got these from Heaven, and because of his laws I disdain them, and from him I hope to get them back again.' 7.12. As a result the king himself and those with him were astonished at the young man's spirit, for he regarded his sufferings as nothing.' 7.13. When he too had died, they maltreated and tortured the fourth in the same way.' 7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!' 15.9. Encouraging them from the law and the prophets, and reminding them also of the struggles they had won, he made them the more eager.'
31. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 25.7-25.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

25.7. With nine thoughts I have gladdened my heart,and a tenth I shall tell with my tongue:a man rejoicing in his children;a man who lives to see the downfall of his foes; 25.8. happy is he who lives with an intelligent wife,and he who has not made a slip with his tongue,and he who has not served a man inferior to himself; 25.9. happy is he who has gained good sense,and he who speaks to attentive listeners. 25.11. The fear of the Lord surpasses everything;to whom shall be likened the one who holds it fast?
32. Livy, History, 45.27 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 40 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

34. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.127 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.127. And would you still sit down in your synagogues, collecting your ordinary assemblies, and reading your sacred volumes in security, and explaining whatever is not quite clear, and devoting all your time and leisure with long discussions to the philosophy of your ancestors?
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.61-2.63 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.61. And the works meant are those enjoined by precepts and doctrines in accordance with virtue. And in the day he exhorts us to apply ourselves to philosophy, improving our souls and the domit part of us, our mind. 2.62. Accordingly, on the seventh day there are spread before the people in every city innumerable lessons of prudence, and temperance, and courage, and justice, and all other virtues; during the giving of which the common people sit down, keeping silence and pricking up their ears, with all possible attention, from their thirst for wholesome instruction; but some of those who are very learned explain to them what is of great importance and use, lessons by which the whole of their lives may be improved. 2.63. And there are, as we may say, two most especially important heads of all the innumerable particular lessons and doctrines; the regulating of one's conduct towards God by the rules of piety and holiness, and of one's conduct towards men by the rules of humanity and justice; each of which is subdivided into a great number of subordinate ideas, all praiseworthy.
36. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 31-33, 30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Therefore, during six days, each of these individuals, retiring into solitude by himself, philosophises by himself in one of the places called monasteries, never going outside the threshold of the outer court, and indeed never even looking out. But on the seventh day they all come together as if to meet in a sacred assembly, and they sit down in order according to their ages with all becoming gravity, keeping their hands inside their garments, having their right hand between their chest and their dress, and the left hand down by their side, close to their flank;
37. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.216 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
38. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 7.12-7.13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7.12. What then did he do on this sabbath day? he commanded all the people to assemble together in the same place, and sitting down with one another, to listen to the laws with order and reverence, in order that no one should be ignorant of anything that is contained in them; 7.13. and, in fact, they do constantly assemble together, and they do sit down one with another, the multitude in general in silence, except when it is customary to say any words of good omen, by way of assent to what is being read. And then some priest who is present, or some one of the elders, reads the sacred laws to them, and interprets each of them separately till eventide; and then when separate they depart, having gained some skill in the sacred laws, and having made great advancers towards piety.
39. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 157, 297, 319, 156 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

156. Therefore, he knew that they had synagogues, and that they were in the habit of visiting them, and most especially on the sacred sabbath days, when they publicly cultivate their national philosophy. He knew also that they were in the habit of contributing sacred sums of money from their first fruits and sending them to Jerusalem by the hands of those who were to conduct the sacrifices.
40. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 81-84, 80 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

80. and leaving the logical part of philosophy, as in no respect necessary for the acquisition of virtue, to the word-catchers, and the natural part, as being too sublime for human nature to master, to those who love to converse about high objects (except indeed so far as such a study takes in the contemplation of the existence of God and of the creation of the universe), they devote all their attention to the moral part of philosophy, using as instructors the laws of their country which it would have been impossible for the human mind to devise without divine inspiration.
41. Strabo, Geography, 9.1.16 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9.1.16. The city itself is a rock situated in a plain and surrounded by dwellings. On the rock is the sacred precinct of Athena, comprising both the old temple of Athena Polias, in which is the lamp that is never quenched, and the Parthenon built by Ictinus, in which is the work in ivory by Pheidias, the Athena. However, if I once began to describe the multitude of things in this city that are lauded and proclaimed far and wide, I fear that I should go too far, and that my work would depart from the purpose I have in view. For the words of Hegesias occur to me: I see the Acropolis, and the mark of the huge trident there. I see Eleusis, and I have become an initiate into its sacred mysteries; yonder is the Leocorium, here is the Theseium; I am unable to point them all out one by one; for Attica is the possession of the gods, who seized it as a sanctuary for themselves, and of the ancestral heroes. So this writer mentioned only one of the significant things on the Acropolis; but Polemon the Periegete wrote four books on the dedicatory offerings on the Acropolis alone. Hegesias is proportionately brief in referring to the other parts of the city and to the country; and though he mentions Eleusis, one of the one hundred and seventy demes (or one hundred and seventy-four, as the number is given), he names none of the others.
42. Anon., Didache, 12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. But let every one that comes in the name of the Lord be received, and afterward you shall prove and know him; for you shall have understanding right and left. If he who comes is a wayfarer, assist him as far as you are able; but he shall not remain with you, except for two or three days, if need be. But if he wills to abide with you, being an artisan, let him work and eat; 2 Thessalonians 3:10 but if he has no trade, according to your understanding see to it that, as a Christian, he shall not live with you idle. But if he wills not to do, he is a Christ-monger. Watch that you keep aloof from such.
43. Epictetus, Discourses, 2.16.44 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

44. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.14, 14.374, 16.43-16.44, 16.164, 18.122, 20.115-20.116 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. Upon the whole, a man that will peruse this history, may principally learn from it, that all events succeed well, even to an incredible degree, and the reward of felicity is proposed by God; but then it is to those that follow his will, and do not venture to break his excellent laws: and that so far as men any way apostatize from the accurate observation of them, what was practicable before becomes impracticable; and whatsoever they set about as a good thing is converted into an incurable calamity. 1.14. 3. Noah, when, after the deluge, the earth was resettled in its former condition, set about its cultivation; and when he had planted it with vines, and when the fruit was ripe, and he had gathered the grapes in their season, and the wine was ready for use, he offered sacrifice, and feasted 14.374. 2. Hereupon he resolved to go away, and did go very prudently the road to Egypt; and then it was that he lodged in a certain temple; for he had left a great many of his followers there. On the next day he came to Rhinocolura, and there it was that he heard what was befallen his brother. 16.43. nor do we conceal those injunctions of ours by which we govern our lives, they being memorials of piety, and of a friendly conversation among men. And the seventh day we set apart from labor; it is dedicated to the learning of our customs and laws, we thinking it proper to reflect on them, as well as on any [good] thing else, in order to our avoiding of sin. 16.44. If any one therefore examine into our observances, he will find they are good in themselves, and that they are ancient also, though some think otherwise, insomuch that those who have received them cannot easily be brought to depart from them, out of that honor they pay to the length of time they have religiously enjoyed them and observed them. 16.164. But if any one be caught stealing their holy books, or their sacred money, whether it be out of the synagogue or public school, he shall be deemed a sacrilegious person, and his goods shall be brought into the public treasury of the Romans. 18.122. o he was persuaded by what they said, and changed that resolution of his which he had before taken in this matter. Whereupon he ordered the army to march along the great plain, while he himself, with Herod the tetrarch and his friends, went up to Jerusalem to offer sacrifice to God, an ancient festival of the Jews being then just approaching; 20.115. Now as this devastation was making, one of the soldiers seized the laws of Moses that lay in one of those villages, and brought them out before the eyes of all present, and tore them to pieces; and this was done with reproachful language, and much scurrility; 20.116. which things when the Jews heard of, they ran together, and that in great numbers, and came down to Caesarea, where Cumanus then was, and besought him that he would avenge, not themselves, but God himself, whose laws had been affronted; for that they could not bear to live any longer, if the laws of their forefathers must be affronted after this manner.
45. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.277, 2.229-2.231, 2.291-2.292, 4.408, 5.562, 6.288 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.277. 2. So when Herod had found that the Arabians were his enemies, and this for those very reasons whence he hoped they would have been the most friendly, and had given them such an answer as his passion suggested, he returned back, and went for Egypt. Now he lodged the first evening at one of the temples of that country, in order to meet with those whom he left behind; but on the next day word was brought him, as he was going to Rhinocurura, that his brother was dead, and how he came by his death; 2.229. Upon this Cumanus sent men to go round about to the neighboring villages, and to bring their inhabitants to him bound, as laying it to their charge that they had not pursued after the thieves, and caught them. Now here it was that a certain soldier, finding the sacred book of the law, tore it to pieces, and threw it into the fire. 2.231. Accordingly, he, perceiving that the multitude would not be quiet unless they had a comfortable answer from him, gave order that the soldier should be brought, and drawn through those that required to have him punished, to execution, which being done, the Jews went their ways. 2.291. Hereupon Jucundus, the master of the horse, who was ordered to prevent the fight, came thither, and took away the earthen vessel, and endeavored to put a stop to the sedition; but when he was overcome by the violence of the people of Caesarea, the Jews caught up their books of the law, and retired to Narbata, which was a place to them belonging, distant from Caesarea sixty furlongs. 2.292. But John, and twelve of the principal men with him, went to Florus, to Sebaste, and made a lamentable complaint of their case, and besought him to help them; and with all possible decency, put him in mind of the eight talents they had given him; but he had the men seized upon and put in prison, and accused them for carrying the books of the law out of Caesarea. 4.408. yet were these men that now got together, and joined in the conspiracy by parties, too small for an army, and too many for a gang of thieves: and thus did they fall upon the holy places and the cities; 5.562. 6. But as for John, when he could no longer plunder the people, he betook himself to sacrilege, and melted down many of the sacred utensils, which had been given to the temple; as also many of those vessels which were necessary for such as ministered about holy things, the caldrons, the dishes, and the tables; nay, he did not abstain from those pouringvessels that were sent them by Augustus and his wife; 6.288. 3. Thus were the miserable people persuaded by these deceivers, and such as belied God himself; while they did not attend nor give credit to the signs that were so evident, and did so plainly foretell their future desolation, but, like men infatuated, without either eyes to see or minds to consider, did not regard the denunciations that God made to them.
46. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.209, 2.175 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.209. “There are a people called Jews, who dwell in a city the strongest of all other cities, which the inhabitants call Jerusalem, and are accustomed to rest on every seventh day; on which times they make no use of their arms, nor meddle with husbandry, nor take care of any affairs of life, but spread out their hands in their holy places, and pray till the evening. 2.175. for he did not suffer the guilt of ignorance to go on without punishment, but demonstrated the law to be the best and the most necessary instruction of all others, permitting the people to leave off their other employments, and to assemble together for the hearing of the law, and learning it exactly, and this not once or twice, or oftener, but every week; which thing all the other legislators seem to have neglected. /p
47. Mishnah, Megillah, 3.4-3.6, 4.2-4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. If Rosh Hodesh Adar falls on Shabbat the portion of shekalim is read [on that day]. If it falls in the middle of the week, it is read on the Shabbat before, and on the next Shabbat there is a break. On the second [of the special Shabbatot] they read “Zakhor;” On the third the portion of the red heifer; On the fourth “This month shall be for you;” On the fifth the regular order is resumed. They interrupt [the regular order] for anything: for Rosh Hodesh, for Hanukkah, for Purim, for fasts, for Ma’amadot, and for Yom HaKippurim." 3.5. On Pesah we read from the portion of the festivals in Leviticus (Torat Kohanim) (Leviticus 23:4). On Shavuot, “Seven weeks” (Deuteronomy 16:9). On Rosh Hashanah “On the seventh day on the first of the month” (Leviticus 23:2. On Yom Hakippurim, “After the death” (Leviticus. On the first day of the Festival [of Sukkot] they read from the portion of the festivals in Leviticus, and on the other days of the Festival [of Sukkot] the [sections] on the offerings of the Festival." 3.6. On Hanukkah they read the section of the princes (Numbers. On Purim, “And Amalek came” (Exodus 17:8). On Rosh Hodesh, “And on the first of your months” (Numbers 28:11). On Maamadot, the account of the creation (Genesis 1:1-2:3). On fast days, the blessings and curses (Leviticus 26:3 ff and Deuteronomy. They do not interrupt while reading the curses, but rather one reads them all. On Monday and Thursday and on Shabbat at minhah they read according to the regular order and this does not count as part of the reading [for the succeeding Shabbat]. As it says, “And Moshe declared to the children of Israel the appointed seasons of the Lord” (Leviticus 23:44) it is their mitzvah that each should be read in its appropriate time." 4.2. On Rosh Hodesh and on the intermediate days of festivals four read. They do not add [to this number] nor decrease [from it], nor do they conclude with [a haftarah] from the Prophets. The one who begins the Torah reading and the one who concludes the Torah reading blesses before it and after it. This is the general rule: on any day which has a musaf and is not a festival four read. On a festival five. On Yom Hakippurim six. On Shabbat seven; they may not decrease [from this number] but they may add [to it], and they conclude with [a haftarah] from the Prophets. The one who begins the Torah reading and the one who concludes the Torah reading blesses before it and after it." 4.3. They do not recite the Shema responsively, And they do not pass before the ark; And the [the priests] do not lift up their hands; And they do not read the Torah [publicly]; And they do not conclude with a haftarah from the prophets; And they do not make stops [at funeral] processions; And they do not say the blessing for mourners, or the comfort of mourners, or the blessing of bridegrooms; And they do not mention God’s name in the invitation [to say Birkat Hamazon]; Except in the presence of ten. [For redeeming sanctified] land nine and a priest [are sufficient], and similarly with human beings." 4.4. One who reads the Torah [in public] may not read les than three verses. And he should not read to the translator more than one verse [at a time], but [if reading from the book of a] prophet [he may read to him] three at a time. If the three verses constitute three separate paragraphs, he must read them [to the translator] one by one. They may skip [from place to place] in a prophet but not in the Torah. How far may he skip [in the prophet]? [Only] so far that the translator will not have stopped [before he finds his place]."
48. Mishnah, Shabbat, 16.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16.1. All sacred writings may be saved from a fire, whether we read from them or not [on Shabbat]. And even if they are written in any language, they must be stored. And why do we not read them? Because of the neglect of the study house. One may save the container of a scroll together with the scroll, and the container of tefillin together with the tefillin, even if it [also] contains money. And to where may one rescue them? Into a closed alley. Ben Batera says: even into an open one."
49. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.11-1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. searching for who or what kind of time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, pointed to, when he predicted the sufferings of Christ, and the glories that would follow them. 1.12. To them it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to you, did they minister these things, which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent out from heaven; which things angels desire to look into.
50. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 11.25, 12.2, 14.13-14.15, 15.3, 16.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me. 12.2. You know that when you were heathen, you were ledaway to those mute idols, however you might be led. 14.13. Therefore let him who speaks in another language praythat he may interpret. 14.14. For if I pray in another language, myspirit prays, but my understanding is unfruitful. 14.15. What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I willpray with the understanding also. I will sing with the spirit, and Iwill sing with the understanding also. 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem.
51. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.13. Until I come, pay attention to reading, to exhortation, and to teaching.
52. New Testament, 2 Peter, 1.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.21. For no prophecy ever came by the will of man: but holy men of God spoke, being moved by the Holy Spirit.
53. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.21-1.22, 3.12-3.16, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

54. New Testament, Acts, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.8, 2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 2.24, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29, 2.30, 2.31, 2.32, 2.33, 2.34, 2.35, 2.36, 2.37, 2.38, 2.39, 2.40, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 4, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.18, 5.19, 5.31, 5.38, 5.39, 6.3, 6.5, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 7, 7.28, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.39, 7.40, 7.42, 7.43, 7.49, 7.50, 7.52, 8, 8.12, 8.19, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 8.40, 9.6, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.20, 9.22, 10, 10.1-11.18, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.34, 10.35, 10.37, 10.38, 10.43, 11, 11.12, 11.17, 11.18, 11.21, 12.7, 13.2, 13.4, 13.5, 13.12, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 13.24, 13.25, 13.26, 13.27, 13.28, 13.29, 13.30, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 13.36, 13.37, 13.38, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.42, 13.43, 13.44, 13.45, 13.46, 13.47, 13.48, 13.49, 14.1, 14.22, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 16.6, 16.7, 16.13, 16.15, 16.16, 16.17, 16.18, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 16.32, 16.34, 16.38, 16.39, 16.40, 17.1, 17.2, 17.6, 17.10, 17.11, 17.12, 17.16, 17.17, 17.18, 17.24, 17.31, 18.4, 18.19, 18.24, 18.24-19.7, 18.25, 18.26, 19, 19.8, 19.11, 19.12, 19.13, 19.14, 19.15, 19.16, 19.17, 19.18, 19.19, 19.20, 20.18, 20.19, 20.20, 20.21, 20.22, 20.23, 20.24, 20.25, 20.26, 20.27, 20.28, 20.29, 20.30, 20.31, 20.32, 20.33, 20.34, 20.35, 21, 21.4, 21.14, 21.15, 21.16, 21.17, 21.18, 21.19, 21.20, 21.21, 21.22, 21.23, 21.24, 21.25, 21.26, 21.27, 21.28, 22, 22.19, 23, 24, 24.12, 24.14, 25, 26, 26.11, 26.14, 26.18, 27, 28, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.26, 28.27, 28.28, 28.29, 28.30, 28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.3. To these he also showed himself alive after his suffering by many proofs, appearing to them over a period of forty days, and spoke about God's Kingdom.
55. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.9, 3.12, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. I know your works, oppression, and your poverty (but you are rich), and the blasphemy of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. 3.12. He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will go out from there no more. I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from my God, and my own new name. 3.21. He who overcomes, I will give to him to sit down with me on my throne, as I also overcame, and sat down with my Father on his throne.
56. New Testament, James, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.14. Whereas you don't know what your life will be like tomorrow. For what is your life? For you are a vapor, that appears for a little time, and then vanishes away.
57. New Testament, Jude, 20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

58. New Testament, Colossians, 1.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our sins;
59. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.7, 1.9-1.10, 4.24, 6.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 4.24. and put on the new man, who in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of truth. 6.18. with all prayer and requests, praying at all times in the Spirit, and being watchful to this end in all perseverance and requests for all the saints:
60. New Testament, Galatians, 1.1, 1.18, 2.8, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 4.4, 4.7, 4.21-5.1, 4.25, 4.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead)
61. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.2-1.3, 9.22, 12.22, 13.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. has at the end of these days spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds. 1.3. His Son is the radiance of his glory, the very image of his substance, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself made purification for our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; 9.22. According to the law, nearly everything is cleansed with blood, and apart from shedding of blood there is no remission. 12.22. But you have come to Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable hosts of angels 13.22. But I exhort you, brothers, endure the word of exhortation, for I have written to you in few words.
62. New Testament, Romans, 1.1-1.4, 3.15-3.16, 4.6, 5.5, 6.2-6.5, 6.16-6.18, 8.3, 11.13, 15.19, 15.25-15.26, 15.31, 16.25-16.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God 1.2. which he promised before through his prophets in the holy Scriptures 1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 3.15. Their feet are swift to shed blood. 3.16. Destruction and misery are in their ways. 4.6. Even as David also pronounces blessing on the man to whom God counts righteousness apart from works 5.5. and hope doesn't disappoint us, because God's love has been poured out into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us. 6.2. May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer? 6.3. Or don't you know that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.5. For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will also be part of his resurrection; 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints;
63. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.2, 1.6, 1.13-1.14, 1.29-1.42, 1.46-1.47, 1.49, 3.16, 4.19, 4.44, 5.13, 5.22, 6.35-6.59, 7.52, 8.18, 8.44, 8.48, 9.22, 10.30, 12.42, 14.7, 14.15-14.26, 14.28, 16.2, 16.13-16.15, 18.19-18.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.29. The next day, he saw Jesus coming to him, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! 1.30. This is he of whom I said, 'After me comes a man who is preferred before me, for he was before me.' 1.31. I didn't know him, but for this reason I came baptizing in water: that he would be revealed to Israel. 1.32. John testified, saying, "I have seen the Spirit descending like a dove out of heaven, and it remained on him. 1.33. I didn't recognize him, but he who sent me to baptize in water, he said to me, 'On whomever you will see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.' 1.34. I have seen, and have testified that this is the Son of God. 1.35. Again, the next day, John was standing with two of his disciples 1.36. and he looked at Jesus as he walked, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God! 1.37. The two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus. 1.38. Jesus turned, and saw them following, and said to them, "What are you looking for?"They said to him, "Rabbi" (which is to say, being interpreted, Teacher), "where are you staying? 1.39. He said to them, "Come, and see."They came and saw where he was staying, and they stayed with him that day. It was about the tenth hour. 1.40. One of the two who heard John, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. 1.41. He first found his own brother, Simon, and said to him, "We have found the Messiah!" (which is, being interpreted, Christ). 1.42. He brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked at him, and said, "You are Simon the son of Jonah. You shall be called Cephas" (which is by interpretation, Peter). 1.46. Nathanael said to him, "Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?"Philip said to him, "Come and see. 1.47. Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and said about him, "Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no deceit! 1.49. Nathanael answered him, "Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are King of Israel! 3.16. For God so loved the world, that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. 4.19. The woman said to him, "Sir, I perceive that you are a prophet. 4.44. For Jesus himself testified that a prophet has no honor in his own country. 5.13. But he who was healed didn't know who it was, for Jesus had withdrawn, a crowd being in the place. 5.22. For the Father judges no one, but he has given all judgment to the Son 6.35. Jesus said to them. "I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will not be hungry, and he who believes in me will never be thirsty. 6.36. But I told you that you have seen me, and yet you don't believe. 6.37. All those who the Father gives me will come to me. Him who comes to me I will in no way throw out. 6.38. For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him who sent me. 6.39. This is the will of my Father who sent me, that of all he has given to me I should lose nothing, but should raise him up at the last day. 6.40. This is the will of the one who sent me, that everyone who sees the Son, and believes in him, should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day. 6.41. The Jews therefore murmured concerning him, because he said, "I am the bread which came down out of heaven. 6.42. They said, "Isn't this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How then does he say, 'I have come down out of heaven?' 6.43. Therefore Jesus answered them, "Don't murmur among yourselves. 6.44. No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up in the last day. 6.45. It is written in the prophets, 'They will all be taught by God.' Therefore everyone who hears from the Father, and has learned, comes to me. 6.46. Not that anyone has seen the Father, except he who is from God. He has seen the Father. 6.47. Most assuredly, I tell you, he who believes in me has eternal life. 6.48. I am the bread of life. 6.49. Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 6.50. This is the bread which comes down out of heaven, that anyone may eat of it and not die. 6.51. I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh. 6.52. The Jews therefore contended with one another, saying, "How can this man give us his flesh to eat? 6.53. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you don't have life in yourselves. 6.54. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. 6.55. For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. 6.56. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood lives in me, and I in him. 6.57. As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father; so he who feeds on me, he will also live because of me. 6.58. This is the bread which came down out of heaven -- not as our fathers ate the manna, and died. He who eats this bread will live forever. 6.59. These things he said in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum. 7.52. They answered him, "Are you also from Galilee? Search, and see that no prophet has arisen out of Galilee. 8.18. I am one who testifies about myself, and the Father who sent me testifies about me. 8.44. You are of your Father, the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and doesn't stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks on his own; for he is a liar, and the father of it. 8.48. Then the Jews answered him, "Don't we say well that you are a Samaritan, and have a demon? 9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 10.30. I and the Father are one. 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue 14.7. If you had known me, you would have known my Father also. From now on, you know him, and have seen him. 14.15. If you love me, keep my commandments. 14.16. I will pray to the Father, and he will give you another Counselor, that he may be with you forever, -- 14.17. the Spirit of truth, whom the world can't receive; for it doesn't see him, neither knows him. You know him, for he lives with you, and will be in you. 14.18. I will not leave you orphans. I will come to you. 14.19. Yet a little while, and the world will see me no more; but you will see me. Because I live, you will live also. 14.20. In that day you will know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you. 14.21. One who has my commandments, and keeps them, that person is one who loves me. One who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him, and will reveal myself to him. 14.22. Judas (not Iscariot) said to him, "Lord, what has happened that you are about to reveal yourself to us, and not to the world? 14.23. Jesus answered him, "If a man loves me, he will keep my word. My Father will love him, and we will come to him, and make our home with him. 14.24. He who doesn't love me doesn't keep my words. The word which you hear isn't mine, but the Father's who sent me. 14.25. I have said these things to you, while still living with you. 14.26. But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and will remind you of all that I said to you. 14.28. You heard how I told you, 'I go away, and I come to you.' If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I said 'I am going to my Father;' for the Father is greater than I. 16.2. They will put you out of the synagogues. Yes, the time comes that whoever kills you will think that he offers service to God. 16.13. However when he, the Spirit of truth, has come, he will guide you into all truth, for he will not speak from himself; but whatever he hears, he will speak. He will declare to you things that are coming. 16.14. He will glorify me, for he will take from what is mine, and will declare it to you. 16.15. All things whatever the Father has are mine; therefore I said that he takes of mine, and will declare it to you. 18.19. The high priest therefore asked Jesus about his disciples, and about his teaching. 18.20. Jesus answered him, "I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues, and in the temple, where the Jews always meet. I said nothing in secret.
64. New Testament, Luke, 1, 1.4, 1.5, 1.5-2.52, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.30, 1.31, 1.32, 1.33, 1.34, 1.35, 1.36, 1.37, 1.38, 1.39, 1.40, 1.41, 1.42, 1.43, 1.44, 1.45, 1.46, 1.47, 1.48, 1.49, 1.50, 1.51, 1.52, 1.53, 1.54, 1.55, 1.56, 1.57, 1.59, 1.60, 1.63, 1.64, 1.65, 1.66, 1.67, 1.68, 1.69, 1.70, 1.71, 1.72, 1.73, 1.74, 1.75, 1.76, 1.77, 1.78, 1.79, 1.80, 2, 2.13, 2.22, 2.23, 2.24, 2.39, 2.46, 2.47, 2.48, 2.49, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 3.30, 3.31, 3.32, 3.33, 3.34, 3.35, 3.36, 3.37, 3.38, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 4.32, 4.33, 4.34, 4.35, 4.36, 4.37, 4.38, 4.39, 4.40, 4.41, 4.42, 4.43, 4.44, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.22, 5.24, 5.26, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.25, 6.26, 6.27, 6.28, 6.29, 6.30, 6.31, 6.32, 6.33, 6.34, 6.35, 6.36, 6.37, 6.38, 6.39, 6.40, 6.41, 6.42, 6.43, 6.44, 6.45, 6.46, 6.47, 6.48, 6.49, 7.16, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.39, 7.40, 7.41, 7.42, 7.43, 7.44, 7.45, 7.46, 7.47, 7.48, 7.49, 7.50, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 8.47, 8.48, 8.49, 8.50, 8.52, 9.8, 9.29, 9.31, 9.32, 9.33, 9.35, 9.42, 9.48, 9.51, 9.52, 10.9, 10.11, 10.13, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.25, 10.26, 10.27, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.32, 10.33, 10.34, 10.35, 10.36, 10.37, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.42, 11.43, 11.44, 11.45, 11.46, 11.47, 11.48, 11.49, 11.50, 11.51, 11.52, 12.22, 12.32, 12.33, 12.35, 12.36, 12.37, 12.38, 12.56, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.28, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 13.34, 13.35, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 14.23, 14.24, 15, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12, 16.16, 16.19, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 17.10, 17.11, 17.12, 17.13, 17.14, 17.15, 17.16, 17.17, 17.18, 17.19, 17.20, 17.21, 17.22, 17.23, 17.24, 17.25, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.20, 18.29, 18.35, 18.36, 18.37, 18.38, 18.39, 18.40, 18.41, 18.42, 18.43, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 19.11, 19.12, 19.13, 19.14, 19.15, 19.16, 19.17, 19.18, 19.19, 19.20, 19.21, 19.22, 19.23, 19.24, 19.25, 19.26, 19.27, 19.28, 19.46, 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 20.12, 20.13, 20.14, 20.15, 20.16, 20.17, 20.18, 20.19, 20.42, 20.43, 21.1, 21.2, 21.3, 21.4, 21.5, 21.6, 21.7, 21.8, 21.9, 21.10, 21.11, 21.12, 21.13, 21.14, 21.15, 21.16, 21.17, 21.18, 21.19, 21.20, 21.21, 21.22, 21.23, 21.24, 21.25, 21.26, 21.27, 21.28, 22.3, 22.22, 22.24, 22.25, 22.26, 22.27, 22.28, 22.29, 22.30, 22.31, 22.32, 22.33, 22.34, 22.35, 22.36, 22.37, 22.38, 22.39, 22.40, 22.41, 22.42, 22.43, 22.44, 22.45, 22.46, 22.47, 22.48, 22.49, 22.50, 22.51, 22.52, 22.53, 23.44, 23.46, 24.19, 24.25, 24.26, 24.27, 24.44, 24.47, 24.50 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

65. New Testament, Mark, 1.1-1.13, 1.15, 1.21-1.28, 1.38-1.39, 3.1, 3.29, 4.13, 6.1-6.6, 6.13, 6.15, 6.34, 7.3-7.4, 8.2, 8.27-8.28, 9.2, 9.7, 9.10, 9.37, 10.17-10.31, 10.35-10.45, 11.27-11.33, 12.1-12.12, 13.1-13.27, 14.8, 15.33-15.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you. 1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins. 1.6. John was clothed with camel's hair and a leather belt around his loins. He ate locusts and wild honey. 1.7. He preached, saying, "After me comes he who is mightier than I, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 1.9. It happened in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized by John in the Jordan. 1.10. Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 1.12. Immediately the Spirit drove him out into the wilderness. 1.13. He was there in the wilderness forty days tempted by Satan. He was with the wild animals; and the angels ministered to him. 1.15. and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand! Repent, and believe in the gospel. 1.21. They went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught. 1.22. They were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes. 1.23. Immediately there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit, and he cried out 1.24. saying, "Ha! What do we have to do with you, Jesus, you Nazarene? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 1.25. Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be quiet, and come out of him! 1.26. The unclean spirit, convulsing him and crying with a loud voice, came out of him. 1.27. They were all amazed, so that they questioned among themselves, saying, "What is this? A new teaching? For with authority he commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him! 1.28. The report of him went out immediately everywhere into all the region of Galilee and its surrounding area. 1.38. He said to them, "Let's go elsewhere into the next towns, that I may preach there also, because for this reason I came forth. 1.39. He went into their synagogues throughout all Galilee, preaching and casting out demons. 3.1. He entered again into the synagogue, and there was a man there who had his hand withered. 3.29. but whoever may blaspheme against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin 4.13. He said to them, "Don't you understand this parable? How will you understand all of the parables? 6.1. He went out from there. He came into his own country, and his disciples followed him. 6.2. When the Sabbath had come, he began to teach in the synagogue, and many hearing him were astonished, saying, "Where did this man get these things?" and, "What is the wisdom that is given to this man, that such mighty works come about by his hands? 6.3. Isn't this the carpenter, the son of Mary, and brother of James, Joses, Judas, and Simon? Aren't his sisters here with us?" They were offended at him. 6.4. Jesus said to them, "A prophet is not without honor, except in his own country, and among his own relatives, and in his own house. 6.5. He could do no mighty work there, except that he laid his hands on a few sick folk, and healed them. 6.6. He marveled because of their unbelief. He went around the villages teaching. 6.13. They cast out many demons, and anointed many with oil who were sick, and healed them. 6.15. But others said, "It is Elijah." Others said, "It is the Prophet, or like one of the prophets. 6.34. Jesus came out, saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things. 7.3. (For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, don't eat unless they wash their hands and forearms, holding to the tradition of the elders. 7.4. They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.) 8.2. I have compassion on the multitude, because they have stayed with me now three days, and have nothing to eat. 8.27. Jesus went out, with his disciples, into the villages of Caesarea Philippi. On the way he asked his disciples, "Who do men say that I am? 8.28. They told him, "John the Baptizer, and others say Elijah, but others: one of the prophets. 9.2. After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John, and brought them up onto a high mountain privately by themselves, and he was changed into another form in front of them. 9.7. A cloud came, overshadowing them, and a voice came out of the cloud, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to him. 9.10. They kept the saying, questioning among themselves what the rising from the dead should mean. 9.37. Whoever receives one such little child in my name, receives me, and whoever receives me, doesn't receive me, but him who sent me. 10.17. As he was going out into the way, one ran to him, knelt before him, and asked him, "Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? 10.18. Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good except one -- God. 10.19. You know the commandments: 'Do not murder,' 'Do not commit adultery,' 'Do not steal,' 'Do not give false testimony,' 'Do not defraud,' 'Honor your father and mother.' 10.20. He said to him, "Teacher, I have observed all these things from my youth. 10.21. Jesus looking at him loved him, and said to him, "One thing you lack. Go, sell whatever you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me, taking up the cross. 10.22. But his face fell at that saying, and he went away sorrowful, for he was one who had great possessions. 10.23. Jesus looked around, and said to his disciples, "How difficult it is for those who have riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 10.24. The disciples were amazed at his words. But Jesus answered again, "Children, how hard is it for those who trust in riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 10.25. It is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 10.26. They were exceedingly astonished, saying to him, "Then who can be saved? 10.27. Jesus, looking at them, said, "With men it is impossible, but not with God, for all things are possible with God. 10.28. Peter began to tell him, "Behold, we have left all, and have followed you. 10.29. Jesus said, "Most assuredly I tell you, there is no one who has left house, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or land, for my sake, and for the gospel's sake 10.30. but he will receive one hundred times more now in this time, houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, and land, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life. 10.31. But many who are first will be last; and the last first. 10.35. James and John, the sons of Zebedee, came near to him, saying, "Teacher, we want you to do for us whatever we will ask. 10.36. He said to them, "What do you want me to do for you? 10.37. They said to him, "Grant to us that we may sit, one at your right hand, and one at your left hand, in your glory. 10.38. But Jesus said to them, "You don't know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? 10.39. They said to him, "We are able."Jesus said to them, "You shall indeed drink the cup that I drink, and you shall be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with; 10.40. but to sit at my right hand and at my left hand is not mine to give, but for whom it has been prepared. 10.41. When the ten heard it, they began to be indigt towards James and John. 10.42. Jesus summoned them, and said to them, "You know that they who are recognized as rulers over the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them. 10.43. But it shall not be so among you, but whoever wants to become great among you shall be your servant. 10.44. Whoever of you wants to become first among you, shall be servant of all. 10.45. For the Son of Man also came not to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. 11.27. They came again to Jerusalem, and as he was walking in the temple, the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders came to him 11.28. and they began saying to him, "By what authority do you do these things? Or who gave you this authority to do these things? 11.29. Jesus said to them, "I will ask you one question. Answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I do these things. 11.30. The baptism of John -- was it from heaven, or from men? Answer me. 11.31. They reasoned with themselves, saying, "If we should say, 'From heaven;' he will say, 'Why then did you not believe him?' 11.32. If we should say, 'From men'"--they feared the people, for all held John to really be a prophet. 11.33. They answered Jesus, "We don't know."Jesus said to them, "Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things. 12.1. He began to speak to them in parables. "A man planted a vineyard, put a hedge around it, dug a pit for the winepress, built a tower, rented it out to a farmer, and went into another country. 12.2. When it was time, he sent a servant to the farmer to get from the farmer his share of the fruit of the vineyard. 12.3. They took him, beat him, and sent him away empty. 12.4. Again, he sent another servant to them; and they threw stones at him, wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully treated. 12.5. Again he sent another; and they killed him; and many others, beating some, and killing some. 12.6. Therefore still having one, his beloved son, he sent him last to them, saying, 'They will respect my son.' 12.7. But those farmers said among themselves, 'This is the heir. Come, let's kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.' 12.8. They took him, killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard. 12.9. What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy the farmers, and will give the vineyard to others. 12.10. Haven't you even read this Scripture: 'The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the head of the corner. 12.11. This was from the Lord, It is marvelous in our eyes'? 12.12. They tried to seize him, but they feared the multitude; for they perceived that he spoke the parable against them. They left him, and went away. 13.1. As he went out out of the temple, one of his disciples said to him, "Teacher, see what kind of stones and what kind of buildings! 13.2. Jesus said to him, "Do you see these great buildings? There will not be left here one stone on another, which will not be thrown down. 13.3. As he sat on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter, James, John, and Andrew asked him privately 13.4. Tell us, when will these things be? What is the sign that these things are all about to be fulfilled? 13.5. Jesus, answering, began to tell them, "Be careful that no one leads you astray. 13.6. For many will come in my name, saying, 'I am he!' and will lead many astray. 13.7. When you hear of wars and rumors of wars, don't be troubled. For those must happen, but the end is not yet. 13.8. For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places. There will be famines and troubles. These things are the beginning of birth pains. 13.9. But watch yourselves, for they will deliver you up to councils. You will be beaten in synagogues. You will stand before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them. 13.10. The gospel must first be preached to all the nations. 13.11. When they lead you away and deliver you up, don't be anxious beforehand, or premeditate what you will say, but say whatever will be given you in that hour. For it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit. 13.12. Brother will deliver up brother to death, and the father his child. Children will rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death. 13.13. You will be hated by all men for my name's sake, but he who endures to the end, the same will be saved. 13.14. But when you see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not (let the reader understand), then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains 13.15. and let him who is on the housetop not go down, nor enter in, to take anything out of his house. 13.16. Let him who is in the field not return back to take his cloak. 13.17. But woe to those who are with child and to those who nurse babies in those days! 13.18. Pray that your flight won't be in the winter. 13.19. For in those days there will be oppression, such as there has not been the like from the beginning of the creation which God created until now, and never will be. 13.20. Unless the Lord had shortened the days, no flesh would have been saved; but for the elect's sake, whom he chose, he shortened the days. 13.21. Then if anyone tells you, 'Look, here is the Christ!' or, 'Look, there!' don't believe it. 13.22. For there will arise false christs and false prophets, and will show signs and wonders, that they may lead astray, if possible, even the chosen ones. 13.23. But you watch. "Behold, I have told you all things beforehand. 13.24. But in those days, after that oppression, the sun will be darkened, the moon will not give its light 13.25. the stars will be falling from the sky, and the powers that are in the heavens will be shaken. 13.26. Then they will see the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and glory. 13.27. Then he will send out his angels, and will gather together his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of the sky. 14.8. She has done what she could. She has anointed my body beforehand for the burying. 15.33. When the sixth hour had come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour. 15.34. At the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?" which is, being interpreted, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? 15.35. Some of those who stood by, when they heard it, said, "Behold, he is calling Elijah. 15.36. One ran, and filling a sponge full of vinegar, put it on a reed, and gave it to him to drink, saying, "Let him be. Let's see whether Elijah comes to take him down. 15.37. Jesus cried out with a loud voice, and gave up the spirit.
66. New Testament, Matthew, 1.1-1.17, 3.7-3.11, 3.13-3.17, 4.1-4.11, 4.17-4.23, 5.1-5.12, 5.17-5.48, 6.5-6.15, 6.17, 7.7, 7.21-7.23, 7.28, 8.29, 9.35-9.36, 10.1-10.16, 10.20, 11.4-11.5, 11.10, 11.25, 12.4, 12.17-12.22, 12.28, 12.39-12.41, 13.47-13.48, 13.53-13.58, 15.24, 15.32, 16.2-16.3, 16.14, 16.20, 17.1-17.2, 17.5, 19.16-19.30, 20.20-20.28, 21.11, 21.23-21.27, 21.33-21.46, 22.1-22.14, 22.41-22.45, 23.33, 23.36-23.39, 24.1-24.36, 24.50-24.51, 25.1-25.30, 25.32-25.45, 26.28, 27.49-27.50 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. 1.2. Abraham became the father of Isaac. Isaac became the father of Jacob. Jacob became the father of Judah and his brothers. 1.3. Judah became the father of Perez and Zerah by Tamar. Perez became the father of Hezron. Hezron became the father of Ram. 1.4. Ram became the father of Amminadab. Amminadab became the father of Nahshon. Nahshon became the father of Salmon. 1.5. Salmon became the father of Boaz by Rahab. Boaz became the father of Obed by Ruth. Obed became the father of Jesse. 1.6. Jesse became the father of David the king. David became the father of Solomon by her who had been the wife of Uriah. 1.7. Solomon became the father of Rehoboam. Rehoboam became the father of Abijah. Abijah became the father of Asa. 1.8. Asa became the father of Jehoshaphat. Jehoshaphat became the father of Joram. Joram became the father of Uzziah. 1.9. Uzziah became the father of Jotham. Jotham became the father of Ahaz. Ahaz became the father of Hezekiah. 1.10. Hezekiah became the father of Manasseh. Manasseh became the father of Amon. Amon became the father of Josiah. 1.11. Josiah became the father of Jechoniah and his brothers, at the time of the exile to Babylon. 1.12. After the exile to Babylon, Jechoniah became the father of Shealtiel. Shealtiel became the father of Zerubbabel. 1.13. Zerubbabel became the father of Abiud. Abiud became the father of Eliakim. Eliakim became the father of Azor. 1.14. Azor became the father of Sadoc. Sadoc became the father of Achim. Achim became the father of Eliud. 1.15. Eliud became the father of Eleazar. Eleazar became the father of Matthan. Matthan became the father of Jacob. 1.16. Jacob became the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary, from whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ. 1.17. So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; from David to the exile to Babylon fourteen generations; and from the carrying away to Babylon to the Christ, fourteen generations. 3.7. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for his baptism, he said to them, "You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 3.8. Therefore bring forth fruit worthy of repentance! 3.9. Don't think to yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father,' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones. 3.10. Even now the ax lies at the root of the trees. Therefore, every tree that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and cast into the fire. 3.11. I indeed baptize you in water for repentance, but he who comes after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 3.13. Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized by him. 3.14. But John would have hindered him, saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and you come to me? 3.15. But Jesus, answering, said to him, "Allow it now, for this is the fitting way for us to fulfill all righteousness." Then he allowed him. 3.16. Jesus, when he was baptized, went up directly from the water: and behold, the heavens were opened to him. He saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming on him. 3.17. Behold, a voice out of the heavens said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased. 4.1. Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 4.2. When he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was hungry afterward. 4.3. The tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread. 4.4. But he answered, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.' 4.5. Then the devil took him into the holy city. He set him on the pinnacle of the temple 4.6. and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you.' and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, So that you don't dash your foot against a stone.' 4.7. Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, 'You shall not test the Lord, your God.' 4.8. Again, the devil took him to an exceedingly high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory. 4.9. He said to him, "I will give you all of these things, if you will fall down and worship me. 4.10. Then Jesus said to him, "Get behind me, Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.11. Then the devil left him, and behold, angels came and ministered to him. 4.17. From that time, Jesus began to preach, and to say, "Repent! For the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand. 4.18. Walking by the sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers: Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew, his brother, casting a net into the sea; for they were fishermen. 4.19. He said to them, "Come after me, and I will make you fishers for men. 4.20. They immediately left their nets and followed him. 4.21. Going on from there, he saw two other brothers, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in the boat with Zebedee their father, mending their nets. He called them. 4.22. They immediately left the boat and their father, and followed him. 4.23. Jesus went about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every disease and every sickness among the people. 5.1. Seeing the multitudes, he went up onto the mountain. When he had sat down, his disciples came to him. 5.2. He opened his mouth and taught them, saying 5.3. Blessed are the poor in spirit, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.4. Blessed are those who mourn, For they shall be comforted. 5.5. Blessed are the gentle, For they shall inherit the earth. 5.6. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, For they shall be filled. 5.7. Blessed are the merciful, For they shall obtain mercy. 5.8. Blessed are the pure in heart, For they shall see God. 5.9. Blessed are the peacemakers, For they shall be called sons of God. 5.10. Blessed are those who have been persecuted for righteousness' sake, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.11. Blessed are you when people reproach you, persecute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 5.12. Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad, for great is your reward in heaven. For that is how they persecuted the prophets who were before you. 5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 5.18. For most assuredly, I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not even one smallest letter or one tiny pen stroke shall in any way pass away from the law, until all things are accomplished. 5.19. Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments, and teach others to do so, shall be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven; but whoever shall do and teach them shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.20. For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.21. You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' 5.22. But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. 5.23. If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you 5.24. leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. 5.25. Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are with him in the way; lest perhaps the prosecutor deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and you be cast into prison. 5.26. Most assuredly I tell you, you shall by no means get out of there, until you have paid the last penny. 5.27. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery;' 5.28. but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. 5.29. If your right eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out and throw it away from you. For it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, than for your whole body to be cast into Gehenna. 5.30. If your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off, and throw it away from you: for it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, and not your whole body be thrown into Gehenna. 5.31. It was also said, 'Whoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce,' 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 5.33. Again you have heard that it was said to them of old time, 'You shall not make false vows, but shall perform to the Lord your vows,' 5.34. but I tell you, don't swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; 5.35. nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. 5.36. Neither shall you swear by your head, for you can't make one hair white or black. 5.37. But let your 'Yes' be 'Yes' and your 'No' be 'no.' Whatever is more than these is of the evil one. 5.38. You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' 5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.40. If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. 5.41. Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 5.42. Give to him who asks you, and don't turn away him who desires to borrow from you. 5.43. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.6. But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.7. In praying, don't use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.15. But if you don't forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. 6.17. But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face; 7.7. Ask, and it will be given you. Seek, and you will find. Knock, and it will be opened for you. 7.21. Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven; but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. 7.22. Many will tell me in that day, 'Lord, Lord, didn't we prophesy in your name, in your name cast out demons, and in your name do many mighty works?' 7.23. Then I will tell them, 'I never knew you. Depart from me, you who work iniquity.' 7.28. It happened, when Jesus had finished saying these things, that the multitudes were astonished at his teaching 8.29. Behold, they cried out, saying, "What do we have to do with you, Jesus, Son of God? Have you come here to torment us before the time? 9.35. Jesus went about all the cities and the villages, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every disease and every sickness among the people. 9.36. But when he saw the multitudes, he was moved with compassion for them, because they were weary and scattered, as sheep without a shepherd. 10.1. He called to himself his twelve disciples, and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every sickness. 10.2. Now the names of the twelve apostles are these. The first, Simon, who is called Peter; Andrew, his brother; James the son of Zebedee; John, his brother; 10.3. Philip; Bartholomew; Thomas; Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus; and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; 10.4. Simon the Canaanite; and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. 10.5. Jesus sent these twelve out, and charged them, saying, "Don't go among the Gentiles, and don't enter into any city of the Samaritans. 10.6. Rather, go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 10.7. As you go, preach, saying, 'The Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!' 10.8. Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, and cast out demons. Freely you received, so freely give. 10.9. Don't take any gold, nor silver, nor brass in your money belts. 10.10. Take no bag for your journey, neither two coats, nor shoes, nor staff: for the laborer is worthy of his food. 10.11. Into whatever city or village you enter, find out who in it is worthy; and stay there until you go on. 10.12. As you enter into the household, greet it. 10.13. If the household is worthy, let your peace come on it, but if it isn't worthy, let your peace return to you. 10.14. Whoever doesn't receive you, nor hear your words, as you go out out of that house or that city, shake off the dust from your feet. 10.15. Most assuredly I tell you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for that city. 10.16. Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves. Therefore be wise as serpents, and harmless as doves. 10.20. For it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father who speaks in you. 11.4. Jesus answered them, "Go and tell John the things which you hear and see: 11.5. the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them. 11.10. For this is he, of whom it is written, 'Behold, I send my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way before you.' 11.25. At that time, Jesus answered, "I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you hid these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to infants. 12.4. how he entered into the house of God, and ate the show bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for those who were with him, but only for the priests? 12.17. that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying 12.18. Behold, my servant whom I have chosen; My beloved in whom my soul is well pleased: I will put my Spirit on him. He will proclaim justice to the Gentiles. 12.19. He will not strive, nor shout; Neither will anyone hear his voice in the streets. 12.20. He won't break a bruised reed. He won't quench a smoking flax, Until he leads justice to victory. 12.21. In his name, the Gentiles will hope. 12.22. Then one possessed by a demon, blind and mute, was brought to him and he healed him, so that the blind and mute man both spoke and saw. 12.28. But if I by the Spirit of God cast out demons, then the Kingdom of God has come upon you. 12.39. But he answered them, "An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign, but no sign will be given it but the sign of Jonah the prophet. 12.40. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 12.41. The men of Nineveh will stand up in the judgment with this generation, and will condemn it, for they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, someone greater than Jonah is here. 13.47. Again, the Kingdom of Heaven is like a dragnet, that was cast into the sea, and gathered some fish of every kind 13.48. which, when it was filled, they drew up on the beach. They sat down, and gathered the good into containers, but the bad they threw away. 13.53. It happened that when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed from there. 13.54. Coming into his own country, he taught them in their synagogue, so that they were astonished, and said, "Where did this man get this wisdom, and these mighty works? 13.55. Isn't this the carpenter's son? Isn't his mother called Mary, and his brothers, James, Joses, Simon, and Judas? 13.56. Aren't all of his sisters with us? Where then did this man get all of these things? 13.57. They were offended by him. But Jesus said to them, "A prophet is not without honor, except in his own country, and in his own house. 13.58. He didn't do many mighty works there because of their unbelief. 15.24. But he answered, "I wasn't sent to anyone but the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 15.32. Jesus summoned his disciples and said, "I have compassion on the multitude, because they continue with me now three days and have nothing to eat. I don't want to send them away fasting, or they might faint on the way. 16.2. But he answered them, "When it is evening, you say, 'It will be fair weather, for the sky is red.' 16.3. In the morning, 'It will be foul weather today, for the sky is red and threatening.' Hypocrites! You know how to discern the appearance of the sky, but you can't discern the signs of the times! 16.14. They said, "Some say John the Baptizer, some, Elijah, and others, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets. 16.20. Then he charged the disciples that they should tell no one that he is Jesus the Christ. 17.1. After six days, Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John his brother, and brought them up into a high mountain by themselves. 17.2. He was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his garments became as white as the light. 17.5. While he was still speaking, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them. Behold, a voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Listen to him. 19.16. Behold, one came to him and said, "Good teacher, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? 19.17. He said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good but one, that is, God. But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments. 19.18. He said to him, "Which ones?"Jesus said, "'You shall not murder.' 'You shall not commit adultery.' 'You shall not steal.' 'You shall not offer false testimony.' 19.19. 'Honor your father and mother.' And, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 19.20. The young man said to him, "All these things I have observed from my youth. What do I still lack? 19.21. Jesus said to him, "If you want to be perfect, go, sell what you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me. 19.22. But when the young man heard the saying, he went away sad, for he was one who had great possessions. 19.23. Jesus said to his disciples, "Most assuredly I say to you, a rich man will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven with difficulty. 19.24. Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 19.25. When the disciples heard it, they were exceedingly astonished, saying, "Who then can be saved? 19.26. Looking at them, Jesus said, "With men this is impossible, but with God all things are possible. 19.27. Then Peter answered, "Behold, we have left everything, and followed you. What then will we have? 19.28. Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you that you who have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of Man will sit on the throne of his glory, you also will sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 19.29. Everyone who has left houses, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name's sake, will receive one hundred times, and will inherit eternal life. 19.30. But many will be last who are first; and first who are last. 20.20. Then the mother of the sons of Zebedee came to him with her sons, kneeling and asking a certain thing of him. 20.21. He said to her, "What do you want?"She said to him, "Command that these, my two sons, may sit, one on your right hand, and one on your left hand, in your kingdom. 20.22. But Jesus answered, "You don't know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I am about to drink, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?"They said to him, "We are able. 20.23. He said to them, "You will indeed drink my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with, but to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not mine to give; but it is for whom it has been prepared by my Father. 20.24. When the ten heard it, they were indigt with the two brothers. 20.25. But Jesus summoned them, and said, "You know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them. 20.26. It shall not be so among you, but whoever desires to become great among you shall be your servant. 20.27. Whoever desires to be first among you shall be your bondservant 20.28. even as the Son of Man came not to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. 21.11. The multitudes said, "This is the prophet, Jesus, from Nazareth of Galilee. 21.23. When he had come into the temple, the chief priests and the elders of the people came to him as he was teaching, and said, "By what authority do you do these things? Who gave you this authority? 21.24. Jesus answered them, "I also will ask you one question, which if you tell me, I likewise will tell you by what authority I do these things. 21.25. The baptism of John, where was it from? From heaven or from men?"They reasoned with themselves, saying, "If we say, 'From heaven,' he will ask us, 'Why then did you not believe him?' 21.26. But if we say, 'From men,' we fear the multitude, for all hold John as a prophet. 21.27. They answered Jesus, and said, "We don't know."He also said to them, "Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things. 21.33. Hear another parable. There was a man who was a master of a household, who planted a vineyard, set a hedge about it, dug a winepress in it, built a tower, leased it out to farmers, and went into another country. 21.34. When the season for the fruit drew near, he sent his servants to the farmers, to receive his fruit. 21.35. The farmers took his servants, beat one, killed another, and stoned another. 21.36. Again, he sent other servants more than the first: and they treated them the same way. 21.37. But afterward he sent to them his son, saying, 'They will respect my son.' 21.38. But the farmers, when they saw the son, said among themselves, 'This is the heir. Come, let's kill him, and seize his inheritance.' 21.39. So they took him, and threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him. 21.40. When therefore the lord of the vineyard comes, what will he do to those farmers? 21.41. They told him, "He will miserably destroy those miserable men, and will lease out the vineyard to other farmers, who will give him the fruit in its season. 21.42. Jesus said to them, "Did you never read in the Scriptures, 'The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the head of the corner. This was from the Lord. It is marvelous in our eyes?' 21.43. Therefore I tell you, the Kingdom of God will be taken away from you, and will be given to a nation bringing forth its fruits. 21.44. He who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces, but on whoever it will fall, it will scatter him as dust. 21.45. When the chief priests and the Pharisees heard his parables, they perceived that he spoke about them. 21.46. When they sought to seize him, they feared the multitudes, because they considered him to be a prophet. 22.1. Jesus answered and spoke again in parables to them, saying 22.2. The Kingdom of Heaven is like a certain king, who made a marriage feast for his son 22.3. and sent out his servants to call those who were invited to the marriage feast, but they would not come. 22.4. Again he sent out other servants, saying, 'Tell those who are invited, "Behold, I have made ready my dinner. My oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready. Come to the marriage feast!"' 22.5. But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his own farm, another to his merchandise 22.6. and the rest grabbed his servants, and treated them shamefully, and killed them. 22.7. But the king was angry, and he sent his armies, destroyed those murderers, and burned their city. 22.8. Then he said to his servants, 'The wedding is ready, but those who were invited weren't worthy. 22.9. Go therefore to the intersections of the highways, and as many as you may find, invite to the marriage feast.' 22.10. Those servants went out into the highways, and gathered together as many as they found, both bad and good. The wedding was filled with guests. 22.11. But when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man who didn't have on wedding clothing 22.12. and he said to him, 'Friend, how did you come in here not wearing wedding clothing?' He was speechless. 22.13. Then the king said to the servants, 'Bind him hand and foot, take him away, and throw him into the outer darkness; there is where the weeping and grinding of teeth will be.' 22.14. For many are called, but few chosen. 22.41. Now while the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them a question 22.42. saying, "What do you think of the Christ? Whose son is he?"They said to him, "of David. 22.43. He said to them, "How then does David in the Spirit call him Lord, saying 22.44. 'The Lord said to my Lord, Sit on my right hand, Until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet?' 22.45. If then David calls him Lord, how is he his son? 23.33. You serpents, you offspring of vipers, how will you escape the judgment of Gehenna? 23.36. Most assuredly I tell you, all these things will come upon this generation. 23.37. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, who kills the prophets, and stones those who are sent to her! How often would I have gathered your children together, even as a hen gathers her chickens under her wings, and you would not! 23.38. Behold, your house is left to you desolate. 23.39. For I tell you, you will not see me from now on, until you say, 'Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!' 24.1. Jesus went out from the temple, and was going on his way. His disciples came to him to show him the buildings of the temple. 24.2. But he answered them, "Don't you see all of these things? Most assuredly I tell you, there will not be left here one stone on another, that will not be thrown down. 24.3. As he sat on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately, saying, "Tell us, when will these things be? What is the sign of your coming, and of the end of the age? 24.4. Jesus answered them, "Be careful that no one leads you astray. 24.5. For many will come in my name, saying, 'I am the Christ,' and will lead many astray. 24.6. You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. See that you aren't troubled, for all this must happen, but the end is not yet. 24.7. For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; and there will be famines, plagues, and earthquakes in various places. 24.8. But all these things are the beginning of birth pains. 24.9. Then they will deliver you up to oppression, and will kill you. You will be hated by all of the nations for my name's sake. 24.10. Then many will stumble, and will deliver up one another, and will hate one another. 24.11. Many false prophets will arise, and will lead many astray. 24.12. Because iniquity will be multiplied, the love of many will grow cold. 24.13. But he who endures to the end, the same will be saved. 24.14. This gospel of the kingdom will be preached in the whole world for a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will come. 24.15. When, therefore, you see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand) 24.16. then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains. 24.17. Let him who is on the housetop not go down to take out things that are in his house. 24.18. Let him who is in the field not return back to get his clothes. 24.19. But woe to those who are with child and to nursing mothers in those days! 24.20. Pray that your flight will not be in the winter, nor on a Sabbath 24.21. for then there will be great oppression, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, nor ever will be. 24.22. Unless those days had been shortened, no flesh would have been saved. But for the elect's sake, those days will be shortened. 24.23. Then if any man tells you, 'Behold, here is the Christ,' or, 'There,' don't believe it. 24.24. For there will arise false Christs, and false prophets, and they will show great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect. 24.25. Behold, I have told you beforehand. 24.26. If therefore they tell you, 'Behold, he is in the wilderness,' don't go out; 'Behold, he is in the inner chambers,' don't believe it. 24.27. For as the lightning comes forth from the east, and is seen even to the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. 24.28. For wherever the carcass is, there will the vultures be gathered together. 24.29. But immediately after the oppression of those days, the sun will be darkened, the moon will not give its light, the stars will fall from the sky, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken; 24.30. and then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky. Then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky with power and great glory. 24.31. He will send out his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other. 24.32. Now from the fig tree learn this parable. When its branch has now become tender, and puts forth its leaves, you know that the summer is near. 24.33. Even so you also, when you see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors. 24.34. Most assuredly I tell you, this generation will not pass away, until all these things are accomplished. 24.35. Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away. 24.36. But no one knows of that day and hour, not even the angels of heaven, but my Father only. 24.50. the lord of that servant will come in a day when he doesn't expect it, and in an hour when he doesn't know it 24.51. and will cut him in pieces, and appoint his portion with the hypocrites; there is where the weeping and grinding of teeth will be. 25.1. Then the Kingdom of Heaven will be like ten virgins, who took their lamps, and went out to meet the bridegroom. 25.2. Five of them were foolish, and five were wise. 25.3. Those who were foolish, when they took their lamps, took no oil with them 25.4. but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. 25.5. Now while the bridegroom delayed, they all slumbered and slept. 25.6. But at midnight there was a cry, 'Behold! The bridegroom is coming! Come out to meet him!' 25.7. Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. 25.8. The foolish said to the wise, 'Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.' 25.9. But the wise answered, saying, 'What if there isn't enough for us and you? You go rather to those who sell, and buy for yourselves.' 25.10. While they went away to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the marriage feast, and the door was shut. 25.11. Afterward the other virgins also came, saying, 'Lord, Lord, open to us.' 25.12. But he answered, 'Most assuredly I tell you, I don't know you.' 25.13. Watch therefore, for you don't know the day nor the hour in which the Son of Man is coming. 25.14. For it is like a man, going into another country, who called his own servants, and entrusted his goods to them. 25.15. To one he gave five talents, to another two, to another one; to each according to his own ability. Then he went on his journey. 25.16. Immediately he who received the five talents went and traded with them, and made another five talents. 25.17. In like manner he also who got the two gained another two. 25.18. But he who received the one went away and dug in the earth, and hid his lord's money. 25.19. Now after a long time the lord of those servants came, and reconciled accounts with them. 25.20. He who received the five talents came and brought another five talents, saying, 'Lord, you delivered to me five talents. Behold, I have gained another five talents besides them.' 25.21. His lord said to him, 'Well done, good and faithful servant. You have been faithful over a few things, I will set you over many things. Enter into the joy of your lord.' 25.22. He also who got the two talents came and said, 'Lord, you delivered to me two talents. Behold, I have gained another two talents besides them.' 25.23. His lord said to him, 'Well done, good and faithful servant. You have been faithful over a few things, I will set you over many things. Enter into the joy of your lord.' 25.24. He also who had received the one talent came and said, 'Lord, I knew you that you are a hard man, reaping where you did not sow, and gathering where you did not scatter. 25.25. I was afraid, and went away and hid your talent in the earth. Behold, you have what is yours.' 25.26. But his lord answered him, 'You wicked and slothful servant. You knew that I reap where I didn't sow, and gather where I didn't scatter. 25.27. You ought therefore to have deposited my money with the bankers, and at my coming I should have received back my own with interest. 25.28. Take away therefore the talent from him, and give it to him who has the ten talents. 25.29. For to everyone who has will be given, and he will have abundance, but from him who has not, even that which he has will be taken away. 25.30. Throw out the unprofitable servant into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.' 25.32. Before him all the nations will be gathered, and he will separate them one from another, as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. 25.33. He will set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. 25.34. Then the King will tell those on his right hand, 'Come, blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; 25.35. for I was hungry, and you gave me food to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave me drink; I was a stranger, and you took me in; 25.36. naked, and you clothed me; I was sick, and you visited me; I was in prison, and you came to me.' 25.37. Then the righteous will answer him, saying, 'Lord, when did we see you hungry, and feed you; or thirsty, and give you a drink? 25.38. When did we see you as a stranger, and take you in; or naked, and clothe you? 25.39. When did we see you sick, or in prison, and come to you?' 25.40. The King will answer them, 'Most assuredly I tell you, inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of these my brothers, you did it to me.' 25.41. Then he will say also to those on the left hand, 'Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels; 25.42. for I was hungry, and you didn't give me food to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave me no drink; 25.43. I was a stranger, and you didn't take me in; naked, and you didn't clothe me; sick, and in prison, and you didn't visit me.' 25.44. Then they will also answer, saying, 'Lord, when did we see you hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and didn't help you?' 25.45. Then he will answer them, saying, 'Most assuredly I tell you, inasmuch as you didn't do it to one of the least of these, you didn't do it to me.' 26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. 27.49. The rest said, "Let him be. Let's see whether Elijah comes to save him. 27.50. Jesus cried again with a loud voice, and yielded up his spirit.
67. Suetonius, Tiberius, 32.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

68. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.5-3.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

69. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 7.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

70. Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.6. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the people cease from work. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city to summon those near the city to cease from work. Those near the limits of the city assembled themselves together and came to the schoolhouse. They did not come immediately the trumpets blew, but waited till all were gathered together, and then all came at once. When did they assemble? After one could fill a bottle of water, or fry a fish, or light his lamp. "
71. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 131-132, 157, 49, 121 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

121. And when Narcia had brought these things, Mygdonia stood before the apostle with her head bare; and he took the oil and poured it on her head, saying: Thou holy oil given unto us for sanctification, secret mystery whereby the cross was shown unto us, thou art the straightener of the crooked limbs, thou art the humbler (softener) of hard things (works), thou art it that showeth the hidden treasures, thou art the sprout of goodness; let thy power come, let it be established upon thy servant Mygdonia, and heal thou her by this freedom. And when the oil was poured upon her he bade her nurse unclothe her and gird a linen cloth about her; and there was there a fountain of water upon which the apostle went up, and baptized Mygdonia in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost. And when she was baptized and clad, he brake bread and took a cup of water and made her a partaker in the body of Christ and the cup of the Son of God, and said: Thou hast received thy seal, get for thyself eternal life. And immediately there was heard from above a voice saying: Yea, amen. And when Narcia heard that voice, she was amazed, and besought the apostle that she also might receive the seal; and the apostle gave it her and said: Let the care of the Lord be about thee as about the rest.
72. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 80.1, 98.13 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

80.1. וַתֵּצֵא דִינָה בַּת לֵאָה (בראשית לד, א), (יחזקאל טז, מד): הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל עָלַיִךְ יִמְשֹׁל לֵאמֹר כְּאִמָּה בִּתָּהּ, יוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה תִּרְגֵּם בִּכְנִישָׁתְהוֹן דִּמְעוֹנָא, (הושע ה, א): שִׁמְעוּ זֹאת הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ הַאֲזִינוּ, אָמַר עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִטֹּל אֶת הַכֹּהֲנִים וּלְהַעֲמִידָן בַּדִּין וְלֵאמֹר לָהֶם לָמָּה לֹא יְגַעְתֶּם בַּתּוֹרָה, לֹא הֱיִיתֶם נֶהֱנִים מֵאַרְבַּע וְעֶשְׂרִים מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה, וְאִינוּן אָמְרִין לֵיהּ לָא יָהֲבִין לָן כְּלוּם. וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל, לָמָּה לֹא הֱיִיתֶם נוֹתְנִים לַכֹּהֲנִים אַרְבַּע וְעֶשְׂרִים מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה שֶׁכָּתַבְתִּי לָכֶם בַּתּוֹרָה, וְאִינוּן אָמְרִין לֵיהּ עַל אִלֵּין דְּבֵי נְשִׂיאָה דַּהֲווֹ נָסְבִין כּוֹלָּא. בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ הַאֲזִינוּ כִּי לָכֶם הַמִּשְׁפָּט, שֶׁלָּכֶם הָיָה, (דברים יח, ג): וְזֶה יִהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים, לְפִיכָךְ לָכֶם וַעֲלֵיכֶם מִדַּת הַדִּין נֶהְפָּכֶת. שָׁמַע רַבִּי וְכָעַס, בְּפַתֵּי רַמְשָׁא סְלֵיק רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ שָׁאֵיל שְׁלָמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי וּפַיְּסֵי עֲלוֹהִי דְּיוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה, אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי, צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לְהַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁהֵן מַכְנִיסִין מוּמָסִין לְבָתֵּי טְרַטְיָאוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי קַרְקְסָאוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן וּמְשַׂחֲקִין בָּהֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא יִהְיוּ מְשִׂיחִין אֵלּוּ עִם אֵלּוּ וְיָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי קְטָטָה בְּטֵלָה, יוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה אָמַר מִלָּה דְּאוֹרָיְיתָא וְאַקְפַּדְתְּ עֲלוֹהִי, אָמַר לוֹ וְיוֹדֵעַ הוּא בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה כְּלוּם, אָמַר לוֹ הֵן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְאוּלְפַן קַבֵּיל, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵין. וְאִי שָׁאֵלְנָא לֵיהּ מְגִיִּיב, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵין, אִם כֵּן יִסַּק לְהָכָא, וּסְלֵיק לְגַבֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַהוּ דִּכְתִיב: הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל עָלַיִךָ יִמְשֹׁל לֵאמֹר כְּאִמָּה בִּתָּהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ כַּבַּת כֵּן אִמָּהּ, כַּדּוֹר כֵּן נָשִׂיא, כַּמִּזְבֵּחַ כֵּן כֹּהֲנָיו. הָכָא אָמְרֵי לְפוּם גִּנְּתָא גַּנָּנָא. אָמַר לוֹ רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ עַד כַּדּוּן לָא חֲסֵלִית מִן מְפַיְּסֵיהּ עַל הָדָא וְאַתָּה מַיְיתֵי לָן אוֹחֲרִי, עִקָּרוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל מַהוּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֵית תּוֹרְתָא עֲנִישָׁא עַד דִּבְרַתָּהּ בְּעִיטָא, לֵית אִתְּתָא זָנְיָא עַד דִּבְרַתָּהּ זָנְיָא. אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ אִם כֵּן לֵאָה אִמֵּנוּ זוֹנָה הָיְתָה, אָמַר לָהֶם (בראשית ל, טז): וַתֵּצֵא לִקְרָאתוֹ וגו', יָצָאת מְקֻשֶּׁטֶת כְּזוֹנָה, לְפִיכָךְ וַתֵּצֵא דִינָה בַּת לֵאָה. 80.1. וַיִּקְּחוּ שְׁנֵי בְנֵי יַעֲקֹב שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי (בראשית לד, כה), מִמַּשְׁמַע שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי, יָדַעְנוּ שֶׁבְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב הֵם, אֶלָּא בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב שֶׁלֹא נָטְלוּ עֵצָה מִיַּעֲקֹב. שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי, שֶׁנָטְלוּ עֵצָה זֶה מִזֶּה. אֲחֵי דִינָה, וְכִי אֲחוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא אֲחוֹת כָּל הַשְּׁבָטִים הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתְנוּ אֵלּוּ נַפְשָׁם עָלֶיהָ נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמָם, וְדִכְוָתָהּ (שמות טו, כ): וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן, וְכִי אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא אֲחוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתַן אַהֲרֹן נַפְשׁוֹ עָלֶיהָ לְפִיכָךְ נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמוֹ, וְדִכְוָתָהּ (במדבר כה, יח): וְעַל דְּבַר כָּזְבִּי בַת נְשִׂיא מִדְיָן אֲחֹתָם, וְכִי אֲחוֹתָם הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא בַּת אֻמָּתָן הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתְנָה נַפְשָׁהּ עַל אֻמָּתָהּ נִקְרֵאת אֻמָּתָהּ לִשְׁמָהּ. (בראשית לד, כה): אִישׁ חַרְבּוֹ, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר בֶּן שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה הָיוּ. שְׁמוּאֵל שָׁאַל לְלֵוִי בַּר סִיסִי אָמַר לוֹ מַהוּ דֵין דִּכְתִיב (בראשית לד, כה): וַיָּבֹאוּ עַל הָעִיר בֶּטַח, אָמַר לוֹ בְּטוּחִים הָיוּ עַל כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל זָקֵן, וְלֹא הָיָה אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב רוֹצֶה שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ בָנָיו אוֹתוֹ הַמַּעֲשֶׂה, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁעָשׂוּ בָנָיו אוֹתוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה, אָמַר מָה אֲנִי מַנִּיחַ אֶת בָּנַי לִפֹּל בְּיַד אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, מֶה עָשָׂה נָטַל חַרְבּוֹ וְקַשְׁתּוֹ וְעָמַד לוֹ עַל פִּתְחָהּ שֶׁל שְׁכֶם וְאָמַר אִם יָבוֹאוּ אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לָהֶם לְבָנַי אֲנִי נִלְחַם כְּנֶגְדָן, הוּא דְּהוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ לְיוֹסֵף (בראשית מח, כב): וַאֲנִי נָתַתִּי לְךָ שְׁכֶם אַחַד עַל אַחֶיךָ וגו', וְהֵיכָן מָצִינוּ שֶׁנָּטַל אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב חַרְבּוֹ וְקַשְׁתּוֹ בִּשְׁכֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מח, כב): אֲשֶׁר לָקַחְתִּי מִיַּד הָאֱמֹרִי בְּחַרְבִּי וּבְקַשְׁתִּי. (בראשית לד, כו): וְאֶת חֲמוֹר וְאֶת שְׁכֶם בְּנוֹ. 98.13. דָּן יָדִין עַמּוֹ כְּאַחַד שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל (בראשית מט, טז), כַּמְּיֻחָד שֶׁל שְׁבָטִים. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁנִּדְבַּק לַמְיֻחָד שֶׁבַּשְּׁבָטִים אֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹפֵט אֶחָד שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד לֹא הָיָה מַעֲמִיד, וְאֵיזֶה זֶה, זֶה שִׁמְשׁוֹן בֶּן מָנוֹחַ. כִּיחִידוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, מַה יְּחִידוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ סִיּוּעַ כָּךְ שִׁמְשׁוֹן בֶּן מָנוֹחַ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְסִיּוּעַ, אֶלָּא (שופטים טו, טו): וַיִּמְצָא לְחִי חֲמוֹר טְרִיָה, מַהוּ טְרִיָה, בַּר תְּלָתָא יוֹמִין. רַבִּי אָבוּן אָמַר בִּטְנָהּ תְּרֵין, הִיא דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אָבוּוֹן, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אָבוּן (שופטים טו, טז): בִּלְחִי הַחֲמוֹר חֲמוֹר חֲמֹרָתָיִם וגו' (שופטים טו, יח): וַיִּצְמָא מְאֹד, דִּמְפַטְפֵּט צָחֵי, אָמַר רַבִּי חוּנְיָא וְרַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה צַרְצוּר שֶׁל מַיִם לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדוֹ וְלִטְלוֹ, אֶלָּא (שופטים טו, יח): וַיִּקְרָא אֶל ה' וַיֹּאמַר אַתָּה נָתַתָּ בְיַד עַבְדְּךָ וגו', אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים אִם אֵינוֹ בֵּינִי לְבֵינָן אֶלָּא הַמִּילָה הַזֹּאת כְּדַאי הוּא שֶׁלֹא אֶפֹּל בְּיָדָן, מִיָּד (שופטים טו, יט): וַיִּבְקַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת הַמַּכְתֵּשׁ אֲשֶׁר בַּלֶּחִי, רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא שְׁמוֹ לֶחִי. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא מַכְתֵּשׁ שְׁמוֹ. רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֵבִיא לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַעֲיָן מִבֵּין שִׁנָּיו, בְּאֵיזוֹ זְכוּת, מִבִּרְכָתוֹ שֶׁל משֶׁה שֶׁאָמַר (דברים לג, כב): יְזַנֵּק מִן הַבָּשָׁן, מִבֵּין שִׁנָּיו.
73. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 4.6.25-4.6.41 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

74. Justin, First Apology, 67 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

67. And we afterwards continually remind each other of these things. And the wealthy among us help the needy; and we always keep together; and for all things wherewith we are supplied, we bless the Maker of all through His Son Jesus Christ, and through the Holy Ghost. And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need. But Sunday is the day on which we all hold our common assembly, because it is the first day on which God, having wrought a change in the darkness and matter, made the world; and Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose from the dead. For He was crucified on the day before that of Saturn (Saturday); and on the day after that of Saturn, which is the day of the Sun, having appeared to His apostles and disciples, He taught them these things, which we have submitted to you also for your consideration.
75. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

76. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

77. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

78. Tertullian, On Baptism, 7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7. After this, when we have issued from the font, we are thoroughly anointed with a blessed unction, - (a practice derived) from the old discipline, wherein on entering the priesthood, men were wont to be anointed with oil from a horn, ever since Aaron was anointed by Moses. Whence Aaron is called Christ, from the chrism, which is the unction; which, when made spiritual, furnished an appropriate name to the Lord, because He was anointed with the Spirit by God the Father; as written in the Acts: For truly they were gathered together in this city against Your Holy Son whom You have anointed. Thus, too, in our case, the unction runs carnally, (i.e. on the body,) but profits spiritually; in the same way as the act of baptism itself too is carnal, in that we are plunged in water, but the effect spiritual, in that we are freed from sins.
79. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

61b. ריאה שואבת כל מיני משקין כבד כועס מרה זורקת בו טפה ומניחתו טחול שוחק קרקבן טוחן קיבה ישנה אף נעור נעור הישן ישן הנעור נמוק והולך לו תנא אם שניהם ישנים או שניהם נעורים מיד מת,תניא רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר צדיקים יצר טוב שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, כב) ולבי חלל בקרבי רשעים יצר רע שופטן שנאמר (תהלים לו, ב) נאם פשע לרשע בקרב לבי אין פחד אלהים לנגד עיניו בינונים זה וזה שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, לא) יעמוד לימין אביון להושיע משופטי נפשו,אמר רבא כגון אנו בינונים אמר ליה אביי לא שביק מר חיי לכל בריה,ואמר רבא לא איברי עלמא אלא לרשיעי גמורי או לצדיקי גמורי אמר רבא לידע אינש בנפשיה אם צדיק גמור הוא אם לאו אמר רב לא איברי עלמא אלא לאחאב בן עמרי ולר' חנינא בן דוסא לאחאב בן עמרי העולם הזה ולרבי חנינא בן דוסא העולם הבא:,ואהבת את י"י אלהיך: תניא ר' אליעזר אומר אם נאמר בכל נפשך למה נאמר בכל מאדך ואם נאמר בכל מאדך למה נאמר בכל נפשך אלא אם יש לך אדם שגופו חביב עליו מממונו לכך נאמר בכל נפשך ואם יש לך אדם שממונו חביב עליו מגופו לכך נאמר בכל מאדך רבי עקיבא אומר בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נפשך,תנו רבנן פעם אחת גזרה מלכות הרשעה שלא יעסקו ישראל בתורה בא פפוס בן יהודה ומצאו לרבי עקיבא שהיה מקהיל קהלות ברבים ועוסק בתורה אמר ליה עקיבא אי אתה מתירא מפני מלכות,אמר לו אמשול לך משל למה הדבר דומה לשועל שהיה מהלך על גב הנהר וראה דגים שהיו מתקבצים ממקום למקום אמר להם מפני מה אתם בורחים אמרו לו מפני רשתות שמביאין עלינו בני אדם אמר להם רצונכם שתעלו ליבשה ונדור אני ואתם כשם שדרו אבותי עם אבותיכם אמרו לו אתה הוא שאומרים עליך פקח שבחיות לא פקח אתה אלא טפש אתה ומה במקום חיותנו אנו מתיראין במקום מיתתנו על אחת כמה וכמה אף אנחנו עכשיו שאנו יושבים ועוסקים בתורה שכתוב בה (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כך אם אנו הולכים ומבטלים ממנה עאכ"ו,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שתפסוהו לר"ע וחבשוהו בבית האסורים ותפסו לפפוס בן יהודה וחבשוהו אצלו אמר לו פפוס מי הביאך לכאן אמר ליה אשריך רבי עקיבא שנתפסת על דברי תורה אוי לו לפפוס שנתפס על דברים בטלים,בשעה שהוציאו את ר' עקיבא להריגה זמן ק"ש היה והיו סורקים את בשרו במסרקות של ברזל והיה מקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים אמרו לו תלמידיו רבינו עד כאן אמר להם כל ימי הייתי מצטער על פסוק זה בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נשמתך אמרתי מתי יבא לידי ואקיימנו ועכשיו שבא לידי לא אקיימנו היה מאריך באחד עד שיצתה נשמתו באחד יצתה ב"ק ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שיצאה נשמתך באחד,אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה זו תורה וזו שכרה (תהלים יז, יד) ממתים ידך י"י ממתים וגו' אמר להם חלקם בחיים יצתה בת קול ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שאתה מזומן לחיי העוה"ב:,לא יקל אדם את ראשו כנגד שער המזרח שהוא מכוון כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים וכו': אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה איתמר נמי א"ר אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא הכי אמר רבי יוחנן לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה ובשאין גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה,ת"ר הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל לא יפנה אלא מזרח ומערב ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה ר' יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה ובמקום שאין שם גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה וחכמים אוסרים,חכמים היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו צדדין,תניא אידך הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל צפון ודרום אסור מזרח ומערב מותר ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה רבי יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה רבי יהודה אומר בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אסור בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מותר רבי עקיבא אוסר בכל מקום,רבי עקיבא היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו חוץ לארץ,רבה הוו שדיין ליה לבני מזרח ומערב אזל אביי שדנהו צפון ודרום על רבה תרצנהו אמר מאן האי דקמצער לי אנא כר' עקיבא סבירא לי דאמר בכל מקום אסור: 61b. and the blungs draw all kinds of liquids,the bliver becomes angry,the bgallbladder binjects a dropof gall bintothe liver and ballaysanger, the bspleen laughs,the bmaw grindsthe food, and the bstomachbrings bsleep,the bnose awakens.If they reversed roles such that btheorgan which brings on bsleepwere to bawaken,or btheorgan which bawakenswere to bring on bsleep,the individual bwould gradually deteriorate. It was taught: If bothbring on bsleep or both awaken,the person bimmediately dies. /b,With regard to one’s inclinations, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says: The good inclination rules the righteous, as it is stated: “And my heart is dead within me”(Psalms 109:22); the evil inclination has been completely banished from his heart. The bevil inclination rules the wicked, as it is stated: “Transgression speaks to the wicked, there is no fear of God before his eyes”(Psalms 36:2). bMiddling people are ruled by boththe good and evil inclinations, bas it is stated: “Because He stands at the right hand of the needy, to save him from them that rule his soul”(Psalms 109:31)., bRabba said:People blike usare bmiddling. Abaye,his student and nephew, bsaid to him:If bthe Masterclaims that he is merely middling, he bdoes not leaveroom for bany creature to live.If a person like you is middling, what of the rest of us?, bAnd Rava said: The world was created only forthe sake of bthe full-fledged wicked or the full-fledged righteous;others do not live complete lives in either world. bRava said: One should know of himself whether or not he is completely righteous,as if he is not completely righteous, he knows that his life will be a life of suffering. bRav said: The world was only created forthe wicked bAhab ben Omri and for Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa.The Gemara explains: For bAhab ben Omri, this worldwas created, as he has no place in the World-to-Come, bandfor bRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, the World-to-Comewas created.,We learned in our mishna the explanation of the verse: b“And you shall love the Lord your Godwith all your heart and all your soul and all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). This was elaborated upon when bit was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: “With all your soul,” why does it state: “With all your might”?Conversely, bif it stated: “With all your might,” why does it state: “With all your soul”? Rather,this means that bif one’s body is dearer to him than his property, therefore it is stated: “With all your soul”;one must give his soul in sanctification of God. bAnd if one’s money is dearer to him than his body, therefore it is stated: “With all your might”;with all your assets. bRabbi Akiva says: “With all your soul”means: bEven ifGod btakes your soul. /b,The Gemara relates at length how Rabbi Akiva fulfilled these directives. bThe Sages taught: One time,after the bar Kokheva rebellion, bthe evil empireof Rome bdecreed that Israel may not engage inthe study and practice of bTorah. Pappos ben Yehuda came and found Rabbi Akiva, who was convening assemblies in public and engaging in Torahstudy. Pappos bsaid to him: Akiva, are you not afraid of the empire? /b,Rabbi Akiva banswered him: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared?It is like ba fox walking along a riverbank when he sees fish gatheringand fleeing bfrom place to place. brThe fox bsaid to them: From what are you fleeing? br bThey said to him:We are fleeing bfrom the nets that people cast upon us. br bHe said to them: Do you wish to come up onto dry land, and we will reside together just as my ancestors resided with your ancestors? brThe fish bsaid to him: You are the one of whom they say, he is the cleverest of animals? You are not clever; you are a fool. If we are afraid inthe water, bournatural bhabitatwhich gives us blife,then bin a habitatthat causes our bdeath, all the more so. brThe moral is: bSo too, weJews, bnow that we sit and engage in Torahstudy, babout which it is written: “For that is your life, and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20), we fear the empire bto this extent; if we proceed tosit bidle from itsstudy, as its abandonment is the habitat that causes our death, ball the more sowill we fear the empire.,The Sages bsaid: Not a few days passed until they seized Rabbi Akiva and incarcerated him in prison, and seized Pappos ben Yehuda and incarcerated him alongside him.Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: Pappos, who brought you here?Pappos breplied: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, for you were arrested onthe charge of engaging in bTorahstudy. bWoe unto Pappos who was seized onthe charge of engaging in bidle matters. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen they took Rabbi Akiva out to be executed, it was time for the recitation of iShema /i. And they were raking his flesh with iron combs, and he wasreciting iShema /i, thereby baccepting upon himself the yoke of Heaven. His students said to him: Our teacher, even now,as you suffer, you recite iShema /i? bHe said to them: All my days I have been troubled by the verse: With all your soul,meaning: bEven if God takes your soul. I saidto myself: bWhen will theopportunity bbe afforded me to fulfill thisverse? bNow that it has been afforded me, shall I not fulfill it? He prolongedhis uttering of the word: bOne, until his soul lefthis body as he uttered his final word: bOne. A voice descendedfrom heaven band said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, that your soul leftyour body basyou uttered: bOne. /b, bThe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: This is Torah and this its reward?As it is stated: b“From death, by Your hand, O Lord, from deathof the world” (Psalms 17:14); Your hand, God, kills and does not save. God bsaidthe end of the verse btothe ministering angels: b“Whose portion is in this life.”And then ba Divine Voice emerged and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, as you are destined for life in the World-to-Come,as your portion is already in eternal life.,We learned in the mishna that bone may not act irreverently opposite the Eastern Gate, which is aligned with the Holy of Holies.Limiting this ihalakha /i, bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to irreverent behavior bfromMount bScopus [ iTzofim /i] and within, andspecifically areas from where bone can seethe Temple. bIt is also stated: Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said: Rabbi Yoḥa said the following: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to Mount bScopus and within,when bone can see, and when there is no fenceobstructing his view, band when the Divine Presence is restingthere, i.e., when the Temple is standing.,In this context, bthe Sages taught: One who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west,for then he is facing Jerusalem; bratherhe should do so bfacing north and south. But in the Galileewhich is north of Jerusalem, bone should only defecatefacing beast and west. Rabbi Yosei permitsdoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple, bwhere there is no fence, and when the Divine Presence is restingthere. bAnd the Rabbis prohibitdoing so.,The Gemara argues: But the opinion of the bRabbis,who prohibit this, bisidentical to that of the bfirstanonymous itanna, /iwho also prohibits doing so. The Gemara replies: The practical difference bbetween them iswith regard to bthe sides,i.e., a place in Judea that is not directly east or west of Jerusalem, or a place in the Galilee that is not directly north of Jerusalem. According to the first itanna /i, it is prohibited; according to the Rabbis, it is permitted., bIt was taughtin banother ibaraita /i: bOne who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west; rather,he should only do so facing bnorth and south. And in the Galilee,defecating while facing bnorth and south is prohibited,while beast and west is permitted. And Rabbi Yosei permitteddoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple. bRabbi Yehuda says: When the Temple is standing, it is prohibited,but bwhen the Temple is not standing, it is permitted.The Gemara adds that bRabbi Akiva prohibitsdefecating banywherewhile facing east and west.,The Gemara challenges this: bRabbi Akiva’sposition bis identical tothat of bthe first,anonymous itanna /i,who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara responds: The practical difference bbetween themis with regard to places boutside of EretzYisrael b,as according to Rabbi Akiva, even outside of Eretz Yisrael, defecating while facing east and west is prohibited.,The Gemara relates that in bRabba’sbathroom, bthe bricks were placed east and westin order to ensure that he would defecate facing north and south. bAbaye wentand bplaced them north and south,to test if Rabba was particular about their direction or if they had simply been placed east and west incidentally. bRabba enteredand bfixed them. He said: Who is the one that is upsetting me? I hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva,who bsaid: It is prohibited everywhere. /b
80. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57b. אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה סח לי זקן אחד מאנשי ירושלים בבקעה זו הרג נבוזראדן רב טבחים מאתים ואחת עשרה רבוא ובירושלים הרג תשעים וארבע רבוא על אבן אחת עד שהלך דמן ונגע בדמו של זכריה לקיים מה שנאמר (הושע ד, ב) ודמים בדמים נגעו,אשכחיה לדמיה דזכריה דהוה קא מרתח וסליק אמר מאי האי אמרו ליה דם זבחים דאשתפוך אייתי דמי ולא אידמו,אמר להו אי אמריתו לי מוטב ואי לאו מסריקנא לבשרייכו במסרקי דפרזלי אמרי ליה מאי נימא לך נבייא הוה בן דהוה קא מוכח לן במילי דשמיא קמינן עילויה וקטלינן ליה והא כמה שנין דלא קא נייח דמיה,אמר להו אנא מפייסנא ליה אייתי סנהדרי גדולה וסנהדרי קטנה קטל עילויה ולא נח בחורים ובתולות קטל עילויה ולא נח אייתי תינוקות של בית רבן קטל עילויה ולא נח א"ל זכריה זכריה טובים שבהן איבדתים ניחא לך דאבדינהו לכולהו כדאמר ליה הכי נח,בההיא שעתא הרהר תשובה בדעתיה אמר ומה אם על נפש אחת כך ההוא גברא דקטל כל הני נשמתא על אחת כמה וכמה ערק אזל שדר שטר פרטתא בביתיה ואגייר,תנא נעמן גר תושב היה נבוזראדן גר צדק היה,מבני בניו של המן למדו תורה בבני ברק מבני בניו של סיסרא למדו תינוקות בירושלים מבני בניו של סנחריב למדו תורה ברבים מאן אינון שמעיה ואבטליון,היינו דכתיב (יחזקאל כד, ח) נתתי את דמה על צחיח סלע לבלתי הכסות,(בראשית כז, כב) הקול קול יעקב והידים ידי עשו הקול זה אדריינוס קיסר שהרג באלכסנדריא של מצרים ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא כפלים כיוצאי מצרים קול יעקב זה אספסיינוס קיסר שהרג בכרך ביתר ארבע מאות רבוא ואמרי לה ארבעת אלפים רבוא והידים ידי עשו זו מלכות הרשעה שהחריבה את בתינו ושרפה את היכלנו והגליתנו מארצנו,דבר אחר הקול קול יעקב אין לך תפלה שמועלת שאין בה מזרעו של יעקב והידים ידי עשו אין לך מלחמה שנוצחת שאין בה מזרעו של עשו,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר (איוב ה, כא) בשוט לשון תחבא בחירחורי לשון תחבא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלז, א) על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בזכרנו את ציון מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה לדוד חורבן בית ראשון וחורבן בית שני חורבן בית ראשון שנאמר על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בית שני דכתיב (תהלים קלז, ז) זכור ה' לבני אדום את יום ירושלים האומרים ערו ערו עד היסוד בה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ואיתימא רבי אמי ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מעשה בד' מאות ילדים וילדות שנשבו לקלון הרגישו בעצמן למה הן מתבקשים אמרו אם אנו טובעין בים אנו באין לחיי העולם הבא דרש להן הגדול שבהן (תהלים סח, כג) אמר ה' מבשן אשיב אשיב ממצולות ים מבשן אשיב מבין שיני אריה אשיב ממצולות ים אלו שטובעין בים,כיון ששמעו ילדות כך קפצו כולן ונפלו לתוך הים נשאו ילדים ק"ו בעצמן ואמרו מה הללו שדרכן לכך כך אנו שאין דרכנו לכך על אחת כמה וכמה אף הם קפצו לתוך הים ועליהם הכתוב אומר (תהלים מד, כג) כי עליך הורגנו כל היום נחשבנו כצאן טבחה,ורב יהודה אמר זו אשה ושבעה בניה אתיוהו קמא לקמיה דקיסר אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כ, ב) אנכי ה' אלהיך אפקוהו וקטלוהו,ואתיוהו לאידך לקמיה דקיסר אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כ, ב) לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים על פני אפקוהו וקטלוהו אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כב, יט) זובח לאלהים יחרם אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות לד, יד) לא תשתחוה לאל אחר אפקוהו וקטלוהו אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים ד, לט) וידעת היום והשבות אל לבבך כי ה' הוא האלהים בשמים ממעל ועל הארץ מתחת אין עוד אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים כו, יז) את ה' האמרת וגו' וה' האמירך היום כבר נשבענו להקדוש ברוך הוא שאין אנו מעבירין אותו באל אחר ואף הוא נשבע לנו שאין מעביר אותנו באומה אחרת,א"ל קיסר אישדי לך גושפנקא וגחין ושקליה כי היכי דלימרו קביל עליה הרמנא דמלכא א"ל חבל עלך קיסר חבל עלך קיסר על כבוד עצמך כך על כבוד הקב"ה על אחת כמה וכמה,אפקוהו למיקטליה אמרה להו אימיה יהבוהו ניהלי ואינשקיה פורתא אמרה לו בניי לכו ואמרו לאברהם אביכם אתה עקדת מזבח אחד ואני עקדתי שבעה מזבחות אף היא עלתה לגג ונפלה ומתה יצתה בת קול ואמרה (תהלים קיג, ט) אם הבנים שמחה,ר' יהושע בן לוי אמר זו מילה שניתנה בשמיני ר' שמעון בן לקיש אמר אלו ת"ח שמראין הלכות שחיטה בעצמן דאמר רבא כל מילי ליחזי איניש בנפשיה בר משחיטה ודבר אחר,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אלו תלמידי חכמים שממיתין עצמן על דברי תורה כדר' שמעון בן לקיש דאמר ר"ש בן לקיש אין דברי תורה מתקיימין אלא במי שממית עצמו עליהם שנאמר (במדבר יט, יד) זאת התורה אדם כי ימות באהל וגו' אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן ארבעים סאה 57b. § With regard to the Babylonian exile following the destruction of the First Temple, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saysthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: An old man fromamong bthe inhabitants of Jerusalem related to me: In this valleythat lies before you, bNebuzaradan, captain of the guardof the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar, bkilled 2,110,000people. bAnd in Jerusalemitself bhe killed 940,000people bon one stone, until the bloodof his victims bflowed and touched the blood of Zechariah to fulfill what is stated: “And blood touches blood”(Hosea 4:2).,The Gemara clarifies the details of what happened: Nebuzaradan bfound the blood of Zechariah,the son of Jehoiada the priest, and saw bthat it was bubbling upfrom the ground, and bhe said: What is this?Those in the Temple bsaid to him:It is bsacrificial blood that had been pouredthere. bHe broughtanimal bblood,compared it to the blood bubbling up from the ground, bandsaw that bit was not similarto it.,Nebuzaradan bsaid tothem: bIf you tell mewhose blood this is, it will be bwellfor you. bBut if not, I will comb your flesh with iron combs. They said to him: What shall we say to you? He was a prophet among us, who used to rebuke us about heavenly matters,and bwe rose up against him, and killed him(II Chronicles 24:20–22), band for many yearsnow bhis blood has not settled. /b,Nebuzaradan bsaid to them: I will appeaseZechariah. bHe broughtthe members of bthe Great Sanhedrin andof ba lesser Sanhedrinand bkilled them alongsidethe bubbling blood, bbutit still bdid not settle.He then brought byoung men and virgins and killed them alongside it, butit still bdid not settle. Hethen bbrought schoolchildren and killed them alongside it, butit still bdid not settle.Finally Nebuzaradan bsaid to him: Zechariah, Zechariah, I have killed the best of them.Would it bplease you if I destroyed them all? When he said this,the blood at last bsettled. /b, bAt that momentNebuzaradan bcontemplatedthe idea of brepentanceand bsaidto himself: bIf, forthe death of bone soul,that of Zechariah, God punishes the Jewish people in bthismanner, then bthat man,that is to say, I, bwho has killed all of those souls, all the more sowill be I be subject to great punishment from God. bHe fled, sent to his house a document detailingwhat was to be done with his property, band convertedto Judaism.,A Sage btaughta ibaraitarelating to this matter: bNaaman,commander of the army of the king of Aram (see II Kings, chapter 5), was not a convert, as he did not accept all of the mitzvot, but rather he bwas a iger toshav /i, a gentile who resides in Eretz Israel and observes the seven Noahide mitzvot. Nebuzaradan,by contrast, bwas a convert,as explained previously.,The Gemara adds that some bof Haman’s descendants studied Torah in Bnei Brak,and some bof Sisera’s descendants taught childrenTorah bin Jerusalem,and some bof Sennacherib’s descendants taught Torah in public. Who are they?They are bShemaya and Avtalyon,the teachers of Hillel the Elder.,As for the incident involving the blood of Zechariah, bthis isalluded to by bthat which is written: “I have set her blood upon the bare rock that it should not be covered”(Ezekiel 24:8).,§ Apropos its discussion of the destruction of the Temple and the calamities that befell Israel, the Gemara cites the verse: b“The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau”(Genesis 27:22), which the Sages expounded as follows: b“The voice”; thisis the cry stirred up by bthe emperor Hadrian, whocaused the Jewish people to cry out when he bkilled six hundred thousand on six hundred thousand in Alexandria of Egypt, twicethe number of men bwho left Egypt. “The voice of Jacob”; this isthe cry aroused by bthe emperor Vespasian, who killed four millionpeople bin the city of Beitar. And some say:He killed bforty millionpeople. b“And the hands are the hands of Esau”; this is the wicked kingdomof Rome bthat destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land. /b, bAlternatively, “the voice is the voice of Jacob”means that bno prayer is effectivein the world bunlesssome member of bthe seed of Jacob hasa part bin it.The second clause in the verse, b“and the hands are the hands of Esau,”means that bno war grants victory unlesssome member of bthe seed of Esau hasa part bin it. /b, bAnd this iswhat bRabbi Elazar says:The verse that says: b“You shall be hid from the scourge of the tongue”(Job 5:21), means: bYou shallneed to bhide on account of quarrelsprovoked bby the tongue. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “By the rivers of Babylonia, there we sat down and wept, when we remembered Zion”(Psalms 137:1)? This bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed David the destruction of the First Temple and the destruction of the Second Temple.He saw the destruction of bthe First Temple, as it is stated: “By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept.”He saw the destruction of the bSecond Temple, as it is writtenlater in that same psalm: b“Remember, O Lord, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem, when they said: Raze it, raze it, to its very foundation”(Psalms 137:7), as the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans, “the children of Edom.”, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says, and some saythat it was bRabbi Amiwho says this, band some saythat bit was taught in a ibaraita /i:There was ban incident involving four hundred boys and girls who were taken as captives forthe purpose of bprostitution.These children bsensed on their own what they were expectedto do, and bthey said: If wecommit suicide and bdrown in the sea,will bwe come toeternal blife in the World-to-Come? The oldestchild bamong them expoundedthe verse: b“The Lord said, I will bring back from Bashan, I will bring them back from the depths of the sea”(Psalms 68:23). b“I will bring back from Bashan,”i.e., bfrom between the teeth [ ibein shen /i] of the lion,and b“I will bring them back from the depths of the sea”is referring to bthose who drown in the seafor the sake of Heaven., bWhen the girls heard this, they all leapt and fell into the sea. The boysthen bdrew an ia fortiori /iinference bwith regard to themselves and said: If thesegirls, bfor whomsexual intercourse with men bis their natural way,act in bsucha manner, then bwe, for whomsexual intercourse with men bis not our natural way,should ball the more soconduct ourselves likewise. bThey too leapt into the sea. Concerning themand others like them bthe verse states: “As For Your sake we are killed all the day long; we are reckoned as sheep for the slaughter”(Psalms 44:23)., bAnd Rav Yehuda said: Thisverse applies to the bwoman and her seven sonswho died as martyrs for the sake of the sanctification of God’s name. The incident occurred as follows: bThey broughtin bthe firstof the woman’s sons bbefore the emperorand bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “I am the Lord your God”(Exodus 20:2). bTheyimmediately btook him out and killed him. /b, bAnd theythen bbroughtin banotherson bbefore the emperor,and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You shall have no other gods beside Me”(Exodus 20:3). And so bthey took him out and killed him. Theythen bbrought inyet banotherson before the emperor, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “He that sacrifices to any god,save to the Lord only, bhe shall be utterly destroyed”(Exodus 22:19). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You shall not bow down to any other god”(Exodus 34:14). And so bthey took him out and killed him. Theythen bbroughtin yet banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One”(Deuteronomy 6:4). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “Know therefore this today, and consider it in your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above and upon the earth beneath; there is no other”(Deuteronomy 4:39). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin yet banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You have avouched the Lordthis day to be your God… band the Lord has avouched you this dayto be a people for His own possession” (Deuteronomy 26:17–18). bWe already took an oath to the Holy One, Blessed be He, that we will not exchange Him for a different god, and He too has taken an oath to us that He will not exchange us for another nation. /b,It was the youngest brother who had said this, and the emperor pitied him. Seeking a way to spare the boy’s life, bthe emperor said to him: I will throw down my seal before you; bend over and pick it up, so thatpeople bwill saythat bhe has accepted the king’s authority [ iharmana /i].The boy bsaid to him: Woe [ iḥaval /i] to you, Caesar, woe to you, Caesar.If you think that bfor the sake of your honorI should fulfill your command and do bthis,then bfor the sake of the honor of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more soshould I fulfill His command.,As bthey were taking him out to be killed, his mother said to them: Give him to me so that I may give him a small kiss. She said to him: My son, go and say to your father Abraham, You bound oneson to the baltar, but I bound seven altars. She tooin the end bwent up to the roof, fell, and died. A Divine Voice emerged and said: “A joyful mother of children”(Psalms 113:9), as she raised her children to be devoted in their service of God., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saysconcerning the verse: “For Your sake we are killed all the day long” (Psalms 44:23), that bthisis referring to bcircumcision, which was given for the eighthday, as the blood of our newborn sons is spilled for the sake of the covet with God. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says:This verse was stated in reference to bTorah scholars who demonstrate the ihalakhotof slaughter on themselves,meaning that they demonstrate on their own bodies how ritual slaughter should be performed and occasionally injure themselves in the process. This is bas Rava says: A person may demonstrate anything using himselfto illustrate the act bexcept for slaughter and another matter,a euphemism for sexual intercourse., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: Thesepeople in the verse bare Torah scholars who kill themselves over the words of Torah, in accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The words of the Torah endure only for one who kills himself over them, as it is stated: “This is the Torah, when a man dies in a tent”(Numbers 19:14). bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Forty ise’a/b
81. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

23a. ורבא דמצלי אצלויי:,ביו"ט חמשה ביוה"כ ששה כו': מתני' מני לא ר' ישמעאל ולא רבי עקיבא דתניא ביו"ט חמשה וביוה"כ ששה ובשבת שבעה אין פוחתין מהן ואין מוסיפין עליהן דברי ר' ישמעאל ר"ע אומר ביו"ט חמשה וביום הכפורים שבעה ובשבת ששה אין פוחתין מהן אבל מוסיפין עליהן,מני אי ר' ישמעאל קשיא תוספת אי ר"ע קשיא ששה ושבעה,אמר רבא תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל היא דתנא דבי ר' ישמעאל ביום טוב חמשה ביוה"כ ששה בשבת שבעה אין פוחתין מהן אבל מוסיפין עליהן דברי ר' ישמעאל,קשיא דר' ישמעאל אדר' ישמעאל תרי תנאי אליבא דרבי ישמעאל,מאן תנא להא דתניא ביו"ט מאחרין לבוא וממהרין לצאת ביום הכפורים ממהרין לבוא ומאחרין לצאת ובשבת ממהרין לבוא וממהרין לצאת לימא ר"ע דאית ליה גברא יתירא אפילו תימא רבי ישמעאל דנפיש סידורא דיומא,הני שלשה חמשה ושבעה כנגד מי פליגי בה רבי יצחק בר נחמני וחד דעמיה ומנו רבי שמעון בן פזי ואמרי לה ר' שמעון בן פזי וחד דעמיה ומנו רבי יצחק בר נחמני ואמרי לה ר' שמואל בר נחמני חד אמר כנגד ברכת כהנים וחד אמר כנגד שלשה שומרי הסף חמשה מרואי פני המלך שבעה רואי פני המלך,תני רב יוסף ג' חמשה ושבעה שלשה שומרי הסף חמשה מרואי פני המלך שבעה רואי פני המלך אמר ליה אביי עד האידנא מאי טעמא לא פריש לן מר אמר ליה לא הוה ידענא דצריכתו ליה ומי בעיתו מינאי מילתא ולא אמרי לכו,אמר ליה יעקב מינאה לרב יהודה הני ששה דיוה"כ כנגד מי אמר ליה כנגד ששה שעמדו מימינו של עזרא וששה משמאלו שנאמר (נחמיה ח, ד) ויעמוד עזרא הסופר על מגדל עץ אשר עשו לדבר ויעמוד אצלו מתתיה ושמע ועניה ואוריה וחלקיה ומעשיה על ימינו ומשמאלו פדיה ומישאל ומלכיה וחשום וחשבדנה זכריה משלם,הני שבעה הוו היינו זכריה היינו משלם ואמאי קראו משלם דמישלם בעובדיה,ת"ר הכל עולין למנין שבעה ואפילו קטן ואפילו אשה אבל אמרו חכמים אשה לא תקרא בתורה מפני כבוד צבור,איבעיא להו מפטיר מהו שיעלה למנין שבעה רב הונא ור' ירמיה בר אבא חד אמר עולה וחד אמר אינו עולה מ"ד עולה דהא קרי,ומ"ד אינו עולה כדעולא דאמר עולא מפני מה המפטיר בנביא צריך שיקרא בתורה תחלה מפני כבוד תורה וכיון דמשום כבוד תורה הוא למנינא לא סליק,מיתיבי המפטיר בנביא לא יפחות מעשרים ואחד פסוקין כנגד שבעה שקראו בתורה ואם איתא עשרים וארבעה הויין כיון דמשום כבוד תורה הוא 23a. band Rava, who would bendtheir heads and not actually prostrate themselves on the ground.,We learned in the mishna: bOn a Festival, fivepeople read; bon Yom Kippur, sixpeople read; and on Shabbat, seven people read. One may not decrease the number of readers, but one may add to them. The Gemara asks: bWho isthe itannaof bthe mishna?It is bnot Rabbi Yishmael and not Rabbi Akiva, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOn a Festival, fivepeople read from the Torah; band on Yom Kippur, sixpeople read; band on Shabbat, sevenpeople read. bOne may not decrease or add tothe required number of readers. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akivadisagrees and bsays: On a Festival, fivepeople read from the Torah; band on Yom Kippur, sevenpeople read; band on Shabbat, sixpeople read. bOne may not decreasethese numbers, bbut one may add to them. /b, bWho isthe itannaof the mishna? bIfyou say it is bRabbi Yishmael,it is bdifficultdue to the ruling with regard to badding,as the mishna states that one may add additional readers but Rabbi Yishmael holds that one may not do so. bIfyou say it is bRabbi Akiva,it is bdifficultdue to the ruling concerning the days on which there are bsix and sevenreaders., bRava said:It is bthe itannaof the school of Rabbi Yishmael, as it was taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: On a Festival, fivepeople read from the Torah; bon Yom Kippur, sixpeople read; bon Shabbat, sevenpeople read. bOne may not decrease thesenumbers bbut one may add to them.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yishmael. /b,The Gemara comments: If so, bthere is a contradictionbetween the opinion of bRabbi Yishmael,as expressed in the mishna, and the opinion of bRabbi Yishmaelhimself, as recorded in the ibaraita /i. The Gemara responds: bTwo itanna’im /i,students of Rabbi Yishmael, expressed different opinions bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yishmael. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhois the itannawho btaught that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOn a Festival, one is slow to arriveat the synagogue because one is busy preparing for the festive meal, band one is quick to leavein order to eat; bon Yom Kippur, one is quick to arriveat the synagogue band slow to leave; and on Shabbat, one is quick to arrive,as the meal has been prepared before Shabbat, band quick to leavein order to eat the Shabbat meal? bLet us sayit is bRabbi Akiva, who holdsthat ban additional manreads from the Torah on Yom Kippur, which prolongs the service on that day. The Gemara rejects this suggestion: bEvenif byou sayit is bRabbi Yishmael,one leaves the synagogue late because bthe order of the day,i.e., the prayer service, bisvery blong,as it includes many supplications and confessions.,A question is raised with regard to the number of readers on different days. bCorresponding to whatwere bthese three, five, and seven,readers instituted? bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Naḥmani and oneother Sage bwho was with him disagree about this. And who wasthat other scholar? bRabbi Shimon ben Pazi. And some saythat this was a matter of dispute between bRabbi Shimon ben Pazi and oneother scholar bwho was with him. And who wasthat other scholar? bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Naḥmani, and some sayit was bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani. One said:These numbers bcorrespondto the number of Hebrew words in the three verses of bthe Priestly Benediction. And one said:These numbers bcorrespond to the three guards of the door(II Kings 25:18), bfive ofthe officers bwho saw the king’s face(II Kings 25:19), band the sevenofficers bwho saw the king’s face(Esther 1:14).,Similarly, bRav Yosef taughta ibaraita /i: The bthree, five, and sevenpeople who read from the Torah correspond to the bthree guards of the door, five ofthe officers bwho saw the king’s face,and bthe sevenofficers bwho saw the king’s face.When Rav Yosef taught this, bAbaye said to him: What is the reason that until now the Master did not explainthe matter bto usin this way? Rav Yosef bsaid to him: I did not know that you needed thisinformation, as I thought that you were already familiar with the ibaraita /i. bHave youever basked me something and I did not tell you? /b, bYa’akov of Mina said to Rav Yehuda: Corresponding to whom were these sixreaders bon Yom Kippurinstituted? Rav Yehuda bsaid to him:The number six bcorresponds to the sixpeople bwho stood to Ezra’s right and the sixpeople bwho stood to his left, as it is stated: “And Ezra the Scribe stood upon a platform of wood, which they had made for the purpose, and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand, and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchiah, and Hashum, and Hashbadanah, Zechariah, Meshullam”(Nehemiah 8:4).,The Gemara challenges this answer: bThosethat stood to his left bwere sevenand not six. The Gemara responds: bZechariah isthe same as bMeshullam,that is to say, they are not two separate people, but rather one person with two names. bAnd why was he called Meshullam? Because he was perfect [ imishlam /i] in his actions. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a iTosefta( iMegilla3:11): bAllpeople bcount toward the quorum of sevenreaders, beven a minor and even a woman. However, the Sages saidthat ba woman should not read the Torah, out of respect for the congregation. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: With regard to the reader who bconcludes [ imaftir /i]the Torah reading and reads from the Prophets [ ihaftara /i], bwhat isthe ihalakha /i; does he bcount toward the quorum of sevenreaders? bRav Huna and Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abbadisagreed about this matter. bOne said: He counts, and one said: He does not count. The one who saidthat bhe countstoward the seven readers holds that opinion bbecause he readsfrom the Torah., bAnd the one who saidthat bhe does not countholds bin accordance withthe opinion of bUlla, as Ulla said: For whatreason bmustthe one bwho concludeswith a reading from bthe Prophets read from the Torah first?It is bdue to respect for the Torah,so that those present should not conclude that he was called up only to read from the Prophets because the honor due the Torah and the honor due the Prophets are equal. bAnd sincehe reads only bout of respect for the Torah, he is not included in the quorumof seven readers.,The Gemara braises an objectionbased upon the following ibaraita /i: bThe one who concludes witha reading from bthe Prophets may notread bfewer than twenty-one verses, corresponding to the seven who read from the Torah.Each one who reads from the Torah must read at least three verses, for a total of at least twenty-one verses. bAnd if it is so,that the one who reads the ihaftaradoes not count toward the quorum of seven readers, and he is an eighth reader, the minimum number of verses that must be read from the Torah bis twenty-fourand not twenty-one. The Gemara answers: bSincethe one who reads the ihaftarareads from the Torah first only bdue to respect for the Torah, /b
82. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

96b. ומי סליק נבוכד נצר לירושלים והכתיב (מלכים ב כה, ו) ויעלו אותו אל מלך בבל רבלתה ואמר ר' אבהו זו אנטוכיא רב חסדא ורב יצחק בר אבודימי חד אמר דמות דיוקנו היתה חקוקה לו על מרכבתו וחד אמר אימה יתירה היתה לו ממנו ודומה כמי שעומד לפניו,אמר רבא טעין תלת מאה כודנייתא נרגא דפרזלא דשליט בפרזלא שדר ליה נבוכדנצר לנבוזראדן כולהו בלעתינהו חד דשא דירושלם שנאמר (תהלים עד, ו) פתוחיה יחד בכשיל וכילפות יהלומון בעי למיהדר אמר מסתפינא דלא ליעבדו בי כי היכי דעבדו בסנחריב,נפקא קלא ואמר שוור בר שוור נבוזראדן שוור דמטא זימנא דמקדשא חריב והיכלא מיקלי פש ליה חד נרגא אתא מחייה בקופא ואיפתח שנאמר (תהלים עד, ה) יודע כמביא למעלה בסבך עץ קרדומות,הוה קטיל ואזל עד דמטא להיכלא אדליק ביה נורא גבה היכלא דרכו ביה מן שמיא שנאמר (איכה א, טו) גת דרך ה' לבתולת בת יהודה קא זיחא דעתיה נפקא בת קלא ואמרה ליה עמא קטילא קטלת היכלא קליא קלית קימחא טחינא טחינת שנאמר (ישעיהו מז, ב) קחי רחים וטחני קמח גלי צמתך חשפי שובל גלי שוק עברי נהרות חטים לא נאמר אלא קמח,חזא דמיה דזכריה דהוה קא רתח אמר להו מאי האי אמרו ליה דם זבחים הוא דאישתפיך אמר להו אייתי ואנסי אי מדמו כסי ולא אידמו אמר להו גלו לי ואי לא סריקנא לכו לבשרייכו במסריקא דפרזלא,אמרו ליה האי כהן ונביא הוא דאינבי להו לישראל בחורבנא דירושלם וקטלוהו אמר להו אנא מפייסנא ליה אייתי רבנן קטיל עילויה ולא נח אייתי דרדקי דבי רב קטיל עילויה ולא נח אייתי פרחי כהונה קטיל עילויה ולא נח עד די קטל עילויה תשעין וארבעה ריבוא ולא נח,קרב לגביה אמר זכריה זכריה טובים שבהן איבדתים ניחא לך דאיקטלינהו לכולהו מיד נח הרהר תשובה בדעתיה אמר מה הם שלא איבדו אלא נפש אחת כך ההוא גברא מה תיהוי עליה ערק שדר פורטיתא לביתיה ואיתגייר,תנו רבנן נעמן גר תושב היה נבוזר אדן גר צדק היה מבני בניו של סיסרא למדו תורה בירושלים מבני בניו של סנחריב לימדו תורה ברבים ומאן נינהו שמעיה ואבטליון,מבני בניו של המן למדו תורה בבני ברק ואף מבני בניו של אותו רשע ביקש הקב"ה להכניסן תחת כנפי השכינה אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם מי שהחריב את ביתך ושרף את היכלך תכניס תחת כנפי השכינה היינו דכתיב (ירמיהו נא, ט) רפינו את בבל ולא נרפתה עולא אמר זה נבוכדנצר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר אלו נהרות בבל ותרגמה דצינייתא (צרידתא) דבבלאי,אמר עולא עמון ומואב שיבבי בישי דירושלם הוו כיון דשמעינהו לנביאי דקא מיתנבאי לחורבנא דירושלם שלחו לנבוכדנצר פוק ותא אמר מסתפינא דלא ליעבדו לי כדעבדו בקמאי,שלחו ליה (משלי ז, יט) כי אין האיש בביתו הלך בדרך מרחוק ואין איש אלא הקדוש ברוך הוא שנאמר (שמות טו, ג) ה' איש מלחמה שלח להו בקריבא הוא ואתי שלחו ליה הלך בדרך מרחוק שלח להו אית להו צדיקי דבעו רחמי ומייתו ליה,שלחו ליה (משלי ז, כ) צרור הכסף לקח בידו ואין כסף אלא צדיקים שנאמר (הושע ג, ב) ואכרה לי בחמשה עשר כסף וחומר שעורים ולתך שעורים,שלח להו הדרי רשיעי בתשובה ובעו רחמי ומייתו ליה שלחו ליה כבר קבע להן זמן שנאמר (משלי ז, כ) ליום הכסא יבא (לביתו אין כסא אלא זמן שנאמר (תהלים פא, ד) בכסה ליום חגנו שלח להו סיתווא הוא ולא מצינא דאתי מתלגא וממיטרא,שלחו ליה תא אשינא דטורא שנאמר (ישעיהו טז, א) שלחו כר מושל ארץ מסלע מדברה אל הר בת ציון שלח להו אי אתינא לית לי דוכתא דיתיבנא ביה שלחו ליה קברות שלהם מעולין מפלטירין שלך דכתיב (ירמיהו ח, א) בעת ההיא נאום ה' יוציאו את עצמות מלכי יהודה ואת עצמות שריו ואת עצמות הכהנים ואת עצמות הנביאים ואת עצמות יושבי ירושלים מקבריהם ושטחום לשמש ולירח ולכל צבא השמים אשר אהבום ואשר עבדום ואשר הלכו אחריהם,אמר ליה רב נחמן לרבי יצחק מי שמיע לך אימת אתי בר נפלי אמר ליה מאן בר נפלי א"ל משיח משיח בר נפלי קרית ליה א"ל אין דכתיב (עמוס ט, יא) ביום ההוא אקים 96b. The Gemara asks: bAnd did Nebuchadnezzar ascend to Jerusalem? But isn’t it writtenwith regard to Zedekiah: “And they took the king, band brought him up to the king of Babylonia, to Riblah”(II Kings 25:6), band Rabbi Abbahu says: Thisplace called Riblah is a reference to bAntioch.Apparently, Nebuchadnezzar was in Antioch, not in Jerusalem. bRav Ḥisda and Rav Yitzḥak bar Avudimiresolved this apparent contradiction. bOne says: An image ofNebuchadnezzar’s blikeness was engraved onNebuzaradan’s bchariot,and he regarded that image as though Nebuchadnezzar were actually there. bAnd one says:Nebuzaradan bwas in extreme fear ofNebuchadnezzar, band it was as thoughNebuzaradan bwasalways bstanding beforeNebuchadnezzar. That is an example of the honor of a servant to his master mentioned in the verse.,§ The Gemara proceeds to discuss the role of Nebuzaradan in the destruction of the Temple. bRava says: Nebuchadnezzar sent to Nebuzaradan three hundred mules laden with iron axes that cut iron. All of them were incapacitatedin the attempt to breach bone gate of Jerusalem, as it is stated: “And now they pound its carved work together with hatchet and with hammers”(Psalms 74:6). Nebuzaradan bsought to returnto Babylonia and bsaid: I am afraid.I want to ensure bthat they will not do to me just as they did to Sennacherib,whose downfall was in Jerusalem.,A Divine bVoice emerged and said: Leaper, son of a leaper; Nebuzaradan, takethe bleap, as the time has arrived for the Temple to be destroyed and the Sanctuary to burn. One ax remained for himto use. bHe went and struckthe gate bwith the dull endof the ax band it opened, as it is stated: “He became known as the wielder of axes upward in a thicket of trees”(Psalms 74:5). At the appropriate time the gate was breached as though the ax were cutting trees., bHe was proceeding and killing until he reached the Sanctuary.When he reached the Sanctuary, bhe ignited a fire in it. The Sanctuary rose,seeking to enter Heaven so that it would not burn. bThey trod upon it from Heavenand returned it to its place, bas it is stated: “The Lord has trodden the virgin, the daughter of Judah, as in a winepress”(Lamentations 1:15). Nebuzaradan bbecame haughty,taking pride in his conquest. bA Divine Voice emerged and said to him:Your haughtiness is unwarranted, as byou killed a nationthat was already bdead, you burned a Sanctuarythat was already bburned,and byou ground flourthat was already bground, as it is statedwith regard to Babylonia: b“Take millstones and grind flour; uncover your locks, tuck up the train, uncover the leg, pass over rivers”(Isaiah 47:2). bIt was not stated:Grind bwheat, but“grind bflour,”indicating that all the destruction had already been wrought by God, and the role played by the enemy was insignificant.,When he reached the Sanctuary, bhe saw the blood of Zechariahthe priest bboiling.It had not calmed since he was killed in the Temple (see II Chronicles 24:20–22). Nebuzaradan bsaid tothe priests there: bWhat is this? They said to him: It is the blood of offerings that was spilled.Nebuzaradan bsaid to them: Bringanimals band I will testto determine bifthe blood of the animals bis similarto the blood that is boiling. bHe slaughteredthe animals bandtheir blood bwas not similarto the boiling blood. Nebuzaradan bsaid tothe priests: bRevealthe source of that blood bto me, and if not I will comb your flesh with an iron comb. /b,The priests bsaid toNebuzaradan: bThisblood bisthe blood of ba priest and a prophet who prophesied for the Jewish people with regard to the destruction of Jerusalem and whom they killed. He said tothe priests: bI will pacifythe blood so the boiling will stop. bHe brought the Sagesand bkilled them overthe blood bandits boiling bdid not cease. He brought schoolchildrenand bkilled them overthe blood bandits boiling bdid not cease. He brought young priestsand bkilled them overthe blood bandits boiling bdid not cease.He continued killing buntil he killed 940,000people boverthe blood, bandits boiling bdid not cease. /b,Nebuzaradan bapproachedthe blood and bsaid: Zechariah, Zechariah, the worthy among them I killedon your behalf. bIs it satisfactory for you that I kill them all? Immediatelythe boiling bceased.Nebuzaradan bcontemplated repentance. He said: If they, who caused only one person to perish,gained atonement only after all bthiskilling, then with regard to bthat man,referring to himself, bwhat will berequired bfor himto gain atonement? bHe desertedhis army and bdispatcheda last bwill to his house and converted. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bNaamanthe Aramean (see II Kings, chapter 5) bwas a iger toshav /i,meaning that he accepted upon himself to refrain from idol worship but did not convert to Judaism. bNebuzaradan wasa completely brighteous convert. Among the descendants of Sisera(see Judges, chapter 4) were those who bstudied Torah in Jerusalem. Among the descendants of Sennacheribwere those who btaught Torah in public.The Gemara asks: bAnd who are they?The Gemara answers: They were bShemaya and Avtalyon. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bAmong the descendants of Hamanwere those who bstudied Torah in Bnei Brak. And even among the descendants of that wickedperson, Nebuchadnezzar, were those whom bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to bring beneath the wings of the Divine Presenceand have them convert. bThe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe:The bone who destroyed Your House and burned Your Sanctuary,will bYou introducehim bbeneath the wings of the Divine Presence?The Gemara explains: bThat isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “We have healed Babylonia, but she is not healed”(Jeremiah 51:9). bUlla says: Thisverse bisa reference to bNebuchadnezzar,none of whose children converted. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says:This is not a reference to a person; rather, bthese are the rivers of Babylonia, and interpret itas referring to bthe bitter saltwater rivers of Babylonia. /b,§ On a related note, the Gemara describes the events that led to the destruction of the Temple. bUlla says: Ammon and Moab were bad neighbors of Jerusalem. Once they heard the prophets who prophesied about the destruction of the Jerusalem, they sent to Nebuchadnezzar: Emergefrom your dwelling place band comeconquer them. Nebuchadnezzar bsaidto them: bI am afraid.I want to ensure bthat they will not do to me just as they did tomy bpredecessors. /b,Ammon and Moab bsent to himthat it is written: b“For the iishis not at home; he is gone on a long journey”(Proverbs 7:19), band iish /iis referring to bnoone bbut the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “The Lord is an iishof war”(Exodus 15:3). Nebuchadnezzar bsent to themis response: bHe is in a nearbylocation, band He will come.They bsent toNebuchadnezzar: b“He has gone on a journey from afar”(Proverbs 7:19). Nebuchadnezzar bsaid to them: They have righteousamong them bwho will pray for mercy and bring Himto return.,Ammon and Moab bsent toNebuchadnezzar: b“He has taken a bundle of ikesefwith him”(Proverbs 7:20), band ikesef /iis referring to bnothing other than the righteous, as it is stated: “So I bought her to me for fifteen pieces of ikesefand for a ikorof barley and a half- ikorof barley”(Hosea 3:2). The inference is that God acquired the congregation of Israel due to the presence of righteous people among them, and Ammon and Moab sent a message to Nebuchadnezzar that God had already taken the righteous and they no longer offered protection.,Nebuchadnezzar bsent to them:Perhaps bthe wicked will repentand become righteous band they will pray for mercy and they will bring Himto return. Ammon and Moab bsent toNebuchadnezzar: bGod already designated the time of theirredemption, bas it is stated: “On the day of the ikeseh /i, He will come home”(Proverbs 7:20), and ikeseh /iis referring to bnothing other thana designated btime, as it is stated:“Sound a ishofarat the New Moon, bat the ikesehon the day of our feast”(Psalms 81:4). Since there is a time designated for redemption, until then you can do as you please. Nebuchadnezzar bsent to them: It is winternow band I cannot comeand conquer Jerusalem bdue to the snow and the rain. /b,Ammon and Moab bsent to him: Come on the peaks of mountains,where the rain does not pool, bas it is stated: “Send the lamb to the ruler of the land from the peaks of the wilderness to the mount of the daughter of Zion”(Isaiah 16:1). Nebuchadnezzar bsent to them: If I cometo Jerusalem, bIwill bhave no place to dwellwhile laying siege to the city. Ammon and Moab bsent to him: Their burial caves are superior to your palaces,and you can clear the caves and dwell there, bas it is written: “At that time, says the Lord, they shall remove the bones of the kings of Judea, and the bones of his princes, and the bones of the priests, and the bones of the prophets and the bones of the inhabitants of Jerusalem from their graves; and they shall spread them before the sun and the moon and all of the hosts of heaven, whom they have loved, and whom they have served, and after whom they have walked”(Jeremiah 8:1–2). Ultimately Nebuchadnezzar came to conquer Judea and removed the corpses to make room for his army.,§ bRav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: Have you heard when the son of giants [ ibar niflei /i] will come?Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid to him: Whois bthe son of giants?Rav Naḥman bsaid to him:He is the bMessiah.Rabbi Yitzḥak asked him: Do byou call the Messiah son of giants?Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Yes, as it is written: “On that day I will establish /b
83. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

24a. תניא כוותיה דרב חסדא כל אלו שאמרו אין מדליקין בהן בשבת מדליקין בהן ביום טוב חוץ משמן שריפה לפי שאין שורפין קדשים ביום טוב:,איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר של חנוכה בברכת המזון כיון דמדרבנן הוא לא מדכרינן או דילמא משום פרסומי ניסא מדכרינן אמר רבא אמר רב סחורה אמר רב הונא אינו מזכיר ואם בא להזכיר מזכיר בהודאה רב הונא בר יהודה איקלע לבי רבא סבר לאדכורי בבונה ירושלים אמר להו רב ששת כתפלה מה תפלה בהודאה אף ברכת המזון בהודאה:,איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר ראש חודש בברכת המזון אם תימצי לומר בחנוכה דרבנן לא צריך ראש חודש דאורייתא צריך או דילמא כיון דלא אסור בעשיית מלאכה לא מזכרינן רב אמר מזכיר רבי חנינא אמר אינו מזכיר אמר רב זריקא נקוט דרב בידך דקאי רבי אושעיא כוותיה דתני ר' אושעיא ימים שיש בהן קרבן מוסף כגון ר"ח וחוש"מ ערבית ושחרית ומנחה מתפלל שמונה עשרה ואומר מעין המאורע בעבודה ואם לא אמר מחזירין אותו ואין בהן קדושה על הכוס ויש בהן הזכרה בברכת המזון ימים שאין בהן קרבן מוסף כגון שני וחמישי (ושני) ותעניות ומעמדות,שני וחמישי מאי עבידתייהו אלא שני וה' וב' של תעניות ומעמדות ערבית ושחרית ומנחה מתפלל שמונה עשרה ואומר מעין המאורע בשומע תפלה ואם לא אמר אין מחזירין אותו (ואין בהן קדושה על הכוס) ואין בהן הזכרה בברכת המזון:,איבעיא להו מהו להזכיר של חנוכה במוספין כיון דלית ביה מוסף בדידיה לא מדכרינן או דילמא יום הוא שחייב בארבע תפלות רב הונא ורב יהודה דאמרי תרוייהו אינו מזכיר רב נחמן ורבי יוחנן דאמרי תרוייהו מזכיר,אמר אביי לרב יוסף הא דרב הונא ורב יהודה דרב הוא דאמר רב גידל אמר רב ראש חדש שחל להיות בשבת המפטיר בנביא בשבת אינו צריך להזכיר של ראש חדש שאילמלא שבת אין נביא בראש חדש,מי דמי התם נביא בדר"ח ליכא כלל הכא איתיה בערבית ושחרית ומנחה אלא להא דמיא דאמר רב אחדבוי אמר רב מתנה אמר רב יום טוב שחל להיות בשבת המפטיר בנביא במנחה בשבת א"צ להזכיר של יום טוב שאילמלא שבת אין נביא במנחה ביום טוב 24a. bIt was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Ḥisda. All of theseoils bwith whichthe Sages bsaidthat bone may not light on Shabbat, one may light with them on a Festival, with the exception of burnt oil, because one may not burn consecrated items on a Festival. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bWhat isthe ruling with regard to the obligation bto mention Hanukkah in Grace after Meals?The dilemma is: bSince it is merely an obligation by rabbinic law, do we not mention it? Or, perhaps due to publicity of the miracle, we mention it. Rava saidthat bRav Seḥora saidthat bRav Huna said: One does not mentionit. bAnd if,nevertheless, bhe comes to mentionit, bhe mentions it inthe blessing of bthanksgiving.The Gemara relates that bRav Huna bar Yehuda happened by Rava’s houseon Hanukkah. When, after eating, he came to recite Grace after Meals, bhe thought to mentionHanukkah binthe blessing: bWho builds Jerusalem. Rav Sheshet said tothe yeshiva students: One mentions Hanukkah in Grace after Meals bjust ashe does binthe iAmida bprayer. Just asin the iAmida bprayerone mentions Hanukkah binthe blessing of bthanksgiving, so too, in Grace after Mealsone mentions Hanukkah binthe blessing of bthanksgiving. /b,Based on the previous dilemma, banadditional bdilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bWhat isthe ruling with regard to the obligation bto mention the New Moon in Grace after Meals?The dilemma is: bIf you saythat bon Hanukkah,since it is only bby rabbinic law, one need notmention it in Grace after Meals; perhaps bthe New Moon,which is bby Torah law, one is requiredto mention it. bOr, perhaps since it is nota day on which it is bprohibited to perform labor, one need not mention it.The Sages disputed this matter: bRav said: One mentionsthe New Moon in Grace after Meals. bRabbi Ḥanina said: One does not mentionit. bRav Zerika said: Takethe ihalakha bof Rav in your handas authoritative, since bRabbi Oshaya holds in accordance with hisopinion. bAs Rabbi Oshaya taughtin a iTosefta /i: bDayson bwhich there is an additional offering sacrificedin the Temple, i.e., bthe New Moon and the intermediate days of a Festival;in bthe evening, morning, and afternoon prayers, one recitesthe beighteenblessings of the iAmidaprayer band saysa passage bpertaining to the eventof the day bduringthe blessing of bTemple service. And if he did not reciteit, bwe require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. bAndon those days, bthere is no ikiddushrecited over the cupof wine at the start of the day, bbut there is mentionof the day recited bin Grace after Meals,in accordance with Rav’s opinion. bDayson bwhich there is no additional offering, i.e., Monday, and Thursday, and fast days, andnon-priestly bwatches [ ima’amadot /i],have a different legal status as detailed below.,Before drawing a conclusion, the Gemara seeks to clarify: bMonday and Thursday, what is their purposein this discussion, i.e., why are Monday and Thursday mentioned here if no special prayers are recited on those days? The Gemara explains: bRather,certainly the reference is to bMonday and Thursday and Mondaythat are bfast daysfor rain band of ima /i’ iamadot /i.On those days, in the bevening, morning, and afternoon prayers, one recites eighteenblessings band recitesa passage bpertaining to the eventof the day, i.e., the fast, binthe blessing: bWho listens to prayer. However, if one did not mentionit, bwe do not require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. bAnd,on those days, bthere is no ikiddushrecited over a cupof wine, band there is no mentionof the day recited bin Grace after Meals. /b, bAnadditional bdilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bWhat isthe ruling with regard to the obligation bto mention Hanukkah inthe badditional prayeron Shabbat during Hanukkah or on the New Moon of Tevet, which falls during Hanukkah? The sides of the dilemma are: Do we say that bsinceHanukkah bhas noadditional prayer bof its own,and the additional prayer has no connection to Hanukkah, bwe do not mentionit? bOr, perhaps it isthe essence of bthe day that is obligatedin the mention of Hanukkah, in which case there is no distinction between the various prayers, and it should be mentioned binall bfour prayers,including the additional prayer on Shabbat and the New Moon. There is a dispute: bRav Huna and Rav Yehuda both said: One does not mentionit. bRav Naḥman and Rabbi Yoḥa both said: One mentionsit., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: Thisopinion of bRav Huna and Rav Yehudais bRav’sopinion, as bRav Giddel saidthat bRav said:In the case of bthe New Moon that occurs on Shabbat, the one who recites the portion from the Prophets [ ihaftara /i] on Shabbat need not mention the New Moonin the blessing, bas, ifit bwere not Shabbat, there would be noreading from bthe Prophets on the New Moon.The ihaftarais unrelated to the New Moon, and therefore the New Moon is not mentioned in the blessing. The same should be true with regard to mention of Hanukkah in the additional service on the New Moon, as, if it were not the New Moon, he would not be reciting the additional service on Hanukkah. Therefore, when he recites the additional prayer, he need not mention Hanukkah.,The Gemara rejects this comparison. bIsthis bcomparable? There,reading from the bProphetsis bnot at all part ofthe service bon the New Moon. Here, there ismention of Hanukkah binthe bevening, morning, and afternoon prayers. Rather,it is bcomparable to this:As bRav Aḥadvoi saidthat bRav Mattana saidthat bRav said:On ba Festival that occurs on Shabbat, one who recites the portion from the Prophets during the afternoon service on Shabbat need not mention the Festival, as, ifit were bnot Shabbat, there would be noreading from the bProphets during the afternoon service on a Festival.If so, even though there is a ihaftaraduring the morning service on a Festival, since they do not read from the Prophets in the afternoon, the reading is considered totally unrelated to the Festival and one does not mention the Festival. The same is true with regard to Hanukkah. One does not mention Hanukkah in the additional prayer.
84. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

86a. חוץ (שמות כ, ו) מלא תשא לא תשא וכל דדמי ליה,ת"ש ר' יהודה אומר כל שהוא מלא תשא ולמטה תשובה מכפרת מלא תשא ולמעלה תשובה תולה ויוה"כ מכפר לא תשא וכל דדמי ליה,ת"ש לפי שנאמר בחורב תשובה ונקה יכול אף לא תשא עמהן ת"ל (שמות לד, ז) לא ינקה יכול אף שאר חייבי לאוין כן ת"ל את שמו שמו הוא דאינו מנקה אבל מנקה שאר חייבי לאוין,תנאי היא דתניא על מה תשובה מכפרת על עשה ועל לא תעשה שניתק לעשה ועל מה תשובה תולה ויוה"כ מכפר על כריתות ועל מיתות בית דין ועל לא תעשה גמור,אמר מר לפי שנאמר בחורב ונקה מנא לן דתניא ר' אלעזר אומר אי אפשר לומר נקה שכבר נאמר לא ינקה ואי אפשר לומר לא ינקה שכבר נאמר נקה הא כיצד מנקה הוא לשבין ואינו מנקה לשאינן שבין,שאל ר' מתיא בן חרש את ר' אלעזר בן עזריה ברומי שמעת ארבע' חלוקי כפרה שהיה רבי ישמעאל דורש אמר שלשה הן ותשובה עם כל אחד ואחד,עבר על עשה ושב אינו זז משם עד שמוחלין לו שנאמר (ירמיהו ג, יד) שובו בנים שובבים עבר על לא תעשה ועשה תשובה תשובה תולה ויוה"כ מכפר שנאמר (ויקרא טז, ל) כי ביום הזה יכפר עליכם מכל חטאתיכם עבר על כריתות ומיתות בית דין ועשה תשובה תשובה ויוה"כ תולין ויסורין ממרקין שנאמר (תהלים פט, לג) ופקדתי בשבט פשעם ובנגעים עונם,אבל מי שיש חילול השם בידו אין לו כח בתשובה לתלות ולא ביוה"כ לכפר ולא ביסורין למרק אלא כולן תולין ומיתה ממרקת שנאמר (ישעיהו כב, יד) ונגלה באזני ה' צבאות אם יכופר העון הזה לכם עד תמותון,היכי דמי חילול השם אמר רב כגון אנא אי שקילנא בישרא מטבחא ולא יהיבנא דמי לאלתר אמר אביי לא שנו אלא באתרא דלא תבעי אבל באתרא דתבעי לית לן בה,אמר רבינא ומתא מחסיא אתרא דתבעי הוא אביי כדשקיל בישרא מתרי שותפי יהיב זוזא להאי וזוזא להאי והדר מקרב להו גבי הדדי ועביד חושבנא,רבי יוחנן אמר כגון אנא דמסגינא ארבע אמות בלא תורה ובלא תפילין יצחק דבי ר' ינאי אמר כל שחביריו מתביישין מחמת שמועתו (היינו חילול השם) אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק כגון דקא אמרי אינשי שרא ליה מריה לפלניא,אביי אמר כדתניא (דברים ו, ה) ואהבת את ה' אלהיך שיהא שם שמים מתאהב על ידך שיהא קורא ושונה ומשמש ת"ח ויהא משאו ומתנו בנחת עם הבריות מה הבריות אומרות עליו אשרי אביו שלמדו תורה אשרי רבו שלמדו תורה אוי להם לבריות שלא למדו תורה פלוני שלמדו תורה ראו כמה נאים דרכיו כמה מתוקנים מעשיו עליו הכתוב אומר (ישעיהו מט, ג) ויאמר לי עבדי אתה ישראל אשר בך אתפאר,אבל מי שקורא ושונה ומשמש ת"ח ואין משאו ומתנו באמונה ואין דבורו בנחת עם הבריות מה הבריות אומרות עליו אוי לו לפלוני שלמד תורה אוי לו לאביו שלמדו תורה אוי לו לרבו שלמדו תורה פלוני שלמד תורה ראו כמה מקולקלין מעשיו וכמה מכוערין דרכיו ועליו הכתוב אומר (יחזקאל לו, כ) באמור להם עם ה' אלה ומארצו יצאו,א"ר חמא (בר) חנינא גדולה תשובה שמביאה רפאות לעולם שנא' (הושע יד, ה) ארפא משובתם אוהבם נדבה,ר' חמא (בר) חנינא רמי כתיב (ירמיהו ג, יד) שובו בנים שובבים דמעיקרא שובבים אתם וכתיב ארפא משובותיכם לא קשיא כאן מאהבה כאן מיראה,רב יהודה רמי כתיב שובו בנים שובבים ארפא משובותיכם וכתיב (ירמיהו ג, יד) (הנה) אנכי בעלתי בכם ולקחתי אתכם אחד מעיר ושנים ממשפחה ל"ק כאן מאהבה או מיראה כאן ע"י יסורין אמר רבי לוי גדולה תשובה שמגעת עד כסא הכבוד שנא' (הושע יד, ב) שובה ישראל עד ה' אלהיך 86a. bexcept for: “You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” (Exodus 20:7), about which the Torah states: “For God will not absolve him who takes His name in vain” (Exodus 20:7). The Gemara answers: It is not that this is the only negative mitzva that is not a minor transgression; rather, it is: b“You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band anyprohibition bsimilar to it,meaning all severe prohibitions that carry punishment by a court.,The Gemara proposes: bComeand bhearfrom that which was taught: bRabbi Yehuda says:For banysin bfrom “You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band below,i.e., prohibitions less severe than that, brepentance atones.For any sin bfrom “You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band above, repentance suspendspunishment band Yom Kippur atones.The Gemara rejects this: This does not constitute proof either, since one could say that it is referring to: b“You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band anything similar to it. /b, bComeand bhearfrom a different source that was taught: bSince it was stated at Horebwith regard to brepentance: “Absolve,”one bmighthave thought that beventhe transgression of: b“You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” is included bamong them;therefore, bthe verses states: “Will not absolve”(Exodus 20:6). One bmighthave thought this is balsotrue bfor those who are liablefor violating ball other prohibitions;therefore, bthe verse states: “His name.”God bdoes not absolve the onewho disrespects bHis name, but He absolves those who are liablefor violating ball other prohibitionsand repent. This is proof that those who violate all other prohibitions are not comparable to one who violates: “You shall not take the name of the Lord, your God, in vain.”,The Gemara answers: bThis isa dispute between itanna’im /i, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFor what does repentance atone?It atones bfor a positivemitzva band for a negativemitzva that can be rectified bthrough a positive mitzva. And for what does repentance suspendpunishment band Yom Kippur atone?It is bforsins punishable by ikaret /i, and forsins punishable by the bdeathpenalty from the earthly bcourt, and for full-fledged negativemitzvot. This indicates that there is a itannawho distinguishes between prohibitions that warrant lashes and those that do not. Therefore, there is a tannaitic dispute as to whether or not prohibitions that warrant punishment by the courts can be rectified by repentance alone.,§ Since the Gemara cited this ibaraita /i, it now clarifies part of it. bThe Master said: Since it was stated at Horebwith regard to repentance: b“Absolve.”The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this concept that repentance was mentioned there? The Gemara answers: bAs it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Elazar says: It is not possible to say “absolve”(Exodus 34:7) about all transgressions, since b“will not absolve” is already stated(Exodus 34:7). bAnd it is not possible to say “will not absolve,”since b“absolve” is already stated. How so?The Holy One, Blessed be He, babsolves those who repent and does not absolve those who do not repent.Therefore, both “repentance” and “absolve” were mentioned at Horeb.,Furthermore, with regard to the topic of repentance, bRabbi Matya ben Ḥarash asked Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryawhen Rabbi Elazar was bin Rome: Have you heardthe teaching that there are bfour distinctionsin the process bof atonement that Rabbi Yishmael would derive? He said to him: They arenot four but bthreedistinctions, band repentanceis necessary bwith each one. /b,These are the categories: If bone violates a positivemitzva band repents, he is forgiven even before he movesfrom his place, i.e. immediately, bas it is stated: “Return, you backsliding children,I will heal your backsliding” (Jeremiah 3:22), implying that when one repents he is immediately forgiven. If bone violates a prohibition and repents, repentance suspendshis punishment band Yom Kippur atonesfor his sin, bas it is stated: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you,to purify you bfrom all your sins”(Leviticus 16:30). If bone commitsa transgression that warrants ikaretora sin punishable by bdeathfrom the earthly bcourt andthen brepents, repentance and Yom Kippur suspendhis punishment, band suffering absolvesand completes the atonement, bas it is stated: “Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with strokes”(Psalms 89:33)., bButin the case of bone who hascaused bdesecration ofGod’s bname, his repentance has no power to suspendpunishment, bnor does Yom Kippurhave power bto atonefor his sin, bnor does sufferingalone have power bto absolvehim. bRather, all these suspendpunishment, band death absolveshim, bas it is stated: “And the Lord of Hosts revealed Himself to my ears: This iniquity shall not be atoned for until you die”(Isaiah 22:14).,§ The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesthat cause bdesecration ofGod’s bname? Rav said: For example,in the case of someone like bme,since I am an important public figure, bif I take meat from a butcher and do not give him money immediately,people are likely to think that I did not mean to pay at all. They would consider me a thief and learn from my behavior that one is permitted to steal. bAbaye said: They taught thisstatement of Rav bonly in a place where they do not askfor the money, where it is not customary for the butcher himself to come and collect payment from the customer. When the customer does not pay immediately, people may suspect him of theft. bBut in a place where they askfor the money from the customer some time later, bwe have noproblem bwithdoing this. Since everyone understands he is buying on credit, he is not desecrating God’s name., bRavina said:My native bcityof bMeḥasya is a place where they askfor and collect the money. The Gemara relates that bwhen Abaye bought meat from two partners, he would give the money to this one and the money to this one,so that each would know that he had paid. bAnd afterward he would bring them together and perform the calculationto see whether he received his change., bRabbi Yoḥa said:What is an example of desecration of God’s name? bFor example,someone like bme, ifI would bwalk four cubits without Torah and without phylacteries,and the onlookers did not know that it is only on account of my body’s weakness, that would be a desecration of God’s name. bYitzḥak from the school of Rabbi Yannai said: Anycase when bone’s friends are embarrassed on account of his reputation,meaning his friends are embarrassed due to things they hear about him, bthis is a desecration ofGod’s bname. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:One creates a profanation of God’s name, bfor example, when people sayabout him: bMay his Master forgive so-and-sofor the sins he has done., bAbaye said: As it was taughtin a ibaraitathat it is stated: b“And you shall love the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 6:5), which means bthat you shall make the name of Heaven beloved.How should one do so? One should do so bin that heshould breadTorah, band learnMishna, band serve Torah scholars, and he should be pleasant with people in his business transactions. What do people say aboutsuch a person? bFortunate is his father who taught him Torah, fortunate is his teacher who taught him Torah, woe to the people who have not studied Torah. So-and-so, who taught him Torah, see how pleasant are his ways, how proper are his deeds. The verse states about himand others like him: b“You are My servant, Israel, in whom I will be glorified”(Isaiah 49:3)., bBut one who readsTorah, band learnsMishna, band serves Torah scholars, but his business practices are notdone bfaithfully, and he does not speak pleasantly with other people, what do people say about him? Woe to so-and-so who studied Torah, woe to his father who taught him Torah, woe to his teacher who taught him Torah. So-and-so who studied Torah, see how destructive are his deeds, and how ugly are his ways. About himand others like him bthe verse statesthat the gentiles will say: b“Men said of them: These are the people of the Lord, yet they had to leave His land”(Ezekiel 36:20). Through their sins and subsequent exile, such people have desecrated the name of God.,§ Further on the topic of repentance, bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: Great is repentance, as it brings healing to the world, as it is stated: “I will heal their backsliding, I will love them freely”(Hosea 14:5), which teaches that repentance from sin brings healing., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is writtenin one verse: b“Return, you backsliding children”(Jeremiah 3:14), implying that binitiallywhen you sinned, it was only because byou were backsliding,i.e., rebelling. It was merely an act of immaturity and foolishness and could be ignored as if it had never happened. bBut it is written: “I will heal your backsliding”(Jeremiah 3:22), implying that He will heal the sin from this point onward, and that they are still sinners. He resolved this contradiction, explaining that this is bnot difficult: Here,where everything is forgiven as if the Jewish people never sinned, it is referring to repentance bout of love; there,where the sin is still remembered despite the forgiveness and repentance, it is referring to repentance bout of fear. /b,Similarly, bRabbi Yehuda raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is written: “Return, you backsliding children I will heal your backsliding”(Jeremiah 3:22), implying that anyone can achieve healing, which is dependent only on repentance. But it also states: “Return, O backsliding children, says the Lord, bfor I am a lord to you, and I will take you one from a city, and two from a family”(Jeremiah 3:14), implying that repentance is available only to certain individuals. He resolved the contradiction and explained that this is bnot difficult: Here,it is referring to repentance bout of love or fear,which few people achieve; bthere,it referring is repentance bthrough suffering,as everyone has thoughts of repentance when they suffer. bRabbi Levi said: Great is repentance, as it reaches the heavenly throne, as it is stated: “Return, Israel, to the Lord your God”(Hosea 14:2). This implies that repentance literally reaches to God.
85. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 8.7.12-8.7.13 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

86. Jerome, Commentary On Ezekiel, 34.3 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

87. Anon., 4 Ezra, 6.55-6.59, 8.44-8.45

6.55. All this I have spoken before thee, O Lord, because thou hast said that it was for us that thou didst create this world. 6.56. As for the other nations which have descended from Adam, thou hast said that they are nothing, and that they are like spittle, and thou hast compared their abundance to a drop from a bucket. 6.57. And now, O Lord, behold, these nations, which are reputed as nothing, domineer over us and devour us. 6.58. But we thy people, whom thou hast called thy first-born, only begotten, zealous for thee, and most dear, have been given into their hands. 6.59. If the world has indeed been created for us, why do we not possess our world as an inheritance? How long will this be so? 8.44. But man, who has been formed by thy hands and is called thy own image because he is made like thee, and for whose sake thou hast formed all things -- hast thou also made him like the farmer's seed? 8.45. No, O Lord who art over us! But spare thy people and have mercy on thy inheritance, for thou hast mercy on thy own creation.
88. Anon., Midrash Mishle, 31



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
christ assembly (see also synagogue) Keith, The Gospel as Manuscript: An Early History of the Jesus Tradition as Material Artifact (2020) 213
origen Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 33
scroll Burton, Dionysus and Rome: Religion and Literature (2009) 109
sermon on the mount' ... '106.0_109@reading Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 33
writing' Burton, Dionysus and Rome: Religion and Literature (2009) 109