Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8256
New Testament, Luke, 23.39-23.43


Εἷς δὲ τῶν κρεμασθέντων κακούργων ἐβλασφήμει αὐτόν Οὐχὶ σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστός; σῶσον σεαυτὸν καὶ ἡμᾶς.One of the criminals who was hanged insulted him, saying, "If you are the Christ, save yourself and us!


ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἕτερος ἐπιτιμῶν αὐτῷ ἔφη Οὐδὲ φοβῇ σὺ τὸν θεόν, ὅτι ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ κρίματι εἶ; καὶ ἡμεῖς μὲν δικαίωςBut the other answered, and rebuking him said, "Don't you even fear God, seeing you are under the same condemnation?


ἄξια γὰρ ὧν ἐπράξαμεν ἀπολαμβάνομεν· οὗτος δὲ οὐδὲν ἄτοπον ἔπραξεν.And we indeed justly, for we receive the due reward for our deeds, but this man has done nothing wrong.


καὶ ἔλεγεν Ἰησοῦ, μνήσθητί μου ὅταν ἔλθῃς εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν σου.He said to Jesus, "Lord, remember me when you come into your kingdom.


καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἀμήν σοι λέγω, σήμερον μετʼ ἐμοῦ ἔσῃ ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ.Jesus said to him, "Assuredly I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

28 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 7.12, 21.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.12. וְהָיָה עֵקֶב תִּשְׁמְעוּן אֵת הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים הָאֵלֶּה וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְשָׁמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ אֶת־הַבְּרִית וְאֶת־הַחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃ 21.22. וְכִי־יִהְיֶה בְאִישׁ חֵטְא מִשְׁפַּט־מָוֶת וְהוּמָת וְתָלִיתָ אֹתוֹ עַל־עֵץ׃ 7.12. And it shall come to pass, because ye hearken to these ordices, and keep, and do them, that the LORD thy God shall keep with thee the covet and the mercy which He swore unto thy fathers," 21.22. And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.23, 9.13-9.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.23. וַיְבֻקַּשׁ הַדָּבָר וַיִּמָּצֵא וַיִּתָּלוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם עַל־עֵץ וַיִּכָּתֵב בְּסֵפֶר דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 9.13. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב יִנָּתֵן גַּם־מָחָר לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּדָת הַיּוֹם וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן יִתְלוּ עַל־הָעֵץ׃ 9.14. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כֵּן וַתִּנָּתֵן דָּת בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן תָּלוּ׃ 2.23. And when inquisition was made of the matter, and it was found to be so, they were both hanged on a tree; and it was written in the book of the chronicles before the king." 9.13. Then said Esther: ‘If it please the king, let it be granted to the Jews that are in Shushan to do to-morrow also according unto this day’s decree, and let Haman’s ten sons be hanged upon the gallows.’" 9.14. And the king commanded it so to be done; and a decree was given out in Shushan; and they hanged Haman’s ten sons."
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 106.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

106.20. Thus they exchanged their glory For the likeness of an ox that eateth grass."
4. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 4.12, 18.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.12. וַיְצַו דָּוִד אֶת־הַנְּעָרִים וַיַּהַרְגוּם וַיְקַצְּצוּ אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם וְאֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶם וַיִּתְלוּ עַל־הַבְּרֵכָה בְּחֶבְרוֹן וְאֵת רֹאשׁ אִישׁ־בֹּשֶׁת לָקָחוּ וַיִּקְבְּרוּ בְקֶבֶר־אַבְנֵר בְּחֶבְרוֹן׃ 18.9. וַיִּקָּרֵא אַבְשָׁלוֹם לִפְנֵי עַבְדֵי דָוִד וְאַבְשָׁלוֹם רֹכֵב עַל־הַפֶּרֶד וַיָּבֹא הַפֶּרֶד תַּחַת שׂוֹבֶךְ הָאֵלָה הַגְּדוֹלָה וַיֶּחֱזַק רֹאשׁוֹ בָאֵלָה וַיֻּתַּן בֵּין הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבֵין הָאָרֶץ וְהַפֶּרֶד אֲשֶׁר־תַּחְתָּיו עָבָר׃ 4.12. And David commanded his young men, and they slew them, and cut off their hands and their feet, and hanged them up over the pool in Ĥevron. But they took the head of Ish-boshet, and buried it in the tomb of Avner in Ĥevron." 18.9. And Avshalom met the servants of David. And Avshalom rode on a mule, and the mule went under the thick boughs of a great oak, and his head caught fast in the oak, and he was taken up between the heaven and the earth; and the mule that was under him went away."
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 40.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

40.5. וְנִגְלָה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה וְרָאוּ כָל־בָּשָׂר יַחְדָּו כִּי פִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃ 40.5. And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together; for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 6.5, 6.20, 8.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.5. וְהָיָה בִּמְשֹׁךְ בְּקֶרֶן הַיּוֹבֵל בשמעכם [כְּשָׁמְעֲכֶם] אֶת־קוֹל הַשּׁוֹפָר יָרִיעוּ כָל־הָעָם תְּרוּעָה גְדוֹלָה וְנָפְלָה חוֹמַת הָעִיר תַּחְתֶּיהָ וְעָלוּ הָעָם אִישׁ נֶגְדּוֹ׃ 8.29. וְאֶת־מֶלֶךְ הָעַי תָּלָה עַל־הָעֵץ עַד־עֵת הָעָרֶב וּכְבוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ צִוָּה יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּרִידוּ אֶת־נִבְלָתוֹ מִן־הָעֵץ וַיַּשְׁלִיכוּ אוֹתָהּ אֶל־פֶּתַח שַׁעַר הָעִיר וַיָּקִימוּ עָלָיו גַּל־אֲבָנִים גָּדוֹל עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 6.5. And it shall be, that when they make a long blast with the ram’s horn, and when ye hear the sound of the horn, all the people shall shout with a great shout; and the wall of the city shall fall down flat, and the people shall go up every man straight before him.’" 6.20. So the people shouted, and [the priests] blew with the horns. And it came to pass, when the people heard the sound of the horn, that the people shouted with a great shout, and the wall fell down flat, so that the people went up into the city, every man straight before him, and they took the city." 8.29. And the king of Ai he hanged on a tree until the eventide; and at the going down of the sun Joshua commanded, and they took his carcass down from the tree, and cast it at the entrance of the gate of the city, and raised thereon a great heap of stones, unto this day."
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.20-34.31 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.21. יַעַן בְּצַד וּבְכָתֵף תֶּהְדֹּפוּ וּבְקַרְנֵיכֶם תְּנַגְּחוּ כָּל־הַנַּחְלוֹת עַד אֲשֶׁר הֲפִיצוֹתֶם אוֹתָנָה אֶל־הַחוּצָה׃ 34.22. וְהוֹשַׁעְתִּי לְצֹאנִי וְלֹא־תִהְיֶינָה עוֹד לָבַז וְשָׁפַטְתִּי בֵּין שֶׂה לָשֶׂה׃ 34.23. וַהֲקִמֹתִי עֲלֵיהֶם רֹעֶה אֶחָד וְרָעָה אֶתְהֶן אֵת עַבְדִּי דָוִיד הוּא יִרְעֶה אֹתָם וְהוּא־יִהְיֶה לָהֶן לְרֹעֶה׃ 34.24. וַאֲנִי יְהוָה אֶהְיֶה לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְעַבְדִּי דָוִד נָשִׂיא בְתוֹכָם אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי׃ 34.25. וְכָרַתִּי לָהֶם בְּרִית שָׁלוֹם וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי חַיָּה־רָעָה מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְיָשְׁבוּ בַמִּדְבָּר לָבֶטַח וְיָשְׁנוּ בַּיְּעָרִים׃ 34.26. וְנָתַתִּי אוֹתָם וּסְבִיבוֹת גִּבְעָתִי בְּרָכָה וְהוֹרַדְתִּי הַגֶּשֶׁם בְּעִתּוֹ גִּשְׁמֵי בְרָכָה יִהְיוּ׃ 34.27. וְנָתַן עֵץ הַשָּׂדֶה אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּתֵּן יְבוּלָהּ וְהָיוּ עַל־אַדְמָתָם לָבֶטַח וְיָדְעוּ כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּשִׁבְרִי אֶת־מֹטוֹת עֻלָּם וְהִצַּלְתִּים מִיַּד הָעֹבְדִים בָּהֶם׃ 34.28. וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ עוֹד בַּז לַגּוֹיִם וְחַיַּת הָאָרֶץ לֹא תֹאכְלֵם וְיָשְׁבוּ לָבֶטַח וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃ 34.29. וַהֲקִמֹתִי לָהֶם מַטָּע לְשֵׁם וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ עוֹד אֲסֻפֵי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עוֹד כְּלִמַּת הַגּוֹיִם׃ 34.31. וְאַתֵּן צֹאנִי צֹאן מַרְעִיתִי אָדָם אַתֶּם אֲנִי אֱלֹהֵיכֶם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 34.20. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD unto them: Behold, I, even I, will judge between the fat cattle and the lean cattle." 34.21. Because ye thrust with side and with shoulder, and push all the weak with your horns, till ye have scattered them abroad;" 34.22. therefore will I save My flock, and they shall no more be a prey; and I will judge between cattle and cattle." 34.23. And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even My servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd." 34.24. And I the LORD will be their God, and My servant David prince among them; I the LORD have spoken." 34.25. And I will make with them a covet of peace, and will cause evil beasts to cease out of the land; and they shall dwell safely in the wilderness, and sleep in the woods." 34.26. And I will make them and the places round about My hill a blessing; and I will cause the shower to come down in its season; there shall be showers of blessing." 34.27. And the tree of the field shall yield its fruit, and the earth shall yield her produce, and they shall be safe in their land; and they shall know that I am the LORD, when I have broken the bars of their yoke, and have delivered them out of the hand of those that made bondmen of them." 34.28. And they shall no more be a prey to the nations, neither shall the beast of the earth devour them; but they shall dwell safely, and none shall make them afraid." 34.29. And I will raise up unto them a plantation for renown, and they shall be no more consumed with hunger in the land, neither bear the shame of the nations any more." 34.30. And they shall know that I the LORD their God am with them, and that they, the house of Israel, are My people, saith the Lord GOD." 34.31. And ye My sheep, the sheep of My pasture, are men, and I am your God, saith the Lord GOD.’"
8. Herodotus, Histories, 9.120 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.120. It is related by the people of the Chersonese that a marvellous thing happened one of those who guarded Artayctes. He was frying dried fish, and these as they lay over the fire began to leap and writhe as though they had just been caught. ,The rest gathered around, amazed at the sight, but when Artayctes saw this strange thing, he called the one who was frying the fish and said to him: “Athenian, do not be afraid of this portent, for it is not to you that it has been sent; it is to me that Protesilaus of Elaeus is trying to signify that although he is dead and dry, he has power given him by the god to take vengeance on me, the one who wronged him. ,Now therefore I offer a ransom, the sum of one hundred talents to the god for the treasure that I took from his temple. I will also pay to the Athenians two hundred talents for myself and my son, if they spare us.” ,But Xanthippus the general was unmoved by this promise, for the people of Elaeus desired that Artayctes should be put to death in revenge for Protesilaus, and the general himself was so inclined. So they carried Artayctes away to the headland where Xerxes had bridged the strait (or, by another story, to the hill above the town of Madytus), and there nailed him to boards and hanged him. As for his son, they stoned him to death before his father's eyes.
9. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.13-3.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.13. בֵּאדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר בִּרְגַז וַחֲמָה אֲמַר לְהַיְתָיָה לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ בֵּאדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ הֵיתָיוּ קֳדָם מַלְכָּא׃ 3.14. עָנֵה נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר וְאָמַר לְהוֹן הַצְדָּא שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ לֵאלָהַי לָא אִיתֵיכוֹן פָּלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימֶת לָא סָגְדִין׃ 3.15. כְּעַן הֵן אִיתֵיכוֹן עֲתִידִין דִּי בְעִדָּנָא דִּי־תִשְׁמְעוּן קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְּסַנְתֵּרִין וְסוּמְפֹּנְיָה וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא תִּפְּלוּן וְתִסְגְּדוּן לְצַלְמָא דִי־עַבְדֵת וְהֵן לָא תִסְגְּדוּן בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָה תִתְרְמוֹן לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא וּמַן־הוּא אֱלָהּ דֵּי יְשֵׁיזְבִנְכוֹן מִן־יְדָי׃ 3.16. עֲנוֹ שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ וְאָמְרִין לְמַלְכָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר לָא־חַשְׁחִין אֲנַחְנָה עַל־דְּנָה פִּתְגָם לַהֲתָבוּתָךְ׃ 3.17. הֵן אִיתַי אֱלָהַנָא דִּי־אֲנַחְנָא פָלְחִין יָכִל לְשֵׁיזָבוּתַנָא מִן־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא וּמִן־יְדָךְ מַלְכָּא יְשֵׁיזִב׃ 3.18. וְהֵן לָא יְדִיעַ לֶהֱוֵא־לָךְ מַלְכָּא דִּי לאלהיך [לֵאלָהָךְ] לָא־איתינא [אִיתַנָא] פָלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימְתָּ לָא נִסְגֻּד׃ 3.13. Then Nebuchadnezzar in his rage and fury commanded to bring Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego. Then were these men brought before the king." 3.14. Nebuchadnezzar spoke and said unto them: ‘Is it true, O Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, that ye serve not my gods, nor worship the golden image which I have set up?" 3.15. Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and bagpipe, and all kinds of music, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made, well; but if ye worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and who is the god that shall deliver you out of my hands?’" 3.16. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, answered and said to the king: ‘O Nebuchadnezzar, we have no need to answer thee in this matter." 3.17. If our God whom we serve is able to deliver us, He will deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and out of thy hand, O king." 3.18. But if not, be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.’"
10. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.21-6.28, 7.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.21. Those who were in charge of that unlawful sacrifice took the man aside, because of their long acquaintance with him, and privately urged him to bring meat of his own providing, proper for him to use, and pretend that he was eating the flesh of the sacrificial meal which had been commanded by the king,' 6.22. o that by doing this he might be saved from death, and be treated kindly on account of his old friendship with them.' 6.23. But making a high resolve, worthy of his years and the dignity of his old age and the gray hairs which he had reached with distinction and his excellent life even from childhood, and moreover according to the holy God-given law, he declared himself quickly, telling them to send him to Hades.' 6.24. Such pretense is not worthy of our time of life, he said, 'lest many of the young should suppose that Eleazar in his ninetieth year has gone over to an alien religion,' 6.25. and through my pretense, for the sake of living a brief moment longer, they should be led astray because of me, while I defile and disgrace my old age.' 6.26. For even if for the present I should avoid the punishment of men, yet whether I live or die I shall not escape the hands of the Almighty.' 6.27. Therefore, by manfully giving up my life now, I will show myself worthy of my old age' 6.28. and leave to the young a noble example of how to die a good death willingly and nobly for the revered and holy laws.'When he had said this, he went at once to the rack.' 7.1. It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and cords, to partake of unlawful swine's flesh.'
11. Septuagint, Judith, 14.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

14.11. As soon as it was dawn they hung the head of Holofernes on the wall, and every man took his weapons, and they went out in companies to the passes in the mountains.
12. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 5, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 8.1-9.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13. New Testament, 1 Timothy, a b c d\n0 "2.5" "2.5" "2 5" (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. Many will follow their destructive ways, and as a result, the way of the truth will be maligned.
15. New Testament, Acts, 1.3, 3.1-3.10, 5.12-5.16, 5.30-5.31, 6.5, 7.51, 7.55, 7.59-7.60, 8.12, 9.2, 9.32, 9.36-9.42, 10.39, 13.15-13.41, 14.8-14.18, 14.22, 19.8, 20.7, 20.25, 28.4, 28.7, 28.23, 28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.3. To these he also showed himself alive after his suffering by many proofs, appearing to them over a period of forty days, and spoke about God's Kingdom. 3.1. Peter and John were going up into the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth hour. 3.2. A certain man who was lame from his mother's womb was being carried, whom they laid daily at the door of the temple which is called Beautiful, to ask gifts for the needy of those who entered into the temple. 3.3. Seeing Peter and John about to go into the temple, he asked to receive gifts for the needy. 3.4. Peter, fastening his eyes on him, with John, said, "Look at us. 3.5. He listened to them, expecting to receive something from them. 3.6. But Peter said, "Silver and gold have I none, but what I have, that I give you. In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, rise and walk! 3.7. He took him by the right hand, and raised him up. Immediately his feet and his ankle bones received strength. 3.8. Leaping up, he stood, and began to walk. He entered with them into the temple, walking, leaping, and praising God. 3.9. All the people saw him walking and praising God. 3.10. They recognized him, that it was he who sat begging for gifts for the needy at the Beautiful Gate of the temple. They were filled with wonder and amazement at that which had happened to him. 5.12. By the hands of the apostles many signs and wonders were done among the people. They were all with one accord in Solomon's porch. 5.13. None of the rest dared to join them, however the people honored them. 5.14. More believers were added to the Lord, multitudes of both men and women. 5.15. They even carried out the sick into the streets, and laid them on cots and mattresses, so that as Peter came by, at the least his shadow might overshadow some of them. 5.16. Multitudes also came together from the cities around Jerusalem, bringing sick people, and those who were tormented by unclean spirits: and they were all healed. 5.30. The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you killed, hanging him on a tree. 5.31. God exalted him with his right hand to be a Prince and a Savior, to give repentance to Israel, and remission of sins. 6.5. These words pleased the whole multitude. They chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, and Nicolaus, a proselyte of Antioch; 7.51. You stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, you always resist the Holy Spirit! As your fathers did, so you do. 7.55. But he, being full of the Holy Spirit, looked up steadfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God 7.59. They stoned Stephen as he called out, saying, "Lord Jesus, receive my Spirit! 7.60. He kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice, "Lord, don't hold this sin against them!" When he had said this, he fell asleep. 8.12. But when they believed Philip preaching good news concerning the Kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women. 9.2. and asked for letters from him to the synagogues of Damascus, that if he found any who were of the Way, whether men or women, he might bring them bound to Jerusalem. 9.32. It happened, as Peter went throughout all those parts, he came down also to the saints who lived at Lydda. 9.36. Now there was at Joppa a certain disciple named Tabitha, which when translated, means Dorcas. This woman was full of good works and acts of mercy which she did. 9.37. It happened in those days that she fell sick, and died. When they had washed her, they laid her in an upper chamber. 9.38. As Lydda was near Joppa, the disciples, hearing that Peter was there, sent two men to him, imploring him not to delay in coming to them. 9.39. Peter got up and went with them. When he had come, they brought him into the upper chamber. All the widows stood by him weeping, and showing the coats and garments which Dorcas made while she was with them. 9.40. Peter put them all out, and kneeled down and prayed. Turning to the body, he said, "Tabitha, get up!" She opened her eyes, and when she saw Peter, she sat up. 9.41. He gave her his hand, and raised her up. Calling the saints and widows, he presented her alive. 9.42. It became known throughout all Joppa, and many believed in the Lord. 10.39. We are witnesses of all things which he did both in the country of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they also killed, hanging him on a tree. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak. 13.16. Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, "Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen. 13.17. The God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they stayed as aliens in the land of Egypt , and with an uplifted arm, he led them out of it. 13.18. For about the time of forty years he put up with them in the wilderness. 13.19. When he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he gave them their land for an inheritance, for about four hundred fifty years. 13.20. After these things he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet. 13.21. Afterward they asked for a king, and God gave to them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years. 13.22. When he had removed him, he raised up David to be their king, to whom he also testified, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after my heart, who will do all my will.' 13.23. From this man's seed, God has brought salvation to Israel according to his promise 13.24. before his coming, when John had first preached the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. 13.25. As John was fulfilling his course, he said, 'What do you suppose that I am? I am not he. But behold, one comes after me the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to untie.' 13.26. Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, the word of this salvation is sent out to you. 13.27. For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they didn't know him, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him. 13.28. Though they found no cause for death, they still asked Pilate to have him killed. 13.29. When they had fulfilled all things that were written about him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a tomb. 13.30. But God raised him from the dead 13.31. and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. 13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 13.36. For David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay. 13.37. But he whom God raised up saw no decay. 13.38. Be it known to you therefore, brothers, that through this man is proclaimed to you remission of sins 13.39. and by him everyone who believes is justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses. 13.40. Beware therefore, lest that come on you which is spoken in the prophets: 13.41. 'Behold, you scoffers, and wonder, and perish; For I work a work in your days, A work which you will in no way believe, if one declares it to you.' 14.8. At Lystra a certain man sat, impotent in his feet, a cripple from his mother's womb, who never had walked. 14.9. He was listening to Paul speaking, who, fastening eyes on him, and seeing that he had faith to be made whole 14.10. said with a loud voice, "Stand upright on your feet!" He leaped up and walked. 14.11. When the multitude saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voice, saying in the language of Lycaonia, "The gods have come down to us in the likeness of men! 14.12. They called Barnabas "Jupiter," and Paul "Mercury," because he was the chief speaker. 14.13. The priest of Jupiter, whose temple was in front of their city, brought oxen and garlands to the gates, and would have made a sacrifice with the multitudes. 14.14. But when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of it, they tore their clothes, and sprang into the multitude, crying out 14.15. Men, why are you doing these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and bring you good news, that you should turn from these vain things to the living God, who made the sky and the earth and the sea, and all that is in them; 14.16. who in the generations gone by allowed all the nations to walk in their own ways. 14.17. Yet he didn't leave himself without witness, in that he did good and gave you rains from the sky and fruitful seasons, filling our hearts with food and gladness. 14.18. Even saying these things, they hardly stopped the multitudes from making a sacrifice to them. 14.22. confirming the souls of the disciples, exhorting them to continue in the faith, and that through many afflictions we must enter into the Kingdom of God. 19.8. He entered into the synagogue, and spoke boldly for a period of three months, reasoning and persuading about the things concerning the Kingdom of God. 20.7. On the first day of the week, when the disciples were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the next day, and continued his speech until midnight. 20.25. Now, behold, I know that you all, among whom I went about preaching the Kingdom of God, will see my face no more. 28.4. When the natives saw the creature hanging from his hand, they said one to another, "No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he has escaped from the sea, yet Justice has not allowed to live. 28.7. Now in the neighborhood of that place were lands belonging to the chief man of the island, named Publius, who received us, and courteously entertained us three days. 28.23. When they had appointed him a day, they came to him into his lodging in great number. He explained to them, testifying about the Kingdom of God, and persuading them concerning Jesus, both from the law of Moses and from the prophets, from morning until evening. 28.31. preaching the Kingdom of God, and teaching the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ with all boldness, without hinderance.
16. New Testament, Galatians, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become acurse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on atree
17. New Testament, Hebrews, 13.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.12. Therefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people through his own blood, suffered outside of the gate.
18. New Testament, John, 17.12, 18.13-18.14, 18.19-18.24, 18.28-18.39, 19.1-19.5, 19.18-19.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17.12. While I was with them in the world, I kept them in your name. Those whom you have given me I have kept. None of them is lost, except the son of perdition, that the Scripture might be fulfilled. 18.13. and led him to Annas first, for he was father-in-law to Caiaphas, who was high priest that year. 18.14. Now it was Caiaphas who advised the Jews that it was expedient that one man should perish for the people. 18.19. The high priest therefore asked Jesus about his disciples, and about his teaching. 18.20. Jesus answered him, "I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues, and in the temple, where the Jews always meet. I said nothing in secret. 18.21. Why do you ask me? Ask those who have heard me what I said to them. Behold, these know the things which I said. 18.22. When he had said this, one of the officers standing by slapped Jesus with his hand, saying, "Do you answer the high priest like that? 18.23. Jesus answered him, "If I have spoken evil, testify of the evil; but if well, why do you beat me? 18.24. Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas, the high priest. 18.28. They led Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into the Praetorium. It was early, and they themselves didn't enter into the Praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover. 18.29. Pilate therefore went out to them, and said, "What accusation do you bring against this man? 18.30. They answered him, "If this man weren't an evildoer, we wouldn't have delivered him up to you. 18.31. Pilate therefore said to them, "Take him yourselves, and judge him according to your law."Therefore the Jews said to him, "It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death 18.32. that the word of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spoke, signifying by what kind of death he should die. 18.33. Pilate therefore entered again into the Praetorium, called Jesus, and said to him, "Are you the King of the Jews? 18.34. Jesus answered him, "Do you say this by yourself, or did others tell you about me? 18.35. Pilate answered, "I'm not a Jew, am I? Your own nation and the chief priests delivered you to me. What have you done? 18.36. Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, then my servants would fight, that I wouldn't be delivered to the Jews. But now my kingdom is not from here. 18.37. Pilate therefore said to him, "Are you a king then?"Jesus answered, "You say that I am a king. For this reason I have been born, and for this reason I have come into the world, that I should testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice. 18.38. Pilate said to him, "What is truth?"When he had said this, he went out again to the Jews, and said to them, "I find no basis for a charge against him. 18.39. But you have a custom, that I should release someone to you at the Passover. Therefore do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews? 19.1. So Pilate then took Jesus, and flogged him. 19.2. The soldiers twisted thorns into a crown, and put it on his head, and dressed him in a purple garment. 19.3. They kept saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" and they kept slapping him. 19.4. Then Pilate went out again, and said to them, "Behold, I bring him out to you, that you may know that I find no basis for a charge against him. 19.5. Jesus therefore came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple garment. Pilate said to them, "Behold, the man! 19.18. where they crucified him, and with him two others, on either side one, and Jesus in the middle. 19.19. Pilate wrote a title also, and put it on the cross. There was written, "JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS. 19.20. Therefore many of the Jews read this title, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city; and it was written in Hebrew, in Latin, and in Greek.
19. New Testament, Luke, a b c d\n0 "23.34" "23.34" "23 34"\n1 1.26 1.26 1 26 \n2 1.27 1.27 1 27 \n3 1.28 1.28 1 28 \n4 1.29 1.29 1 29 \n.. ... ... .. .. \n123 8.49 8.49 8 49 \n124 8.51 8.51 8 51 \n125 9.11 9.11 9 11 \n126 9.60 9.60 9 60 \n127 9.62 9.62 9 62 \n\n[128 rows x 4 columns] (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20. New Testament, Mark, 14.53, 14.55-14.65, 15.1-15.5, 15.16-15.20, 15.29-15.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.53. They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him. 14.55. Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none. 14.56. For many gave false testimony against him, and their testimony didn't agree with each other. 14.57. Some stood up, and gave false testimony against him, saying 14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.' 14.59. Even so, their testimony did not agree. 14.60. The high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer? What is it which these testify against you? 14.61. But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky. 14.63. The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses? 14.64. You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?" They all condemned him to be worthy of death. 14.65. Some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to beat him with fists, and to tell him, "Prophesy!" The officers struck him with the palms of their hands. 15.1. Immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate. 15.2. Pilate asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?"He answered, "So you say. 15.3. The chief priests accused him of many things. 15.4. Pilate again asked him, "Have you no answer? See how many things they testify against you! 15.5. But Jesus made no further answer, so that Pilate marveled. 15.16. The soldiers led him away within the court, which is the Praetorium; and they called together the whole cohort. 15.17. They clothed him with purple, and weaving a crown of thorns, they put it on him. 15.18. They began to salute him, "Hail, King of the Jews! 15.19. They struck his head with a reed, and spat on him, and bowing their knees, did homage to him. 15.20. When they had mocked him, they took the purple off of him, and put his own garments on him. They led him out to crucify him. 15.29. Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying, "Ha! You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days 15.30. save yourself, and come down from the cross! 15.31. Likewise, also the chief priests mocking among themselves with the scribes said, "He saved others. He can't save himself. 15.32. Let the Christ, the King of Israel, now come down from the cross, that we may see and believe him." Those who were crucified with him insulted him.
21. New Testament, Matthew, 18.6, 22.40, 26.57, 26.59-26.68, 27.1, 27.11-27.31, 27.39-27.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.6. but whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to stumble, it would be better for him that a huge millstone should be hung around his neck, and that he should be sunk in the depths of the sea. 22.40. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments. 26.57. Those who had taken Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were gathered together. 26.59. Now the chief priests, the elders, and the whole council sought false testimony against Jesus, that they might put him to death; 26.60. and they found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward, they found none. But at last two false witnesses came forward 26.61. and said, "This man said, 'I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days.' 26.62. The high priest stood up, and said to him, "Have you no answer? What is this that these testify against you? 26.63. But Jesus held his peace. The high priest answered him, "I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you are the Christ, the Son of God. 26.64. Jesus said to him, "You have said it. Nevertheless, I tell you, henceforth you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of the sky. 26.65. Then the high priest tore his clothing, saying, "He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Behold, now you have heard his blasphemy. 26.66. What do you think?"They answered, "He is worthy of death! 26.67. Then they spit in his face and beat him with their fists, and some slapped him 26.68. saying, "Prophesy to us, you Christ! Who hit you? 27.1. Now when morning had come, all the chief priests and the elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: 27.11. Now Jesus stood before the governor: and the governor asked him, saying, "Are you the King of the Jews?"Jesus said to him, "So you say. 27.12. When he was accused by the chief priests and elders, he answered nothing. 27.13. Then Pilate said to him, "Don't you hear how many things they testify against you? 27.14. He gave him no answer, not even one word, so that the governor marveled greatly. 27.15. Now at the feast the governor was accustomed to release to the multitude one prisoner, whom they desired. 27.16. They had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas. 27.17. When therefore they were gathered together, Pilate said to them, "Whom do you want me to release to you? Barabbas, or Jesus, who is called Christ? 27.18. For he knew that because of envy they had delivered him up. 27.19. While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, "Have nothing to do with that righteous man, for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him. 27.20. Now the chief priests and the elders persuaded the multitudes to ask for Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. 27.21. But the governor answered them, "Which of the two do you want me to release to you?"They said, "Barabbas! 27.22. Pilate said to them, "What then shall I do to Jesus, who is called Christ?"They all said to him, "Let him be crucified! 27.23. But the governor said, "Why? What evil has he done?"But they cried out exceedingly, saying, "Let him be crucified! 27.24. So when Pilate saw that nothing was being gained, but rather that a disturbance was starting, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, "I am innocent of the blood of this righteous person. You see to it. 27.25. All the people answered, "May his blood be on us, and on our children! 27.26. Then he released to them Barabbas, but Jesus he flogged and delivered to be crucified. 27.27. Then the governor's soldiers took Jesus into the Praetorium, and gathered the whole garrison together against him. 27.28. They stripped him, and put a scarlet robe on him. 27.29. They braided a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and a reed in his right hand; and they kneeled down before him, and mocked him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews! 27.30. They spat on him, and took the reed and struck him on the head. 27.31. When they had mocked him, they took the robe off of him, and put his clothes on him, and led him away to crucify him. 27.39. Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads 27.40. and saying, "You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross! 27.41. Likewise the chief priests also mocking, with the scribes, the Pharisees, and the elders, said 27.42. He saved others, but he can't save himself. If he is the King of Israel, let him come down from the cross now, and we will believe in him. 27.43. He trusts in God. Let God deliver him now, if he wants him; for he said, 'I am the Son of God.'
22. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.15.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

23. Tertullian, On Baptism, 16.1-16.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

24. Tertullian, Antidote For The Scorpion'S Sting, 6.9-6.11 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

25. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

24a. בעדים פסולין ודיינין כשרין מיגו דפסלי עדים פסלי נמי דייני סיפא בדיינין פסולין ועדים כשרין דמיגו דפסלי דיינין פסלי נמי עדים,מתקיף לה רבא בשלמא מיגו דפסלי עדים פסלי נמי דייני איכא בי דינא אחרינא אלא מיגו דפסלי דייני פסלי נמי עדים והא עדים תו ליכא,לא צריכא דאיכא כת אחרת,הא ליכא כת אחרת מאי הכי נמי דלא מצי פסלי היינו דרב דימי,איכא בינייהו מיגו דמר סבר אמרינן מיגו ומר סבר לא אמרינן מיגו,גופא אמר ר"ל פה קדוש יאמר דבר זה תני עדו,איני והאמר עולא הרואה את ר"ל בבית המדרש כאילו עוקר הרים וטוחנן זה בזה,אמר רבינא והלא כל הרואה ר"מ בבית המדרש כאילו עוקר הרי הרים וטוחנן זה בזה,הכי קאמר בא וראה כמה מחבבין זה את זה,כי הא דיתיב רבי וקאמר אסור להטמין את הצונן אמר לפניו ר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי אבא התיר להטמין את הצונן א"ל כבר הורה זקן,אמר רב פפא בא וראה כמה מחבבין זה את זה דאילו רבי יוסי קיים היה כפוף ויושב לפני רבי דהא ר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה והיה כפוף ויושב לפני רבי וקא אמר כבר הורה זקן,א"ר אושעיא מאי דכתיב (זכריה יא, ז) ואקח לי (את) שני מקלות לאחד קראתי נועם ולאחד קראתי חובלים נועם אלו ת"ח שבארץ ישראל שמנעימין זה לזה בהלכה חובלים אלו ת"ח שבבבל שמחבלים זה לזה בהלכה,(זכריה יא, יג) ויאמר (אלי) אלה [שני] בני היצהר העומדים וגו' ושנים זיתים עליה יצהר אמר רבי יצחק אלו ת"ח שבא"י שנוחין זה לזה בהלכה כשמן זית ושנים זיתים עליה אלו ת"ח שבבבל שמרורין זה לזה בהלכה כזית,(זכריה ה, ט) ואשא עיני וארא והנה שתים נשים יוצאות ורוח בכנפיהם ולהנה כנפים ככנפי החסידה ותשאנה האיפה בין השמים ובין הארץ ואומר אל המלאך הדובר בי אנה המה מוליכות את האיפה ויאמר אלי לבנות לה בית בארץ שנער א"ר יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי זו חנופה וגסות הרוח שירדו לבבל,וגסות הרוח לבבל נחית והאמר מר עשרה קבין גסות ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלה עילם ואחת כל העולם כולו,אין לבבל נחית ואישתרבובי דאישתרבב לעילם דיקא נמי דכתיב לבנות לה בית בארץ שנער ש"מ,והאמר מר סימן לגסות הרוח עניות ועניות לבבל נחית מאי עניות עניות תורה דכתיב (שיר השירים ח, ח) אחות לנו קטנה ושדים אין לה אמר ר' יוחנן זו עילם שזכתה ללמוד ולא זכתה ללמד,מאי בבל א"ר יוחנן בלולה במקרא בלולה במשנה בלולה בתלמוד (איכה ג, ו) במחשכים הושיבני כמתי עולם אמר ר' ירמיה זה תלמודה של בבל:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אמר לו נאמן עלי אבא נאמן עלי אביך נאמנים עלי שלשה רועי בקר ר"מ אומר יכול לחזור בו וחכמים אומרים אינו יכול לחזור בו,היה חייב לחבירו שבועה ואמר לו דור לי בחיי ראשך ר"מ אומר יכול לחזור בו וחכ"א אין יכול לחזור בו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב דימי בריה דרב נחמן בריה דרב יוסף כגון דקבליה עליה בחד,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מחלוקת במחול לך אבל באתן לך דברי הכל יכול לחזור בו ורבי יוחנן אמר באתן לך מחלוקת,איבעיא להו באתן לך מחלוקת אבל במחול לך דברי הכל אין יכול לחזור בו או דילמא בין בזו ובין בזו מחלוקת,תא שמע דאמר רבא מחלוקת באתן לך אבל במחול לך דברי הכל אין יכול לחזור בו,אי אמרת בשלמא באתן לך מחלוקת אבל במחול לך דברי הכל אין יכול לחזור בו רבא דאמר כרבי יוחנן אלא אי אמרת בין בזו ובין בזו מחלוקת רבא דאמר כמאן,רבא טעמא דנפשיה קאמר,איתיביה רב אחא בר תחליפא לרבא היה חייב לחבירו שבועה ואמר לו דור לי בחיי ראשך רבי מאיר אומר יכול לחזור בו וחכמים אומרים אין יכול לחזור בו 24a. is stated bwith regard toa case of bdisqualified witnesses and fit judges,i.e., the litigant claims that both the witnesses and the judges are disqualified and proves his claim only with regard to the witnesses. Rabbi Meir holds that bsince the witnesses are disqualified the judges are also disqualified,as the litigant’s entire claim is deemed credible. bThe latter clause,where Rabbi Meir rules that a litigant can disqualify witnesses, is stated bwith regard toa case of bdisqualified judges and fit witnesses,i.e., the litigant proves his claim only with regard to the judges. bSince the judges are disqualified the witnesses were also disqualified. /b, bRava objects to thisinterpretation: bGranted,in the former clause, it is reasonable that bsince the witnesses are disqualified the judges are also disqualified,as, since bthere isthe option of going to banother court,disqualifying these specific judges has no irreversible effect on the outcome of the case. bButin the latter case, how can Rabbi Meir hold that bsince the judges are disqualified, the witnesses are also disqualifiedwithout proof? This disqualification nullifies the entire case, as bthere are no more witnesses. /b,The Gemara answers: bNo,the mishna is not referring to a case where there are no other witnesses. The dispute between Rabbi Meir and the Rabbis is bnecessaryonly in a case bwhere there is another setof witnesses, which the litigant did not disqualify. Since disqualifying this set will not predetermine the outcome, the litigant’s claim that these witnesses are disqualified is accepted.,The Gemara asks: bButif bthere is no other setof witnesses, bwhatis the ihalakha /i? Is it bindeedtrue bthatthe litigant bcannot disqualifythem? If so, bthis isidentical to bRav Dimi’sinterpretation that the mishna is referring to a case where there are two sets of witnesses.,The Gemara answers: bThere isa practical difference bbetween themwith regard to the principle that bsince [ imiggo /i]one of the litigant’s claims is found to be correct, it can be assumed that other claims of his are correct as well. bAsone bSage,Ravin, bholdsthat according to Rabbi Meir, bwe say imiggo /i,i.e., this principle should be followed, bandone bSage,Rav Dimi, bholdsthat bwe do not say imiggo /i,but rather the litigant is required to prove every claim he makes.,§ The Gemara returns to discuss bthematter bitself: Reish Lakish says: Would a holy mouth,i.e., that of Rabbi Meir, bsay thisstrange bstatement,that a litigant can prevent a witness from testifying against him? Rather, emend the text of the mishna and bteach: His witness,in the singular, meaning that a litigant can disqualify only a witness who testifies alone.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Was it in character for Reish Lakish to speak of Rabbi Meir with such reverence when disagreeing with his ruling? bBut doesn’t Ulla say:When bone sees Reish Lakishstudying Torah bin the study hallit is bas though he is uprooting mountains and grinding them into each other?Reish Lakish was evidently very sharp in his analyses., bRavina saidin response: What is the difficulty? bBut is it notso that when banyone sees Rabbi Meirstudying Torah bin the study hall,it is bas though he is uprooting the highest of mountains and grinding them into each other?Rabbi Meir was a greater scholar than Reish Lakish, so it was fitting for Reish Lakish to speak of him with reverence.,The Gemara answers: The question: Is that so, was not stated to raise a difficulty; rather, bthisis what he bis saying,i.e., this is what the Gemara was noting: bCome and see how muchthe Sages blove each other.Although Reish Lakish was himself very sharp and a great Torah scholar, he spoke of Rabbi Meir with reverence.,The Gemara cites another example of Torah scholars who spoke of each other with reverence. It is blike thatincident bwhere RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsat and said: It is prohibited to insulate coldfood on Shabbat to keep it cold, as this may lead one to insulate hot food on Shabbat to keep it hot. bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said before him: My fatherruled that it is bpermitted to insulate coldfood on Shabbat. There is no concern that this will lead one to insulate hot food on Shabbat. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi subsequently bsaid tothose who asked him about this issue: I retract my previous statement; bthe elder,Rabbi Yosei, bhas already issued a rulingon this topic, and I defer to his ruling., bRav Pappa says: Come and see how much they loved each other. As, had Rabbi Yoseistill bbeen alive, he would have been subordinateto band sitting before RabbiYehuda HaNasi as his student, bas Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, was his fathers’ replacement,i.e., he was as great a Torah scholar as his forebears, band he was subordinateto band sitting before RabbiYehuda HaNasi as his student. bAnd,nevertheless, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid: The elder has already issued a rulingon this topic, and he deferred to Rabbi Yosei’s ruling.,This demonstrates what bRabbi Oshaya says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And I took for myself two staves; the one I called Graciousness, and the other I called Binders”(Zechariah 11:7)? b“Graciousness”; these arethe bTorah scholars in Eretz Yisrael, who are gracious to one another indiscussions of ihalakha /i.They treat each other with honor and love, as demonstrated in the statements of Reish Lakish and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. b“Binders [ iḥovelim /i]”; these arethe bTorah scholars in Babylonia, who injure [ ishemeḥabbelim /i] each other indiscussions of ihalakha /i,i.e., they speak harshly to each other when they disagree.,Similarly, it is stated: b“Then he said to me: These are the two anointed ones, that standby the Lord of the whole earth” (Zechariah 4:14), and it is stated: b“And two olive trees by it,one upon the right side of the bowl, and the other upon its left side” (Zechariah 4:3). With regard to the expression b“anointed ones,” Rabbi Yitzḥak says: These arethe bTorah scholars in Eretz Yisrael, who are pleasant to each other indiscussions of ihalakhalike olive oil,which is not bitter. The verse b“and two olive trees by it”should be interpreted as follows: bThese arethe bTorah scholars in Babylonia, who are bitter to each other indiscussions of ihalakhalike an olive. /b,The Gemara interprets another verse in Zechariah: b“Then I lifted my eyes and saw, and behold there came forth two women, and the wind was in their wings, for they had wings like the wings of a stork. And they lifted up the measure between the earth and the heaven. Then I said to the angel that spoke with me: To where do they take the measure? And he said to me: To build her a house in the land of Shinar”(Zechariah 5:9–11). bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Thismeasure refers to bflattery and arrogance that descended to Babylonia,i.e., Shinar.,The Gemara asks: bAnd did arrogance descend to Babylonia? But doesn’t the Master say: Ten ikav /iof barrogance descended to the world; Eilam took nine and allthe rest of bthe world in its entiretytook bone? /b,The Gemara answers: bYes, it descended to Babylonia, and it made its way to Eilam.The language of the verse bis also precise, as it is written: “To build her a house in the land of Shinar,”which indicates that the original intention was to build a house in Babylonia, but it was not built there. The Gemara comments: bConclude from itthat arrogance did not remain in Babylonia.,The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t the Master say: A sign of arroganceis bpoverty? And poverty descended to Babylonia,not to Eilam. The Gemara answers: To bwhatkind of bpovertyis this referring? It is bpovertywith regard to bTorah,which was characteristic of Eilam. bAs it is written: “We have a little sister, and she has no breasts”(Song of Songs 8:8), and bRabbi Yoḥa says: Thisrefers to bEilam, whoseinhabitants bmerited to learnTorah bbut did not merit to teachit. They did not produce Torah scholars capable of imparting their wisdom to others.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the homiletic interpretation of the word bBabylonia? Rabbi Yoḥa says,as a tribute to the Jewish community of Babylonia and its Torah scholars: It means bmixed with Bible, mixed with Mishna,and bmixed with Talmud.Other Sages had a different opinion of the Torah in Babylonia: With regard to the verse: b“He has made me dwell in dark places, as those that have been long dead”(Lamentations 3:6), bRabbi Yirmeya says: This is the Talmud of Babylonia,which is not as clear as the Talmud of Eretz Yisrael., strongMISHNA: /strong If one litigant bsays tothe other: bMy father is trustedto adjudicate bfor me,or: bYour father is trustedto adjudicate bfor me,or: bThree cattle herders,who are not proficient in ihalakha /i, bare trustedto adjudicate bfor me,all of whom are disqualified from serving as judges, bRabbi Meir says:The one who made the offer bcan retract it, and the Rabbis say: He cannot retract it,but must accept their verdict.,Similarly, one who bwas obligatedby Torah law to take ban oath to another,which is done while grasping a sacred object, bandthe latter bsaid to him:Instead of taking an oath, merely bvow to me by the life of your headthat what you claim is true, bRabbi Meir says:The one who made the offer bcan retract it,and demand that the other litigant take an oath, as he is obligated to do by Torah law. bAnd the Rabbis say: He cannot retracthis offer. Once he has agreed to accept a vow, which is of less severity than an oath, he cannot retract his agreement., strongGEMARA: /strong bRav Dimi, son of Rav Naḥman, son of Rav Yosef, says:The case of a litigant who accepts his father or the father of the other litigant as a judge is referring to bwherethe litigant bacceptedthis relative bupon himself as oneof the judges in a court of three, where the other two judges are fit. It is not referring to where he accepted him as the sole judge., bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The bdisputebetween Rabbi Meir and the Rabbis is bwith regard toa case where the claimant had said to the defendant: The money I claim you owe me is bforgiven youif my father or your father rules as judge to that effect, and the claimant subsequently wishes to retract his offer. bBut ina case where it is the defendant who said: bI will give youwhat you claim if that is the ruling of this judge, beveryone agreesthat bhe can retracthis offer. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says:The bdisputeis bwith regard toa case where the defendant said: bI will give youwhat you claim if that is the ruling of this judge., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages with regard to the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa: Is the bdisputeonly bwith regard toa case where the defendant says: bI will give you, but ina case where the claimant says: The money I claim you owe me is bforgiven you, everyone agreesthat bhe cannot retracthis offer? bOr perhapsRabbi Yoḥa maintains that the bdispute is both with regard to thiscase band with regard to thatcase?,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara resolution from that bwhich Rava says:The bdispute is with regard toa case where the defendant says: bI will give you, but ina case where the claimant says: The money I claim you owe me is bforgiven you, everyone agreesthat bhe cannot retracthis offer., bGranted,this makes sense bif you saythat according to Rabbi Yoḥa too, the bdisputeis bwith regard toa case where the defendant says: bI will give you, but ina case where the claimant says: The money I claim you owe me is bforgiven you, everyone agreesthat bhe cannot retracthis offer; this means that bRava is statingthe ihalakha bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥa. But if you saythat according to Rabbi Yoḥa the bdispute is both with regard to thiscase band with regard to thatcase, then bin accordance with whoseopinion bis Rava statingthe ihalakha /i? His statement is in accordance with neither Shmuel’s opinion nor Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion.,The Gemara rejects this: Perhaps bRava is stating his own explanationof the dispute., bRav Aḥa bar Taḥlifa raised an objection tothe opinion of bRavafrom the latter clause in the mishna: With regard to one who bwas obligatedby Torah law to take ban oath to another, andthe latter bsaid to him: Vow to me by the life of your headthat what you claim is true, bRabbi Meir says:The one who made the offer bcan retract it; and the Rabbis say: He cannot retracthis offer.
26. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 5.1.45-5.1.49 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

5.1.45. But the intervening time was not wasted nor fruitless to them; for by their patience the measureless compassion of Christ was manifested. For through their continued life the dead were made alive, and the witnesses showed favor to those who had failed to witness. And the virgin mother had much joy in receiving alive those whom she had brought forth as dead. 5.1.46. For through their influence many who had denied were restored, and re-begotten, and rekindled with life, and learned to confess. And being made alive and strengthened, they went to the judgment seat to be again interrogated by the governor; God, who desires not the death of the sinner, but mercifully invites to repentance, treating them with kindness. 5.1.47. For Caesar commanded that they should be put to death, but that any who might deny should be set free. Therefore, at the beginning of the public festival which took place there, and which was attended by crowds of men from all nations, the governor brought the blessed ones to the judgment seat, to make of them a show and spectacle for the multitude. Wherefore also he examined them again, and beheaded those who appeared to possess Roman citizenship, but he sent the others to the wild beasts. 5.1.48. And Christ was glorified greatly in those who had formerly denied him, for, contrary to the expectation of the heathen, they confessed. For they were examined by themselves, as about to be set free; but confessing, they were added to the order of the witnesses. But some continued without, who had never possessed a trace of faith, nor any apprehension of the wedding garment, nor an understanding of the fear of God; but, as sons of perdition, they blasphemed the Way through their apostasy. 5.1.49. But all the others were added to the Church. While these were being examined, a certain Alexander, a Phrygian by birth, and physician by profession, who had resided in Gaul for many years, and was well known to all on account of his love to God and boldness of speech (for he was not without a share of apostolic grace), standing before the judgment seat, and by signs encouraging them to confess, appeared to those standing by as if in travail.
27. Anon., 4 Baruch, 5.21

5.21. Even if the heavenly torrents had descended on them, there has not yet been time for them to go into Babylon!
28. Pseudo-Tertullian, Martyrdom of Perpetua And Felicitas, 21.2-21.3



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 355
angel/angelic passim see also archangel, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 519
angel/angelic passim see also archangel, priest, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 519
angel/angelic passim see also archangel, worship Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 519
angel Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 217
arians, quodvultdeus on Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 345
baptism, among arians Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 345
barbarism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
carpus Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 293
carthage, arian capture and occupation Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 345
christians Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 293
death Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 293
devil Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 293
forgiveness Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 121
hair Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 519
hands, paul, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 519
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 519
holy men, repentant sinners as Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 121
holy spirit, churchs possession of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 576
holy spirit, lukan conception Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 576
jesus Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 519
jesus christ Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 293
law and prophets Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 217
letter of the martyrs of lyons and viennes Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 168, 169
letters/epistles Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 355
luke, gospel of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
luke-acts, baptism of jesus Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 186
luke-acts, david Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 186
luke-acts, paul Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 186
marcus aurelius Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 293
martyr and martyrdom, jesus as Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
martyr and martyrdom, jewish Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
martyr and martyrdom, maccabean' Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
martyr and martyrdom Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
martyrs Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 293
messiah Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 217
nebuchadnezzar/king of the chaldeans Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 355
neck Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 519
paradise, church and Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 169
paradise, walls of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 519
pilate Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 217
pionius Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 293
pneumatology, lukan Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 576
priest Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 519
quodvultdeus, de tempore barbarico Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 345
quodvultdeus Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 345
rabbi eleazar b. r. yose, 4 ezra Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
repentance Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 345
resh lakish Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 121
robbers, repentant, motif of Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 121
sanhedrin Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 247
saturus Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 293
serpent Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 519
sixty-six years Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 355
temple Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 217
tertullian Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 293
tree Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 519
vandals, in africa invasion and occupation Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 345
walls of paradise (or garden) Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 519
way (church as), in letters of the martyrs of lyons and viennes Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 168, 169
way (jesus as) Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 169
wisdom Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 293
worship, angels (angelic), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 519