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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8256
New Testament, Luke, 23.2


ἤρξαντο δὲ κατηγορεῖν αὐτοῦ λέγοντες Τοῦτον εὕραμεν διαστρέφοντα τὸ ἔθνος ἡμῶν καὶ κωλύοντα φόρους Καίσαρι διδόναι καὶ λέγοντα ἑαυτὸν χριστὸν βασιλέα εἶναι.They began to accuse him, saying, "We found this man perverting the nation, forbidding paying taxes to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ, a king.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

20 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.3, 24.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.3. וּמֹשֶׁה עָלָה אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה מִן־הָהָר לֵאמֹר כֹּה תֹאמַר לְבֵית יַעֲקֹב וְתַגֵּיד לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.18. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה בְּתוֹךְ הֶעָנָן וַיַּעַל אֶל־הָהָר וַיְהִי מֹשֶׁה בָּהָר אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה׃ 19.3. And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of the mountain, saying: ‘Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel:" 24.18. And Moses entered into the midst of the cloud, and went up into the mount; and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights."
2. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.13-3.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.13. בֵּאדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר בִּרְגַז וַחֲמָה אֲמַר לְהַיְתָיָה לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ בֵּאדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ הֵיתָיוּ קֳדָם מַלְכָּא׃ 3.14. עָנֵה נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר וְאָמַר לְהוֹן הַצְדָּא שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ לֵאלָהַי לָא אִיתֵיכוֹן פָּלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימֶת לָא סָגְדִין׃ 3.15. כְּעַן הֵן אִיתֵיכוֹן עֲתִידִין דִּי בְעִדָּנָא דִּי־תִשְׁמְעוּן קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְּסַנְתֵּרִין וְסוּמְפֹּנְיָה וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא תִּפְּלוּן וְתִסְגְּדוּן לְצַלְמָא דִי־עַבְדֵת וְהֵן לָא תִסְגְּדוּן בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָה תִתְרְמוֹן לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא וּמַן־הוּא אֱלָהּ דֵּי יְשֵׁיזְבִנְכוֹן מִן־יְדָי׃ 3.16. עֲנוֹ שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ וְאָמְרִין לְמַלְכָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר לָא־חַשְׁחִין אֲנַחְנָה עַל־דְּנָה פִּתְגָם לַהֲתָבוּתָךְ׃ 3.17. הֵן אִיתַי אֱלָהַנָא דִּי־אֲנַחְנָא פָלְחִין יָכִל לְשֵׁיזָבוּתַנָא מִן־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא וּמִן־יְדָךְ מַלְכָּא יְשֵׁיזִב׃ 3.18. וְהֵן לָא יְדִיעַ לֶהֱוֵא־לָךְ מַלְכָּא דִּי לאלהיך [לֵאלָהָךְ] לָא־איתינא [אִיתַנָא] פָלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימְתָּ לָא נִסְגֻּד׃ 3.13. Then Nebuchadnezzar in his rage and fury commanded to bring Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego. Then were these men brought before the king." 3.14. Nebuchadnezzar spoke and said unto them: ‘Is it true, O Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, that ye serve not my gods, nor worship the golden image which I have set up?" 3.15. Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and bagpipe, and all kinds of music, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made, well; but if ye worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and who is the god that shall deliver you out of my hands?’" 3.16. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, answered and said to the king: ‘O Nebuchadnezzar, we have no need to answer thee in this matter." 3.17. If our God whom we serve is able to deliver us, He will deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and out of thy hand, O king." 3.18. But if not, be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.’"
3. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.21-6.28, 7.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.21. Those who were in charge of that unlawful sacrifice took the man aside, because of their long acquaintance with him, and privately urged him to bring meat of his own providing, proper for him to use, and pretend that he was eating the flesh of the sacrificial meal which had been commanded by the king,' 6.22. o that by doing this he might be saved from death, and be treated kindly on account of his old friendship with them.' 6.23. But making a high resolve, worthy of his years and the dignity of his old age and the gray hairs which he had reached with distinction and his excellent life even from childhood, and moreover according to the holy God-given law, he declared himself quickly, telling them to send him to Hades.' 6.24. Such pretense is not worthy of our time of life, he said, 'lest many of the young should suppose that Eleazar in his ninetieth year has gone over to an alien religion,' 6.25. and through my pretense, for the sake of living a brief moment longer, they should be led astray because of me, while I defile and disgrace my old age.' 6.26. For even if for the present I should avoid the punishment of men, yet whether I live or die I shall not escape the hands of the Almighty.' 6.27. Therefore, by manfully giving up my life now, I will show myself worthy of my old age' 6.28. and leave to the young a noble example of how to die a good death willingly and nobly for the revered and holy laws.'When he had said this, he went at once to the rack.' 7.1. It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and cords, to partake of unlawful swine's flesh.'
4. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 5, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 8.1-9.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 3.6-3.7, 3.45 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)

3.45.  The three most conspicuous forms of government — governments based on law and justice and enjoying the favour of heaven and fortune — are expressly named. One is the first to come into existence and the most practicable — that which forms the subject of the present address — where we have a city, or a number of peoples, or the whole world, well ordered by one good man's judgment and virtue; second, the so‑called "aristocracy
6. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.3, 18.26, 18.117-18.119 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.3. but the Jews, although at the beginning they took the report of a taxation heinously, yet did they leave off any further opposition to it, by the persuasion of Joazar, who was the son of Beethus, and high priest; so they, being over-persuaded by Joazar’s words, gave an account of their estates, without any dispute about it. 18.3. and because he greatly admired Agrippa’s virtue, in not desiring him at all to augment his own dominions, either with larger revenues, or other authority, but took care of the public tranquillity, of the laws, and of the Divinity itself, he granted him what he had requested. He also wrote thus to Petronius, commending him for his assembling his army, and then consulting him about these affairs. 18.3. When, therefore, those gates were first opened, some of the Samaritans came privately into Jerusalem, and threw about dead men’s bodies, in the cloisters; on which account the Jews afterward excluded them out of the temple, which they had not used to do at such festivals; and on other accounts also they watched the temple more carefully than they had formerly done. 18.26. but Caius prohibited him, and bid him begone; he was also in such a rage, that it openly appeared he was about to do them some very great mischief. So Philo being thus affronted, went out, and said to those Jews who were about him, that they should be of good courage, since Caius’s words indeed showed anger at them, but in reality had already set God against himself. 18.26. 1. When Cyrenius had now disposed of Archelaus’s money, and when the taxings were come to a conclusion, which were made in the thirty-seventh year of Caesar’s victory over Antony at Actium, he deprived Joazar of the high priesthood, which dignity had been conferred on him by the multitude, and he appointed Aus, the son of Seth, to be high priest; 18.117. for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. 18.118. Now when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were very greatly moved [or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion, (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise,) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. 18.119. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God’s displeasure to him.
7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.409, 2.651, 4.161 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.409. At the same time Eleazar, the son of Aias the high priest, a very bold youth, who was at that time governor of the temple, persuaded those that officiated in the Divine service to receive no gift or sacrifice for any foreigner. And this was the true beginning of our war with the Romans; for they rejected the sacrifice of Caesar on this account; 2.651. However, Aus’s concern was this, to lay aside, for a while, the preparations for the war, and to persuade the seditious to consult their own interest, and to restrain the madness of those that had the name of zealots; but their violence was too hard for him; and what end he came to we shall relate hereafter. 4.161. for that was the name they went by, as if they were zealous in good undertakings, and were not rather zealous in the worst actions, and extravagant in them beyond the example of others.
8. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.13, 2.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. Therefore subject yourselves to every ordice of man for the Lord's sake: whether to the king, as supreme; 2.17. Honor all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the king.
9. New Testament, Acts, 12.1, 12.20-12.21, 13.1, 16.14, 17.7, 24.5, 25.8, 25.10-25.14, 25.21, 25.25-25.26, 26.2, 26.19, 26.27, 26.32, 27.24, 28.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12.1. Now about that time, Herod the king stretched out his hands to oppress some of the assembly. 12.20. Now Herod was highly displeased with those of Tyre and Sidon. They came with one accord to him, and, having made Blastus, the king's chamberlain, their friend, they asked for peace, because their country depended on the king's country for food. 12.21. On an appointed day, Herod dressed himself in royal clothing, sat on the throne, and gave a speech to them. 13.1. Now in the assembly that was at Antioch there were some prophets and teachers: Barnabas, Simeon who was called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen the foster-brother of Herod the tetrarch, and Saul. 16.14. A certain woman named Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of Thyatira, one who worshiped God, heard us; whose heart the Lord opened to listen to the things which were spoken by Paul. 17.7. whom Jason has received. These all act contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, Jesus! 24.5. For we have found this man to be a plague, an instigator of insurrections among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes. 25.8. while he said in his defense, "Neither against the law of the Jews, nor against the temple, nor against Caesar, have I sinned at all. 25.10. But Paul said, "I am standing before Caesar's judgment seat, where I ought to be tried. I have done no wrong to the Jews, as you also know very well. 25.11. For if I have done wrong, and have committed anything worthy of death, I don't refuse to die; but if none of those things is true that these accuse me of, no one can give me up to them. I appeal to Caesar! 25.12. Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, "You have appealed to Caesar. To Caesar you will go. 25.13. Now when some days had passed, Agrippa the King and Bernice arrived at Caesarea, and greeted Festus. 25.14. As they stayed there many days, Festus laid Paul's case before the King, saying, "There is a certain man left a prisoner by Felix; 25.21. But when Paul had appealed to be kept for the decision of the emperor, I commanded him to be kept until I could send him to Caesar. 25.25. But when I found that he had committed nothing worthy of death, and as he himself appealed to the emperor I determined to send him. 25.26. of whom I have no certain thing to write to my lord. Therefore I have brought him forth before you, and especially before you, king Agrippa, that, after examination, I may have something to write. 26.2. I think myself happy, King Agrippa, that I am to make my defense before you this day concerning all the things whereof I am accused by the Jews 26.19. Therefore, King Agrippa, I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision 26.27. King Agrippa, do you believe the prophets? I know that you believe. 26.32. Agrippa said to Festus, "This man might have been set free if he had not appealed to Caesar. 27.24. saying, 'Don't be afraid, Paul. You must stand before Caesar. Behold, God has granted you all those who sail with you.' 28.19. But when the Jews spoke against it, I was constrained to appeal to Caesar, not that I had anything about which to accuse my nation.
10. New Testament, Apocalypse, 17.4-17.5, 17.9, 18.11-18.12, 18.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17.4. The woman was dressed in purple and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the impurities of the sexual immorality of the earth. 17.5. And on her forehead a name was written, "MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF THE PROSTITUTES AND OF THE ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH. 17.9. Here is the mind that has wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sits. 18.11. The merchants of the earth weep and mourn over her, for no one buys their merchandise any more; 18.12. merchandise of gold, silver, precious stones, pearls, fine linen, purple, silk, scarlet, all expensive wood, every vessel of ivory, every vessel made of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble; 18.16. saying, 'Woe, woe, the great city, she who was dressed in fine linen, purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls!
11. New Testament, Philippians, 4.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.22. All the saints greet you, especially those who are of Caesar's household.
12. New Testament, John, 4.49, 15.21, 15.25-15.27, 18.13-18.14, 18.19-18.24, 18.28-18.39, 19.1-19.5, 19.12, 19.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.49. The nobleman said to him, "Sir, come down before my child dies. 15.21. But all these things will they do to you for my name's sake, because they don't know him who sent me. 15.25. But this happened so that the word may be fulfilled which was written in their law, 'They hated me without a cause.' 15.26. When the Counselor has come, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will testify about me. 15.27. You will also testify, because you have been with me from the beginning. 18.13. and led him to Annas first, for he was father-in-law to Caiaphas, who was high priest that year. 18.14. Now it was Caiaphas who advised the Jews that it was expedient that one man should perish for the people. 18.19. The high priest therefore asked Jesus about his disciples, and about his teaching. 18.20. Jesus answered him, "I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues, and in the temple, where the Jews always meet. I said nothing in secret. 18.21. Why do you ask me? Ask those who have heard me what I said to them. Behold, these know the things which I said. 18.22. When he had said this, one of the officers standing by slapped Jesus with his hand, saying, "Do you answer the high priest like that? 18.23. Jesus answered him, "If I have spoken evil, testify of the evil; but if well, why do you beat me? 18.24. Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas, the high priest. 18.28. They led Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into the Praetorium. It was early, and they themselves didn't enter into the Praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover. 18.29. Pilate therefore went out to them, and said, "What accusation do you bring against this man? 18.30. They answered him, "If this man weren't an evildoer, we wouldn't have delivered him up to you. 18.31. Pilate therefore said to them, "Take him yourselves, and judge him according to your law."Therefore the Jews said to him, "It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death 18.32. that the word of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spoke, signifying by what kind of death he should die. 18.33. Pilate therefore entered again into the Praetorium, called Jesus, and said to him, "Are you the King of the Jews? 18.34. Jesus answered him, "Do you say this by yourself, or did others tell you about me? 18.35. Pilate answered, "I'm not a Jew, am I? Your own nation and the chief priests delivered you to me. What have you done? 18.36. Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, then my servants would fight, that I wouldn't be delivered to the Jews. But now my kingdom is not from here. 18.37. Pilate therefore said to him, "Are you a king then?"Jesus answered, "You say that I am a king. For this reason I have been born, and for this reason I have come into the world, that I should testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice. 18.38. Pilate said to him, "What is truth?"When he had said this, he went out again to the Jews, and said to them, "I find no basis for a charge against him. 18.39. But you have a custom, that I should release someone to you at the Passover. Therefore do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews? 19.1. So Pilate then took Jesus, and flogged him. 19.2. The soldiers twisted thorns into a crown, and put it on his head, and dressed him in a purple garment. 19.3. They kept saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" and they kept slapping him. 19.4. Then Pilate went out again, and said to them, "Behold, I bring him out to you, that you may know that I find no basis for a charge against him. 19.5. Jesus therefore came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple garment. Pilate said to them, "Behold, the man! 19.12. At this, Pilate was seeking to release him, but the Jews cried out, saying, "If you release this man, you aren't Caesar's friend! Everyone who makes himself a king speaks against Caesar! 19.15. They cried out, "Away with him! Away with him! Crucify him!"Pilate said to them, "Shall I crucify your King?"The chief priests answered, "We have no king but Caesar!
13. New Testament, Luke, 1.5, 2.1, 3.1, 7.1-7.10, 9.51-9.55, 12.10-12.11, 13.1, 14.23, 15.29, 16.19, 17.9, 18.23-18.24, 18.31-18.33, 20.20-20.26, 22.54, 22.63-22.71, 23.1, 23.3-23.25, 23.34-23.40, 23.43-23.44, 24.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the priestly division of Abijah. He had a wife of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. 2.1. Now it happened in those days, that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be enrolled. 3.1. Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene 7.1. After he had finished speaking in the hearing of the people, he entered into Capernaum. 7.2. A certain centurion's servant, who was dear to him, was sick and at the point of death. 7.3. When he heard about Jesus, he sent to him elders of the Jews, asking him to come and save his servant. 7.4. When they came to Jesus, they begged him earnestly, saying, "He is worthy for you to do this for him 7.5. for he loves our nation, and he built our synagogue for us. 7.6. Jesus went with them. When he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying to him, "Lord, don't trouble yourself, for I am not worthy for you to come under my roof. 7.7. Therefore I didn't even think myself worthy to come to you; but say the word, and my servant will be healed. 7.8. For I also am a man placed under authority, having under myself soldiers. I tell this one, 'Go!' and he goes; and to another, 'Come!' and he comes; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it. 7.9. When Jesus heard these things, he marveled at him, and turned and said to the multitude who followed him, "I tell you, I have not found such great faith, no, not in Israel. 7.10. Those who were sent, returning to the house, found that the servant who had been sick was well. 9.51. It came to pass, when the days were near that he should be taken up, he intently set his face to go to Jerusalem 9.52. and sent messengers before his face. They went, and entered into a village of the Samaritans, so as to prepare for him. 9.53. They didn't receive him, because he was traveling with his face set towards Jerusalem. 9.54. When his disciples, James and John, saw this, they said, "Lord, do you want us to command fire to come down from the sky, and destroy them, just as Elijah did? 9.55. But he turned and rebuked them, "You don't know of what kind of spirit you are. 12.10. Everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but those who blaspheme against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven. 12.11. When they bring you before the synagogues, the rulers, and the authorities, don't be anxious how or what you will answer, or what you will say; 13.1. Now there were some present at the same time who told him about the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. 14.23. The lord said to the servant, 'Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled. 15.29. But he answered his father, 'Behold, these many years I have served you, and I never disobeyed a commandment of yours, but you never gave me a goat, that I might celebrate with my friends. 16.19. Now there was a certain rich man, and he was clothed in purple and fine linen, living in luxury every day. 17.9. Does he thank that servant because he did the things that were commanded? I think not. 18.23. But when he heard these things, he became very sad, for he was very rich. 18.24. Jesus, seeing that he became very sad, said, "How hard it is for those who have riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 18.31. He took the twelve aside, and said to them, "Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem, and all the things that are written through the prophets concerning the Son of Man will be completed. 18.32. For he will be delivered up to the Gentiles, will be mocked, treated shamefully, and spit on. 18.33. They will scourge and kill him. On the third day, he will rise again. 20.20. They watched him, and sent out spies, who pretended to be righteous, that they might trap him in something he said, so as to deliver him up to the power and authority of the governor. 20.21. They asked him, "Teacher, we know that you say and teach what is right, and aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. 20.22. Is it lawful for us to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 20.23. But he perceived their craftiness, and said to them, "Why do you test me? 20.24. Show me a denarius. Whose image and inscription are on it?"They answered, "Caesar's. 20.25. He said to them, "Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 20.26. They weren't able to trap him in his words before the people. They marveled at his answer, and were silent. 22.54. They seized him, and led him away, and brought him into the high priest's house. But Peter followed from a distance. 22.63. The men who held Jesus mocked him and beat him. 22.64. Having blindfolded him, they struck him on the face and asked him, "Prophesy! Who is the one who struck you? 22.65. They spoke many other things against him, insulting him. 22.66. As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying 22.67. If you are the Christ, tell us."But he said to them, "If I tell you, you won't believe 22.68. and if I ask, you will in no way answer me or let me go. 22.69. From now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God. 22.70. They all said, "Are you then the Son of God?"He said to them, "You say it, because I AM. 22.71. They said, "Why do we need any more witness? For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth! 23.1. The whole company of them rose up and brought him before Pilate. 23.3. Pilate asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?"He answered him, "So you say. 23.4. Pilate said to the chief priests and the multitudes, "I find no basis for a charge against this man. 23.5. But they insisted, saying, "He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee even to this place. 23.6. But when Pilate heard Galilee mentioned, he asked if the man was a Galilean. 23.7. When he found out that he was in Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem during those days. 23.8. Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceedingly glad, for he had wanted to see him for a long time, because he had heard many things about him. He hoped to see some miracle done by him. 23.9. He questioned him with many words, but he gave no answers. 23.10. The chief priests and the scribes stood, vehemently accusing him. 23.11. Herod with his soldiers humiliated him and mocked him. Dressing him in luxurious clothing, they sent him back to Pilate. 23.12. Herod and Pilate became friends with each other that very day, for before that they were enemies with each other. 23.13. Pilate called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people 23.14. and said to them, "You brought this man to me as one that perverts the people, and see, I have examined him before you, and found no basis for a charge against this man concerning those things of which you accuse him. 23.15. Neither has Herod, for I sent you to him, and see, nothing worthy of death has been done by him. 23.16. I will therefore chastise him and release him. 23.17. Now he had to release one prisoner to them at the feast. 23.18. But they all cried out together, saying, "Away with this man! Release to us Barabbas!" -- 23.19. one who was thrown into prison for a certain revolt in the city, and for murder. 23.20. Then Pilate spoke to them again, wanting to release Jesus 23.21. but they shouted, saying, "Crucify! Crucify him! 23.22. He said to them the third time, "Why? What evil has this man done? I have found no capital crime in him. I will therefore chastise him and release him. 23.23. But they were urgent with loud voices, asking that he might be crucified. Their voices and the voices of the chief priests prevailed. 23.24. Pilate decreed that what they asked for should be done. 23.25. He released him who had been thrown into prison for insurrection and murder, for whom they asked, but he delivered Jesus up to their will. 23.34. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they don't know what they are doing."Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots. 23.35. The people stood watching. The rulers with them also scoffed at him, saying, "He saved others. Let him save himself, if this is the Christ of God, his chosen one! 23.36. The soldiers also mocked him, coming to him and offering him vinegar 23.37. and saying, "If you are the King of the Jews, save yourself! 23.38. An inscription was also written over him in letters of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew: "THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS. 23.39. One of the criminals who was hanged insulted him, saying, "If you are the Christ, save yourself and us! 23.40. But the other answered, and rebuking him said, "Don't you even fear God, seeing you are under the same condemnation? 23.43. Jesus said to him, "Assuredly I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise. 23.44. It was now about the sixth hour, and darkness came over the whole land until the ninth hour. 24.3. They entered in, and didn't find the Lord Jesus' body.
14. New Testament, Mark, 6.14, 6.25, 9.5, 12.13-12.17, 13.9-13.11, 13.21, 14.53, 14.55-14.65, 15.1-15.20, 15.26, 15.29-15.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.14. King Herod heard this, for his name had become known, and he said, "John the Baptizer has risen from the dead, and therefore these powers are at work in him. 6.25. She came in immediately with haste to the king, and asked, "I want you to give me right now the head of John the Baptizer on a platter. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 12.13. They sent some of the Pharisees and of the Herodians to him, that they might trap him with words. 12.14. When they had come, they asked him, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and don't defer to anyone; for you aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 12.15. Shall we give, or shall we not give?"But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said to them, "Why do you test me? Bring me a denarius, that I may see it. 12.16. They brought it. He said to them, "Whose is this image and inscription?"They said to him, "Caesar's. 12.17. Jesus answered them, "Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's."They marveled greatly at him. 13.9. But watch yourselves, for they will deliver you up to councils. You will be beaten in synagogues. You will stand before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them. 13.10. The gospel must first be preached to all the nations. 13.11. When they lead you away and deliver you up, don't be anxious beforehand, or premeditate what you will say, but say whatever will be given you in that hour. For it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit. 13.21. Then if anyone tells you, 'Look, here is the Christ!' or, 'Look, there!' don't believe it. 14.53. They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him. 14.55. Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none. 14.56. For many gave false testimony against him, and their testimony didn't agree with each other. 14.57. Some stood up, and gave false testimony against him, saying 14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.' 14.59. Even so, their testimony did not agree. 14.60. The high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer? What is it which these testify against you? 14.61. But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky. 14.63. The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses? 14.64. You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?" They all condemned him to be worthy of death. 14.65. Some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to beat him with fists, and to tell him, "Prophesy!" The officers struck him with the palms of their hands. 15.1. Immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate. 15.2. Pilate asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?"He answered, "So you say. 15.3. The chief priests accused him of many things. 15.4. Pilate again asked him, "Have you no answer? See how many things they testify against you! 15.5. But Jesus made no further answer, so that Pilate marveled. 15.6. Now at the feast he used to release to them one prisoner, whom they asked of him. 15.7. There was one called Barabbas, bound with those who had made insurrection, men who in the insurrection had committed murder. 15.8. The multitude, crying aloud, began to ask him to do as he always did for them. 15.9. Pilate answered them, saying, "Do you you want me to release to you the King of the Jews? 15.10. For he perceived that for envy the chief priests had delivered him up. 15.11. But the chief priests stirred up the multitude, that he should release Barabbas to them instead. 15.12. Pilate again asked them, "What then should I do to him whom you call the King of the Jews? 15.13. They cried out again, "Crucify him! 15.14. Pilate said to them, "Why, what evil has he done?"But they cried out exceedingly, "Crucify him! 15.15. Pilate, wishing to please the multitude, released Barabbas to them, and handed over Jesus, when he had flogged him, to be crucified. 15.16. The soldiers led him away within the court, which is the Praetorium; and they called together the whole cohort. 15.17. They clothed him with purple, and weaving a crown of thorns, they put it on him. 15.18. They began to salute him, "Hail, King of the Jews! 15.19. They struck his head with a reed, and spat on him, and bowing their knees, did homage to him. 15.20. When they had mocked him, they took the purple off of him, and put his own garments on him. They led him out to crucify him. 15.26. The superscription of his accusation was written over him, "THE KING OF THE JEWS. 15.29. Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying, "Ha! You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days 15.30. save yourself, and come down from the cross! 15.31. Likewise, also the chief priests mocking among themselves with the scribes said, "He saved others. He can't save himself. 15.32. Let the Christ, the King of Israel, now come down from the cross, that we may see and believe him." Those who were crucified with him insulted him.
15. New Testament, Matthew, 2.1, 2.3, 4.17, 4.23, 4.25, 5.1, 6.9-6.13, 7.28, 8.5-8.10, 8.13, 10.5, 10.17-10.18, 11.28-11.30, 22.15-22.22, 26.57, 26.59-26.68, 27.1, 27.3-27.31, 27.39-27.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying 2.3. When Herod the king heard it, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. 4.17. From that time, Jesus began to preach, and to say, "Repent! For the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand. 4.23. Jesus went about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every disease and every sickness among the people. 4.25. Great multitudes from Galilee, Decapolis, Jerusalem, Judea and from beyond the Jordan followed him. 5.1. Seeing the multitudes, he went up onto the mountain. When he had sat down, his disciples came to him. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 7.28. It happened, when Jesus had finished saying these things, that the multitudes were astonished at his teaching 8.5. When he came into Capernaum, a centurion came to him, asking him 8.6. and saying, "Lord, my servant lies in the house paralyzed, grievously tormented. 8.7. Jesus said to him, "I will come and heal him. 8.8. The centurion answered, "Lord, I'm not worthy for you to come under my roof. Just say the word, and my servant will be healed. 8.9. For I am also a man under authority, having under myself soldiers. I tell this one, 'Go,' and he goes; and to another, 'Come,' and he comes; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it. 8.10. When Jesus heard it, he marveled, and said to those who followed, "Most assuredly I tell you, I haven't found so great a faith, not even in Israel. 8.13. Jesus said to the centurion, "Go your way. Let it be done for you as you as you have believed." His servant was healed in that hour. 10.5. Jesus sent these twelve out, and charged them, saying, "Don't go among the Gentiles, and don't enter into any city of the Samaritans. 10.17. But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to councils, and in their synagogues they will scourge you. 10.18. Yes, and you will be brought before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them and to the Gentiles. 11.28. Come to me, all you who labor and are heavily burdened, and I will give you rest. 11.29. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am humble and lowly in heart; and you will find rest for your souls. 11.30. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light. 22.15. Then the Pharisees went and took counsel how they might entrap him in his talk. 22.16. They sent their disciples to him, along with the Herodians, saying, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and teach the way of God in truth, no matter who you teach, for you aren't partial to anyone. 22.17. Tell us therefore, what do you think? Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 22.18. But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, "Why do you test me, you hypocrites? 22.19. Show me the tax money."They brought to him a denarius. 22.20. He asked them, "Whose is this image and inscription? 22.21. They said to him, "Caesar's."Then he said to them, "Give therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. 22.22. When they heard it, they marveled, and left him, and went away. 26.57. Those who had taken Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were gathered together. 26.59. Now the chief priests, the elders, and the whole council sought false testimony against Jesus, that they might put him to death; 26.60. and they found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward, they found none. But at last two false witnesses came forward 26.61. and said, "This man said, 'I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days.' 26.62. The high priest stood up, and said to him, "Have you no answer? What is this that these testify against you? 26.63. But Jesus held his peace. The high priest answered him, "I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you are the Christ, the Son of God. 26.64. Jesus said to him, "You have said it. Nevertheless, I tell you, henceforth you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of the sky. 26.65. Then the high priest tore his clothing, saying, "He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Behold, now you have heard his blasphemy. 26.66. What do you think?"They answered, "He is worthy of death! 26.67. Then they spit in his face and beat him with their fists, and some slapped him 26.68. saying, "Prophesy to us, you Christ! Who hit you? 27.1. Now when morning had come, all the chief priests and the elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: 27.3. Then Judas, who betrayed him, when he saw that Jesus was condemned, felt remorse, and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders 27.4. saying, "I have sinned in that I betrayed innocent blood."But they said, "What is that to us? You see to it. 27.5. He threw down the pieces of silver in the sanctuary, and departed. He went away and hanged himself. 27.6. The chief priests took the pieces of silver, and said, "It's not lawful to put them into the treasury, since it is the price of blood. 27.7. They took counsel, and bought the potter's field with them, to bury strangers in. 27.8. Therefore that field was called "The Field of Blood" to this day. 27.9. Then that which was spoken through Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled, saying, "They took the thirty pieces of silver, The price of him upon whom a price had been set, Whom some of the children of Israel priced 27.10. And they gave them for the potter's field, As the Lord commanded me. 27.11. Now Jesus stood before the governor: and the governor asked him, saying, "Are you the King of the Jews?"Jesus said to him, "So you say. 27.12. When he was accused by the chief priests and elders, he answered nothing. 27.13. Then Pilate said to him, "Don't you hear how many things they testify against you? 27.14. He gave him no answer, not even one word, so that the governor marveled greatly. 27.15. Now at the feast the governor was accustomed to release to the multitude one prisoner, whom they desired. 27.16. They had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas. 27.17. When therefore they were gathered together, Pilate said to them, "Whom do you want me to release to you? Barabbas, or Jesus, who is called Christ? 27.18. For he knew that because of envy they had delivered him up. 27.19. While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, "Have nothing to do with that righteous man, for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him. 27.20. Now the chief priests and the elders persuaded the multitudes to ask for Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. 27.21. But the governor answered them, "Which of the two do you want me to release to you?"They said, "Barabbas! 27.22. Pilate said to them, "What then shall I do to Jesus, who is called Christ?"They all said to him, "Let him be crucified! 27.23. But the governor said, "Why? What evil has he done?"But they cried out exceedingly, saying, "Let him be crucified! 27.24. So when Pilate saw that nothing was being gained, but rather that a disturbance was starting, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, "I am innocent of the blood of this righteous person. You see to it. 27.25. All the people answered, "May his blood be on us, and on our children! 27.26. Then he released to them Barabbas, but Jesus he flogged and delivered to be crucified. 27.27. Then the governor's soldiers took Jesus into the Praetorium, and gathered the whole garrison together against him. 27.28. They stripped him, and put a scarlet robe on him. 27.29. They braided a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and a reed in his right hand; and they kneeled down before him, and mocked him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews! 27.30. They spat on him, and took the reed and struck him on the head. 27.31. When they had mocked him, they took the robe off of him, and put his clothes on him, and led him away to crucify him. 27.39. Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads 27.40. and saying, "You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross! 27.41. Likewise the chief priests also mocking, with the scribes, the Pharisees, and the elders, said 27.42. He saved others, but he can't save himself. If he is the King of Israel, let him come down from the cross now, and we will believe in him. 27.43. He trusts in God. Let God deliver him now, if he wants him; for he said, 'I am the Son of God.'
16. Aelius Aristides, Orations, 26.59-26.62 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Tertullian, To The Heathen, 1.17.2-1.17.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

18. Tertullian, Apology, 21.24, 35.3-35.13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

19. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 5.5.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

5.5.4. Among these is Apolinarius, who says that from that time the legion through whose prayers the wonder took place received from the emperor a title appropriate to the event, being called in the language of the Romans the Thundering Legion.
20. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 2 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
ailios aristeides Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 176
angel Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 217
antioch (syrian) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
apocrypha Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 78
barbarism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 247
ben sira Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 78
caesar Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 78
caesars,roman Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 176
caiaphas Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 368
christians Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 78
claudius apollinaris Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 176
constantine the great Ruiz and Puertas (2021), Emperors and Emperorship in Late Antiquity: Images and Narratives, 87
david Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 78
decius (emperor) Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 368
diadem (imperial insignia) Ruiz and Puertas (2021), Emperors and Emperorship in Late Antiquity: Images and Narratives, 87
diodoros sikeliotes Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 176
dion of prousa Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 176
egyptian Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
eleazar (son of high-priest ananias) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
epiktetos Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 176
felix Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
fourth philosophy (josephus) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
galilee Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
golan Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
gospel,of matthew Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 118
halourgis Ruiz and Puertas (2021), Emperors and Emperorship in Late Antiquity: Images and Narratives, 87
high (chief) priest Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
jesus,matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 118
jesus,teaching of,as teacher Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 118
jesus Ruiz and Puertas (2021), Emperors and Emperorship in Late Antiquity: Images and Narratives, 87
joazar (son of boethus) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
john (the baptist) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
josephus Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
judaea (roman province; see also yehud) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
justice Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 118
law and prophets Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 217
lords prayer,matthean Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 118
luke,as historian Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 757
luke,competence of jewish authorities Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 757
luke,gospel of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 247
luke,jesus Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 757
luke,jesus before sanhedrin Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 757
luke,trial of jesus Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 757
luke Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
marcion Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 757
martyr and martyrdom, jesus as Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 247
martyr and martyrdom, jewish Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 247
martyr and martyrdom, maccabean' Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 247
martyr and martyrdom Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 247
messiah Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 217; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
messianic Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
new testament Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 176
nicaea (council of) Ruiz and Puertas (2021), Emperors and Emperorship in Late Antiquity: Images and Narratives, 87
panegyric Ruiz and Puertas (2021), Emperors and Emperorship in Late Antiquity: Images and Narratives, 87
paul of tarsus Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 368
peter (cephas,simon –) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
pilate Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 217
pliny the younger Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 368
plutarch Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 176
pontius pilate Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 368; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
purple Ruiz and Puertas (2021), Emperors and Emperorship in Late Antiquity: Images and Narratives, 87
purple in the judeo-christian tradition Ruiz and Puertas (2021), Emperors and Emperorship in Late Antiquity: Images and Narratives, 87
quirinius Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
rabbi eleazar b. r. yose,4 ezra Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 247
revolt/war,under nero (great ~) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
rhetoric,rhetorical Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
roman empire,judicial procedure Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 757
roman empire,local security services Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 757
roman empire,unity of the Stanton (2021), Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace, 176
samaritans Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 118
sanhedrin Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 757; Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 247
sermon of the mount Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 118
sicarii Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
silas Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 368
temple Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 757; Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 217
theudas Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574
trajan Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 368
zealot,zealots Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 574