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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8256
New Testament, Luke, 2.49


καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Τί ὅτι ἐζητεῖτέ με; οὐκ ᾔδειτε ὅτι ἐν τοῖς τοῦ πατρός μου δεῖ εἶναί με;He said to them, "Why were you looking for me? Didn't you know that I must be in my Father's house?


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

42 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.22. וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה אוֹתֹת וּמֹפְתִים גְּדֹלִים וְרָעִים בְּמִצְרַיִם בְּפַרְעֹה וּבְכָל־בֵּיתוֹ לְעֵינֵינוּ׃ 6.22. And the LORD showed signs and wonders, great and sore, upon Egypt, upon Pharaoh, and upon all his house, before our eyes."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.1-2.10, 15.22-15.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. וַיִגְדַּל הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּבִאֵהוּ לְבַת־פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי־לָהּ לְבֵן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מֹשֶׁה וַתֹּאמֶר כִּי מִן־הַמַּיִם מְשִׁיתִהוּ׃ 2.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ אִישׁ מִבֵּית לֵוִי וַיִּקַּח אֶת־בַּת־לֵוִי׃ 2.2. וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתֵּרֶא אֹתוֹ כִּי־טוֹב הוּא וַתִּצְפְּנֵהוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה יְרָחִים׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־בְּנֹתָיו וְאַיּוֹ לָמָּה זֶּה עֲזַבְתֶּן אֶת־הָאִישׁ קִרְאֶן לוֹ וְיֹאכַל לָחֶם׃ 2.3. וְלֹא־יָכְלָה עוֹד הַצְּפִינוֹ וַתִּקַּח־לוֹ תֵּבַת גֹּמֶא וַתַּחְמְרָה בַחֵמָר וּבַזָּפֶת וַתָּשֶׂם בָּהּ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וַתָּשֶׂם בַּסּוּף עַל־שְׂפַת הַיְאֹר׃ 2.4. וַתֵּתַצַּב אֲחֹתוֹ מֵרָחֹק לְדֵעָה מַה־יֵּעָשֶׂה לוֹ׃ 2.5. וַתֵּרֶד בַּת־פַּרְעֹה לִרְחֹץ עַל־הַיְאֹר וְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ הֹלְכֹת עַל־יַד הַיְאֹר וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־הַתֵּבָה בְּתוֹךְ הַסּוּף וַתִּשְׁלַח אֶת־אֲמָתָהּ וַתִּקָּחֶהָ 2.6. וַתִּפְתַּח וַתִּרְאֵהוּ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וְהִנֵּה־נַעַר בֹּכֶה וַתַּחְמֹל עָלָיו וַתֹּאמֶר מִיַּלְדֵי הָעִבְרִים זֶה׃ 2.7. וַתֹּאמֶר אֲחֹתוֹ אֶל־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה הַאֵלֵךְ וְקָרָאתִי לָךְ אִשָּׁה מֵינֶקֶת מִן הָעִבְרִיֹּת וְתֵינִק לָךְ אֶת־הַיָּלֶד׃ 2.8. וַתֹּאמֶר־לָהּ בַּת־פַּרְעֹה לֵכִי וַתֵּלֶךְ הָעַלְמָה וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־אֵם הַיָּלֶד׃ 2.9. וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ בַּת־פַּרְעֹה הֵילִיכִי אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד הַזֶּה וְהֵינִקִהוּ לִי וַאֲנִי אֶתֵּן אֶת־שְׂכָרֵךְ וַתִּקַּח הָאִשָּׁה הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּנִיקֵהוּ׃ 15.22. וַיַּסַּע מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּם־סוּף וַיֵּצְאוּ אֶל־מִדְבַּר־שׁוּר וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת־יָמִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וְלֹא־מָצְאוּ מָיִם׃ 15.23. וַיָּבֹאוּ מָרָתָה וְלֹא יָכְלוּ לִשְׁתֹּת מַיִם מִמָּרָה כִּי מָרִים הֵם עַל־כֵּן קָרָא־שְׁמָהּ מָרָה׃ 15.24. וַיִּלֹּנוּ הָעָם עַל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר מַה־נִּשְׁתֶּה׃ 15.25. וַיִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה וַיּוֹרֵהוּ יְהוָה עֵץ וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶל־הַמַּיִם וַיִּמְתְּקוּ הַמָּיִם שָׁם שָׂם לוֹ חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט וְשָׁם נִסָּהוּ׃ 2.1. And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a daughter of Levi." 2.2. And the woman conceived, and bore a son; and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months." 2.3. And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch; and she put the child therein, and laid it in the flags by the river’s brink." 2.4. And his sister stood afar off, to know what would be done to him." 2.5. And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to bathe in the river; and her maidens walked along by the river-side; and she saw the ark among the flags, and sent her handmaid to fetch it." 2.6. And she opened it, and saw it, even the child; and behold a boy that wept. And she had compassion on him, and said: ‘This is one of the Hebrews’children.’" 2.7. Then said his sister to Pharaoh’s daughter: ‘Shall I go and call thee a nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for thee?’" 2.8. And Pharaoh’s daughter said to her: ‘Go.’ And the maiden went and called the child’s mother." 2.9. And Pharaoh’s daughter said unto her: ‘Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages.’ And the woman took the child, and nursed it." 2.10. And the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. And she called his name Moses, and said: ‘Because I drew him out of the water.’" 15.22. And Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water." 15.23. And when they came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters of Marah, for they were bitter. Therefore the name of it was called Marah." 15.24. And the people murmured against Moses, saying: ‘What shall we drink?’" 15.25. And he cried unto the LORD; and the LORD showed him a tree, and he cast it into the waters, and the waters were made sweet. There He made for them a statute and an ordice, and there He proved them;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.17, 24.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.17. וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וְעָשְׂתָה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְלֹא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 24.5. וְלָקַחְתָּ סֹלֶת וְאָפִיתָ אֹתָהּ שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה חַלּוֹת שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים יִהְיֶה הַחַלָּה הָאֶחָת׃ 5.17. And if any one sin, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity." 24.5. And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake twelve cakes thereof: two tenth parts of an ephah shall be in one cake."
4. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 36.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

36.11. מְשֹׁךְ חַסְדְּךָ לְיֹדְעֶיךָ וְצִדְקָתְךָ לְיִשְׁרֵי־לֵב׃ 36.11. O continue Thy lovingkindness unto them that know Thee; And Thy righteousness to the upright in heart."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 3.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.1. וַיָּבֹא יְהוָה וַיִּתְיַצַּב וַיִּקְרָא כְפַעַם־בְּפַעַם שְׁמוּאֵל שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל דַּבֵּר כִּי שֹׁמֵעַ עַבְדֶּךָ׃ 3.1. וְהַנַּעַר שְׁמוּאֵל מְשָׁרֵת אֶת־יְהוָה לִפְנֵי עֵלִי וּדְבַר־יְהוָה הָיָה יָקָר בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם אֵין חָזוֹן נִפְרָץ׃ 3.1. And the child Shemu᾽el ministered to the Lord before ῾Eli. And the word of the Lord was precious in those days; there was no frequent vision."
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9-6.10, 7.14, 7.16, 8.4, 9.5-9.6, 40.5, 59.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 7.14. לָכֵן יִתֵּן אֲדֹנָי הוּא לָכֶם אוֹת הִנֵּה הָעַלְמָה הָרָה וְיֹלֶדֶת בֵּן וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ עִמָּנוּ אֵל׃ 7.16. כִּי בְּטֶרֶם יֵדַע הַנַּעַר מָאֹס בָּרָע וּבָחֹר בַּטּוֹב תֵּעָזֵב הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה קָץ מִפְּנֵי שְׁנֵי מְלָכֶיהָ׃ 8.4. כִּי בְּטֶרֶם יֵדַע הַנַּעַר קְרֹא אָבִי וְאִמִּי יִשָּׂא אֶת־חֵיל דַּמֶּשֶׂק וְאֵת שְׁלַל שֹׁמְרוֹן לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר׃ 9.5. כִּי־יֶלֶד יֻלַּד־לָנוּ בֵּן נִתַּן־לָנוּ וַתְּהִי הַמִּשְׂרָה עַל־שִׁכְמוֹ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ פֶּלֶא יוֹעֵץ אֵל גִּבּוֹר אֲבִיעַד שַׂר־שָׁלוֹם׃ 9.6. לםרבה [לְמַרְבֵּה] הַמִּשְׂרָה וּלְשָׁלוֹם אֵין־קֵץ עַל־כִּסֵּא דָוִד וְעַל־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ לְהָכִין אֹתָהּ וּלְסַעֲדָהּ בְּמִשְׁפָּט וּבִצְדָקָה מֵעַתָּה וְעַד־עוֹלָם קִנְאַת יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה־זֹּאת׃ 40.5. וְנִגְלָה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה וְרָאוּ כָל־בָּשָׂר יַחְדָּו כִּי פִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃ 59.17. וַיִּלְבַּשׁ צְדָקָה כַּשִּׁרְיָן וְכוֹבַע יְשׁוּעָה בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּלְבַּשׁ בִּגְדֵי נָקָם תִּלְבֹּשֶׁת וַיַּעַט כַּמְעִיל קִנְאָה׃ 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’" 7.14. Therefore the Lord Himself shall give you a sign: behold, the young woman shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel." 7.16. Yea, before the child shall know to refuse the evil, and choose the good, the land whose two kings thou hast a horror of shall be forsaken." 8.4. For before the child shall have knowledge to cry: My father, and: My mother, the riches of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria shall be carried away before the king of Assyria.’" 9.5. For a child is born unto us, a son is given unto us; and the government is upon his shoulder; and his name is called Pele-joez-el-gibbor Abi-ad-sar-shalom;" 9.6. That the government may be increased, and of peace there be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to establish it, and to uphold it through justice and through righteousness From henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts doth perform this." 40.5. And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together; for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.’" 59.17. And He put on righteousness as a coat of mail, And a helmet of salvation upon His head, And He put on garments of vengeance for clothing, And was clad with zeal as a cloak."
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 13.3-13.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13.3. וַיֵּרָא מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָה אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ הִנֵּה־נָא אַתְּ־עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלַדְתְּ וְהָרִית וְיָלַדְתְּ בֵּן׃ 13.4. וְעַתָּה הִשָּׁמְרִי נָא וְאַל־תִּשְׁתִּי יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר וְאַל־תֹּאכְלִי כָּל־טָמֵא׃ 13.5. כִּי הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן וּמוֹרָה לֹא־יַעֲלֶה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ כִּי־נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים יִהְיֶה הַנַּעַר מִן־הַבָּטֶן וְהוּא יָחֵל לְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּד פְּלִשְׁתִּים׃ 13.3. And the angel of the Lord appeared to the woman, and said to her, Behold now, thou art barren, and bearest not: but thou shalt conceive, and bear a son." 13.4. Now therefore beware, I pray thee, and drink neither wine nor strong drink, and eat no unclean thing:" 13.5. for, lo, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and no razor shall come on his head: for the child shall be a Nazir to God from the womb: and he shall begin to deliver Yisra᾽el out of the hand of the Pelishtim."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 11.1-11.4 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.1. וַיִּקָּבְצוּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־דָּוִיד חֶבְרוֹנָה לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה עַצְמְךָ וּבְשָׂרְךָ אֲנָחְנוּ׃ 11.1. וְאֵלֶּה רָאשֵׁי הַגִּבּוֹרִים אֲשֶׁר לְדָוִיד הַמִּתְחַזְּקִים עִמּוֹ בְמַלְכוּתוֹ עִם־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַמְלִיכוֹ כִּדְבַר יְהוָה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 11.2. וְאַבְשַׁי אֲחִי־יוֹאָב הוּא הָיָה רֹאשׁ הַשְּׁלוֹשָׁה וְהוּא עוֹרֵר אֶת־חֲנִיתוֹ עַל־שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת חָלָל ולא־[וְלוֹ־] שֵׁם בַּשְּׁלוֹשָׁה׃ 11.2. גַּם־תְּמוֹל גַּם־שִׁלְשׁוֹם גַּם בִּהְיוֹת שָׁאוּל מֶלֶךְ אַתָּה הַמּוֹצִיא וְהַמֵּבִיא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ אַתָּה תִרְעֶה אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאַתָּה תִּהְיֶה נָגִיד עַל עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 11.3. וַיָּבֹאוּ כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ חֶבְרוֹנָה וַיִּכְרֹת לָהֶם דָּוִיד בְּרִית בְּחֶבְרוֹן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיִּמְשְׁחוּ אֶת־דָּוִיד לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּדְבַר יְהוָה בְּיַד־שְׁמוּאֵל׃ 11.3. מַהְרַי הַנְּטֹפָתִי חֵלֶד בֶּן־בַּעֲנָה הַנְּטוֹפָתִי׃ 11.4. וַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִיד וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל יְרוּשָׁלִַם הִיא יְבוּס וְשָׁם הַיְבוּסִי יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.4. עִירָא הַיִּתְרִי גָּרֵב הַיִּתְרִי׃ 11.1. Then all Israel gathered themselves to David unto Hebron, saying: ‘Behold, we are thy bone and thy flesh." 11.2. In times past, even when Saul was king, it was thou that didst lead out and bring in Israel; and the LORD thy God said unto thee: Thou shalt feed My people Israel, and thou shalt be prince over My people Israel.’" 11.3. So all the elders of Israel came to the king to Hebron; and David made a covet with them in Hebron before the LORD; and they anointed David king over Israel, according to the word of the LORD by the hand of Samuel." 11.4. And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem—the same is Jebus—and the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, were there."
11. Herodotus, Histories, 2.161, 8.53 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.161. Psammis reigned over Egypt for only six years; he invaded Ethiopia, and immediately thereafter died, and Apries the son of Psammis reigned in his place. ,He was more fortunate than any former king (except his great-grandfather Psammetichus) during his rule of twenty-five years, during which he sent an army against Sidon and fought at sea with the king of Tyre . ,But when it was fated that evil should overtake him, the cause of it was something that I will now deal with briefly, and at greater length in the Libyan part of this history. ,Apries sent a great force against Cyrene and suffered a great defeat. The Egyptians blamed him for this and rebelled against him; for they thought that Apries had knowingly sent his men to their doom, so that after their perishing in this way he might be the more secure in his rule over the rest of the Egyptians. Bitterly angered by this, those who returned home and the friends of the slain openly revolted. 8.53. In time a way out of their difficulties was revealed to the barbarians, since according to the oracle all the mainland of Attica had to become subject to the Persians. In front of the acropolis, and behind the gates and the ascent, was a place where no one was on guard, since no one thought any man could go up that way. Here some men climbed up, near the sacred precinct of Cecrops' daughter Aglaurus, although the place was a sheer cliff. ,When the Athenians saw that they had ascended to the acropolis, some threw themselves off the wall and were killed, and others fled into the chamber. The Persians who had come up first turned to the gates, opened them, and murdered the suppliants. When they had levelled everything, they plundered the sacred precinct and set fire to the entire acropolis.
12. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 3.89.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.89.5. The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, and suddenly recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see how such an accident could happen.
13. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 47.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

47.11. The Lord took away his sins,and exalted his power for ever;he gave him the covet of kings and a throne of glory in Israel.
14. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.17-2.18, 12.19, 16.28, 47.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.17. Let us see if his words are true,and let us test what will happen at the end of his life; 2.18. for if the righteous man is Gods son, he will help him,and will deliver him from the hand of his adversaries. 12.19. Through such works thou has taught thy people that the righteous man must be kind,and thou hast filled thy sons with good hope,because thou givest repentance for sins. 16.28. to make it known that one must rise before the sun to give thee thanks,and must pray to thee at the dawning of the light;
15. Josephus Flavius, Life, 9, 11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.7, 15.1-15.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.7. Yet I wish that all men were like me. However each man has his own giftfrom God, one of this kind, and another of that kind. 15.1. Now I declare to you, brothers, the gospel which I preachedto you, which also you received, in which you also stand 15.2. bywhich also you are saved, if you hold firmly the word which I preachedto you -- unless you believed in vain.
17. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. Finally then, brothers, we beg and exhort you in the Lord Jesus, that as you received from us how you ought to walk and to please God, that you abound more and more.
18. New Testament, Acts, 1.14, 1.16, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.23, 3, 3.13, 3.18, 3.21, 3.25, 4, 4.12, 4.28, 5, 5.29, 5.39, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 7, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.39, 7.40, 7.41, 7.42, 7.43, 7.44, 7.45, 7.46, 7.47, 7.48, 7.49, 7.50, 7.51, 7.52, 7.53, 7.60, 9.2, 13.27, 14.22, 15.5, 15.15, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.17, 16.30, 17.3, 18.25, 18.26, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.9, 19.21, 19.23, 20.5-21.18, 20.35, 22.4, 23.11, 24.14, 24.19, 24.22, 25.10, 26.9, 27, 27.24, 28, 28.16, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.26, 28.27, 28.28, 28.29, 28.30, 28.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.14. All these with one accord continued steadfastly in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers.
19. New Testament, Ephesians, 6.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.17. And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God;
20. New Testament, Galatians, 1.11, 1.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. But Imake known to you, brothers, concerning the gospel which was preachedby me, that it is not according to man. 1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers.
21. New Testament, Hebrews, 5.5-5.6, 5.9-5.10, 12.7-12.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.5. So also Christ didn't glorify himself to be made a high priest, but it was he who said to him, "You are my Son. Today I have become your father. 5.6. As he says also in another place, "You are a priest forever, After the order of Melchizedek. 5.9. Having been made perfect, he became to all of those who obey him the author of eternal salvation 5.10. named by God a high priest after the order of Melchizedek. 12.7. It is for discipline that you endure. God deals with you as with sons, for what son is there whom his father doesn't discipline? 12.8. But if you are without discipline, whereof all have been made partakers, then are you illegitimate, and not sons.
22. New Testament, Romans, 1.18, 2.16, 3.5, 3.30, 4.15, 5.7, 5.9, 5.20, 8.29, 9.22, 12.3, 12.19, 13.4-13.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness 2.16. in the day when God will judge the secrets of men, according to my gospel, by Jesus Christ. 3.5. But if our unrighteousness commends the righteousness of God, what will we say? Is God unrighteous who inflicts wrath? I speak like men do. 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 4.15. For the law works wrath, for where there is no law, neither is there disobedience. 5.7. For one will hardly die for a righteous man. Yet perhaps for a righteous person someone would even dare to die. 5.9. Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we will be saved from God's wrath through him. 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 9.22. What if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath made for destruction 12.3. For I say, through the grace that was given me, to every man who is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think; but to think reasonably, as God has apportioned to each person a measure of faith. 12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 13.4. for he is a servant of God to you for good. But if you do that which is evil, be afraid, for he doesn't bear the sword in vain; for he is a minister of God, an avenger for wrath to him who does evil. 13.5. Therefore you need to be in subjection, not only because of the wrath, but also for conscience' sake.
23. New Testament, John, 2.12-2.22, 3.35, 5.17, 5.19-5.23, 5.26, 5.43, 6.1-6.15, 6.32, 6.40, 7.16-7.18, 8.19, 8.49, 10.25, 10.29, 12.47-12.50, 14.7, 14.13, 15.1, 15.8, 20.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.12. After this, he went down to Capernaum, he, and his mother, his brothers, and his disciples; and they stayed there a few days. 2.13. The Passover of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 2.14. He found in the temple those who sold oxen, sheep, and doves, and the changers of money sitting. 2.15. He made a whip of cords, and threw all out of the temple, both the sheep and the oxen; and he poured out the changers' money, and overthrew their tables. 2.16. To those who sold the doves, he said, "Take these things out of here! Don't make my Father's house a marketplace! 2.17. His disciples remembered that it was written, "Zeal for your house will eat me up. 2.18. The Jews therefore answered him, "What sign do you show us, seeing that you do these things? 2.19. Jesus answered them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. 2.20. The Jews therefore said, "Forty-six years was this temple in building, and will you raise it up in three days? 2.21. But he spoke of the temple of his body. 2.22. When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he said this, and they believed the Scripture, and the word which Jesus had said. 3.35. The Father loves the Son, and has given all things into his hand. 5.17. But Jesus answered them, "My Father is still working, so I am working, too. 5.19. Jesus therefore answered them, "Most assuredly, I tell you, the Son can do nothing of himself, but what he sees the Father doing. For whatever things he does, these the Son also does likewise. 5.20. For the Father has affection for the Son, and shows him all things that he himself does. He will show him greater works than these, that you may marvel. 5.21. For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son also gives life to whom he desires. 5.22. For the Father judges no one, but he has given all judgment to the Son 5.23. that all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. He who doesn't honor the Son doesn't honor the Father who sent him. 5.26. For as the Father has life in himself, even so he gave to the Son also to have life in himself. 5.43. I have come in my Father's name, and you don't receive me. If another comes in his own name, you will receive him. 6.1. After these things, Jesus went away to the other side of the sea of Galilee, which is also called the Sea of Tiberias. 6.2. A great multitude followed him, because they saw his signs which he did on those who were sick. 6.3. Jesus went up into the mountain, and he sat there with his disciples. 6.4. Now the Passover, the feast of the Jews, was at hand. 6.5. Jesus therefore lifting up his eyes, and seeing that a great multitude was coming to him, said to Philip, "Where are we to buy bread, that these may eat? 6.6. This he said to test him, for he himself knew what he would do. 6.7. Philip answered him, "Two hundred denarii worth of bread is not sufficient for them, that everyone of them may receive a little. 6.8. One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, said to him 6.9. There is a boy here who has five barley loaves and two fish, but what are these among so many? 6.10. Jesus said, "Have the people sit down." Now there was much grass in that place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand. 6.11. Jesus took the loaves; and having given thanks, he distributed to the disciples, and the disciples to those who were sitting down; likewise also of the fish as much as they desired. 6.12. When they were filled, he said to his disciples, "Gather up the broken pieces which are left over, that nothing be lost. 6.13. So they gathered them up, and filled twelve baskets with broken pieces from the five barley loaves, which were left over by those who had eaten. 6.14. When therefore the people saw the sign which Jesus did, they said, "This is truly the prophet who comes into the world. 6.15. Jesus therefore, perceiving that they were about to come and take him by force, to make him king, withdrew again to the mountain by himself. 6.32. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly, I tell you, it wasn't Moses who gave you the bread out of heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread out of heaven. 6.40. This is the will of the one who sent me, that everyone who sees the Son, and believes in him, should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day. 7.16. Jesus therefore answered them, "My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me. 7.17. If anyone desires to do his will, he will know about the teaching, whether it is from God, or if I am speaking from myself. 7.18. He who speaks from himself seeks his own glory, but he who seeks the glory of him who sent him, the same is true, and no unrighteousness is in him. 8.19. They said therefore to him, "Where is your Father?"Jesus answered, "You know neither me, nor my Father. If you knew me, you would know my Father also. 8.49. Jesus answered, "I don't have a demon, but I honor my Father, and you dishonor me. 10.25. Jesus answered them, "I told you, and you don't believe. The works that I do in my Father's name, these testify about me. 10.29. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all. No one is able to snatch them out of my Father's hand. 12.47. If anyone listens to my sayings, and doesn't believe, I don't judge him. For I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. 12.48. He who rejects me, and doesn't receive my sayings, has one who judges him. The word that I spoke, the same will judge him in the last day. 12.49. For I spoke not from myself, but the Father who sent me, he gave me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak. 12.50. I know that his commandment is eternal life. The things therefore which I speak, even as the Father has said to me, so I speak. 14.7. If you had known me, you would have known my Father also. From now on, you know him, and have seen him. 14.13. Whatever you will ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. 15.1. I am the true vine, and my Father is the farmer. 15.8. In this is my Father glorified, that you bear much fruit; and so you will be my disciples. 20.27. Then he said to Thomas, "Reach here your finger, and see my hands. Reach here your hand, and put it into my side. Don't be unbelieving, but believing.
24. New Testament, Luke, 1.1-1.23, 1.26-1.36, 1.38-1.57, 1.63, 1.80, 2.1-2.48, 2.50-2.52, 3.6, 3.12-3.13, 3.21-3.23, 4.1-4.21, 4.23, 4.43, 7.35, 9.10-9.17, 9.22, 9.31, 9.51, 10.22, 10.26, 11.1-11.13, 11.27-11.28, 11.31, 11.49-11.51, 12.12, 12.15-12.16, 13.16, 13.33-13.34, 14.7-14.11, 14.23, 15.22, 17.25, 18.1, 19.5, 19.13, 19.45-19.48, 21.9, 21.15, 21.24, 22.7, 22.16, 22.29, 22.37, 23.44, 23.47, 23.49, 23.55-23.56, 24.5, 24.10, 24.17-24.18, 24.25, 24.32, 24.44, 24.49-24.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us 1.2. even as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us 1.3. it seemed good to me also, having traced the course of all things accurately from the first, to write to you in order, most excellent Theophilus; 1.4. that you might know the certainty concerning the things in which you were instructed. 1.5. There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the priestly division of Abijah. He had a wife of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. 1.6. They were both righteous before God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and ordices of the Lord. 1.7. But they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren, and they both were well advanced in years. 1.8. Now it happened, while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his division 1.9. according to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to enter into the temple of the Lord and burn incense. 1.10. The whole multitude of the people were praying outside at the hour of incense. 1.11. An angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. 1.12. Zacharias was troubled when he saw him, and fear fell upon him. 1.13. But the angel said to him, "Don't be afraid, Zacharias, because your request has been heard, and your wife, Elizabeth, will bear you a son, and you shall call his name John. 1.14. You will have joy and gladness; and many will rejoice at his birth. 1.15. For he will be great in the sight of the Lord, and he will drink no wine nor strong drink. He will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. 1.16. He will turn many of the children of Israel to the Lord, their God. 1.17. He will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah, 'to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children,' and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord. 1.18. Zacharias said to the angel, "How can I be sure of this? For I am an old man, and my wife is well advanced in years. 1.19. The angel answered him, "I am Gabriel, who stands in the presence of God. I was sent to speak to you, and to bring you this good news. 1.20. Behold, you will be silent and not able to speak, until the day that these things will happen, because you didn't believe my words, which will be fulfilled in their proper time. 1.21. The people were waiting for Zacharias, and they marveled that he delayed in the temple. 1.22. When he came out, he could not speak to them, and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple. He continued making signs to them, and remained mute. 1.23. It happened, when the days of his service were fulfilled, he departed to his house. 1.26. Now in the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee, named Nazareth 1.27. to a virgin pledged to be married to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's name was Mary. 1.28. Having come in, the angel said to her, "Rejoice, you highly favored one! The Lord is with you. Blessed are you among women! 1.29. But when she saw him, she was greatly troubled at the saying, and considered what kind of salutation this might be. 1.30. The angel said to her, "Don't be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. 1.31. Behold, you will conceive in your womb, and bring forth a son, and will call his name 'Jesus.' 1.32. He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father, David 1.33. and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever. There will be no end to his kingdom. 1.34. Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, seeing I am a virgin? 1.35. The angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God. 1.36. Behold, Elizabeth, your relative, also has conceived a son in her old age; and this is the sixth month with her who was called barren. 1.38. Mary said, "Behold, the handmaid of the Lord; be it to me according to your word."The angel departed from her. 1.39. Mary arose in those days and went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Judah 1.40. and entered into the house of Zacharias and greeted Elizabeth. 1.41. It happened, when Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, that the baby leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit. 1.42. She called out with a loud voice, and said, "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb! 1.43. Why am I so favored, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? 1.44. For behold, when the voice of your greeting came into my ears, the baby leaped in my womb for joy! 1.45. Blessed is she who believed, for there will be a fulfillment of the things which have been spoken to her from the Lord! 1.46. Mary said, "My soul magnifies the Lord. 1.47. My spirit has rejoiced in God my Savior 1.48. For he has looked at the humble state of his handmaid. For behold, from now on, all generations will call me blessed. 1.49. For he who is mighty has done great things for me. Holy is his name. 1.50. His mercy is for generations of generations on those who fear him. 1.51. He has shown strength with his arm. He has scattered the proud in the imagination of their heart. 1.52. He has put down princes from their thrones. And has exalted the lowly. 1.53. He has filled the hungry with good things. He has sent the rich away empty. 1.54. He has given help to Israel, his servant, that he might remember mercy 1.55. As he spoke to our fathers, To Abraham and his seed forever. 1.56. Mary stayed with her about three months, and then returned to her house. 1.57. Now the time that Elizabeth should give birth was fulfilled, and she brought forth a son. 1.63. He asked for a writing tablet, and wrote, "His name is John."They all marveled. 1.80. The child was growing, and becoming strong in spirit, and was in the desert until the day of his public appearance to Israel. 2.1. Now it happened in those days, that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be enrolled. 2.2. This was the first enrollment made when Quirinius was governor of Syria. 2.3. All went to enroll themselves, everyone to his own city. 2.4. Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David; 2.5. to enroll himself with Mary, who was pledged to be married to him as wife, being great with child. 2.6. It happened, while they were there, that the day had come that she should give birth. 2.7. She brought forth her firstborn son, and she wrapped him in bands of cloth, and laid him in a feeding trough, because there was no room for them in the inn. 2.8. There were shepherds in the same country staying in the field, and keeping watch by night over their flock. 2.9. Behold, an angel of the Lord stood by them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were terrified. 2.10. The angel said to them, "Don't be afraid, for behold, I bring you good news of great joy which will be to all the people. 2.11. For there is born to you, this day, in the city of David, a Savior, who is Christ the Lord. 2.12. This is the sign to you: you will find a baby wrapped in strips of cloth, lying in a feeding trough. 2.13. Suddenly, there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying 2.14. Glory to God in the highest, On earth peace, good will toward men. 2.15. It happened, when the angels went away from them into the sky, that the shepherds said one to another, "Let's go to Bethlehem, now, and see this thing that has happened, which the Lord has made known to us. 2.16. They came with haste, and found both Mary and Joseph, and the baby lying in the feeding trough. 2.17. When they saw it, they publicized widely the saying which was spoken to them about this child. 2.18. All who heard it wondered at the things which were spoken to them by the shepherds. 2.19. But Mary kept all these sayings, pondering them in her heart. 2.20. The shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, just as it was told them. 2.21. When eight days were fulfilled for the circumcision of the child, his name was called Jesus, which was given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb. 2.22. When the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were fulfilled, they brought him up to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord 2.23. (as it is written in the law of the Lord, "Every male who opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord") 2.24. and to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, "A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons. 2.25. Behold, there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon; and this man was righteous and devout, looking for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was on him. 2.26. It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death before he had seen the Lord's Christ. 2.27. He came in the Spirit into the temple. When the parents brought in the child, Jesus, that they might do concerning him according to the custom of the law 2.28. then he received him into his arms, and blessed God, and said 2.29. Now you are releasing your servant, Master, According to your word, in peace; 2.30. For my eyes have seen your salvation 2.31. Which you have prepared before the face of all peoples; 2.32. A light for revelation to the Gentiles, And the glory of your people Israel. 2.33. Joseph and his mother were marveling at the things which were spoken concerning him 2.34. and Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother, "Behold, this child is set for the falling and the rising of many in Israel, and for a sign which is spoken against. 2.35. Yes, a sword will pierce through your own soul, that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed. 2.36. There was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was of a great age, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity 2.37. and she had been a widow for about eighty-four years), who didn't depart from the temple, worshipping with fastings and petitions night and day. 2.38. Coming up at that very hour, she gave thanks to the Lord, and spoke of him to all those who were looking for redemption in Jerusalem. 2.39. When they had accomplished all things that were according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own city, Nazareth. 2.40. The child was growing, and was becoming strong in spirit, being filled with wisdom, and the grace of God was upon him. 2.41. His parents went every year to Jerusalem at the feast of the Passover. 2.42. When he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem according to the custom of the feast 2.43. and when they had fulfilled the days, as they were returning, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem. Joseph and his mother didn't know it 2.44. but supposing him to be in the company, they went a day's journey, and they looked for him among their relatives and acquaintances. 2.45. When they didn't find him, they returned to Jerusalem, looking for him. 2.46. It happened after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, both listening to them, and asking them questions. 2.47. All who heard him were amazed at his understanding and his answers. 2.48. When they saw him, they were astonished, and his mother said to him, "Son, why have you treated us this way? Behold, your father and I were anxiously looking for you. 2.50. They didn't understand the saying which he spoke to them. 2.51. And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth. He was subject to them, and his mother kept all these sayings in her heart. 2.52. And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men. 3.6. All flesh will see God's salvation.' 3.12. Tax collectors also came to be baptized, and they said to him, "Teacher, what must we do? 3.13. He said to them, "Collect no more than that which is appointed to you. 3.21. Now it happened, when all the people were baptized, Jesus also had been baptized, and was praying. The sky was opened 3.22. and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased. 3.23. Jesus himself, when he began to teach, was about thirty years old, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli 4.1. Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness 4.2. for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 4.3. The devil said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread. 4.4. Jesus answered him, saying, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.' 4.5. The devil, leading him up on a high mountain, showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 4.6. The devil said to him, "I will give you all this authority, and their glory, for it has been delivered to me; and I give it to whomever I want. 4.7. If you therefore will worship before me, it will all be yours. 4.8. Jesus answered him, "Get behind me Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.9. He led him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down from here 4.10. for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you, to guard you;' 4.11. and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, Lest perhaps you dash your foot against a stone.' 4.12. Jesus answering, said to him, "It has been said, 'You shall not tempt the Lord your God.' 4.13. When the devil had completed every temptation, he departed from him until another time. 4.14. Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee, and news about him spread through all the surrounding area. 4.15. He taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.43. But he said to them, "I must preach the good news of the Kingdom of God to the other cities also. For this reason I have been sent. 7.35. Wisdom is justified by all her children. 9.10. The apostles, when they had returned, told him what things they had done. He took them, and withdrew apart to a deserted place of a city called Bethsaida. 9.11. But the multitudes, perceiving it, followed him. He welcomed them, and spoke to them of the Kingdom of God, and he cured those who needed healing. 9.12. The day began to wear away; and the twelve came, and said to him, "Send the multitude away, that they may go into the surrounding villages and farms, and lodge, and get provisions, for we are here in a deserted place. 9.13. But he said to them, "You give them something to eat."They said, "We have no more than five loaves and two fish, unless we should go and buy food for all these people. 9.14. For they were about five thousand men. He said to his disciples, "Make them sit down in groups of about fifty each. 9.15. They did so, and made them all sit down. 9.16. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to the sky, he blessed them, and broke them, and gave them to the disciples to set before the multitude. 9.17. They ate, and were all filled. They gathered up twelve baskets of broken pieces that were left over. 9.22. saying, "The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up. 9.31. who appeared in glory, and spoke of his departure, which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem. 9.51. It came to pass, when the days were near that he should be taken up, he intently set his face to go to Jerusalem 10.22. Turning to the disciples, he said, "All things have been delivered to me by my Father. No one knows who the Son is, except the Father, and who the Father is, except the Son, and he to whomever the Son desires to reveal him. 10.26. He said to him, "What is written in the law? How do you read it? 11.1. It happened, that when he finished praying in a certain place, one of his disciples said to him, "Lord, teach us to pray, just as John also taught his disciples. 11.2. He said to them, "When you pray, say, 'Our Father in heaven, May your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come. May your will be done on Earth, as it is in heaven. 11.3. Give us day by day our daily bread. 11.4. Forgive us our sins, For we ourselves also forgive everyone who is indebted to us. Bring us not into temptation, But deliver us from the evil one.' 11.5. He said to them, "Which of you, if you go to a friend at midnight, and tell him, 'Friend, lend me three loaves of bread 11.6. for a friend of mine has come to me from a journey, and I have nothing to set before him,' 11.7. and he from within will answer and say, 'Don't bother me. The door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed. I can't get up and give it to you'? 11.8. I tell you, although he will not rise and give it to him because he is his friend, yet because of his persistence, he will get up and give him as many as he needs. 11.9. I tell you, keep asking, and it will be given you. Keep seeking, and you will find. Keep knocking, and it will be opened to you. 11.10. For everyone who asks receives. He who seeks finds. To him who knocks it will be opened. 11.11. Which of you fathers, if your son asks for bread, will give him a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, he won't give him a snake instead of a fish, will he? 11.12. Or if he asks for an egg, he won't give him a scorpion, will he? 11.13. If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him? 11.27. It came to pass, as he said these things, a certain woman out of the multitude lifted up her voice, and said to him, "Blessed is the womb that bore you, and the breasts which nursed you! 11.28. But he said, "On the contrary, blessed are those who hear the word of God, and keep it. 11.31. The Queen of the South will rise up in the judgment with the men of this generation, and will condemn them: for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, one greater than Solomon is here. 11.49. Therefore also the wisdom of God said, 'I will send to them prophets and apostles; and some of them they will kill and persecute 11.50. that the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation; 11.51. from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah, who perished between the altar and the sanctuary.' Yes, I tell you, it will be required of this generation. 12.12. for the Holy Spirit will teach you in that same hour what you must say. 12.15. He said to them, "Beware! Keep yourselves from covetousness, for a man's life doesn't consist of the abundance of the things which he possesses. 12.16. He spoke a parable to them, saying, "The ground of a certain rich man brought forth abundantly. 13.16. Ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan had bound eighteen long years, be freed from this bondage on the Sabbath day? 13.33. Nevertheless I must go on my way today and tomorrow and the next day, for it can't be that a prophet perish outside of Jerusalem.' 13.34. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, that kills the prophets, and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, like a hen gathers her own brood under her wings, and you refused! 14.7. He spoke a parable to those who were invited, when he noticed how they chose the best seats, and said to them 14.8. When you are invited by anyone to a marriage feast, don't sit in the best seat, since perhaps someone more honorable than you might be invited by him 14.9. and he who invited both of you would come and tell you, 'Make room for this person.' Then you would begin, with shame, to take the lowest place. 14.10. But when you are invited, go and sit in the lowest place, so that when he who invited you comes, he may tell you, 'Friend, move up higher.' Then you will be honored in the presence of all who sit at the table with you. 14.11. For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted. 14.23. The lord said to the servant, 'Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled. 15.22. But the father said to his servants, 'Bring out the best robe, and put it on him. Put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet. 17.25. But first, he must suffer many things and be rejected by this generation. 18.1. He also spoke a parable to them that they must always pray, and not give up 19.5. When Jesus came to the place, he looked up and saw him, and said to him, "Zacchaeus, hurry and come down, for today I must stay at your house. 19.13. He called ten servants of his, and gave them ten minas, and told them, 'Conduct business until I come.' 19.45. He entered into the temple, and began to drive out those who bought and sold in it 19.46. saying to them, "It is written, 'My house is a house of prayer,' but you have made it a 'den of robbers'! 19.47. He was teaching daily in the temple, but the chief priests and the scribes and the leading men among the people sought to destroy him. 19.48. They couldn't find what they might do, for all the people hung on to every word that he said. 21.9. When you hear of wars and disturbances, don't be terrified, for these things must happen first, but the end won't come immediately. 21.15. for I will give you a mouth and wisdom which all your adversaries will not be able to withstand or to contradict. 21.24. They will fall by the edge of the sword, and will be led captive into all the nations. Jerusalem will be trampled down by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. 22.7. The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed. 22.16. for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God. 22.29. I confer on you a kingdom, even as my Father conferred on me 22.37. For I tell you that this which is written must still be fulfilled in me: 'He was counted with the lawless.' For that which concerns me has an end. 23.44. It was now about the sixth hour, and darkness came over the whole land until the ninth hour. 23.47. When the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, "Certainly this was a righteous man. 23.49. All his acquaintances, and the women who followed with him from Galilee, stood at a distance, watching these things. 23.55. The women, who had come with him out of Galilee, followed after, and saw the tomb, and how his body was laid. 23.56. They returned, and prepared spices and ointments. On the Sabbath they rested according to the commandment. 24.5. Becoming terrified, they bowed their faces down to the earth. They said to them, "Why do you seek the living among the dead? 24.10. Now they were Mary Magdalene, Joanna, and Mary the mother of James. The other women with them told these things to the apostles. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.32. They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us? 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled. 24.49. Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high. 24.50. He led them out as far as Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. 24.51. It happened, while he blessed them, that he withdrew from them, and was carried up into heaven. 24.52. They worshiped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy 24.53. and were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.
25. New Testament, Mark, 1.2-1.3, 1.9, 1.12-1.14, 2.23, 4.4, 4.15, 6.2, 6.8, 6.30-6.44, 8.3, 8.27, 9.33-9.34, 10.17, 10.32, 10.46, 10.52, 11.8, 11.15-11.19, 12.14, 15.33, 15.38-15.39 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you. 1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 1.9. It happened in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized by John in the Jordan. 1.12. Immediately the Spirit drove him out into the wilderness. 1.13. He was there in the wilderness forty days tempted by Satan. He was with the wild animals; and the angels ministered to him. 1.14. Now after John was taken into custody, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the Kingdom of God 2.23. It happened that he was going on the Sabbath day through the grain fields, and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of grain. 4.4. and it happened, as he sowed, some seed fell by the road, and the birds came and devoured it. 4.15. These are the ones by the road, where the word is sown; and when they have heard, immediately Satan comes, and takes away the word which has been sown in them. 6.2. When the Sabbath had come, he began to teach in the synagogue, and many hearing him were astonished, saying, "Where did this man get these things?" and, "What is the wisdom that is given to this man, that such mighty works come about by his hands? 6.8. He charged them that they should take nothing for their journey, except a staff only: no bread, no wallet, no money in their purse 6.30. The apostles gathered themselves together to Jesus, and they told him all things, whatever they had done, and whatever they had taught. 6.31. He said to them, "You come apart into a deserted place, and rest awhile." For there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat. 6.32. They went away in the boat to a desert place by themselves. 6.33. They saw them going, and many recognized him and ran there on foot from all the cities. They arrived before them and came together to him. 6.34. Jesus came out, saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things. 6.35. When it was late in the day, his disciples came to him, and said, "This place is deserted, and it is late in the day. 6.36. Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat. 6.37. But he answered them, "You give them something to eat."They asked him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread, and give them something to eat? 6.38. He said to them, "How many loaves do you have? Go see."When they knew, they said, "Five, and two fish. 6.39. He commanded them that everyone should sit down in groups on the green grass. 6.40. They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties. 6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 6.42. They all ate, and were filled. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 6.44. Those who ate the loaves were five thousand men. 8.3. If I send them away fasting to their home, they will faint on the way, for some of them have come a long way. 8.27. Jesus went out, with his disciples, into the villages of Caesarea Philippi. On the way he asked his disciples, "Who do men say that I am? 9.33. He came to Capernaum, and when he was in the house he asked them, "What were you arguing among yourselves on the way? 9.34. But they were silent, for they had disputed one with another on the way about who was the greatest. 10.17. As he was going out into the way, one ran to him, knelt before him, and asked him, "Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? 10.32. They were on the way, going up to Jerusalem; and Jesus was going in front of them, and they were amazed; and those who followed were afraid. He again took the twelve, and began to tell them the things that were going to happen to him. 10.46. They came to Jericho. As he went out from Jericho, with his disciples and a great multitude, the son of Timaeus, Bartimaeus, a blind beggar, was sitting by the road. 10.52. Jesus said to him, "Go your way. Your faith has made you well." Immediately he received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way. 11.8. Many spread their garments on the way, and others were cutting down branches from the trees, and spreading them on the road. 11.15. They came to Jerusalem, and Jesus entered into the temple, and began to throw out those who sold and those who bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of those who sold the doves. 11.16. He would not allow anyone to carry a container through the temple. 11.17. He taught, saying to them, "Isn't it written, 'My house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations?' But you have made it a den of robbers! 11.18. The chief priests and the scribes heard it, and sought how they might destroy him. For they feared him, for all the multitude was astonished at his teaching. 11.19. When evening came, he went out of the city. 12.14. When they had come, they asked him, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and don't defer to anyone; for you aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 15.33. When the sixth hour had come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour. 15.38. The veil of the temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom. 15.39. When the centurion, who stood by opposite him, saw that he cried out like this and breathed his last, he said, "Truly this man was the Son of God!
26. New Testament, Matthew, 1.20-1.21, 1.23, 2.2, 2.11, 2.13-2.15, 4.1-4.11, 5.4, 6.7-6.15, 7.21, 10.32, 11.7, 11.27, 12.50, 14.13-14.21, 15.13, 16.17, 18.10, 18.19, 18.35, 20.23, 21.12-21.17, 23.34-23.35, 23.37, 25.34, 26.29, 27.45, 27.51, 27.53-27.54, 28.16-28.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.20. But when he thought about these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, "Joseph, son of David, don't be afraid to take to yourself Mary, your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. 1.21. She shall bring forth a son. You shall call his name Jesus, for it is he who shall save his people from their sins. 1.23. Behold, the virgin shall be with child, And shall bring forth a son. They shall call his name Immanuel;" Which is, being interpreted, "God with us. 2.2. Where is he who is born King of the Jews? For we saw his star in the east, and have come to worship him. 2.11. They came into the house and saw the young child with Mary, his mother, and they fell down and worshiped him. Opening their treasures, they offered to him gifts: gold, frankincense, and myrrh. 2.13. Now when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying, "Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and stay there until I tell you, for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. 2.14. He arose and took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt 2.15. and was there until the death of Herod; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, "Out of Egypt I called my son. 4.1. Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 4.2. When he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was hungry afterward. 4.3. The tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread. 4.4. But he answered, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.' 4.5. Then the devil took him into the holy city. He set him on the pinnacle of the temple 4.6. and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you.' and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, So that you don't dash your foot against a stone.' 4.7. Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, 'You shall not test the Lord, your God.' 4.8. Again, the devil took him to an exceedingly high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory. 4.9. He said to him, "I will give you all of these things, if you will fall down and worship me. 4.10. Then Jesus said to him, "Get behind me, Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.11. Then the devil left him, and behold, angels came and ministered to him. 5.4. Blessed are those who mourn, For they shall be comforted. 6.7. In praying, don't use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.15. But if you don't forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. 7.21. Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven; but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. 10.32. Everyone therefore who confesses me before men, him I will also confess before my Father who is in heaven. 11.7. As these went their way, Jesus began to say to the multitudes concerning John, "What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken by the wind? 11.27. All things have been delivered to me by my Father. No one knows the Son, except the Father; neither does anyone know the Father, except the Son, and he to whom the Son desires to reveal him. 12.50. For whoever does the will of my Father who is in heaven, he is my brother, and sister, and mother. 14.13. Now when Jesus heard this, he withdrew from there in a boat, to a deserted place apart. When the multitudes heard it, they followed him on foot from the cities. 14.14. Jesus went out, and he saw a great multitude. He had compassion on them, and healed their sick. 14.15. When evening had come, his disciples came to him, saying, "This place is deserted, and the hour is already late. Send the multitudes away, that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves food. 14.16. But Jesus said to them, "They don't need to go away. You give them something to eat. 14.17. They told him, "We only have here five loaves and two fish. 14.18. He said, "Bring them here to me. 14.19. He commanded the multitudes to sit down on the grass; and he took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, broke and gave the loaves to the disciples, and the disciples gave to the multitudes. 14.20. They all ate, and were filled. They took up twelve baskets full of that which remained left over from the broken pieces. 14.21. Those who ate were about five thousand men, besides women and children. 15.13. But he answered, "Every plant which my heavenly Father didn't plant will be uprooted. 16.17. Jesus answered him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. 18.10. See that you don't despise one of these little ones, for I tell you that in heaven their angels always see the face of my Father who is in heaven. 18.19. Again, assuredly I tell you, that if two of you will agree on earth concerning anything that they will ask, it will be done for them by my Father who is in heaven. 18.35. So my heavenly Father will also do to you, if you don't each forgive your brother from your hearts for his misdeeds. 20.23. He said to them, "You will indeed drink my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with, but to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not mine to give; but it is for whom it has been prepared by my Father. 21.12. Jesus entered into the temple of God, and drove out all of those who sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the money-changers' tables and the seats of those who sold the doves. 21.13. He said to them, "It is written, 'My house shall be called a house of prayer,' but you have made it a den of robbers! 21.14. The blind and the lame came to him in the temple, and he healed them. 21.15. But when the chief priests and the scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children who were crying in the temple and saying, "Hosanna to the son of David!" they were indigt 21.16. and said to him, "Do you hear what these are saying?"Jesus said to them, "Yes. Did you never read, 'Out of the mouth of babes and nursing babies you have perfected praise?' 21.17. He left them, and went out of the city to Bethany, and lodged there. 23.34. Therefore, behold, I send to you prophets, wise men, and scribes. Some of them you will kill and crucify; and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city; 23.35. that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zachariah son of Barachiah, whom you killed between the sanctuary and the altar. 23.37. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, who kills the prophets, and stones those who are sent to her! How often would I have gathered your children together, even as a hen gathers her chickens under her wings, and you would not! 25.34. Then the King will tell those on his right hand, 'Come, blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; 26.29. But I tell you that I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom. 27.45. Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land until the ninth hour. 27.51. Behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom. The earth quaked and the rocks were split. 27.53. and coming out of the tombs after his resurrection, they entered into the holy city and appeared to many. 27.54. Now the centurion, and those who were with him watching Jesus, when they saw the earthquake, and the things that were done, feared exceedingly, saying, "Truly this was the Son of God. 28.16. But the eleven disciples went into Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had sent them. 28.17. When they saw him, they bowed down to him, but some doubted. 28.18. Jesus came to them and spoke to them, saying, "All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. 28.19. Go, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit 28.20. teaching them to observe all things which I commanded you. Behold, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Amen.
27. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.20.3, 1.24.1, 1.26.1, 1.27.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. Tatian, Oration To The Greeks, 32.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 4.12, 8.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

30. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 4.12, 8.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

31. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 4.12, 8.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

32. Origen, Commentariorum Series In Evangelium Matthaei (Mt. 22.342763), 47, 38 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

33. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, 10.11, 13.11, 13.23, 15.3.11, 17.14, 17.18, 17.33 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.11. Again the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast into the sea. Matthew 13:47 As in the case of images and statues, the likenesses are not likenesses in every respect of those things in relation to which they are made; but, for example, the image painted with wax on the plane surface of wood has the likeness of the surface along with the color, but does not further preserve the hollows and prominences, but only their outward appearance; and in the moulding of statues an endeavour is made to preserve the likeness in respect of the hollows and the prominences, but not in respect of the color; and, if the cast be formed of wax, it endeavours to preserve both, I mean both the color and also the hollows and the prominences, but is not indeed an image of the things in the respect of depth; so conceive with me also that, in the case of the similitudes in the Gospel, when the kingdom of heaven is likened unto anything, the comparison does not extend to all the features of that to which the kingdom is compared, but only to those features which are required by the argument in hand. And here, accordingly, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast into the sea, not (as supposed by some, who represent that by this word the different natures of those who have come into the net, to-wit, the evil and the righteous, are treated of), as if it is to be thought that, because of the phrase which gathered of every kind, there are many different natures of the righteous and likewise also of the evil; for to such an interpretation all the Scriptures are opposed, which emphasise the freedom of the will, and censure those who sin and approve those who do right; or otherwise blame could not rightly attach to those of the kinds that were such by nature, nor praise to those of a better kind. For the reason why fishes are good or bad lies not in the souls of the fishes, but is based on that which the Word said with knowledge, Let the waters bring forth creeping things with living souls, Genesis 1:20 when, also, God made great sea-monsters and every soul of creeping creatures which the waters brought forth according to their kinds. Genesis 1:21 There, accordingly, The waters brought forth every soul of creeping animals according to their kinds, the cause not being in it; but here we are responsible for our being good kinds and worthy of what are called vessels, or bad and worthy of being cast outside. For it is not the nature in us which is the cause of the evil, but it is the voluntary choice which works evil; and so our nature is not the cause of righteousness, as if it were incapable of admitting unrighteousness, but it is the principle which we have admitted that makes men righteous; for also you never see the kinds of things in the water changing from the bad kinds of fishes into the good, or from the better kind to the worse; but you can always behold the righteous or evil among men either coming from wickedness to virtue, or returning from progress towards virtue to the flood of wickedness. Wherefore also in Ezekiel, concerning the man who turns away from unrighteousness to the keeping of the divine commandments, it is thus written: But if the wicked man turn away from all his wickednesses which he has done, etc., down to the words, that he turn from his wicked way and live; Ezekiel 18:20-23 but concerning the man who returns from the advance towards virtue unto the flood of wickedness it is said, But in the case of the righteous man turning away from his righteousness and committing iniquity, etc., down to the words, in his sins which he has sinned in them shall he die. Ezekiel 18:24 Let those who, from the parable of the drag-net, introduce the doctrine of different natures, tell us in regard to the wicked man who afterwards turned aside from all the wickednesses which he committed and keeps all the commandments of God, and does that which is righteous and merciful, of what nature was he when he was wicked? Clearly not of a nature to be praised. If verily of a nature to be censured, of what kind of nature can he reasonably be described, when he turns away from all his sins which he did? For if he were of the bad class of natures, because of his former deeds, how did he change to that which was better? Or if because of his subsequent deeds you would say that he was of the good class, how being good by nature did he become wicked? And you will also meet with a like dilemma in regard to the righteous man turning away from his righteousness and committing unrighteousness in all manner of sins. For before he turned away from righteousness, being occupied with righteous deeds he was not of a bad nature, for a bad nature could not be in righteousness, since a bad tree - that is wickedness- cannot produce good fruits - the fruits that spring from virtue. Again, on the other hand, if he had been of a good and unchangeable nature he would not have turned away from the good after being called righteous, so as to commit unrighteousness in all his sins which he committed. 13.11. And this may be put in another way. There are some who are kings' sons on the earth, and yet they are not sons of those kings, but sons, and sons absolutely; but others, because of their being strangers to the sons of the kings of the earth, and sons of no one of those upon the earth, but on this very account are sons, whether of God or of His Son, or of some one of those who are God's. If, then, the Saviour inquires of Peter, saying, The kings of the earth from whom do they receive toll or tribute - from their own sons or from strangers? Matthew 17:25 and Peter replies not from their own sons, but from strangers, then Jesus says about such as are strangers to the kings of the earth, and on account of being free are sons, Therefore the sons are free; Matthew 17:26 for the sons of the kings of the earth are not free, since every one that commits sin is the bond-servant of sin, John 8:34 but they are free who abide in the truth of the word of God, and on this account, know the truth, that they also may become free from sin. If, any one then, is a son simply, and not in this matter wholly a son of the kings of the earth, he is free. And nevertheless, though he is free, he takes care not to offend even the kings of the earth, and their sons, and those who receive the half-shekel; wherefore He says, Let us not cause them to stumble, but go and cast your net, and take up the fish that first comes up, Matthew 17:27 etc. But I would inquire of those who are pleased to make myths about different natures, of what sort of nature they were, whether the kings of the earth, or their sons, or those who receive the half-shekel, whom the Saviour does not wish to offend; it appears of a verity, ex hypothesi, that they are not of a nature worthy of praise, and yet He took heed not to cause them to stumble, and He prevents any stumbling-block being put in their way, that they may not sin more grievously, and that with a view to their being saved - if they will - even by receiving Him who has spared them from being caused to stumble. And as in a place verily of consolation - for such is, by interpretation, Capernaum - comforting the disciple as being both free and a son, He gives to him the power of catching the fish first, that when it came up Peter might be comforted by its coming up and being caught, and by the stater being taken from its mouth, in order to be paid to those whose the stater was, and who demanded as their own such a piece of money. 13.23. Next we must test accurately the meaning of the word necessity in the passage, For there is a necessity that the occasions come, Matthew 18:7 and to the like effect in Luke, It is 'inadmissible' but that occasions of stumbling should come, Luke 18:1 instead of impossible. And as it is necessary that that which is mortal should die, and it is impossible but that it should die, and as it must needs be that he who is in the body should be fed, for it is impossible for one who is not fed to live, so it is necessary and impossible but that occasions of stumbling should arise, since there is a necessity also that wickedness should exist before virtue in men, from which wickedness stumbling-blocks arise; for it is impossible that a man should be found altogether sinless, and who, without sin, has attained to virtue. For the wickedness in the evil powers, which is the primal source of the wickedness among men, is altogether eager to work through certain instruments against the men in the world. And perhaps also the wicked powers are more exasperated when they are cast out by the word of Jesus, and their worship is lessened, their customary sacrifices not being offered unto them; and there is a necessity that these offenses come; but there is no necessity that they should come through any particular one; wherefore the woe falls on the man through whom the stumbling-block comes, as he has given a place to the wicked power whose purpose it is to create a stumbling-block. But do not suppose that by nature, and from constitution, there are certain stumbling-blocks which seek out men through whom they come; for as God did not make death, so neither did He create stumbling-blocks; but free-will begot the stumbling-blocks in some who did not wish to endure toils for virtue.
34. Origen, On First Principles, 1.5.3, 1.8.1, 2.4.3, 2.9.5-2.9.7, 3.1.8-3.1.9, 3.1.16, 3.1.18, 3.4.5, 4.2.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5.3. After the enumeration, then, of so many and so important names of orders and offices, underlying which it is certain that there are personal existences, let us inquire whether God, the creator and founder of all things, created certain of them holy and happy, so that they could admit no element at all of an opposite kind, and certain others so that they were made capable both of virtue and vice; or whether we are to suppose that He created some so as to be altogether incapable of virtue, and others again altogether incapable of wickedness, but with the power of abiding only in a state of happiness, and others again such as to be capable of either condition. In order, now, that our first inquiry may begin with the names themselves, let us consider whether the holy angels, from the period of their first existence, have always been holy, and are holy still, and will be holy, and have never either admitted or had the power to admit any occasion of sin. Then in the next place, let us consider whether those who are called holy principalities began from the moment of their creation by God to exercise power over some who were made subject to them, and whether these latter were created of such a nature, and formed for the very purpose of being subject and subordinate. In like manner, also, whether those which are called powers were created of such a nature and for the express purpose of exercising power, or whether their arriving at that power and dignity is a reward and desert of their virtue. Moreover, also, whether those which are called thrones or seats gained that stability of happiness at the same time with their coming forth into being, so as to have that possession from the will of the Creator alone; or whether those which are called dominions had their dominion conferred on them, not as a reward for their proficiency, but as the peculiar privilege of their creation, so that it is something which is in a certain degree inseparable from them, and natural. Now, if we adopt the view that the holy angels, and the holy powers, and the blessed seats, and the glorious virtues, and the magnificent dominions, are to be regarded as possessing those powers and dignities and glories in virtue of their nature, it will doubtless appear to follow that those beings which have been mentioned as holding offices of an opposite kind must be regarded in the same manner; so that those principalities with whom we have to struggle are to be viewed, not as having received that spirit of opposition and resistance to all good at a later period, or as falling away from good through the freedom of the will, but as having had it in themselves as the essence of their being from the beginning of their existence. In like manner also will it be the case with the powers and virtues, in none of which was wickedness subsequent or posterior to their first existence. Those also whom the apostle termed rulers and princes of the darkness of this world, are said, with respect to their rule and occupation of darkness, to fall not from perversity of intention, but from the necessity of their creation. Logical reasoning will compel us to take the same view with regard to wicked and maligt spirits and unclean demons. But if to entertain this view regarding maligt and opposing powers seem to be absurd, as it is certainly absurd that the cause of their wickedness should be removed from the purpose of their own will, and ascribed of necessity to their Creator, why should we not also be obliged to make a similar confession regarding the good and holy powers, that, viz., the good which is in them is not theirs by essential being, which we have manifestly shown to be the case with Christ and the Holy Spirit alone, as undoubtedly with the Father also? For it was proved that there was nothing compound in the nature of the Trinity, so that these qualities might seem to belong to it as accidental consequences. From which it follows, that in the case of every creature it is a result of his own works and movements, that those powers which appear either to hold sway over others or to exercise power or dominion, have been preferred to and placed over those whom they are said to govern or exercise power over, and not in consequence of a peculiar privilege inherent in their constitutions, but on account of merit. 1.8.1. A similar method must be followed in treating of the angels; nor are we to suppose that it is the result of accident that a particular office is assigned to a particular angel: as to Raphael, e.g., the work of curing and healing; to Gabriel, the conduct of wars; to Michael, the duty of attending to the prayers and supplications of mortals. For we are not to imagine that they obtained these offices otherwise than by their own merits, and by the zeal and excellent qualities which they severally displayed before this world was formed; so that afterwards in the order of archangels, this or that office was assigned to each one, while others deserved to be enrolled in the order of angels, and to act under this or that archangel, or that leader or head of an order. All of which things were disposed, as I have said, not indiscriminately and fortuitously, but by a most appropriate and just decision of God, who arranged them according to deserts, in accordance with His own approval and judgment: so that to one angel the Church of the Ephesians was to be entrusted; to another, that of the Smyrnæans; one angel was to be Peter's, another Paul's; and so on through every one of the little ones that are in the Church, for such and such angels as even daily behold the face of God must be assigned to each one of them; and there must also be some angel that encamps round about them that fear God. All of which things, assuredly, it is to be believed, are not performed by accident or chance, or because they (the angels) were so created, lest on that view the Creator should be accused of partiality; but it is to be believed that they were conferred by God, the just and impartial Ruler of all things, agreeably to the merits and good qualities and mental vigour of each individual spirit. 2.4.3. But as those who uphold this heresy are sometimes accustomed to mislead the hearts of the simple by certain deceptive sophisms, I do not consider it improper to bring forward the assertions which they are in the habit of making, and to refute their deceit and falsehood. The following, then, are their declarations. It is written, that no man has seen God at any time. But that God whom Moses preaches was both seen by Moses himself, and by his fathers before him; whereas He who is announced by the Saviour has never been seen at all by any one. Let us therefore ask them and ourselves whether they maintain that He whom they acknowledge to be God, and allege to be a different God from the Creator, is visible or invisible. And if they shall say that He is visible, besides being proved to go against the declaration of Scripture, which says of the Saviour, He is the image of the invisible God, the first-born of every creature, they will fall also into the absurdity of asserting that God is corporeal. For nothing can be seen except by help of form, and size, and color, which are special properties of bodies. And if God is declared to be a body, then He will also be found to be material, since every body is composed of matter. But if He be composed of matter, and matter is undoubtedly corruptible, then, according to them, God is liable to corruption! We shall put to them a second question. Is matter made, or is it uncreated, i.e., not made? And if they shall answer that it is not made, i.e., uncreated, we shall ask them if one portion of matter is God, and the other part the world? But if they shall say of matter that it is made, it will undoubtedly follow that they confess Him whom they declare to be God to have been made!— a result which certainly neither their reason nor ours can admit. But they will say, God is invisible. And what will you do? If you say that He is invisible by nature, then neither ought He to be visible to the Saviour. Whereas, on the contrary, God, the Father of Christ, is said to be seen, because he who sees the Son, he says, sees also the Father. This certainly would press us very hard, were the expression not understood by us more correctly of understanding, and not of seeing. For he who has understood the Son will understand the Father also. In this way, then, Moses too must be supposed to have seen God, not beholding Him with the bodily eye, but understanding Him with the vision of the heart and the perception of the mind, and that only in some degree. For it is manifest that He, viz., who gave answers to Moses, said, You shall not see My face, but My hinder parts. These words are, of course, to be understood in that mystical sense which is befitting divine words, those old wives' fables being rejected and despised which are invented by ignorant persons respecting the anterior and posterior parts of God. Let no one indeed suppose that we have indulged any feeling of impiety in saying that even to the Saviour the Father is not visible. Let him consider the distinction which we employ in dealing with heretics. For we have explained that it is one thing to see and to be seen, and another to know and to be known, or to understand and to be understood. To see, then, and to be seen, is a property of bodies, which certainly will not be appropriately applied either to the Father, or to the Son, or to the Holy Spirit, in their mutual relations with one another. For the nature of the Trinity surpasses the measure of vision, granting to those who are in the body, i.e., to all other creatures, the property of vision in reference to one another. But to a nature that is incorporeal and for the most part intellectual, no other attribute is appropriate save that of knowing or being known, as the Saviour Himself declares when He says, No man knows the Son, save the Father; nor does any one know the Father, save the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal Him. It is clear, then, that He has not said, No one has seen the Father, save the Son; but, No one knows the Father, save the Son. 2.9.5. Now, when we say that this world was established in the variety in which we have above explained that it was created by God, and when we say that this God is good, and righteous, and most just, there are numerous individuals, especially those who, coming from the school of Marcion, and Valentinus, and Basilides, have heard that there are souls of different natures, who object to us, that it cannot consist with the justice of God in creating the world to assign to some of His creatures an abode in the heavens, and not only to give such a better habitation, but also to grant them a higher and more honourable position; to favour others with the grant of principalities; to bestow powers upon some, dominions on others; to confer upon some the most honourable seats in the celestial tribunals; to enable some to shine with more resplendent glory, and to glitter with a starry splendour; to give to some the glory of the sun, to others the glory of the moon, to others the glory of the stars; to cause one star to differ from another star in glory. And, to speak once for all, and briefly, if the Creator God wants neither the will to undertake nor the power to complete a good and perfect work, what reason can there be that, in the creation of rational natures, i.e., of beings of whose existence He Himself is the cause, He should make some of higher rank, and others of second, or third, or of many lower and inferior degrees? In the next place, they object to us, with regard to terrestrial beings, that a happier lot by birth is the case with some rather than with others; as one man, e.g., is begotten of Abraham, and born of the promise; another, too, of Isaac and Rebekah, and who, while still in the womb, supplants his brother, and is said to be loved by God before he is born. Nay, this very circumstance — especially that one man is born among the Hebrews, with whom he finds instruction in the divine law; another among the Greeks, themselves also wise, and men of no small learning; and then another among the Ethiopians, who are accustomed to feed on human flesh; or among the Scythians, with whom parricide is an act sanctioned by law; or among the people of Taurus, where strangers are offered in sacrifice — is a ground of strong objection. Their argument accordingly is this: If there be this great diversity of circumstances, and this diverse and varying condition by birth, in which the faculty of free-will has no scope (for no one chooses for himself either where, or with whom, or in what condition he is born); if, then, this is not caused by the difference in the nature of souls, i.e., that a soul of an evil nature is destined for a wicked nation, and a good soul for a righteous nation, what other conclusion remains than that these things must be supposed to be regulated by accident and chance? And if that be admitted, then it will be no longer believed that the world was made by God, or administered by His providence; and as a consequence, a judgment of God upon the deeds of each individual will appear a thing not to be looked for. In which matter, indeed, what is clearly the truth of things is the privilege of Him alone to know who searches all things, even the deep things of God. 2.9.6. We, however, although but men, not to nourish the insolence of the heretics by our silence, will return to their objections such answers as occur to us, so far as our abilities enable us. We have frequently shown, by those declarations which we were able to produce from the holy Scriptures, that God, the Creator of all things, is good, and just, and all-powerful. When He in the beginning created those beings which He desired to create, i.e., rational natures, He had no other reason for creating them than on account of Himself, i.e., His own goodness. As He Himself, then, was the cause of the existence of those things which were to be created, in whom there was neither any variation nor change, nor want of power, He created all whom He made equal and alike, because there was in Himself no reason for producing variety and diversity. But since those rational creatures themselves, as we have frequently shown, and will yet show in the proper place, were endowed with the power of free-will, this freedom of will incited each one either to progress by imitation of God, or reduced him to failure through negligence. And this, as we have already stated, is the cause of the diversity among rational creatures, deriving its origin not from the will or judgment of the Creator, but from the freedom of the individual will. Now God, who deemed it just to arrange His creatures according to their merit, brought down these different understandings into the harmony of one world, that He might adorn, as it were, one dwelling, in which there ought to be not only vessels of gold and silver, but also of wood and clay (and some indeed to honour, and others to dishonour), with those different vessels, or souls, or understandings. And these are the causes, in my opinion, why that world presents the aspect of diversity, while Divine Providence continues to regulate each individual according to the variety of his movements, or of his feelings and purpose. On which account the Creator will neither appear to be unjust in distributing (for the causes already mentioned) to every one according to his merits; nor will the happiness or unhappiness of each one's birth, or whatever be the condition that falls to his lot, be deemed accidental; nor will different creators, or souls of different natures, be believed to exist. 2.9.7. But even holy Scripture does not appear to me to be altogether silent on the nature of this secret, as when the Apostle Paul, in discussing the case of Jacob and Esau, says: For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of Him who calls, it was said, The elder shall serve the younger, as it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated. And after that, he answers himself, and says, What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? And that he might furnish us with an opportunity of inquiring into these matters, and of ascertaining how these things do not happen without a reason, he answers himself, and says, God forbid. For the same question, as it seems to me, which is raised concerning Jacob and Esau, may be raised regarding all celestial and terrestrial creatures, and even those of the lower world as well. And in like manner it seems to me, that as he there says, The children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, so it might also be said of all other things, When they were not yet created, neither had yet done any good or evil, that the decree of God according to election may stand, that (as certain think) some things on the one hand were created heavenly, some on the other earthly, and others, again, beneath the earth, not of works (as they think), but of Him who calls, what shall we say then, if these things are so? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid. As, therefore, when the Scriptures are carefully examined regarding Jacob and Esau, it is not found to be unrighteousness with God that it should be said, before they were born, or had done anything in this life, the elder shall serve the younger; and as it is found not to be unrighteousness that even in the womb Jacob supplanted his brother, if we feel that he was worthily beloved by God, according to the deserts of his previous life, so as to deserve to be preferred before his brother; so also is it with regard to heavenly creatures, if we notice that diversity was not the original condition of the creature, but that, owing to causes that have previously existed, a different office is prepared by the Creator for each one in proportion to the degree of his merit, on this ground, indeed, that each one, in respect of having been created by God an understanding, or a rational spirit, has, according to the movements of his mind and the feelings of his soul, gained for himself a greater or less amount of merit, and has become either an object of love to God, or else one of dislike to Him; while, nevertheless, some of those who are possessed of greater merit are ordained to suffer with others for the adorning of the state of the world, and for the discharge of duty to creatures of a lower grade, in order that by this means they themselves may be participators in the endurance of the Creator, according to the words of the apostle: For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who has subjected the same in hope. Keeping in view, then, the sentiment expressed by the apostle, when, speaking of the birth of Esau and Jacob, he says, Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid, I think it right that this same sentiment should be carefully applied to the case of all other creatures, because, as we formerly remarked, the righteousness of the Creator ought to appear in everything. And this, it appears to me, will be seen more clearly at last, if each one, whether of celestial or terrestrial or infernal beings, be said to have the causes of his diversity in himself, and antecedent to his bodily birth. For all things were created by the Word of God, and by His Wisdom, and were set in order by His Justice. And by the grace of His compassion He provides for all men, and encourages all to the use of whatever remedies may lead to their cure, and incites them to salvation. 3.1.8. Let us begin, then, with those words which were spoken to Pharaoh, who is said to have been hardened by God, in order that he might not let the people go; and, along with his case, the language of the apostle also will be considered, where he says, Therefore He has mercy on whom He will, and whom He will He hardens. For it is on these passages chiefly that the heretics rely, asserting that salvation is not in our own power, but that souls are of such a nature as must by all means be either lost or saved; and that in no way can a soul which is of an evil nature become good, or one which is of a virtuous nature be made bad. And hence they maintain that Pharaoh, too, being of a ruined nature, was on that account hardened by God, who hardens those that are of an earthly nature, but has compassion on those who are of a spiritual nature. Let us see, then, what is the meaning of their assertion; and let us, in the first place, request them to tell us whether they maintain that the soul of Pharaoh was of an earthly nature, such as they term lost. They will undoubtedly answer that it was of an earthly nature. If so, then to believe God, or to obey Him, when his nature opposed his so doing, was an impossibility. And if this were his condition by nature, what further need was there for his heart to be hardened, and this not once, but several times, unless indeed because it was possible for him to yield to persuasion? Nor could any one be said to be hardened by another, save him who of himself was not obdurate. And if he were not obdurate of himself, it follows that neither was he of an earthly nature, but such an one as might give way when overpowered by signs and wonders. But he was necessary for God's purpose, in order that, for the saving of the multitude, He might manifest in him His power by his offering resistance to numerous miracles, and struggling against the will of God, and his heart being by this means said to be hardened. Such are our answers, in the first place, to these persons; and by these their assertion may be overturned, according to which they think that Pharaoh was destroyed in consequence of his evil nature. And with regard to the language of the Apostle Paul, we must answer them in a similar way. For who are they whom God hardens, according to your view? Those, namely, whom you term of a ruined nature, and who, I am to suppose, would have done something else had they not been hardened. If, indeed, they come to destruction in consequence of being hardened, they no longer perish naturally, but in virtue of what befalls them. Then, in the next place, upon whom does God show mercy? On those, namely, who are to be saved. And in what respect do those persons stand in need of a second compassion, who are to be saved once by their nature, and so come naturally to blessedness, except that it is shown even from their case, that, because it was possible for them to perish, they therefore obtain mercy, that so they may not perish, but come to salvation, and possess the kingdom of the good. And let this be our answer to those who devise and invent the fable of good or bad natures, i.e., of earthly or spiritual souls, in consequence of which, as they say, each one is either saved or lost. 3.1.8. Let us begin, then, with what is said about Pharaoh— that he was hardened by God, that he might not send away the people; along with which will be examined also the statement of the apostle, Therefore has He mercy on whom He will have mercy, and whom He will He hardens. And certain of those who hold different opinions misuse these passages, themselves also almost destroying free-will by introducing ruined natures incapable of salvation, and others saved which it is impossible can be lost; and Pharaoh, they say, as being of a ruined nature, is therefore hardened by God, who has mercy upon the spiritual, but hardens the earthly. Let us see now what they mean. For we shall ask them if Pharaoh was of an earthy nature; and when they answer, we shall say that he who is of an earthy nature is altogether disobedient to God: but if disobedient, what need is there of his heart being hardened, and that not once, but frequently? Unless perhaps, since it was possible for him to obey (in which case he would certainly have obeyed, as not being earthy, when hard pressed by the signs and wonders), God needs him to be disobedient to a greater degree, in order that He may manifest His mighty deeds for the salvation of the multitude, and therefore hardens his heart. This will be our answer to them in the first place, in order to overturn their supposition that Pharaoh was of a ruined nature. And the same reply must be given to them with respect to the statement of the apostle. For whom does God harden? Those who perish, as if they would obey unless they were hardened, or manifestly those who would be saved because they are not of a ruined nature. And on whom has He mercy? Is it on those who are to be saved? And how is there need of a second mercy for those who have been prepared once for salvation, and who will by all means become blessed on account of their nature? Unless perhaps, since they are capable of incurring destruction, if they did not receive mercy, they will obtain mercy, in order that they may not incur that destruction of which they are capable, but may be in the condition of those who are saved. And this is our answer to such persons. 3.1.9. And now we must return an answer also to those who would have the God of the law to be just only, and not also good; and let us ask such in what manner they consider the heart of Pharaoh to have been hardened by God— by what acts or by what prospective arrangements. For we must observe the conception of a God who in our opinion is both just and good, but according to them only just. And let them show us how a God whom they also acknowledge to be just, can with justice cause the heart of a man to be hardened, that, in consequence of that very hardening, he may sin and be ruined. And how shall the justice of God be defended, if He Himself is the cause of the destruction of those whom, owing to their unbelief (through their being hardened), He has afterwards condemned by the authority of a judge? For why does He blame him, saying, But since you will not let My people go, lo, I will smite all the first-born in Egypt, even your first-born, and whatever else was spoken through Moses by God to Pharaoh? For it behooves every one who maintains the truth of what is recorded in Scripture, and who desires to show that the God of the law and the prophets is just, to render a reason for all these things, and to show how there is in them nothing at all derogatory to the justice of God, since, although they deny His goodness, they admit that He is a just judge, and creator of the world. Different, however, is the method of our reply to those who assert that the creator of this world is a maligt being, i.e., a devil. 3.1.9. But to those who think they understand the term hardened, we must address the inquiry, What do they mean by saying that God, by His working, hardens the heart, and with what purpose does He do this? For let them observe the conception of a God who is in reality just and good; but if they will not allow this, let it be conceded to them for the present that He is just; and let them show how the good and just God, or the just God only, appears to be just, in hardening the heart of him who perishes because of his being hardened: and how the just God becomes the cause of destruction and disobedience, when men are chastened by Him on account of their hardness and disobedience. And why does He find fault with him, saying, You will not let My people go; Lo, I will smite all the first-born in Egypt, even your first-born; and whatever else is recorded as spoken from God to Pharaoh through the intervention of Moses? For he who believes that the Scriptures are true, and that God is just, must necessarily endeavour, if he be honest, to show how God, in using such expressions, may be distinctly understood to be just. But if any one should stand, declaring with uncovered head that the Creator of the world was inclined to wickedness, we should need other words to answer them. 3.1.16. There is next brought before us that declaration uttered by the Saviour in the Gospel: That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest they should happen to be converted, and their sins be forgiven them. On which our opponent will remark: If those who shall hear more distinctly are by all means to be corrected and converted, and converted in such a manner as to be worthy of receiving the remission of sins, and if it be not in their own power to hear the word distinctly, but if it depend on the Instructor to teach more openly and distinctly, while he declares that he does not proclaim to them the word with clearness, lest they should perhaps hear and understand, and be converted, and be saved, it will follow, certainly, that their salvation is not dependent upon themselves. And if this be so, then we have no free-will either as regards salvation or destruction. Now were it not for the words that are added, Lest perhaps they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them, we might be more inclined to return the answer, that the Saviour was unwilling that those individuals whom He foresaw would not become good, should understand the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, and that therefore He spoke to them in parables; but as that addition follows, Lest perhaps they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them, the explanation is rendered more difficult. And, in the first place, we have to notice what defense this passage furnishes against those heretics who are accustomed to hunt out of the Old Testament any expressions which seem, according to their view, to predicate severity and cruelty of God the Creator, as when He is described as being affected with the feeling of vengeance or punishment, or by any of those emotions, however named, from which they deny the existence of goodness in the Creator; for they do not judge of the Gospels with the same mind and feelings, and do not observe whether any such statements are found in them as they condemn and censure in the Old Testament. For manifestly, in the passage referred to, the Saviour is shown, as they themselves admit, not to speak distinctly, for this very reason, that men may not be converted, and when converted, receive the remission of sins. Now, if the words be understood according to the letter merely, nothing less, certainly, will be contained in them than in those passages which they find fault with in the Old Testament. And if they are of opinion that any expressions occurring in such a connection in the New Testament stand in need of explanation, it will necessarily follow that those also occurring in the Old Testament, which are the subject of censure, may be freed from aspersion by an explanation of a similar kind, so that by such means the passages found in both Testaments may be shown to proceed from one and the same God. But let us return, as we best may, to the question proposed. 3.1.16. There was after this the passage from the Gospel, where the Saviour said, that for this reason did He speak to those without in parables, that seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not understand; lest they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them. Now, our opponent will say, If some persons are assuredly converted on hearing words of greater clearness, so that they become worthy of the remission of sins, and if it does not depend upon themselves to hear these words of greater clearness, but upon him who teaches, and he for this reason does not announce them to them more distinctly, lest they should see and understand, it is not within the power of such to be saved; and if so, we are not possessed of free-will as regards salvation and destruction. Effectual, indeed, would be the reply to such arguments, were it not for the addition, Lest they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them,— namely, that the Saviour did not wish those who were not to become good and virtuous to understand the more mystical (parts of His teaching), and for this reason spoke to them in parables; but now, on account of the words, Lest they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them, the defense is more difficult. In the first place, then, we must notice the passage in its bearing on the heretics, who hunt out those portions from the Old Testament where is exhibited, as they themselves daringly assert, the cruelty of the Creator of the world in His purpose of avenging and punishing the wicked, or by whatever other name they wish to designate such a quality, so speaking only that they may say that goodness does not exist in the Creator; and who do not deal with the New Testament in a similar manner, nor in a spirit of candour, but pass by places similar to those which they consider censurable in the Old Testament. For manifestly, and according to the Gospel, is the Saviour shown, as they assert, by His former words, not to speak distinctly for this reason, that men might not be converted, and, being converted, might become deserving of the remission of sins: which statement of itself is nothing inferior to those passages from the Old Testament which are objected to. And if they seek to defend the Gospel, we must ask them whether they are not acting in a blameworthy manner in dealing differently with the same questions; and, while not stumbling against the New Testament, but seeking to defend it, they nevertheless bring a charge against the Old regarding similar points, whereas they ought to offer a defense in the same way of the passages from the New. And therefore we shall force them, on account of the resemblances, to regard all as the writings of one God. Come, then, and let us, to the best of our ability, furnish an answer to the question submitted to us. 3.1.18. Let us now look to the expression, It is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For our opponents assert, that if it does not depend upon him that wills, nor on him that runs, but on God that shows mercy, that a man be saved, our salvation is not in our own power. For our nature is such as to admit of our either being saved or not, or else our salvation rests solely on the will of Him who, if He wills it, shows mercy, and confers salvation. Now let us inquire, in the first place, of such persons, whether to desire blessings be a good or evil act; and whether to hasten after good as a final aim be worthy of praise. If they were to answer that such a procedure was deserving of censure, they would evidently be mad; for all holy men both desire blessings and run after them, and certainly are not blameworthy. How, then, is it that he who is not saved, if he be of an evil nature, desires blessing, and runs after them, but does not find them? For they say that a bad tree does not bring forth good fruits, whereas it is a good fruit to desire blessings. And how is the fruit of a bad tree good? And if they assert that to desire blessings, and to run after them, is an act of indifference, i.e., neither good nor bad, we shall reply, that if it be an indifferent act to desire blessings, and to run after them, then the opposite of that will also be an indifferent act, viz., to desire evils, and to run after them; whereas it is certain that it is not an indifferent act to desire evils, and to run after them, but one that is manifestly wicked. It is established, then, that to desire and follow after blessings is not an indifferent, but a virtuous proceeding. 3.1.18. Let us look next at the passage: So, then, it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For they who find fault say: If it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy, salvation does not depend upon ourselves, but upon the arrangement made by Him who has formed us such as we are, or on the purpose of Him who shows mercy when he pleases. Now we must ask these persons the following questions: Whether to desire what is good is virtuous or vicious; and whether the desire to run in order to reach the goal in the pursuit of what is good be worthy of praise or censure? And if they shall say that it is worthy of censure, they will return an absurd answer; since the saints desire and run, and manifestly in so acting do nothing that is blameworthy. But if they shall say that it is virtuous to desire what is good, and to run after what is good, we shall ask them how a perishing nature desires better things; for it is like an evil tree producing good fruit, since it is a virtuous act to desire better things. They will give (perhaps) a third answer, that to desire and run after what is good is one of those things that are indifferent, and neither beautiful nor wicked. Now to this we must say, that if to desire and to run after what is good be a thing of indifference, then the opposite also is a thing of indifference, viz., to desire what is evil, and to run after it. But it is not a thing of indifference to desire what is evil, and to run after it. And therefore also, to desire what is good, and to run after it, is not a thing of indifference. Such, then, is the defense which I think we can offer to the statement, that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. Solomon says in the book of Psalms (for the Song of Degrees is his, from which we shall quote the words): Unless the Lord build the house, they labour in vain that build it; except the Lord keep the city, the watchman wakes in vain: not dissuading us from building, nor teaching us not to keep watch in order to guard the city in our soul, but showing that what is built without God, and does not receive a guard from Him, is built in vain and watched to no purpose, because God might reasonably be entitled the Lord of the building; and the Governor of all things, the Ruler of the guard of the city. As, then, if we were to say that such a building is not the work of the builder, but of God, and that it was not owing to the successful effort of the watcher, but of the God who is over all, that such a city suffered no injury from its enemies, we should not be wrong, it being understood that something also had been done by human means, but the benefit being gratefully referred to God who brought it to pass; so, seeing that the (mere) human desire is not sufficient to attain the end, and that the running of those who are, as it were, athletes, does not enable them to gain the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus — for these things are accomplished with the assistance of God — it is well said that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. As if also it were said with regard to husbandry what also is actually recorded: I planted, Apollos watered; and God gave the increase. So then neither is he that plants anything, neither he that waters; but God that gives the increase. Now we could not piously assert that the production of full crops was the work of the husbandman, or of him that watered, but the work of God. So also our own perfection is brought about, not as if we ourselves did nothing; for it is not completed by us, but God produces the greater part of it. And that this assertion may be more clearly believed, we shall take an illustration from the art of navigation. For in comparison with the effect of the winds, and the mildness of the air, and the light of the stars, all co-operating in the preservation of the crew, what proportion could the art of navigation be said to bear in the bringing of the ship into harbour? — since even the sailors themselves, from piety, do not venture to assert often that they had saved the ship, but refer all to God; not as if they had done nothing, but because what had been done by Providence was infinitely greater than what had been effected by their art. And in the matter of our salvation, what is done by God is infinitely greater than what is done by ourselves; and therefore, I think, is it said that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For if in the manner which they imagine we must explain the statement, that it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy, the commandments are superfluous; and it is in vain that Paul himself blames some for having fallen away, and approves of others as having remained upright, and enacts laws for the Churches: it is in vain also that we give ourselves up to desire better things, and in vain also (to attempt) to run. But it is not in vain that Paul gives such advice, censuring some and approving of others; nor in vain that we give ourselves up to the desire of better things, and to the chase after things that are pre-eminent. They have accordingly not well explained the meaning of the passage. 3.4.5. With respect, however, to the following being ranked among the works of the flesh, viz., heresies, and envyings, and contentions, or other (vices), they so understand the passage, that the mind, being rendered grosser in feeling, from its yielding itself to the passions of the body, and being oppressed by the mass of its vices, and having no refined or spiritual feelings, is said to be made flesh, and derives its name from that in which it exhibits more vigour and force of will. They also make this further inquiry, Who will be found, or who will be said to be, the creator of this evil sense, called the sense of the flesh? Because they defend the opinion that there is no other creator of soul and flesh than God. And if we were to assert that the good God created anything in His own creation that was hostile to Himself, it would appear to be a manifest absurdity. If, then, it is written, that carnal wisdom is enmity against God, and if this be declared to be a result of creation, God Himself will appear to have formed a nature hostile to Himself, which cannot be subject to Him nor to His law, as if it were (supposed to be) an animal of which such qualities are predicated. And if this view be admitted, in what respect will it appear to differ from that of those who maintain that souls of different natures are created, which, according to their natures, are destined either to be lost or saved? But this is an opinion of the heretics alone, who, not being able to maintain the justice of God on grounds of piety, compose impious inventions of this kind. And now we have brought forward to the best of our ability, in the person of each of the parties, what might be advanced by way of argument regarding the several views, and let the reader choose out of them for himself that which he thinks ought to be preferred.
35. Origen, Fragments On 1 Corinthians, 34 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

36. Origen, Homilies On Ezekiel, 1.1, 1.4, 1.11, 2.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

37. Origen, Homilies On Numbers, 7.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

38. Origen, Homilies On Leviticus, 5.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

39. Origen, Homilies On Luke, 16.4, 16.6, 18.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

40. Origen, On Jeremiah (Homilies 1-11), 1.16, 4.4, 18.6 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

41. Origen, Homilies On Joshua, 9.8, 13.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

42. Origen, Homilies On Judges, 1.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 42
abraham, gods promise to Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 275
abraham DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 254
acts, canonical Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 83
alternative source-critical explanations, stylistic evidence Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
anatrophe, instructions for Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 73
apollo of bawit Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 84
aristotle, ethics Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 73
asyndeton, lukan speaking formula Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
athanasius Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 84
augustus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
avengement/vengeance/vindication/wrath (gods) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 197
avitus, eudokia and Kraemer, The Mediterranean Diaspora in Late Antiquity: What Christianity Cost the Jews (2020) 192
avitus, signs and wonders of, depicted in biblical imagery Kraemer, The Mediterranean Diaspora in Late Antiquity: What Christianity Cost the Jews (2020) 192
bannus, and john the baptist Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 6
basilides Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
bathsheba Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
bread König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 132
census Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
christ, as the king Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
christ Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
christian message Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
church Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
circumcision Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
common sense, and implicature James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 131
controversy, interpretation Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
covenant Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 42
cross Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
crucifixion, jesus death Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 197
david, his kingship Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
david, his sin Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
david, his story Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
david Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
demigods Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
divine plan/βουλή Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 159
domitian Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
doubt Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 238
easter (liturgical season) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
egeria Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 84
enigma, enigmatic Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
enoch (also, book of) Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 35
eucharist König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 132; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
eudokia, barsauma and Kraemer, The Mediterranean Diaspora in Late Antiquity: What Christianity Cost the Jews (2020) 192
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture, jesus command of scriptural exegesis Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture, prophetic exegesis Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
faith, faithfulness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
faith Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 158, 159
father, fatherhood, our father Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 216
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 216
father and maker Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 38
flesh Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
forgiveness Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
gellius, aulus, gospels, eating and drinking in König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 132
genre\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 83
gentiles, gentile, nations Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
gentiles Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
gnosticism, as heretical or other Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
gnosticism, heresiological reduction and simplification of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
gnosticism, specific doctrines Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
gospel of luke\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 83
gospels McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 38; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 238, 273, 275
grice, h. p. James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 131
helle Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 84
hellenistic, jewish hellenistic, diaspora Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 197
heracleon (gnostic) Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
herod Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
herodotus Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 158
historiography, genre Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 158
historiography DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 241
imaginative literature, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 797
immersion Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
implicature, conversational James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 131
incarnation James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 131
infancy gospel of thomas, education of jesus in Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 337
infancy gospel of thomas, education scenes Pinheiro et al., The Ancient Novel and Early Christian and Jewish Narrative: Fictional Intersections (2012b) 121
infancy gospel of thomas Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 337; Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 797
isaiah Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
israelites Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
jacob Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 84
jerusalem Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
jerusalem\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 83
jesus, as a prophetic anointed of the spirit Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 197
jesus, as prophet like moses DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 254
jesus, disciples, early followers, messianic movement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92, 96
jesus, historical jesus, authenticity of sayings, self-perception Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 197
jesus, kingly/davidic messiahship/descent Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
jesus, priestly (aaronic) connection Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
jesus-centered tradition Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
jesus James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 131; König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 132
jesus (christ) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
jewish christians, jewish-christian Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
jews Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
jezebel, john, gospel of König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 132
john (apostle) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
john (the baptist) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
john the baptist, and bannus Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 6
joseph (new testament) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
josephus, spiritual initiation of Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 6
journey, earthly journey Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 83
journey, educational journey Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 83
kerygma, kerygmatic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 197
kingship Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
language, conventional James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 131
language, norms of James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 131
language, ordinary James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 131
last supper König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 132
law, the, in origen Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
lent (liturgical season) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
letter of severus of minorca on the conversion of the jews, mass conversion recounted in Kraemer, The Mediterranean Diaspora in Late Antiquity: What Christianity Cost the Jews (2020) 192
levinson, stephen James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 131
life of antony Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 84
liturgical collections (roman catholic) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
love Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 275
lucretius, luke, gospel of König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 132
lukan fable collection, absence in Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
lukan fable collection, style and vocabulary of Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
lukan fable collection Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
lukan speaking formula Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
luke, jesus Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 643
luke, john the baptist Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 643
luke-acts, elizabeth Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 216
luke-acts, mary Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 216
luke-acts, zechariah Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 216
luke-acts\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 83
luke Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
magi, elision with gnosticism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
magi, on law and the old testament Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
maker Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 38
marcus aurelius, mark, gospel of König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 132
marriage, heretical contempt for Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
martyrdom, heretics sophistically avoid Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
martyrs beneficiary death Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 197
matreas of pitane, matthew, gospel of König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 132
melchizedek Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 42
metaphor\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 83
miracles, witnesses Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 643
miracles Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 643
mission of paul Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
moral criticism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
mount sinai Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 84
myth Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 38
narrative, lukan travel narrative/reisebericht Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 83
narrative, travel accounts Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 83
nature, vs. nurture Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 73
nazareth, nazarene Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
necessity, necessary Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
necessity, δεῖ Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 158, 159
necessity Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 158, 159
neoplatonism Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 84
nero Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
neuschäfer, bernard James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 131
normativity DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 241
nourishment, physical Gray, Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers (2021) 73
obedience Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 275
old testament, defense as christian scripture Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
ordinary time (liturgical season) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
origen, on gnosticism as heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
paideia, vs. christian teaching Pinheiro et al., The Ancient Novel and Early Christian and Jewish Narrative: Fictional Intersections (2012b) 121
palestine, eudokia and Kraemer, The Mediterranean Diaspora in Late Antiquity: What Christianity Cost the Jews (2020) 192
paul, and jesus, similarities of spiritual initiation Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 6
paul, pauline Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 197
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
paul of tarsus\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 83
pentecost Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 389
perfection Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 42
persecution, rejection, death vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 197
pesher Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
peter Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 124
pharisee Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 124
pilgrimage\u2002, jewish Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 83
priests and priesthood DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 241
promises of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 273, 275
prophecy, genealogical model of DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 241
prophecy of isaiah Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
protevangelium of james Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 797
punishment Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 197
qumran, qumranic, anti-qumranic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
rationality, norms of James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 131
redemption, salvation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 197
repentance Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
resurrection Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 197
revelation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 238
rhetoric Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 158
rhetorical topoi, education Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 42
rome Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
rome\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 83
sabbath Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
salvation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
samson Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 643
samuel Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 643
scepticism Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 275
scribes and scribalism DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 241
scripture DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 241
scriptures, jewish, as source of new testament ideas about pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 273
scriptures Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
seating arrangements König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 132
secret, messianic Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 643
septuagint Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 158
service to god or christ Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 275
sinner Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
son Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 38
son of god, gods chosen, democratic widening of divine sonship (general, of israel) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
son of god, gods chosen, jesus divine sonship, jesus as son of god Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
son of god, gods chosen Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
source criticism Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
space Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 38
spirit Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 389
spirit (of god), holy spirit, gift of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
structure of hebrews Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 42
style Strong, The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables (2021) 505
suffering servant, servant song Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
synagogue Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
syncrisis, jesus/aaronic high priest Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 42
syncrisis, melchizedekian/levitical priestly ministries Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 42
syncrisis, old covenant/new covenant Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 42
synoptic gospels, tradition, pre-synoptic v-vi Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92, 96
syntagma by justin Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 38
teacher of righteousness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 96
temple, sacrificial cult (in jerusalem), destruction Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 197
temple DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 241, 254
temple (in jerusalem) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
temple sermon DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 254
thomas, the apostle Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 797
thucydides Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 159
tiberias, emperor Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
titus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
torah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 92
type david-christ Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
unknown, god Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 38
uriah the hittite Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 535
valentinians, doctrine of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
valentinians Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 541
valentinus Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 38
virgin(al), virginity Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 329
will, human Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 118
wine König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 132
wisdom, as hypostasis McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 38
wisdom, christ as wisdom teacher' McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 38
wisdom (see also, sophia) Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 35
ὁδός\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 83